337 relations: Academic Press, Acetic acid, Acetic acid bacteria, Aerobic fermentation, Agar, Agaricomycotina, Ale, Alkaloid, Alkane, American Public Health Association, Amine, Amylase, Ancient Egypt, Ant, Ant–fungus mutualism, Antibiotic, Antibiotic-associated diarrhea, Antiseptic, Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, Aquarium, Aquascaping, Arcadia Publishing, Arsenic, Ascomycota, Asexual reproduction, Autolysis (biology), B vitamins, Bacteria, Baker's yeast, Baking, Ballistospore, Base pair, Basidiomycota, Beer in Sweden, Benzoic acid, Bioaccumulation, Bioaerosol, Biodiversity, Biofuel, Biopharmaceutical, Bioremediation, Biosorption, Biotechnology, Black yeast, Bleb (cell biology), Bovril, Brettanomyces, Brettanomyces bruxellensis, ..., Brewing, Broth, Budding, Cambridge University Press, Candida (fungus), Candida albicans, Candida blankii, Candida glabrata, Candida krusei, Candida lusitaniae, Candida parapsilosis, Candida stellata, Candida tropicalis, Candida viswanathii, Candidiasis, Carbohydrate, Carbon dioxide, Caribbean, Cell biology, Cell cycle, Cell division, Cell growth, Cell nucleus, Cell signaling, Cellular respiration, Cellulosic ethanol, Cenovis, Centennial Exposition, Chardonnay, Charles Elmer Hires, Charles Louis Fleischmann, Circulatory system, Clostridium difficile (bacteria), Cofactor (biochemistry), Colubrina elliptica, Commensalism, Coordination complex, Cornmeal, Critical Reviews in Biotechnology, Cryptococcosis, Cryptococcus gattii, Cryptococcus neoformans, Current Biology, Current Molecular Medicine, Cyanocobalamin, Cycloheximide, Delft University of Technology, Diameter, Diarrhea, Digestion, Dimorphic fungus, Disaccharide, Distillation, DNA replication, Dough, Drink, Dutch people, Ecology, Effluent, Egg as food, Elsevier, Enzyme, Ester, Ethanol, Ethanol fermentation, Ethanol fuel, Eukaryote, Facultative, Facultative anaerobic organism, Fad, Fatty acid, Federal Trade Commission, Fermentation, Fermentation in food processing, Fermentation in winemaking, Field corn, Filter press, Fission (biology), Flavor, Fleischmann's Yeast, Flour, Food additive, Food industry, Food preservation, Fructose, Fruit preserves, Fungemia, Fungus, Gastrointestinal tract, Genetic engineering, Genetic recombination, Genetics, Genetics (journal), Genitourinary system, Genome, Genome project, Glucose, Glutamic acid, Grape juice, Growth medium, Gut flora, Heavy metals, Helleborus foetidus, Hepatitis, Hexose, Histamine, HIV/AIDS, Homology (biology), Honey bee, Human serum albumin, Hydrocarbon, Hypha, Immune system, Immunodeficiency, Insulin, International Journal of Biological Sciences, International Journal of Food Microbiology, International Society for Infectious Diseases, Irritable bowel syndrome, John Wiley & Sons, Journal of Bacteriology, Kefir, Killer yeast, Kingdom (biology), Kneading, Kombucha, Kumis, Kvass, Lager, Lambic, Leavening agent, Leucosporidium frigidum, Lignocellulosic biomass, Liquor, Louis Pasteur, Malt, Maltose, Marmite, Mating of yeast, Mauby, Meiosis, Melibiose, Metabolic engineering, Metabolism, Metabolite, Methylene blue, Microbial fuel cell, Microbiology (journal), Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews, Microbotryomycetes, Micrometre, Microorganism, Microscopy, Mineral (nutrient), Mitosis, Model organism, Mold, Molecular Ecology, Monascus purpureus, Monosaccharide, Monosodium glutamate, Mucous membrane, Multicellular organism, Must, Mycosis, Nature (journal), Nectar, Nutrient, Nutritional yeast, Obligate aerobe, Obligate anaerobe, Oenology, Old English, Opportunistic infection, Oral candidiasis, Order (biology), Organic acid, Organic compound, Organism, Outcrossing, Oxo (food), Palm oil, Parasitism, Pasteur effect, Peach, Pentose, Peptide, Phenol, Phenols, Phylogenetics, Phylum, Pichia guilliermondii, Ploidy, Polyketide, Polysaccharide, Post-Soviet states, Potato dextrose agar, Primary nutritional groups, Probiotic, Proceedings of the Royal Society, Prohibition in the United States, Promite, Proofing (baking technique), Protein, Proto-Indo-European language, Pucciniomycotina, Red yeast rice, Rhodotorula, Root beer, Rum, Rye, Saccharomyces, Saccharomyces boulardii, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces pastorianus, Saccharomyces telluris, Saccharomycetales, Saccharomycotina, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Schizosaccharomycetes, Scientifica, Scrambled eggs, Sexual reproduction, Shelf life, Skin flora, Society for Applied Microbiology, Sodium, Soft drink, Sorbic acid, Sour beer, Sourdough, Species, Sponge and dough, Spore, Sporidiobolus, Sporobolomyces, Springer Science+Business Media, Start point (yeast), Sucrose, Sugarcane, Sulfur dioxide, Sulfuric acid, Switzerland, Symbiosis, Synonym, Synonym (taxonomy), Synthetic genetic array, Syrup, Taphrinomycotina, Taxonomy (biology), Terpenoid, Tetrad (meiosis), The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, The Vancouver Sun, Theodor Schwann, TNT, Torulaspora delbrueckii, Trappist beer, Traveler's diarrhea, Tremellomycetes, Trichosporon, Two-hybrid screening, Unicellular organism, University of British Columbia, Vaccine, Vaginitis, Veganism, Vegemite, Virulence, Volatile organic compound, WHI3, Whisky, White blood cell, Wine color, Wine fault, Winemaking, Woodhead Publishing, World Journal of Gastroenterology, Wort, Xylitol, Xylose, Yarrowia, Yeast, Yeast extract, Zygosaccharomyces, Zygosaccharomyces bailii, Zymology. 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Academic Press is an academic book publisher.
