235 relations: Acute (medicine), Adaptive immune system, Advances in Parasitology, Aedes, Aedes aegypti, Aedes africanus, Aedes albopictus, Africa, Anopheles, Anorexia (symptom), Antigen, Antiviral drug, Arbovirus, Aristides Agramonte, Asia, Aspirin, Atlantic slave trade, Baltimore, Barbados, Barcelona, Benjamin Rush, Biological agent, Biopsy, Bleeding, Blood plasma, Blood test, Bolivia, Brazil, Brown howler, Cadwallader Colden, Capsid, Carlos Finlay, Carnival, Cartagena, Chile, Case fatality rate, Catalysis, Charles Leclerc, Charleston, South Carolina, Chikungunya, Chills, Circulatory system, Climate change, Cloutierville, Louisiana, Colombia, Columbian Exchange, Copepod, Councilman body, Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences, Cuba, Cyclone, ..., Cytokine, Cytokine release syndrome, Cytoplasm, Cytosol, DEET, Dendritic cell, Dengue fever, Dengue virus, Diagnosis, Differential diagnosis, Earthquake, Ebola virus, ELISA, Encephalitis, Endemic (epidemiology), Endoplasmic reticulum, Endosome, Eosinophil, Epithelium, Epizootic, Ernest William Goodpasture, Ezekiel Stone Wiggins, Fever, Flaviviridae, Flavivirus, Furin, Gastrointestinal tract, Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, Gene, Genome, Genotype, Genus, George Washington, Gibraltar, Golgi apparatus, Guinea pig, Haemagogus, Haiti, Haitian Revolution, Hampton Roads, Havana, Headache, Hematemesis, Hepatitis, Hepatitis C, Hepatocyte, History of slavery, History of sugar, Host (biology), Human, Icaridin, Immunity (medical), Immunoglobulin G, Immunoglobulin M, Indigenous peoples, Infection, Infectious disease (medical specialty), Inflammation, Influenza, Informed consent, Interferon, International Health Division, IR3535, Irwin Sherman, Jacksonville, Florida, Jamaica, James Carroll (scientist), Jaundice, Jesse William Lazear, John Mitchell (geographer), Josiah C. Nott, Jungle, Junin virus, Kidney failure, Kupffer cell, Larvicide, Lassa virus, Lethal ovitrap, List of epidemics, Liver, Liver failure, Lymph node, Macrophage, Malaria, Marburg virus, Mars, Martian canal, Max Theiler, Maya peoples, Memphis, Tennessee, Meningoencephalitis, Mesocyclops, Micrograph, Minas Gerais, Mississippi embayment, Monocyte, Mosquito, Mosquito net, Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, Myalgia, Nanometre, Nausea, Necrosis, New Orleans, Nigeria, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, Norfolk, Virginia, Nucleotide, Open reading frame, Oswaldo Cruz, Outbreak, P-Menthane-3,8-diol, Panama Canal, Paracetamol, Paraguay, Permethrin, Peru, PH, Philadelphia, Phylogenetics, Polymerase chain reaction, Portsmouth, Virginia, Primate, Protease, Protein dimer, Protein trimer, Proteolysis, Pyriproxyfen, Receptor (biochemistry), Recife, Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, Ribavirin, RNA, RNA virus, Rockefeller Foundation, Rockefeller University, Sabethes, Saint-Domingue, Salivary gland, Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Santo Domingo, Savanna, Savannah, Georgia, Sense (molecular biology), Sentinel species, Shock (circulatory), Shreveport, Louisiana, South Africa, South America, Spanish–American War, Spleen, St. Matthew's German Evangelical Lutheran Church, Steatosis, Subtropics, Sylvatic cycle, Therapy, Titer, Tobago, Togo, Transmission electron microscopy, Transovarial transmission, Transstadial transmission, Trinidad, Tropics, University of Virginia, Vaccination, Vaccine, Vector (epidemiology), Venezuela, Vero cell, Vesicle (biology and chemistry), Vietnam, Viral envelope, Viral hemorrhagic fever, Virginia, Virus, Walter Reed, William C. Gorgas, Wolbachia, World Health Organization, Yellow fever vaccine, Yucatán Peninsula, Zika fever, 1793 Philadelphia yellow fever epidemic, 2016 Angola and DR Congo yellow fever outbreak. Expand index (185 more) » « Shrink index
In medicine, describing a disease as acute denotes that it is of short duration and, as a corollary of that, of recent onset.
