224 relations: ABC News, ABC News (Australia), Abd-Allah ibn Ibadh, Abraham, Abrahamic religions, Adam, Ain Sifni, Airdrop, Aknalich, Al Arabiya, Al Jazeera, Al-Shahrastani, Alan Moore, Alawites, Amnesty International, Angel, April 2007 Mosul massacre, Arabization, Archangel, Armavir Province, Armenia, Armenian Genocide, Astrology, Aubrey–Maturin series, Azazel, Azrael, Bad Oeynhausen, Baghdad, Baptism, BBC News, BBC World News, Bremen, Caste, Celle, Christianity, Circumcision, Creation myth, Dabiq (magazine), Daily Mail, Defend International, Democratic Federation of Northern Syria, Der Spiegel, Detmold, Diaspora, Disputed territories of Northern Iraq, Diyarbakır, Dohuk, Elul, Emir, Encyclopædia Iranica, ..., Encyclopædia of Religion and Ethics, Endogamy, Equinox, Ethnoreligious group, European Parliament, Excommunication, Ezidkhan, Federal Research Division, Feleknas Uca, Forced marriage, Gabriel, Göbekli Tepe, Gene Ha, Genocide of Yazidis by ISIL, George Gurdjieff, Georgia (country), H. P. Lovecraft, Heaven, Hell, Honor killing, Houri, Human Rights Watch, Ibadi, Iblis, Identity politics, Idries Shah, Indigenous peoples, Institute for War and Peace Reporting, Interfaith marriage, International Business Times, Internet Archive, Iranian languages, Iranian religions, Iraq, Iraq War, Iraqi Kurdistan, Iraqi parliamentary election, January 2005, Islam, Islamic eschatology, Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, Israfil, Jalile Jalil, Jizya, Journal of Near Eastern Studies, Judaism, Kayla Williams (author), Khalil Rashow, Khawarij, Khurto Hajji Ismail, Kurd Mountains, Kurdish languages, Kurdish nationalism, Kurdistan Regional Government, Kurdistan Workers' Party, Lalish, Latin script, Lawrence F. Kaplan, Library of Congress Country Studies, Lower Saxony, Masoud Barzani, Meetings with Remarkable Men, Melek Taus, Mesopotamia, Metaphor, Michael (archangel), Michael Totten, Middle Persian, Ministry of Interior (Iraq), Mithraism, Monogamy, Monotheism, Mosul, Murder of Du'a Khalil Aswad, Murid, Muslim, Nadia Murad, National Geographic, National Statistical Service of the Republic of Armenia, Nazand Begikhani, NBC News, New American Library, Newsweek, Nimrod, Nineveh Governorate, Nisan, North Rhine-Westphalia, Northern Kurdish, Oldenburg, Order of the Peacock Angel, Ottoman Empire, Ox, P. D. Ouspensky, Paganism, Patrick O'Brian, People's Protection Units, Peshmerga, Pilgrimage, Pir (Sufism), Polygamy, Quran, Raphael (archangel), Reincarnation, Religious conversion, Religious syncretism, Religious text, Reuters, Royal Air Force, Rudaw Media Network, Sacred, Saddam Hussein, Salafi jihadism, Sama (Sufism), Sanat Kumara, Satan, Secret society, Shaitan, Shamsiel, Sharafkhan Bidlisi, Shawm, Sheikh, Sheikh Adi ibn Musafir, Shia Islam, Shrine, Sinjar, Sinjar Mountains, Sufism, Suicide, Suicide attack, Sunni Islam, Syncretism, Syria, Syrian Desert, Tahseen Said, Tbilisi, The Atlantic, The Daily Telegraph, The Guardian, The Left (Germany), The Letter of Marque, The New Republic, The New York Times, The Wall Street Journal, The Washington Post, Theosophical Society, Tigris, Tishrei, Tom Knox (author), Tony Abbott, Tony Lagouranis, Top 10 (comics), Tur Abdin, Umayyad Caliphate, United Nations, United Nations Commission on Human Rights, United Nations Human Rights Council, United States Commission on International Religious Freedom, Upper Mesopotamia, Vali (governor), Wartime sexual violence, Whitehouse.gov, Widad Akrawi, William Seabrook, Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, Yarsanism, Yazdânism, Yazid I, Yazidi Academy, Yazidi Black Book, Yazidi Book of Revelation, Yazidis, Yerevan, Zoroastrianism, 2007 Yazidi communities bombings, 2014 International Pfeffer Peace Award. Expand index (174 more) » « Shrink index
ABC News is the news division of the American Broadcasting Company (ABC), owned by the Disney Media Networks division of The Walt Disney Company.
ABC News is a national news service in Australia produced by the News and Current Affairs division of the Australian Broadcasting Corporation.
'Abdullāh ibn 'Ibādh al-Tamimi (عبدالله بن اباض التميمي, d. 708) was a Tabi'i, a jurist and one of the best students of Ibn Abbas, who narrated hadiths from Aisha and a large number of the Sahaba who witnessed the Battle of Badr.
Abraham (Arabic: إبراهيم Ibrahim), originally Abram, is the common patriarch of the three Abrahamic religions.
