42 relations: Abdullah (name), Aleppo, Alexandria, Arabs, Baghdad, Balkh, Byzantine Greeks, Charles Barbier de Meynard, Constantinople, David Samuel Margoliouth, Egypt, Encyclopedia, F.A. Brockhaus AG, Ferdinand Wüstenfeld, Governor, Greeks, History of Islam, Hyacinth (plant), Ibn Battuta, Imprimerie nationale, Iran, Iraq, Kish Island, Leipzig, List of Islamic studies scholars, List of slaves, Mawla, Merv, Mesopotamia, Mongol invasion of Central Asia, Mosul, Mu'jam al-Buldan, Muslim, Muslim world, Nisba (onomastics), Paris, Rûm, Ruby, Strasbourg, Syria, Turkmenistan, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft.
Abdullah or Abdallah is the primary transliteration of the Arabic given name, عبد الله, built from the Arabic words Abd and Allah (Allah itself composed of Al- and Ilah).
Aleppo (ﺣﻠﺐ / ALA-LC) is a city in Syria, serving as the capital of the Aleppo Governorate, the most-populous Syrian governorate.
Alexandria (or; Arabic: الإسكندرية; Egyptian Arabic: إسكندرية; Ⲁⲗⲉⲝⲁⲛⲇⲣⲓⲁ; Ⲣⲁⲕⲟⲧⲉ) is the second-largest city in Egypt and a major economic centre, extending about along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in the north central part of the country.
Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.
Baghdad (بغداد) is the capital of Iraq.
Balkh (Pashto and بلخ; Ancient Greek and Βάχλο Bakhlo) is a town in the Balkh Province of Afghanistan, about northwest of the provincial capital, Mazar-e Sharif, and some south of the Amu Darya river and the Uzbekistan border.
The Byzantine Greeks (or Byzantines) were the Greek or Hellenized people of the Byzantine Empire (or Eastern Roman Empire) during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages who spoke medieval Greek and were Orthodox Christians.
Charles Adrien Casimir Barbier de Meynard (6 February 1826 – 31 March 1908) was a nineteenth-century French historian and orientalist.
Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis; Constantinopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Latin (1204–1261), and the later Ottoman (1453–1923) empires.
David Samuel Margoliouth, FBA (17 October 1858, London – 22 March 1940, London) was an orientalist.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
An encyclopedia or encyclopaedia is a reference work or compendium providing summaries of information from either all branches of knowledge or from a particular field or discipline.
F.A. Brockhaus AG, known as Brockhaus for short, is a German publishing firm founded by Friedrich Arnold Brockhaus.
Heinrich Ferdinand Wüstenfeld (31 July 1808 – 8 February 1899) was a German orientalist, known as a literary historian of Arabic literature, born at Münden, Hanover.
A governor is, in most cases, a public official with the power to govern the executive branch of a non-sovereign or sub-national level of government, ranking under the head of state.
The Greeks or Hellenes (Έλληνες, Éllines) are an ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus, southern Albania, Italy, Turkey, Egypt and, to a lesser extent, other countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world.. Greek colonies and communities have been historically established on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea, but the Greek people have always been centered on the Aegean and Ionian seas, where the Greek language has been spoken since the Bronze Age.. Until the early 20th century, Greeks were distributed between the Greek peninsula, the western coast of Asia Minor, the Black Sea coast, Cappadocia in central Anatolia, Egypt, the Balkans, Cyprus, and Constantinople. Many of these regions coincided to a large extent with the borders of the Byzantine Empire of the late 11th century and the Eastern Mediterranean areas of ancient Greek colonization. The cultural centers of the Greeks have included Athens, Thessalonica, Alexandria, Smyrna, and Constantinople at various periods. Most ethnic Greeks live nowadays within the borders of the modern Greek state and Cyprus. The Greek genocide and population exchange between Greece and Turkey nearly ended the three millennia-old Greek presence in Asia Minor. Other longstanding Greek populations can be found from southern Italy to the Caucasus and southern Russia and Ukraine and in the Greek diaspora communities in a number of other countries. Today, most Greeks are officially registered as members of the Greek Orthodox Church.CIA World Factbook on Greece: Greek Orthodox 98%, Greek Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%. Greeks have greatly influenced and contributed to culture, arts, exploration, literature, philosophy, politics, architecture, music, mathematics, science and technology, business, cuisine, and sports, both historically and contemporarily.
The history of Islam concerns the political, social,economic and cultural developments of the Islamic civilization.
Hyacinthus is a small genus of bulbous, fragrant flowering plants in the family Asparagaceae, subfamily Scilloideae.
Ibn Battuta (محمد ابن بطوطة; fully; Arabic: أبو عبد الله محمد بن عبد الله اللواتي الطنجي بن بطوطة) (February 25, 13041368 or 1369) was a Moroccan scholar who widely travelled the medieval world.
