Chloroplasts are organelles, specialized compartments, in plant and algal cells.
Differential centrifugation is a common procedure in microbiology and cytology used to separate certain organelles from whole cells for further analysis of specific parts of cells.
In photosynthesis, the light-dependent reactions take place on the thylakoid membranes.
In molecular genetics, an open reading frame (ORF) is the part of a reading frame that has the ability to be translated.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
Sucrose is common table sugar.
A thylakoid is a membrane-bound compartment inside chloroplasts and cyanobacteria.
Transmembrane domain usually denotes a transmembrane segment of single alpha helix of a transmembrane protein.