The Abrahamic religions, also referred to collectively as Abrahamism, are a group of Semitic-originated religious communities of faith that claim descent from the practices of the ancient Israelites and the worship of the God of Abraham.
Adam (ʾĀdam; Adám) is the name used in the opening chapters of the Book of Genesis for the first man created by God, but it is also used in a collective sense as "mankind" and individually as "a human".
Ain Sifni is the capital of the Shekhan District in northern Iraq.
An airdrop is a type of airlift, developed during World War II to resupply otherwise inaccessible troops, who themselves may have been airborne forces.
Aknalich (Ակնալիճ; formerly, Aygherlich) is a village in the Armavir Province of Armenia.
Al Arabiya (العربية, transliterated: or; meaning "The Arabic One" or "The Arab One") is a Saudi-owned pan-Arab television news channel broadcast in Modern Standard Arabic.
Al Jazeera (translit,, literally "The Island", though referring to the Arabian Peninsula in context), also known as JSC (Jazeera Satellite Channel), is a state-funded broadcaster in Doha, Qatar, owned by the Al Jazeera Media Network.
Tāj al-Dīn Abū al-Fath Muhammad ibn `Abd al-Karīm ash-Shahrastānī (1086–1153 CE), also known as Muhammad al-Shahrastānī, was an influential Persian historian of religions, a historiographer, Islamic scholar, philosopher and theologian.
Alan Moore (born 18 November 1953) is an English writer known primarily for his work in comic books including Watchmen, V for Vendetta, The Ballad of Halo Jones and From Hell.
The Alawis, also rendered as Alawites (علوية Alawiyyah/Alawīyah), are a syncretic sect of the Twelver branch of Shia Islam, primarily centered in Syria.
Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a London-based non-governmental organization focused on human rights.
An angel is generally a supernatural being found in various religions and mythologies.
The 2007 Mosul massacre was a mass killing that took place on April 23, 2007 in Mosul, in northern Iraq.
Arabization or Arabisation (تعريب) describes either the conquest and/or colonization of a non-Arab area and growing Arab influence on non-Arab populations, causing a language shift by their gradual adoption of the Arabic language and/or their incorporation of Arab culture, Arab identity.
An archangel is an angel of high rank.
Armavir (Արմավիր), is a province (marz) in the western part of Armenia.
Armenia (translit), officially the Republic of Armenia (translit), is a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia.
The Armenian Genocide (Հայոց ցեղասպանություն, Hayots tseghaspanutyun), also known as the Armenian Holocaust, was the Ottoman government's systematic extermination of 1.5 million Armenians, mostly citizens within the Ottoman Empire.
Astrology is the study of the movements and relative positions of celestial objects as a means for divining information about human affairs and terrestrial events.
The Aubrey–Maturin series is a sequence of nautical historical novels—20 completed and one unfinished—by Patrick O'Brian, set during the Napoleonic Wars and centering on the friendship between Captain Jack Aubrey of the Royal Navy and his ship's surgeon Stephen Maturin, a physician, natural philosopher, and intelligence agent.
Azazel (ʿAzazel; ʿAzāzīl) appears in the Bible in association with the scapegoat rite.
Azrael (עזראל) is an angel in the Abrahamic religions.
Bad Oeynhausen (Low German: Bad Öinusen) is a spa town on the southern edge of the Wiehengebirge in the district of Minden-Lübbecke in the East-Westphalia-Lippe region of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.
Baghdad (بغداد) is the capital of Iraq.
Baptism (from the Greek noun βάπτισμα baptisma; see below) is a Christian sacrament of admission and adoption, almost invariably with the use of water, into Christianity.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
BBC World News is the BBC's international news and current affairs television channel.
The City Municipality of Bremen (Stadtgemeinde Bremen) is a Hanseatic city in northwestern Germany, which belongs to the Free Hanseatic City of Bremen (also called just "Bremen" for short), a federal state of Germany.
Caste is a form of social stratification characterized by endogamy, hereditary transmission of a lifestyle which often includes an occupation, status in a hierarchy, customary social interaction, and exclusion.
Celle is a town and capital of the district of Celle, in Lower Saxony, Germany.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
Male circumcision is the removal of the foreskin from the human penis.
A creation myth (or cosmogonic myth) is a symbolic narrative of how the world began and how people first came to inhabit it.
Dabiq (دابق) was an online magazine used by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) for Islamic radicalisation and recruitment.
The Daily Mail is a British daily middle-marketPeter Wilby, New Statesman, 19 December 2013 (online version: 2 January 2014) tabloid newspaper owned by the Daily Mail and General Trust and published in London.
Defend International (commonly known as DI) is a non-governmental organization focused on promoting and protecting human rights in the Middle East and North Africa region.
The Democratic Federation of Northern Syria (DFNS), commonly known as Rojava, is a de facto autonomous region in northern Syria.
Der Spiegel (lit. "The Mirror") is a German weekly news magazine published in Hamburg.
Detmold is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, with a population of about 73,400 (2013).
A diaspora (/daɪˈæspərə/) is a scattered population whose origin lies in a separate geographic locale.
The disputed territories of Northern Iraq are regions defined by article 140 of the Constitution of Iraq as being Arabised during the Baath Party rule in Iraq.