The Imprimerie nationale is the official printing works of the French government, in succession to the Manufacture royale d'imprimerie founded by Cardinal Richelieu.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
Kish (کیش (Kīsh)) is a resort island in the Persian Gulf off the southern coast of Iran.
Leipzig is the most populous city in the federal state of Saxony, Germany.
In a Muslim context, Islamic studies can be an umbrella term for virtually all of academia, both originally researched and as defined by the Islamization of knowledge.
Slavery is a social-economic system under which persons are enslaved: deprived of personal freedom and forced to perform labor or services without compensation.
Mawlā (مَوْلًى), plural mawālī (مَوَالِي), is a polysemous Arabic word, whose meaning varied in different periods and contexts.
Merv (Merw, Мерв, مرو; مرو, Marv), formerly Achaemenid Persian Satrapy of Margiana, and later Alexandria (Margiana) (Ἀλεξάνδρεια) and Antiochia in Margiana (Ἀντιόχεια τῆς Μαργιανῆς), was a major oasis-city in Central Asia, on the historical Silk Road, located near today's Mary in Turkmenistan.
Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.
The Mongol invasion of Central Asia occurred after the unification of the Mongol and Turkic tribes on the Mongolian plateau in 1206.
Mosul (الموصل, مووسڵ, Māwṣil) is a major city in northern Iraq. Located some north of Baghdad, Mosul stands on the west bank of the Tigris, opposite the ancient Assyrian city of Nineveh on the east bank. The metropolitan area has grown to encompass substantial areas on both the "Left Bank" (east side) and the "Right Bank" (west side), as the two banks are described by the locals compared to the flow direction of Tigris. At the start of the 21st century, Mosul and its surrounds had an ethnically and religiously diverse population; the majority of Mosul's population were Arabs, with Assyrians, Armenians, Turkmens, Kurds, Yazidis, Shabakis, Mandaeans, Kawliya, Circassians in addition to other, smaller ethnic minorities. In religious terms, mainstream Sunni Islam was the largest religion, but with a significant number of followers of the Salafi movement and Christianity (the latter followed by the Assyrians and Armenians), as well as Shia Islam, Sufism, Yazidism, Shabakism, Yarsanism and Mandaeism. Mosul's population grew rapidly around the turn of the millennium and by 2004 was estimated to be 1,846,500. In 2014, the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant seized control of the city. The Iraqi government recaptured it in the 2016–2017 Battle of Mosul. Historically, important products of the area include Mosul marble and oil. The city of Mosul is home to the University of Mosul and its renowned Medical College, which together was one of the largest educational and research centers in Iraq and the Middle East. Mosul, together with the nearby Nineveh plains, is one of the historic centers for the Assyrians and their churches; the Assyrian Church of the East; its offshoot, the Chaldean Catholic Church; and the Syriac Orthodox Church, containing the tombs of several Old Testament prophets such as Jonah, some of which were destroyed by ISIL in July 2014.
Mu'jam al-buldan (معجم البلدان Dictionary of Countries) is a book by Yaqut al-Hamawi, a Muslim scholar who is famous for his encyclopedic books.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
The terms Muslim world and Islamic world commonly refer to the unified Islamic community (Ummah), consisting of all those who adhere to the religion of Islam, or to societies where Islam is practiced.
In Arabic names, a nisba (also spelled nesba, sometimes nesbat; نسبة, "attribution") is an adjective indicating the person's place of origin, tribal affiliation, or ancestry, used at the end of the name and occasionally ending in the suffix -iyy(ah).
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.
Rûm, also transliterated as Roum or Rhum (in Koine Greek Ῥωμαῖοι, Rhomaioi, meaning "Romans"; in Arabic الرُّومُ ar-Rūm; in Persian and Ottoman Turkish روم Rûm; in Rum), is a generic term used at different times in the Muslim world to refer to.
A ruby is a pink to blood-red colored gemstone, a variety of the mineral corundum (aluminium oxide).
Strasbourg (Alsatian: Strossburi; Straßburg) is the capital and largest city of the Grand Est region of France and is the official seat of the European Parliament.
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
Turkmenistan (or; Türkmenistan), (formerly known as Turkmenia) is a sovereign state in Central Asia, bordered by Kazakhstan to the northwest, Uzbekistan to the north and east, Afghanistan to the southeast, Iran to the south and southwest, and the Caspian Sea to the west.
The Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft (ZDMG), lit.
Shihāb al-Dīn Abū ʿAbdallāh Yāqūt ibn ʿAbd Allāh Yāqūt al-Ḥamawī al-Rūmī, Yaqoot Hamawi, Yaqub Ibn Abudllah Al-Hamawi, Yaqut Al-Hamawi, Yaqut al-Rumi, Yaqut ibn-'Abdullah al-Hamawi, Yâkût, Yâqût, Yākūt, Yāqūt al-Ḥamawī.