Acetic acid, systematically named ethanoic acid, is a colourless liquid organic compound with the chemical formula CH3COOH (also written as CH3CO2H or C2H4O2).
Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are a group of Gram-negative bacteria which oxidize sugars or ethanol and produce acetic acid during fermentation.
Aerobic fermentation is a metabolic process by which cells metabolize sugars via fermentation in the presence of oxygen and occurs through the repression of normal respiratory metabolism (also referred to as the crabtree effect in yeast).
Agar (pronounced, sometimes) or agar-agar is a jelly-like substance, obtained from algae.
The subdivision Agaricomycotina, also known as the hymenomycetes, is one of three taxa of the fungal division Basidiomycota (fungi bearing spores on basidia).
Ale is a type of beer brewed using a warm fermentation method, resulting in a sweet, full-bodied and fruity taste.
Alkaloids are a class of naturally occurring chemical compounds that mostly contain basic nitrogen atoms.
In organic chemistry, an alkane, or paraffin (a historical name that also has other meanings), is an acyclic saturated hydrocarbon.
The American Public Health Association (APHA) is a Washington, D.C.-based professional organization for public health professionals in the United States.
In organic chemistry, amines are compounds and functional groups that contain a basic nitrogen atom with a lone pair.
An amylase is an enzyme that catalyses the hydrolysis of starch into sugars.
Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.
Ants are eusocial insects of the family Formicidae and, along with the related wasps and bees, belong to the order Hymenoptera.
Ant–fungus mutualism is a symbiosis seen in certain ant and fungal species, in which ants actively cultivate fungus much like humans farm crops as a food source.
An antibiotic (from ancient Greek αντιβιοτικά, antibiotiká), also called an antibacterial, is a type of antimicrobial drug used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections.
Antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) results from an imbalance in the colonic microbiota caused by antibiotic therapy.
Antiseptics (from Greek ἀντί anti, "against" and σηπτικός sēptikos, "putrefactive") are antimicrobial substances that are applied to living tissue/skin to reduce the possibility of infection, sepsis, or putrefaction.
Antonie Philips van Leeuwenhoek FRS (24 October 1632 – 26 August 1723) was a Dutch businessman and scientist in the Golden Age of Dutch science and technology.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology is a biweekly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the American Society for Microbiology.
The Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology is a peer-reviewed biweekly journal publishes papers and mini-reviews of new and emerging products, processes and technologies in the area of prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells, relevant enzymes and proteins; applied genetics and molecular biotechnology; genomics and proteomics; applied microbial and cell physiology; environmental biotechnology; process and products and more.
An aquarium (plural: aquariums or aquaria) is a vivarium of any size having at least one transparent side in which aquatic plants or animals are kept and displayed.
Aquascaping is the craft of arranging aquatic plants, as well as rocks, stones, cavework, or driftwood, in an aesthetically pleasing manner within an aquarium—in effect, gardening under water.
Arcadia Publishing is an American publisher of neighborhood, local, and regional history of the United States in pictorial form.
Arsenic is a chemical element with symbol As and atomic number 33.
Ascomycota is a division or phylum of the kingdom Fungi that, together with the Basidiomycota, form the subkingdom Dikarya.
Asexual reproduction is a type of reproduction by which offspring arise from a single organism, and inherit the genes of that parent only; it does not involve the fusion of gametes, and almost never changes the number of chromosomes.
In biology, autolysis, more commonly known as self-digestion, refers to the destruction of a cell through the action of its own enzymes.
B vitamins are a class of water-soluble vitamins that play important roles in cell metabolism.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
Baker's yeast is the common name for the strains of yeast commonly used as a leavening agent in baking bread and bakery products, where it converts the fermentable sugars present in the dough into carbon dioxide and ethanol.
Baking is a method of cooking food that uses prolonged dry heat, normally in an oven, but also in hot ashes, or on hot stones.
A ballistospore or ballistoconida is a spore that is discharged into the air from a living being, usually a species of fungus.
A base pair (bp) is a unit consisting of two nucleobases bound to each other by hydrogen bonds.
Basidiomycota is one of two large divisions that, together with the Ascomycota, constitute the subkingdom Dikarya (often referred to as the "higher fungi") within the kingdom Fungi.
Beer in Sweden has a history that can be traced to the late Iron Age.
Benzoic acid, C7H6O2 (or C6H5COOH), is a colorless crystalline solid and a simple aromatic carboxylic acid.
Bioaccumulation is the accumulation of substances, such as pesticides, or other chemicals in an organism.
Bioaerosols (short for biological aerosols) are a subcategory of particles released from terrestrial and marine ecosystems into the atmosphere.
Biodiversity, a portmanteau of biological (life) and diversity, generally refers to the variety and variability of life on Earth.
A biofuel is a fuel that is produced through contemporary biological processes, such as agriculture and anaerobic digestion, rather than a fuel produced by geological processes such as those involved in the formation of fossil fuels, such as coal and petroleum, from prehistoric biological matter.
A biopharmaceutical, also known as a biologic(al) medical product, biological, or biologic, is any pharmaceutical drug product manufactured in, extracted from, or semisynthesized from biological sources.
Bioremediation is a process used to treat contaminated media, including water, soil and subsurface material, by altering environmental conditions to stimulate growth of microorganisms and degrade the target pollutants.