Diyarbakır (Amida, script) is one of the largest cities in southeastern Turkey.
Dohuk (دهۆک,; ܢܘܗܕܪܐ.; دهوك) is the capital of Dohuk Governorate in Iraq, it is a city with a population of approximately 300 000 inhabitants, consisting mostly of Kurds and then Assyrians.
Elul (אֱלוּל, Standard Elul Tiberian ʾĔlûl) is the twelfth month of the Jewish civil year and the sixth month of the ecclesiastical year on the Hebrew calendar.
An emir (أمير), sometimes transliterated amir, amier, or ameer, is an aristocratic or noble and military title of high office used in a variety of places in the Arab countries, West African, and Afghanistan.
Encyclopædia Iranica is a project whose goal is to create a comprehensive and authoritative English language encyclopedia about the history, culture, and civilization of Iranian peoples from prehistory to modern times.
The Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics is a 12-volume work (plus an index volume) edited by James Hastings, written between 1908 and 1927 and composed of entries by many contributors.
Endogamy is the practice of marrying within a specific social group, caste or ethnic group, rejecting those from others as unsuitable for marriage or other close personal relationships.
An equinox is commonly regarded as the moment the plane (extended indefinitely in all directions) of Earth's equator passes through the center of the Sun, which occurs twice each year, around 20 March and 22-23 September.
An ethnoreligious group (or ethno-religious group) is an ethnic group whose members are also unified by a common religious background.
The European Parliament (EP) is the directly elected parliamentary institution of the European Union (EU).
Excommunication is an institutional act of religious censure used to deprive, suspend, or limit membership in a religious community or to restrict certain rights within it, in particular receiving of the sacraments.
Ezidkhan (or Êzîdxan, english translation: "Land of the Yazidis") is the historical area of settlement of the Yazidis.
The Federal Research Division (FRD) is the research and analysis unit of the United States Library of Congress.
Feleknas Uca (born 17 September 1976) is a Yazidi politician active in Germany and Turkey.
Forced marriage is a marriage in which one or more of the parties is married without his or her consent or against his or her will.
Gabriel (lit, lit, ⲅⲁⲃⲣⲓⲏⲗ, ܓܒܪܝܝܠ), in the Abrahamic religions, is an archangel who typically serves as God's messenger.
Göbekli Tepe, Turkish for "Potbelly Hill", is an archaeological site in the Southeastern Anatolia Region of Turkey, approximately northeast of the city of Şanlıurfa.
Gene Ha is an American comics artist and writer best known for his work on books such as Top 10 and Top 10: The Forty-Niners, with Alan Moore and Zander Cannon, for America's Best Comics, the Batman graphic novel Fortunate Son, with Gerard Jones, and The Adventures of Cyclops and Phoenix, among others.
The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL, calling itself Islamic State) is recognized by the United Nations as the perpetrator of a genocide of Yazidis in Iraq.
George Ivanovich Gurdjieff (31 March 1866/ 14 January 1872/ 28 November 1877 – 29 October 1949) commonly known as G. I. Gurdjieff, was a mystic, philosopher, spiritual teacher, and composer of Armenian and Greek descent, born in Alexandrapol (now Gyumri), Armenia.
Georgia (tr) is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia.
Howard Phillips Lovecraft (August 20, 1890 – March 15, 1937) was an American writer who achieved posthumous fame through his influential works of horror fiction.
Heaven, or the heavens, is a common religious, cosmological, or transcendent place where beings such as gods, angels, spirits, saints, or venerated ancestors are said to originate, be enthroned, or live.
Hell, in many religious and folkloric traditions, is a place of torment and punishment in the afterlife.
An honor killing or shame killing is the murder of a member of a family, due to the perpetrators' belief that the victim has brought shame or dishonor upon the family, or has violated the principles of a community or a religion, usually for reasons such as refusing to enter an arranged marriage, being in a relationship that is disapproved by their family, having sex outside marriage, becoming the victim of rape, dressing in ways which are deemed inappropriate, engaging in non-heterosexual relations or renouncing a faith.
The houris (from حُـورِی,; plural of or;حورية is also transliterated as or; pronunciation:. حُـورِيَّـة) are beings in Islamic mythology, described in English translations as "full-breasted companions of equal age ",Qur'an.
Human Rights Watch (HRW) is an international non-governmental organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights.
The Ibāḍī movement, Ibadism or Ibāḍiyya, also known as the Ibadis (الاباضية, al-Ibāḍiyyah), is a school of Islam dominant in Oman.
(or Eblis) is the Islamic equivalent of Satan.
Identity politics refers to political positions based on the interests and perspectives of social groups with which people identify.
Idries Shah (ادريس شاه, ادریس شاه; 16 June 1924 – 23 November 1996), also known as Idris Shah, né Sayed Idries el-Hashimi (Arabic: سيد إدريس هاشمي) and by the pen name Arkon Daraul, was an author and teacher in the Sufi tradition who wrote over three dozen books on topics ranging from psychology and spirituality to travelogues and culture studies.