The adaptive immune system, also known as the acquired immune system or, more rarely, as the specific immune system, is a subsystem of the overall immune system that is composed of highly specialized, systemic cells and processes that eliminate pathogens or prevent their growth.
Advances in Parasitology is an annual book series of reviews addressing topics in parasitology, for both human and veterinary medicine.
Aedes is a genus of mosquitoes originally found in tropical and subtropical zones, but now found on all continents except Antarctica.
Aedes aegypti, the yellow fever mosquito, is a mosquito that can spread dengue fever, chikungunya, Zika fever, Mayaro and yellow fever viruses, and other disease agents.
Aedes africanus is a species of mosquito that is found on the continent of Africa with the exclusion of Madagascar.
Aedes albopictus (Stegomyia albopicta), from the mosquito (Culicidae) family, also known as (Asian) tiger mosquito or forest mosquito, is a mosquito native to the tropical and subtropical areas of Southeast Asia; however, in the past few decades, this species has spread to many countries through the transport of goods and international travel.
Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).
Anopheles (Greek anofelís: "useless") is a genus of mosquito first described and named by J. W. Meigen in 1818.
Anorexia (from Ancient Greek ανορεξία: 'ἀν-' "without" + 'όρεξις', spelled 'órexis' meaning "appetite") is the decreased sensation of appetite.
In immunology, an antigen is a molecule capable of inducing an immune response (to produce an antibody) in the host organism.
Antiviral drugs are a class of medication used specifically for treating viral infections rather than bacterial ones.
Arbovirus is an informal name used to refer to any viruses that are transmitted by arthropod vectors.
Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.
Aspirin, also known as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), is a medication used to treat pain, fever, or inflammation.
The Atlantic slave trade or transatlantic slave trade involved the transportation by slave traders of enslaved African people, mainly to the Americas.
Baltimore is the largest city in the U.S. state of Maryland, and the 30th-most populous city in the United States.
Barbados is an island country in the Lesser Antilles of the West Indies, in the Caribbean region of North America.
Barcelona is a city in Spain.
Benjamin Rush (– April 19, 1813) was a Founding Father of the United States.
A biological agent—also called bio-agent, biological threat agent, biological warfare agent, biological weapon, or bioweapon—is a bacterium, virus, protozoan, parasite, or fungus that can be used purposefully as a weapon in bioterrorism or biological warfare (BW).
A biopsy is a medical test commonly performed by a surgeon, interventional radiologist, or an interventional cardiologist involving extraction of sample cells or tissues for examination to determine the presence or extent of a disease.
Bleeding, also known as hemorrhaging or haemorrhaging, is blood escaping from the circulatory system.
Blood plasma is a yellowish coloured liquid component of blood that normally holds the blood cells in whole blood in suspension; this makes plasma the extracellular matrix of blood cells.
A blood test is a laboratory analysis performed on a blood sample that is usually extracted from a vein in the arm using a hypodermic needle, or via fingerprick.
Bolivia (Mborivia; Buliwya; Wuliwya), officially known as the Plurinational State of Bolivia (Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia), is a landlocked country located in western-central South America.
Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
The brown howler (Alouatta guariba), also known as brown howler monkey, is a species of howler monkey, a type of New World monkey that lives in forests in southeastern Brazil and far northeastern Argentina (Misiones).
Cadwallader Colden (7 February 1688 – 28 September 1776) was a physician, natural scientist, a lieutenant governor and acting Governor for the Province of New York.