Biosorption is a physiochemical process that occurs naturally in certain biomass which allows it to passively concentrate and bind contaminants onto its cellular structure.
Biotechnology is the broad area of science involving living systems and organisms to develop or make products, or "any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use" (UN Convention on Biological Diversity, Art. 2).
“Black yeasts”, sometimes also black fungi, dematiaceous fungi, microcolonial fungi or meristematic fungi is a diverse group of slow-growing microfungi which reproduce mostly asexually (fungi imperfecti).
In cell biology, a bleb is a bulge or protrusion of the plasma membrane of a cell, human bioparticulate or abscess with an internal environment similar to that of a simple cell, characterized by a spherical, bulky morphology.
Bovril is the trademarked name of a thick and salty meat extract paste similar to a yeast extract, developed in the 1870s by John Lawson Johnston.
Brettanomyces is a non-spore forming genus of yeast in the family Saccharomycetaceae, and is often colloquially referred to as "Brett".
Brettanomyces bruxellensis (the anamorph of Dekkera bruxellensis) is a yeast associated with and named after, the Senne valley near Brussels, Belgium.
Brewing is the production of beer by steeping a starch source (commonly cereal grains, the most popular of which is barley) in water and fermenting the resulting sweet liquid with yeast.
Broth is a savory liquid made of water in which bones, meat, fish, or vegetables have been simmered.
Budding is a type of asexual reproduction in which a new organism develops from an outgrowth or bud due to cell division at one particular site.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Candida is a genus of yeasts and is the most common cause of fungal infections worldwide.
Candida albicans is an opportunistic pathogenic yeast that is a common member of the human gut flora.
Candida blankii is a species of yeast.
Candida glabrata is a haploid yeast of the genus Candida, previously known as Torulopsis glabrata.
Candida krusei is a budding yeast (a species of fungus) involved in chocolate production.
Candida lusitaniae is a species of yeast in the genus Candida.
Candida parapsilosis is a fungal species of yeast that has become a significant cause of sepsis and of wound and tissue infections in immunocompromised people.
Candida stellata is a species of yeast of the genus Candida.
Candida tropicalis is a species of yeast in the genus Candida.
Candida viswanathii is a species of yeast in the genus Candida.
Candidiasis is a fungal infection due to any type of Candida (a type of yeast).
A carbohydrate is a biomolecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula (where m may be different from n).
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
The Caribbean is a region that consists of the Caribbean Sea, its islands (some surrounded by the Caribbean Sea and some bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean) and the surrounding coasts.
Cell biology (also called cytology, from the Greek κυτος, kytos, "vessel") is a branch of biology that studies the structure and function of the cell, the basic unit of life.
The cell cycle or cell-division cycle is the series of events that take place in a cell leading to its division and duplication of its DNA (DNA replication) to produce two daughter cells.
Cell division is the process by which a parent cell divides into two or more daughter cells.
The term cell growth is used in the contexts of biological cell development and cell division (reproduction).
In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, meaning kernel or seed) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells.
Cell signaling (cell signalling in British English) is part of any communication process that governs basic activities of cells and coordinates all cell actions.
Cellular respiration is a set of metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and then release waste products.
Cellulosic ethanol is ethanol (ethyl alcohol) produced from cellulose (the stringy fiber of a plant) rather than from the plant's seeds or fruit.
Cenovis is a product based on yeast extract that is similar to Marmite and Vegemite, rich in vitamin B1.
The Centennial International Exhibition of 1876, the first official World's Fair in the United States, was held in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, from May 10 to November 10, 1876, to celebrate the 100th anniversary of the signing of the Declaration of Independence in Philadelphia.
Chardonnay is a green-skinned grape variety used in the production of white wine.
Charles Elmer Hires (August 19, 1851 – July 31, 1937) was a pharmacist an early promoter of commercially prepared root beer.
Charles Louis Fleischmann (November 3, 1835 – December 10, 1897) was an innovative manufacturer of yeast and other consumer food products during the 19th Century.
The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.
Clostridium difficile (etymology and pronunciation), also known as C. difficile, C. diff, or sometimes CDF/cdf, is a species of Gram-positive spore-forming bacterium.
A cofactor is a non-protein chemical compound or metallic ion that is required for an enzyme's activity.
Colubrina elliptica, Mabi or Soldierwood, is a species of flowering tree in the buckthorn family, Rhamnaceae, that is native to the Florida Keys, the Caribbean, Central America, Mexico, and Venezuela.
Commensalism is a long term biological interaction (symbiosis) in which members of one species gain benefits while those of the other species are neither benefited nor harmed.
In chemistry, a coordination complex consists of a central atom or ion, which is usually metallic and is called the coordination centre, and a surrounding array of bound molecules or ions, that are in turn known as ligands or complexing agents.
Cornmeal is a meal (coarse flour) ground from dried maize (corn).
Critical Reviews in Biotechnology is an academic journal that publishes comprehensive review articles that organize, evaluate and present the current status of issues in biotechnology.
Cryptococcosis, also known as cryptococcal disease, is a potentially fatal fungal disease.
Cryptococcus gattii, formerly known as Cryptococcus neoformans var gattii, is an encapsulated yeast found primarily in tropical and subtropical climates.
Cryptococcus neoformans is an encapsulated yeast and an obligate aerobe that can live in both plants and animals.
Current Biology is a scientific journal that covers all areas of biology, especially molecular biology, cell biology, genetics, neurobiology, ecology and evolutionary biology.
Current Molecular Medicine is a peer-reviewed medical journal published by Bentham Science Publishers.
Cyanocobalamin is a synthetic form of 12.
Cycloheximide is a eukaryote protein synthesis inhibitor, produced by the bacterium Streptomyces griseus.