Indigenous peoples, also known as first peoples, aboriginal peoples or native peoples, are ethnic groups who are the pre-colonial original inhabitants of a given region, in contrast to groups that have settled, occupied or colonized the area more recently.
Institute for War & Peace Reporting (or IWPR for short) is an independent not-for profit organisation that works with media and civil society to promote positive change in conflict zones, closed societies, and countries in transition around the world.
Interfaith marriage, traditionally called "mixed marriage", is marriage between spouses professing different religions.
The International Business Times is an American online news publication that publishes seven national editions and four languages.
The Internet Archive is a San Francisco–based nonprofit digital library with the stated mission of "universal access to all knowledge." It provides free public access to collections of digitized materials, including websites, software applications/games, music, movies/videos, moving images, and nearly three million public-domain books.
The Iranian or Iranic languages are a branch of the Indo-Iranian languages in the Indo-European language family.
Iranian religions are religions which originated in Greater Iran.
Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
The Iraq WarThe conflict is also known as the War in Iraq, the Occupation of Iraq, the Second Gulf War, and Gulf War II.
Iraqi Kurdistan, officially called the Kurdistan Region of Iraq (Herêmî Kurdistan) by the Iraqi constitution, is an autonomous region located in northern Iraq.
Elections for the National Assembly of Iraq were held on January 30, 2005 in Iraq.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Islamic eschatology is the branch of Islamic theology concerning the end of the world, and the "Day of resurrection" after that, known as Yawm al-Qiyāmah (يوم القيامة,, "the Day of Resurrection") or Yawm ad-Dīn (يوم الدين,, "the Day of Judgment").
The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), also known as the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria or Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham (ISIS), Islamic State (IS) and by its Arabic language acronym Daesh (داعش dāʿish), is a Salafi jihadist terrorist organisation and former unrecognised proto-state that follows a fundamentalist, Salafi/Wahhabi doctrine of Sunni Islam.
Israfil (lit, alternate spellings: Israfel, Esrafil)Lewis, James R., Oliver, Evelyn Dorothy, Sisung Kelle S. (Editor) (1996), Angels A to Z, p. 224, Visible Ink Press, is the angel who blows into the trumpet before Armageddon and sometimes depicted as the angel of music.
Jalile Jalil (Celîlê Celîl, 1936-), is a Yazidi historian, writer and Kurdologist.
Jizya or jizyah (جزية; جزيه) is a per capita yearly tax historically levied on non-Muslim subjects, called the dhimma, permanently residing in Muslim lands governed by Islamic law.
The Journal of Near Eastern Studies (JNES) is an academic journal published by the University of Chicago Press, covering research on the ancient and medieval civilisations of the Near East, including their archaeology, art, history, literature, linguistics, religion, law, and science.
Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.
Kayla Williams is a linguist and former intelligence specialist in the United States Army who wrote her experiences of the 2003 Iraq invasion in her book Love My Rifle More Than You.
Khalil Rashow or Xelîl Cindî Reşo (born 1952) is a contemporary Yazidi academic, writer and researcher.
The Khawarij (الخوارج, al-Khawārij, singular خارجي, khāriji), Kharijites, or the ash-Shurah (ash-Shurāh "the Exchangers") are members of a school of thought, that appeared in the first century of Islam during the First Fitna, the crisis of leadership after the death of Muhammad.
Khurto Hajji Ismail (Xurto Hecî Îsmaîl) is the current Baba Sheikh or Axtîyarê Mergê Bavê Şêx—religious leader—of the Yazidi community of Iraq.
Kurd Mountains or Kurd-Dagh (جبل الأكراد Jabal al-Akrad, چیای کورمنج Çiyayê Kurmênc, Kurt Dağı), also called Aleppo Mountain (جبل حلب Jabal Ḥalab), is a highland region in northwestern Syria and southeastern Turkey.
Kurdish (Kurdî) is a continuum of Northwestern Iranian languages spoken by the Kurds in Western Asia.
Kurdish nationalism (Kurdish: Kurdayetî, کوردایەتی) holds that the Kurdish people are deserving of a sovereign nation that would be partitioned out of areas in Turkey, northern Iraq, and Syria based on the promised nation of Kurdistan under the Treaty of Sèvres.
The Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG) (حکوومەتی هەرێمی کوردستان, Hikûmetî Herêmî Kurdistan; حكومة اقليم كردستان, Ḥukūmat ʾIqlīm Kurdistān) is the official ruling body of the predominantly Kurdish region of Northern Iraq referred to as Iraqi Kurdistan or Southern Kurdistan.
The Kurdistan Workers' Party or PKK (Partiya Karkerên Kurdistanê) is an organization based in Turkey and Iraq.
Lalish (Laliş, also called Lalişa Nûranî) is a small mountain valley village situated in the Shekhan District of Nineveh Governorate in northern Iraq, near the border with Iraqi Kurdistan.
Latin or Roman script is a set of graphic signs (script) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet, which is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet, used by the Etruscans.
Lawrence F. Kaplan (born 1969) was editor of, a website of The New Republic devoted to foreign policy and featuring David Rieff, Andrew Bacevich, Geoffrey Wheatcroft, and other noted writers.
The Country Studies are works published by the Federal Research Division of the United States Library of Congress, freely available for use by researchers.
Lower Saxony (Niedersachsen, Neddersassen) is a German state (Land) situated in northwestern Germany.
Masoud Barzani (Mesûd Barzanî; born 16 August 1946) is a Kurdish politician who had been President of the Iraqi Kurdistan Region from 2005 to 2017.
Meetings with Remarkable Men is the second volume of the All and Everything trilogy written by the Greek-Armenian spiritual teacher G. I. Gurdjieff. Autobiographical in nature, Gurdjieff started working on the Russian manuscript in 1927, revising it several times over the coming years. An English translation by A. R. Orage was first published in 1963.
Melek Taus (Ezdiki: Tawûsê Melek), also spelled Malik Tous, translated in English as Peacock Angel, is one of the central figures of Yazidi religion.
Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.
A metaphor is a figure of speech that directly refers to one thing by mentioning another for rhetorical effect.
Michael (translit; translit; Michahel;ⲙⲓⲭⲁⲏⲗ, translit) is an archangel in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.
Michael James Totten (born September 16, 1970) is an American journalist and author who has reported from the Middle East, Africa, the Balkans, Cuba, Vietnam, and the Caucasus.
Middle Persian is the Middle Iranian language or ethnolect of southwestern Iran that during the Sasanian Empire (224–654) became a prestige dialect and so came to be spoken in other regions of the empire as well.
The Ministry of Interior (MOI) is the government body charged with overseeing policing and border control in Iraq.
Mithraism, also known as the Mithraic mysteries, was a mystery religion centered around the god Mithras that was practised in the Roman Empire from about the 1st to the 4th century CE.
Monogamy is a form of relationship in which an individual has only one partner during their lifetime — alternately, only one partner at any one time (serial monogamy) — as compared to non-monogamy (e.g., polygamy or polyamory).
Monotheism has been defined as the belief in the existence of only one god that created the world, is all-powerful and intervenes in the world.
Mosul (الموصل, مووسڵ, Māwṣil) is a major city in northern Iraq. Located some north of Baghdad, Mosul stands on the west bank of the Tigris, opposite the ancient Assyrian city of Nineveh on the east bank. The metropolitan area has grown to encompass substantial areas on both the "Left Bank" (east side) and the "Right Bank" (west side), as the two banks are described by the locals compared to the flow direction of Tigris. At the start of the 21st century, Mosul and its surrounds had an ethnically and religiously diverse population; the majority of Mosul's population were Arabs, with Assyrians, Armenians, Turkmens, Kurds, Yazidis, Shabakis, Mandaeans, Kawliya, Circassians in addition to other, smaller ethnic minorities. In religious terms, mainstream Sunni Islam was the largest religion, but with a significant number of followers of the Salafi movement and Christianity (the latter followed by the Assyrians and Armenians), as well as Shia Islam, Sufism, Yazidism, Shabakism, Yarsanism and Mandaeism. Mosul's population grew rapidly around the turn of the millennium and by 2004 was estimated to be 1,846,500. In 2014, the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant seized control of the city. The Iraqi government recaptured it in the 2016–2017 Battle of Mosul. Historically, important products of the area include Mosul marble and oil. The city of Mosul is home to the University of Mosul and its renowned Medical College, which together was one of the largest educational and research centers in Iraq and the Middle East. Mosul, together with the nearby Nineveh plains, is one of the historic centers for the Assyrians and their churches; the Assyrian Church of the East; its offshoot, the Chaldean Catholic Church; and the Syriac Orthodox Church, containing the tombs of several Old Testament prophets such as Jonah, some of which were destroyed by ISIL in July 2014.
Du’a Khalil Aswad (دعاء خليل أسود) (c. 1989 – c. 7 April 2007) was a 17-year-old Iraqi girl of the Yazidi faith who was stoned to death in northern Iraq in early April 2007, the victim of an honor killing.
Murid (مُرِيد) is a Sufi term meaning "committed one" from the root meaning "willpower" or "self-esteem".
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
Nadia Murad Basee Taha (نادیە موراد, نادية مراد; born 1993 in Kojo) is a Yazidi human rights activist from Iraq, and since September 2016 the first Goodwill Ambassador for the Dignity of Survivors of Human Trafficking of the United Nations (UNODC).
National Geographic (formerly the National Geographic Magazine and branded also as NAT GEO or) is the official magazine of the National Geographic Society.
National Statistical Service of Republic of Armenia (Armenian: Ազգային վիճակագրական ծառայություն, NSS; ARMSTAT) is the national statistical agency of Armenia.
Nazand Begikhani is a contemporary British writer, poet and academic researcher of Kurdish origin, and an active advocate of human rights.
NBC News is the news division of the American broadcast television network NBC, formerly known as the National Broadcasting Company when it was founded on radio.
The New American Library (NAL) is an American publisher based in New York, founded in 1948.
Newsweek is an American weekly magazine founded in 1933.
Nimrod (ܢܡܪܘܕ, النمرود an-Namrūd), a biblical figure described as a king in the land of Shinar (Assyria/Mesopotamia), was, according to the Book of Genesis and Books of Chronicles, the son of Cush, therefore the great-grandson of Noah.