Delft University of Technology (Technische Universiteit Delft) also known as TU Delft, is the largest and oldest Dutch public technological university, located in Delft, Netherlands.
In geometry, a diameter of a circle is any straight line segment that passes through the center of the circle and whose endpoints lie on the circle.
Diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea, is the condition of having at least three loose or liquid bowel movements each day.
Digestion is the breakdown of large insoluble food molecules into small water-soluble food molecules so that they can be absorbed into the watery blood plasma.
Dimorphic fungi are fungi that can exist in the form of both mold and yeast.
A disaccharide (also called a double sugar or bivose) is the sugar formed when two monosaccharides (simple sugars) are joined by glycosidic linkage.
Distillation is the process of separating the components or substances from a liquid mixture by selective boiling and condensation.
In molecular biology, DNA replication is the biological process of producing two identical replicas of DNA from one original DNA molecule.
Dough is a thick, malleable, sometimes elastic, paste made out of any grains, leguminous or chestnut crops.
A drink or beverage is a liquid intended for human consumption.
The Dutch (Dutch), occasionally referred to as Netherlanders—a term that is cognate to the Dutch word for Dutch people, "Nederlanders"—are a Germanic ethnic group native to the Netherlands.
Ecology (from οἶκος, "house", or "environment"; -λογία, "study of") is the branch of biology which studies the interactions among organisms and their environment.
Effluent is an outflowing of water or gas to natural body of water, or from a manmade structure.
Eggs are laid by female animals of many different species, including birds, reptiles, amphibians, mammals, and fish, and have been eaten by humans for thousands of years.
Elsevier is an information and analytics company and one of the world's major providers of scientific, technical, and medical information.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
In chemistry, an ester is a chemical compound derived from an acid (organic or inorganic) in which at least one –OH (hydroxyl) group is replaced by an –O–alkyl (alkoxy) group.
Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula.
Ethanol fermentation, also called alcoholic fermentation, is a biological process which converts sugars such as glucose, fructose, and sucrose into cellular energy, producing ethanol and carbon dioxide as by-products.
Ethanol fuel is ethyl alcohol, the same type of alcohol found in alcoholic beverages, used as fuel.
Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike Prokaryotes (Bacteria and other Archaea).
Facultative means "optional" or "discretionary" (antonym obligate), used mainly in biology in phrases such as.
The title of this article should be "Facultative Aerobic Organism," as "facultative anaerobe" is a misnomer.
A fad, trend or craze is any form of collective behavior that develops within a culture, a generation or social group in which a group of people enthusiastically follows an impulse for a finite period.
In chemistry, particularly in biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid with a long aliphatic chain, which is either saturated or unsaturated.
The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) is an independent agency of the United States government, established in 1914 by the Federal Trade Commission Act.
Fermentation is a metabolic process that consumes sugar in the absence of oxygen.
Fermentation in food processing is the process of converting carbohydrates to alcohol or organic acids using microorganisms—yeasts or bacteria—under anaerobic conditions.
The process of fermentation in winemaking turns grape juice into an alcoholic beverage.
In North America, field corn is corn (Zea mays) grown for livestock fodder, ethanol, cereal and processed food products.
An industrial filter press is a tool used in separation processes, specifically to separate solids and liquids.
Fission, in biology, is the division of a single entity into two or more parts and the regeneration of those parts into separate entities resembling the original.
Flavor (American English) or flavour (British English; see spelling differences) is the sensory impression of food or other substance, and is determined primarily by the chemical senses of taste and smell.
Fleischmann’s Yeast is a brand of yeast sold to both consumer and industrial markets in the United States and Canada.
Flour is a powder made by grinding raw grains or roots and used to make many different foods.
Food additives are substances added to food to preserve flavor or enhance its taste, appearance, or other qualities.
The food industry is a complex, global collective of diverse businesses that supplies most of the food consumed by the world population.
Food preservation prevents the growth of microorganisms (such as yeasts), or other microorganisms (although some methods work by introducing benign bacteria or fungi to the food), as well as slowing the oxidation of fats that cause rancidity.
Fructose, or fruit sugar, is a simple ketonic monosaccharide found in many plants, where it is often bonded to glucose to form the disaccharide sucrose.
Fruit preserves are preparations of fruits, vegetables and sugar, often canned or sealed for long-term storage.
Fungemia or fungaemia is the presence of fungi or yeasts in the blood.
A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.
The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.
Genetic engineering, also called genetic modification or genetic manipulation, is the direct manipulation of an organism's genes using biotechnology.
Genetic recombination (aka genetic reshuffling) is the production of offspring with combinations of traits that differ from those found in either parent.
Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms.
Genetics is a monthly scientific journal publishing investigations bearing on heredity, genetics, biochemistry and molecular biology.
The genitourinary system or urogenital system is the organ system of the reproductive organs and the urinary system.
In the fields of molecular biology and genetics, a genome is the genetic material of an organism.
Genome projects are scientific endeavours that ultimately aim to determine the complete genome sequence of an organism (be it an animal, a plant, a fungus, a bacterium, an archaean, a protist or a virus) and to annotate protein-coding genes and other important genome-encoded features.
Glucose is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6.
Glutamic acid (symbol Glu or E) is an α-amino acid with formula.
Grape juice is obtained from crushing and blending grapes into a liquid.
A growth medium or culture medium is a solid, liquid or semi-solid designed to support the growth of microorganisms or cells, or small plants like the moss Physcomitrella patens.
Gut flora, or gut microbiota, or gastrointestinal microbiota, is the complex community of microorganisms that live in the digestive tracts of humans and other animals, including insects.
Heavy metals are generally defined as metals with relatively high densities, atomic weights, or atomic numbers.