Nineveh Governorate (محافظة نينوى) (ܗܘܦܲܪܟܝܵܐ ܕܢܝܼܢܘܹܐ) is a governorate in northern Iraq that contains the ancient Assyrian city of Nineveh.
Nisan (or Nissan; נִיסָן, Standard Nisan Tiberian Nîsān) on the Assyrian calendar is the first month, and on the Hebrew calendar is the first month of the ecclesiastical year and the seventh month (eighth, in leap year) of the civil year.
North Rhine-Westphalia (Nordrhein-Westfalen,, commonly shortened to NRW) is the most populous state of Germany, with a population of approximately 18 million, and the fourth largest by area.
Northern Kurdish (Kurdiya jorîn, rtl), also called Kurmanji (Kurmancî, rtl), is a Kurdish language spoken in southeast Turkey, northwest and northeast Iran, northern Iraq and northern Syria.
Oldenburg is an independent city in the district of Oldenburg in the state of Lower Saxony, Germany.
Order of the Peacock Angel is the name of a Yazidi-influenced secret society described in the 1961 book, Secret Societies Yesterday and Today (subsequently reissued as A History of Secret Societies).
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
An ox (plural oxen), also known as a bullock in Australia and India, is a bovine trained as a draft animal or riding animal.
Pyotr Demianovich Ouspenskii (known in English as Peter D. Ouspensky, Пётр Демья́нович Успе́нский; 5 March 1878 – 2 October 1947), was a Russian esotericist known for his expositions of the early work of the Greek-Armenian teacher of esoteric doctrine George Gurdjieff, whom he met in Moscow in 1915.
Paganism is a term first used in the fourth century by early Christians for populations of the Roman Empire who practiced polytheism, either because they were increasingly rural and provincial relative to the Christian population or because they were not milites Christi (soldiers of Christ).
Patrick O'Brian, CBE (12 December 1914 – 2 January 2000), born Richard Patrick Russ, was an English novelist and translator, best known for his Aubrey–Maturin series of sea novels set in the Royal Navy during the Napoleonic Wars, and centred on the friendship of the English naval captain Jack Aubrey and the Irish–Catalan physician Stephen Maturin.
The People's Protection Units (یەکینەکانی پاراستنی گەل;Yekîneyên Parastina Gel, وحدات حماية الشعب, translit; YPG) is a mainly-Kurdish militia in Syria and the primary component of the Democratic Federation of Northern Syria's Syrian Democratic Forces.
Peshmerga (lit, or Those who face death') are the military forces of the federal region of Iraqi Kurdistan.
A pilgrimage is a journey or search of moral or spiritual significance.
Pir or Peer (پیر, literally "old ", "elder") is a title for a Sufi master or spiritual guide.
Polygamy (from Late Greek πολυγαμία, polygamía, "state of marriage to many spouses") is the practice of marrying multiple spouses.
The Quran (القرآن, literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized Qur'an or Koran) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (Allah).
Raphael (Hebrew: רָפָאֵל, translit. Rāfāʾēl, lit. 'It is God who heals', 'God Heals', 'God, Please Heal'; Ραφαήλ, ⲣⲁⲫⲁⲏⲗ, رفائيل) is an archangel in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.
Reincarnation is the philosophical or religious concept that an aspect of a living being starts a new life in a different physical body or form after each biological death.
Religious conversion is the adoption of a set of beliefs identified with one particular religious denomination to the exclusion of others.
Religious syncretism exhibits blending of two or more religious belief systems into a new system, or the incorporation into a religious tradition of beliefs from unrelated traditions.
Religious texts (also known as scripture, or scriptures, from the Latin scriptura, meaning "writing") are texts which religious traditions consider to be central to their practice or beliefs.
Reuters is an international news agency headquartered in London, United Kingdom.
The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the United Kingdom's aerial warfare force.
Rudaw Media Network (تۆڕی میدیایی ڕووداو), also known as Rudaw (Rûdaw ڕووداو), is a KDP-affiliated media group in Iraqi Kurdistan.
Sacred means revered due to sanctity and is generally the state of being perceived by religious individuals as associated with divinity and considered worthy of spiritual respect or devotion; or inspiring awe or reverence among believers.
Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (Arabic: صدام حسين عبد المجيد التكريتي; 28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was President of Iraq from 16 July 1979 until 9 April 2003.
Salafi jihadism or jihadist-Salafism is a transnational religious-political ideology based on a belief in "physical" jihadism and the Salafi movement of returning to what adherents believe to be true Sunni Islam.
Sama (Sema, Persian, Urdu and سَمَاع - samā‘un) is a Sufi ceremony performed as dhikr.
According to the post-1900 publications of Theosophy, Lord Sanat Kumara is an "Advanced Being" at the Ninth level of initiation who is regarded as the 'Lord' or 'Regent' of Earth and of the humanity, and is thought to be the head of the Spiritual Hierarchy of Earth who dwells in Shamballah (also known as 'The City of Enoch').
Satan is an entity in the Abrahamic religions that seduces humans into sin.
A secret society is a club or an organization whose activities, events, inner functioning, or membership are concealed from non-members.
(شيطان, plural: شياطين) is a malevolent creature in Islamic theology and mythology.
Shamsiel (Aramaic: שִׁמשִׁיאֵל, Greek: Σεμιήλ), also spelled Samsâpêêl, Shamshel, Shashiel or Shamshiel, was the 16th Watcher of the 20 leaders of the 200 fallen angels that are mentioned in an ancient work called the Book of Enoch.
Sharaf al-Din Khan b. Shams al-Din b. Sharaf Beg Bedlisi (Kurdish: شەرەفخانی بەدلیسی, Şerefxanê Bedlîsî; شرفالدین خان بن شمسالدین بن شرف بیگ بدلیسی) (949-1012/1543-1603-04) was a medieval Kurdish emir and a politician from the Emirate of Bitlis.
The shawm (/ʃɔːm/) is a conical bore, double-reed woodwind instrument made in Europe from the 12th century to the present day.
Sheikh (pronounced, or; شيخ, mostly pronounced, plural شيوخ)—also transliterated Sheik, Shykh, Shaik, Shayk, Shaykh, Cheikh, Shekh, and Shaikh—is an honorific title in the Arabic language.
Shaykh ‘Adī ibn Musāfir al-Umawī (عدي بن مسافر الاموي Şêx Adî, died 1162) was a Yazidi who claimed descent from the Arabian Umayyad Caliph Marwan ibn al-Hakam, he was born in the 1070s in the Beqaa Valley of present-day Lebanon.
Shia (شيعة Shīʿah, from Shīʻatu ʻAlī, "followers of Ali") is a branch of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor (Imam), most notably at the event of Ghadir Khumm.
A shrine (scrinium "case or chest for books or papers"; Old French: escrin "box or case") is a holy or sacred place, which is dedicated to a specific deity, ancestor, hero, martyr, saint, daemon, or similar figure of awe and respect, at which they are venerated or worshipped.
Sinjar, also known as Shingal (Şengal/Şingal/Şingar/شنگار/ شنگال., Ancient: Singara) is a town in Shingal District, Nineveh Province, Iraq near Mount Shingal.
The Sinjar Mountains (Çiyayên Şengalê چیای شەنگال/شەنگار; جبل سنجار; also Shingal\Shengar Mountains) are a mountain range that runs east to west, rising above the surrounding alluvial steppe plains in northwestern Iraq to an elevation of.
Sufism, or Taṣawwuf (personal noun: ṣūfiyy / ṣūfī, mutaṣawwuf), variously defined as "Islamic mysticism",Martin Lings, What is Sufism? (Lahore: Suhail Academy, 2005; first imp. 1983, second imp. 1999), p.15 "the inward dimension of Islam" or "the phenomenon of mysticism within Islam",Massington, L., Radtke, B., Chittick, W. C., Jong, F. de, Lewisohn, L., Zarcone, Th., Ernst, C, Aubin, Françoise and J.O. Hunwick, “Taṣawwuf”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, edited by: P. Bearman, Th.
Suicide is the act of intentionally causing one's own death.
A suicide attack is any violent attack in which the attacker expects their own death as a direct result of the method used to harm, damage or destroy the target.
Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.
Syncretism is the combining of different beliefs, while blending practices of various schools of thought.
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
The Syrian Desert (بادية الشام, Bâdiyat aş-Şâm), also known as the Hamad, is a combination of steppe and desert covering of the Middle East, including parts of south-eastern Syria, northeastern Jordan, northern Saudi Arabia, and western Iraq.
Tahseen Said (born c. 1933) (or Tahsin Beg Saied; Mîr Tehsîn Seîd Beg) is the current hereditary leader (Mīr, or prince) of the Yazidi people.
Tbilisi (თბილისი), in some countries also still named by its pre-1936 international designation Tiflis, is the capital and the largest city of Georgia, lying on the banks of the Kura River with a population of approximately 1.5 million people.
The Atlantic is an American magazine and multi-platform publisher, founded in 1857 as The Atlantic Monthly in Boston, Massachusetts.
The Daily Telegraph, commonly referred to simply as The Telegraph, is a national British daily broadsheet newspaper published in London by Telegraph Media Group and distributed across the United Kingdom and internationally.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The Left (Die Linke), also commonly referred to as the Left Party (die Linkspartei), is a democratic socialist political party in Germany.
The Letter of Marque is the twelfth historical novel in the Aubrey–Maturin series by Patrick O'Brian, first published in 1988.
The New Republic is a liberal American magazine of commentary on politics and the arts, published since 1914, with influence on American political and cultural thinking.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Wall Street Journal is a U.S. business-focused, English-language international daily newspaper based in New York City.
The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.
The Theosophical Society was an organization formed in 1875 by Helena Blavatsky to advance Theosophy.
Batman River The Tigris (Sumerian: Idigna or Idigina; Akkadian: 𒁇𒄘𒃼; دجلة Dijlah; ܕܹܩܠܵܬ.; Տիգրիս Tigris; Դգլաթ Dglatʿ;, biblical Hiddekel) is the eastern member of the two great rivers that define Mesopotamia, the other being the Euphrates.