Helleborus foetidus, known variously as stinking hellebore, dungwort, setterwort and bear's foot, is a species of flowering plant in the buttercup family Ranunculaceae, native to the mountainous regions of Central and Southern Europe, Greece and Asia Minor.
Hepatitis is inflammation of the liver tissue.
In bio-organic chemistry, a hexose is a monosaccharide with six carbon atoms, having the chemical formula C6H12O6.
Histamine is an organic nitrogenous compound involved in local immune responses, as well as regulating physiological function in the gut and acting as a neurotransmitter for the brain, spinal cord, and uterus.
Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
In biology, homology is the existence of shared ancestry between a pair of structures, or genes, in different taxa.
A honey bee (or honeybee) is any member of the genus Apis, primarily distinguished by the production and storage of honey and the construction of perennial, colonial nests from wax.
Human serum albumin is the serum albumin found in human blood.
In organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon.
A hypha (plural hyphae, from Greek ὑφή, huphḗ, "web") is a long, branching filamentous structure of a fungus, oomycete, or actinobacterium.
The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.
Immunodeficiency (or immune deficiency) is a state in which the immune system's ability to fight infectious disease and cancer is compromised or entirely absent.
Insulin (from Latin insula, island) is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreatic islets; it is considered to be the main anabolic hormone of the body.
The International Journal of Biological Sciences is a peer-reviewed open access scientific journal published by Ivyspring International Publisher.
The International Journal of Food Microbiology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal publishing research papers, short communications, review articles, and book reviews in area of food microbiology and relates fields of mycology, bacteriology, virology, parasitology, and immunology.
The International Society for Infectious Diseases (ISID), established in 1986, is a non-profit organization that works to control infectious disease outbreaks and improve the care of patients afflicted with these conditions.
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a group of symptoms—including abdominal pain and changes in the pattern of bowel movements without any evidence of underlying damage.
John Wiley & Sons, Inc., also referred to as Wiley, is a global publishing company that specializes in academic publishing.
The Journal of Bacteriology is a peer-reviewed medical journal established in 1916.
Kefir or kephir, alternatively milk kefir or búlgaros, is a fermented milk drink that originated in the Caucasus Mountains made with kefir "grains", a yeast/bacterial fermentation starter.
A killer yeast is a yeast, such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which is able to secrete one of a number of toxic proteins which are lethal to susceptible cells.
In biology, kingdom (Latin: regnum, plural regna) is the second highest taxonomic rank, just below domain.
Kneading is a process in the making of bread or pasta dough, used to mix the ingredients and add strength to the final product.
Kombucha (also tea mushroom, Manchurian mushroom, formal name: Medusomyces gisevii) is a variety of fermented, lightly effervescent sweetened black or green tea drinks commonly intended as functional beverages for their supposed health benefits.
Kumis (also spelled kumiss or koumiss or kumys, see other transliterations and cognate words below under terminology and etymology - Қымыз, qımız) is a fermented dairy product traditionally made from mare's milk.
Kvass is a traditional Slavic and Baltic beverage commonly made from rye bread, known in many Eastern European countries and especially in Ukraine and Russia as black bread.
Lager is a type of beer conditioned at low temperatures.
Lambic is a type of beer brewed in the Pajottenland region of Belgium southwest of Brussels and in Brussels itself at the Cantillon Brewery.
A leaven, often called a leavening agent (and also known as a raising agent), is any one of a number of substances used in doughs and batters that cause a foaming action (gas bubbles) that lightens and softens the mixture.
Leucosporidium frigidum is a species of yeast that belongs to the genus of fungi Leucosporidium, and the family Leucosporidiaceae.
Lignocellulose refers to plant dry matter (biomass), so called lignocellulosic biomass.
Liquor (also hard liquor, hard alcohol, or spirits) is an alcoholic drink produced by distillation of grains, fruit, or vegetables that have already gone through alcoholic fermentation.
Louis Pasteur (December 27, 1822 – September 28, 1895) was a French biologist, microbiologist and chemist renowned for his discoveries of the principles of vaccination, microbial fermentation and pasteurization.
Malt is germinated cereal grains that have been dried in a process known as "malting".
Maltose, also known as maltobiose or malt sugar, is a disaccharide formed from two units of glucose joined with an α(1→4) bond. In the isomer isomaltose, the two glucose molecules are joined with an α(1→6) bond. Maltose is the two-unit member of the amylose homologous series, the key structural motif of starch. When beta-amylase breaks down starch, it removes two glucose units at a time, producing maltose. An example of this reaction is found in germinating seeds, which is why it was named after malt. Unlike sucrose, it is a reducing sugar.
Marmite is a British food spread currently produced by Unilever.
The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a simple single-celled eukaryote with both a diploid and haploid mode of existence.
Mauby (in Trinidad and Tobago, Saint Lucia, Jamaica, St. Vincent and The Grenadines, Grenada, Guyana, Bermuda, Barbados, Antigua and Barbuda and Anguilla), but also known as maví (or mabí) in the Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico, mabi in Haiti and Martinique, and maubi in the Virgin Islands and Dutch Caribbean islands of St. Eustatius, St. Maarten and Saba), is a tree bark-based beverage grown, and widely consumed, in the Caribbean. It is made with sugar and the bark and/or fruit of certain species in the genus Colubrina including Colubrina elliptica (also called behuco indio) and Colubrina arborescens, a small tree native to the northern Caribbean and south Florida. Recipes usually include other ingredients as well, spices such as aniseed being very common. Mauby was traditionally a fermented beverage made in small batches, but is now predominantly a commercial non-fermented soft drink. Haiti and the Dominican Republic are two of the largest Caribbean exporters of the bark and leaves. Often the drink is fermented using a portion of the previous batch, while sometimes it is consumed unfermented. Mauby is often bought as a pre-made syrup and then mixed with water (sparkling or still) to the consumer's taste, but many make it themselves at home or purchase it from neighbourhood producers or street sellers. Its taste is initially sweet, somewhat like root beer, but changes to a prolonged, but not astringent bitter aftertaste. To many, it is an acquired taste, and has been known to cause an initial laxative reaction unexpected to many first-time drinkers.
Meiosis (from Greek μείωσις, meiosis, which means lessening) is a specialized type of cell division that reduces the chromosome number by half, creating four haploid cells, each genetically distinct from the parent cell that gave rise to them.
Melibiose is a reducing disaccharide formed by an alpha-1,6 linkage between galactose and glucose (D-Gal-α(1→6)-D-Glc).
Metabolic engineering is the practice of optimizing genetic and regulatory processes within cells to increase the cells' production of a certain substance.
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
A metabolite is the intermediate end product of metabolism.
Methylene blue, also known as methylthioninium chloride, is a medication and dye.
A microbial fuel cell (MFC), or biological fuel cell, is a bio-electrochemical system that drives an electric current by using bacteria and mimicking bacterial interactions found in nature.
Microbiology is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal that covers research in all aspects of microbiology, including the biochemistry, cell biology, molecular biology, developmental biology, physiology, pathogenicity, biodiversity, biotechnology, evolution, and genetics of microorganisms and viruses.
Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews (published as MMBR) is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the American Society for Microbiology.
The Microbotryomycetes are class of fungi in the Pucciniomycotina subdivision of the Basidiomycota.
The micrometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: μm) or micrometer (American spelling), also commonly known as a micron, is an SI derived unit of length equaling (SI standard prefix "micro-".
A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.
Microscopy is the technical field of using microscopes to view objects and areas of objects that cannot be seen with the naked eye (objects that are not within the resolution range of the normal eye).
In the context of nutrition, a mineral is a chemical element required as an essential nutrient by organisms to perform functions necessary for life.
In cell biology, mitosis is a part of the cell cycle when replicated chromosomes are separated into two new nuclei.
A model organism is a non-human species that is extensively studied to understand particular biological phenomena, with the expectation that discoveries made in the organism model will provide insight into the workings of other organisms.
A mold or mould (is a fungus that grows in the form of multicellular filaments called hyphae.
Molecular Ecology is a twice monthly scientific journal covering investigations that use molecular genetic techniques to address questions in ecology, evolution, behavior, and conservation.
Monascus purpureus (syn. M. albidus, M. anka, M. araneosus, M. major, M. rubiginosus, and M. vini;, lit. "red yeast") is a species of mold that is purplish-red in color.
Monosaccharides (from Greek monos: single, sacchar: sugar), also called simple sugars, are the most basic units of carbohydrates.
Monosodium glutamate (MSG, also known as sodium glutamate) is the sodium salt of glutamic acid, one of the most abundant naturally occurring non-essential amino acids.
A mucous membrane or mucosa is a membrane that lines various cavities in the body and covers the surface of internal organs.
Multicellular organisms are organisms that consist of more than one cell, in contrast to unicellular organisms.
Must (from the Latin vinum mustum, "young wine") is freshly crushed fruit juice (usually grape juice) that contains the skins, seeds, and stems of the fruit.
Mycosis is a fungal infection of animals, including humans.
Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.
Nectar is a sugar-rich liquid produced by plants in glands called nectaries, either within the flowers with which it attracts pollinating animals, or by extrafloral nectaries, which provide a nutrient source to animal mutualists, which in turn provide antiherbivore protection.
A nutrient is a substance used by an organism to survive, grow, and reproduce.
Nutritional yeast is a deactivated yeast, often a strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which is sold commercially as a food product.
An obligate aerobe is an organism that requires oxygen to grow.
Obligate anaerobes are microorganisms killed by normal atmospheric concentrations of oxygen (20.95% O2).
Oenology (enology) is the science and study of wine and winemaking; distinct from viticulture, the agricultural endeavours of vine-growing and of grape-harvesting.
Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.
An opportunistic infection is an infection caused by pathogens (bacteria, viruses, fungi, or protozoa) that take advantage of an opportunity not normally available, such as a host with a weakened immune system, an altered microbiota (such as a disrupted gut microbiota), or breached integumentary barriers.
Oral candidiasis, also known as oral thrush among other names, is candidiasis that occurs in the mouth.
In biological classification, the order (ordo) is.
An organic acid is an organic compound with acidic properties.
In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.
In biology, an organism (from Greek: ὀργανισμός, organismos) is any individual entity that exhibits the properties of life.
Out-crossing or out-breeding means that the crossing between different breeds.This is the practice of introducing unrelated genetic material into a breeding line.
Oxo is a brand of food products, including stock cubes, herbs and spices, dried gravy, and yeast extract.
Palm oil is an edible vegetable oil derived from the mesocarp (reddish pulp) of the fruit of the oil palms, primarily the African oil palm Elaeis guineensis, and to a lesser extent from the American oil palm Elaeis oleifera and the maripa palm Attalea maripa.
In evolutionary biology, parasitism is a relationship between species, where one organism, the parasite, lives on or in another organism, the host, causing it some harm, and is adapted structurally to this way of life.
The Pasteur effect is an inhibiting effect of oxygen on the fermentation process.
The peach (Prunus persica) is a deciduous tree native to the region of Northwest China between the Tarim Basin and the north slopes of the Kunlun Mountains, where it was first domesticated and cultivated.
A pentose is a monosaccharide with five carbon atoms.
Peptides (from Gr.: πεπτός, peptós "digested"; derived from πέσσειν, péssein "to digest") are short chains of amino acid monomers linked by peptide (amide) bonds.