Tishrei (or Tishri; תִּשְׁרֵי tishré or tishrí); from Akkadian tašrītu "Beginning", from šurrû "To begin") is the first month of the civil year (which starts on 1 Tishrei) and the seventh month of the ecclesiastical year (which starts on 1 Nisan) in the Hebrew calendar. The name of the month is Babylonian. It is an autumn month of 30 days. Tishrei usually occurs in September–October on the Gregorian calendar. In the Hebrew Bible, before the Babylonian Exile, the month is called Ethanim (אֵתָנִים -). Edwin R. Thiele has concluded, in The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew Kings, that the ancient Kingdom of Judah counted years using the civil year starting in Tishrei, while the Kingdom of Israel counted years using the ecclesiastical new year starting in Nisan. Tishrei is the month used for the counting of the epoch year - i.e., the count of the year is incremented on 1 Tishrei.
Tom Knox is the pseudonym of British writer and journalist Sean Thomas.
Anthony John Abbott (born 4 November 1957) is an Australian politician who served as the 28th Prime Minister of Australia, in office from 2013 to 2015.
Specialist Tony Lagouranis (born c. 1969) is a former United States Army soldier, best known for having participated in torture as an interrogator during the occupation of Iraq.
Top 10 is a superhero comic book limited series published by the America's Best Comics imprint of Wildstorm, itself an imprint of DC Comics.
Tur Abdin (ܛܘܼܪ ܥܒ݂ܕܝܼܢ) is a hilly region situated in southeast Turkey, including the eastern half of the Mardin Province, and Şırnak Province west of the Tigris, on the border with Syria.
The Umayyad Caliphate (ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلأُمَوِيَّة, trans. Al-Khilāfatu al-ʾUmawiyyah), also spelt, was the second of the four major caliphates established after the death of Muhammad.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United Nations Commission on Human Rights (UNCHR) was a functional commission within the overall framework of the United Nations from 1946 until it was replaced by the United Nations Human Rights Council in 2006.
The United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC) is a United Nations body whose mission is to promote and protect human rights around the world.
The United States Commission on International Religious Freedom (USCIRF) is a U.S. federal government commission created by the International Religious Freedom Act of 1998.
Upper Mesopotamia is the name used for the uplands and great outwash plain of northwestern Iraq, northeastern Syria and southeastern Turkey, in the northern Middle East.
Wāli or vali (from Arabic والي Wāli) is an administrative title that was used during the Caliphate and Ottoman Empire to designate governors of administrative divisions.
Wartime sexual violence is rape or other forms of sexual violence committed by combatants during armed conflict or war or military occupation often as spoils of war; but sometimes, particularly in ethnic conflict, the phenomenon has broader sociological motives.
whitehouse.gov is the official website of the White House and is owned by the United States government.
Widad Akreyi is a health expert and human rights activist of Kurdish ancestry.
William Buehler Seabrook (February 22, 1884 – September 20, 1945) was an American Lost Generation occultist, explorer, traveler, cannibal, and journalist, born in Westminster, Maryland.
The Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars (or Wilson Center), located in Washington, D.C., is a United States Presidential Memorial that was established as part of the Smithsonian Institution by an act of Congress in 1968.
The Yarsan or Ahl-e Haqq (Kurdish:, Yarsan, اهل حق Ahl-e Haqq "People of Truth"), is a syncretic religion founded by Sultan Sahak in the late 14th century in western Iran.
Yazdânism, or the Cult of Angels, is a pre-Islamic, native religion of the Kurds.
Yazīd ibn Mu‘āwiya (يزيد بن معاوية بن أبي سفيان.; 64711 November 683), commonly known as Yazid I, was the second caliph of the Umayyad caliphate (and the first one through inheritance).
The Yazidi Academy (Jesidische Akademie) is a non-profit organisation and learned society based in Hanover, Germany.
The Yazidi Black Book (مسحەفا ڕهش Meṣḥefa reş) is one of two books written in the style of a holy book of the Yazidis in Northern Kurdish, the other being the Yazidi Book of Revelation (Kitēba jilwe).
The Yazidi Book of Revelation (Kitêba Cilwe in Kurdish; also transliterated as Kitab Al Jilwah) is one of two books on the Yazidi religion written in the style of a holy book in the Kurmanji dialect of the Northern Kurdish language, the other being the Yazidi Black Book (Mishefa Reş in Kurdish).
The Yazidis, or Yezidis (Êzidî), are a Kurdish-speaking people, indigenous to a region of northern Mesopotamia (known natively as Ezidkhan) who are strictly endogamous.
Yerevan (Երևան, sometimes spelled Erevan) is the capital and largest city of Armenia as well as one of the world's oldest continuously inhabited cities.
Zoroastrianism, or more natively Mazdayasna, is one of the world's oldest extant religions, which is monotheistic in having a single creator god, has dualistic cosmology in its concept of good and evil, and has an eschatology which predicts the ultimate destruction of evil.
The 2007 Yazidi communities bombings occurred on August 14, 2007, when four co-ordinated suicide bomb attacks detonated in the Yazidi towns of Qahtaniyah (Til Ezer) and Jazeera (Siba Sheikh Khidir), near Mosul in Iraq.
The 2014 Pfeffer Peace Prize was awarded to Dr.
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