Phenol, also known as phenolic acid, is an aromatic organic compound with the molecular formula C6H5OH.
In organic chemistry, phenols, sometimes called phenolics, are a class of chemical compounds consisting of a hydroxyl group (—OH) bonded directly to an aromatic hydrocarbon group.
In biology, phylogenetics (Greek: φυλή, φῦλον – phylé, phylon.
In biology, a phylum (plural: phyla) is a level of classification or taxonomic rank below Kingdom and above Class.
Pichia guilliermondii is a species of yeast of the genus Pichia whose asexual or anamorphic form is known as Candida guilliermondii.
Ploidy is the number of complete sets of chromosomes in a cell, and hence the number of possible alleles for autosomal and pseudoautosomal genes.
Polyketides are a class of secondary metabolites produced by certain living organisms in order to impart to them some survival advantage.
Polysaccharides are polymeric carbohydrate molecules composed of long chains of monosaccharide units bound together by glycosidic linkages, and on hydrolysis give the constituent monosaccharides or oligosaccharides.
The post-Soviet states, also collectively known as the former Soviet Union (FSU) or former Soviet Republics, are the states that emerged and re-emerged from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in its breakup in 1991, with Russia internationally recognised as the successor state to the Soviet Union after the Cold War.
Potato dextrose agar (BAM Media M127 from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration) and potato dextrose broth are common microbiological growth media made from potato infusion, and dextrose.
Primary nutritional groups are groups of organisms, divided in relation to the nutrition mode according to the sources of energy and carbon, needed for living, growth and reproduction.
Probiotics are microorganisms that are claimed to provide health benefits when consumed.
Proceedings of the Royal Society is the parent title of two scientific journals published by the Royal Society.
Prohibition in the United States was a nationwide constitutional ban on the production, importation, transportation, and sale of alcoholic beverages from 1920 to 1933.
Promite is the registered brand name for a dark brown, salty food paste mainly used as a spread on sandwiches and toast similar to the better-known Vegemite and Marmite.
Proofing (also called proving or more rarely blooming), as the term is used by bakers, is the final rise of shaped bread dough before baking.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
Proto-Indo-European (PIE) is the linguistic reconstruction of the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, the most widely spoken language family in the world.
Pucciniomycotina is a subdivision of fungus within the division Basidiomycota.
Red yeast rice, red rice koji (べにこうじ, lit. 'red koji') or akakoji (あかこぎ, also meaning 'red koji'), red fermented rice, red kojic rice, red koji rice, anka, or ang-kak, is a bright reddish purple fermented rice, which acquires its colour from being cultivated with the mold Monascus purpureus.
Rhodotorula is a genus of unicellular pigmented yeasts, part of the division Basidiomycota.
Root beer is a sweet North American soft drink traditionally made using the sassafras tree Sassafras albidum (sassafras) or the vine Smilax ornata (sarsaparilla) as the primary flavor.
Rum is a distilled alcoholic beverage made from sugarcane byproducts, such as molasses or honeys, or directly from sugarcane juice, by a process of fermentation and distillation.
Rye (Secale cereale) is a grass grown extensively as a grain, a cover crop and a forage crop.
Saccharomyces is a genus of fungi that includes many species of yeasts.
Saccharomyces boulardii is a tropical species of yeast first isolated from lychee and mangosteen fruit in 1923 by French scientist Henri Boulard.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a species of yeast.
Saccharomyces pastorianus is a yeast used industrially for the production of lager beer, and was named in honour of Louis Pasteur by the German Max Reess in 1870.
Saccharomyces telluris is a species of yeast also known as Kazachstania telluris.
Saccharomycetales belongs to the kingdom of Fungi and the division Ascomycota.
Saccharomycotina is a subdivision (subphylum) of the division (phylum) Ascomycota in the Kingdom Fungi.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe, also called "fission yeast", is a species of yeast used in traditional brewing and as a model organism in molecular and cell biology.
Schizosaccharomycetes is a class in the kingdom of fungi.
Scientifica is a constituent company of Judges Scientific Plc and was founded in 1997.
Scrambled eggs is a dish made from eggs (usually chicken eggs) stirred or beaten together in a pan while being gently heated, typically with salt and butter and various other ingredients.
Sexual reproduction is a form of reproduction where two morphologically distinct types of specialized reproductive cells called gametes fuse together, involving a female's large ovum (or egg) and a male's smaller sperm.
Shelf life is the length of time that a commodity may be stored without becoming unfit for use, consumption, or sale.
The term skin flora (also commonly referred to as skin microbiota) refers to the microorganisms which reside on the skin, typically human skin.
The Society for Applied Microbiology (SfAM) is the voice of applied microbiology and oldest microbiology society in the UK founded in 1931.
Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.
A soft drink (see terminology for other names) typically contains carbonated water (although some lemonades are not carbonated), a sweetener, and a natural or artificial flavoring.
Sorbic acid, or 2,4-hexadienoic acid, is a natural organic compound used as a food preservative.
Sour beer is beer which has an intentionally acidic, tart or sour taste.
Sourdough bread is made by the fermentation of dough using naturally occurring lactobacilli and yeast.
In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition.
The sponge and dough method is a two-step bread making process: in the first step a sponge is made and allowed to ferment for a period of time, and in the second step the sponge is added to the final dough's ingredients, creating the total formula.
In biology, a spore is a unit of sexual or asexual reproduction that may be adapted for dispersal and for survival, often for extended periods of time, in unfavourable conditions.
Sporidiobolus is a genus of Basidiomycota found in the family Sporidiobolaceae.
Sporobolomyces is a fungal genus of uncertain familial placement in the order Sporidiobolales.
Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.
The Start checkpoint is a major cell cycle checkpoint in yeast.
Sucrose is common table sugar.
Sugarcane, or sugar cane, are several species of tall perennial true grasses of the genus Saccharum, tribe Andropogoneae, native to the warm temperate to tropical regions of South and Southeast Asia, Polynesia and Melanesia, and used for sugar production.
Sulfur dioxide (also sulphur dioxide in British English) is the chemical compound with the formula.
Sulfuric acid (alternative spelling sulphuric acid) is a mineral acid with molecular formula H2SO4.
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.
Symbiosis (from Greek συμβίωσις "living together", from σύν "together" and βίωσις "living") is any type of a close and long-term biological interaction between two different biological organisms, be it mutualistic, commensalistic, or parasitic.
A synonym is a word or phrase that means exactly or nearly the same as another word or phrase in the same language.
In scientific nomenclature, a synonym is a scientific name that applies to a taxon that (now) goes by a different scientific name,''ICN'', "Glossary", entry for "synonym" although the term is used somewhat differently in the zoological code of nomenclature.
Synthetic genetic array analysis (SGA) is a high-throughput technique for exploring synthetic lethal and synthetic sick genetic interactions (SSL).
In cooking, a syrup or sirup (from شراب; sharāb, beverage, wine and sirupus) is a condiment that is a thick, viscous liquid consisting primarily of a solution of sugar in water, containing a large amount of dissolved sugars but showing little tendency to deposit crystals.
The Taphrinomycotina are one of three subdivisions constituting the Ascomycota (fungi that form their spores in a sac-like ascus) and is more or less synonymous with the slightly older invalid name Archiascomycetes (sometimes spelled Archaeascomycetes; archea.
Taxonomy is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics.
The terpenoids, sometimes called isoprenoids, are a large and diverse class of naturally occurring organic chemicals derived from terpenes.
The tetrad is the four spores produced after meiosis of a yeast or other Ascomycota, Chlamydomonas or other alga, or a plant.
The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (AHD) is an American dictionary of English published by Boston publisher Houghton Mifflin, the first edition of which appeared in 1969.
The Vancouver Sun is a daily newspaper first published in the Canadian province of British Columbia on 12 February 1912.
Theodor Schwann (7 December 1810 – 11 January 1882) was a German physiologist.
Trinitrotoluene (TNT), or more specifically 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, is a chemical compound with the formula C6H2(NO2)3CH3.
Torulaspora delbrueckii is a ubiquitous yeast species with both wild and anthropic habitats.
Trappist beer is a beer brewed by Trappist breweries.
Traveler's diarrhea (TD) is a stomach and intestinal infection.
The Tremellomycetes are a class of dimorphic fungi.
Trichosporon is a genus of anamorphic fungi in the family Trichosporonaceae.
Two-hybrid screening (originally known as yeast two-hybrid system or Y2H) is a molecular biology technique used to discover protein–protein interactions (PPIs) and protein–DNA interactions by testing for physical interactions (such as binding) between two proteins or a single protein and a DNA molecule, respectively.
A unicellular organism, also known as a single-celled organism, is an organism that consists of only one cell, unlike a multicellular organism that consists of more than one cell.
The University of British Columbia (UBC) is a public research university with campuses in Vancouver and Kelowna, British Columbia.
A vaccine is a biological preparation that provides active acquired immunity to a particular disease.
Vaginitis is inflammation of the vagina.
Veganism is the practice of abstaining from the use of animal products, particularly in diet, and an associated philosophy that rejects the commodity status of animals.
Vegemite is a thick, black Australian food spread made from leftover brewers' yeast extract with various vegetable and spice additives.
Virulence is a pathogen's or microbe's ability to infect or damage a host.
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are organic chemicals that have a high vapor pressure at ordinary room temperature.
WHI3 is a developmental regulator in budding yeast.
Whisky or whiskey is a type of distilled alcoholic beverage made from fermented grain mash.
White blood cells (WBCs), also called leukocytes or leucocytes, are the cells of the immune system that are involved in protecting the body against both infectious disease and foreign invaders.
The color of wine is one of the most easily recognizable characteristics of wines.
A wine fault or defect is an unpleasant characteristic of a wine often resulting from poor winemaking practices or storage conditions, and leading to wine spoilage.
Winemaking or vinification is the production of wine, starting with the selection of the fruit, its fermentation into alcohol, and the bottling of the finished liquid.
Woodhead Publishing Limited was established in 1989 as an independent international publishing company of science and technical books.
World Journal of Gastroenterology is a weekly peer-reviewed open access medical journal that covers research in gastroenterology.
Wort is the liquid extracted from the mashing process during the brewing of beer or whisky.
Xylitol is a sugar alcohol used as a sweetener.
Xylose (cf. ξύλον, xylon, "wood") is a sugar first isolated from wood, and named for it.
Yarrowia is a fungal genus in the family Dipodascaceae.
Yeasts are eukaryotic, single-celled microorganisms classified as members of the fungus kingdom.
Yeast extract is the common name for yeast products made by extracting the cell contents (removing the cell walls); they are used as food additives or flavorings, or as nutrients for bacterial culture media.
Zygosaccharomyces is a genus of yeasts in the family Saccharomycetaceae.
Zygosaccharomyces bailii is a species in the genus Zygosaccharomyces.
Zymology, also known as zymurgy (from the Greek: ζύμωσις+ἔργον, "the workings of fermentation") is an applied science which studies the biochemical process of fermentation and its practical uses.
Beer yeast, Bottom-fermenting yeast, Brewer's Yeast, Brewer's yeast, Brewers yeast, Brewers' yeast, Brewing Yeast, Brewing yeast, Budding yeast, Compressed yeast, Pathogenic yeast, Pathogenic yeasts, Saflager, Top fermentation, Top-fermenting yeast, Yeast bread, Yeast cell, Yeasts.