A capsid is the protein shell of a virus.
Carlos Juan Finlay (December 3, 1833 – August 20, 1915) was a Cuban epidemiologist recognized as a pioneer in the research of yellow fever, determining that it was transmitted through mosquitoes Aedes aegypti.
Carnival (see other spellings and names) is a Western Christian and Greek Orthodox festive season that occurs before the liturgical season of Lent.
Cartagena is a Chilean commune located in the San Antonio Province, Valparaíso Region.
In epidemiology, a case fatality rate (CFR)—or case fatality risk, case fatality ratio or just fatality rate—is the proportion of deaths within a designated population of "cases" (people with a medical condition) over the course of the disease.
Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalysthttp://goldbook.iupac.org/C00876.html, which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly.
Charles Victoire Emmanuel Leclerc (17 March 1772 – 2 November 1802) was a French Army general who served under Napoleon Bonaparte during the French Revolution.
Charleston is the oldest and largest city in the U.S. state of South Carolina, the county seat of Charleston County, and the principal city in the Charleston–North Charleston–Summerville Metropolitan Statistical Area.
Chikungunya is an infection caused by the chikungunya virus (CHIKV).
Chills is a feeling of coldness occurring during a high fever, but sometimes is also a common symptom which occurs alone in specific people.
The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.
Climate change is a change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns when that change lasts for an extended period of time (i.e., decades to millions of years).
Cloutierville is an unincorporated community in Natchitoches Parish, Louisiana, United States.
Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia, is a sovereign state largely situated in the northwest of South America, with territories in Central America.
The Columbian Exchange was the widespread transfer of plants, animals, culture, human populations, technology, and ideas between the Americas and the Old World in the 15th and 16th centuries, related to European colonization and trade following Christopher Columbus's 1492 voyage.
Copepods (meaning "oar-feet") are a group of small crustaceans found in the sea and nearly every freshwater habitat.
In pathology, a Councilman body, also known as Councilman hyaline body or apoptotic body, is an acidophilic (eosinophilic / pink-staining on H&E) globule of cells that represents a dying hepatocyte often surrounded by normal parenchyma.
Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences is a bimonthly peer-reviewed medical journal that publishes comprehensive review articles in clinical laboratory sciences, including clinical biochemistry, clinical hematology, clinical microbiology, pathology, transfusion medicine, genetics, and immunology.
Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba, is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos.
In meteorology, a cyclone is a large scale air mass that rotates around a strong center of low atmospheric pressure.
Cytokines are a broad and loose category of small proteins (~5–20 kDa) that are important in cell signaling.
Cytokine release syndrome is a form of systemic inflammatory response syndrome that arises as a complication of some diseases or infections, and is also an adverse effect of some monoclonal antibody drugs, as well as adoptive T-cell therapies.
In cell biology, the cytoplasm is the material within a living cell, excluding the cell nucleus.
The cytosol, also known as intracellular fluid (ICF) or cytoplasmic matrix, is the liquid found inside cells.
N,N-Diethyl-meta-toluamide, also called DEET or diethyltoluamide, is the most common active ingredient in insect repellents.
Dendritic cells (DCs) are antigen-presenting cells (also known as accessory cells) of the mammalian immune system.
Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne tropical disease caused by the dengue virus.
Dengue virus (DENV) is the cause of dengue fever.
Diagnosis is the identification of the nature and cause of a certain phenomenon.
In medicine, a differential diagnosis is the distinguishing of a particular disease or condition from others that present similar clinical features.
An earthquake (also known as a quake, tremor or temblor) is the shaking of the surface of the Earth, resulting from the sudden release of energy in the Earth's lithosphere that creates seismic waves.
Ebola virus (EBOV, formerly designated Zaire ebolavirus) is one of five known viruses within the genus Ebolavirus.
The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is a test that uses antibodies and color change to identify a substance.
Encephalitis is inflammation of the brain.
In epidemiology, an infection is said to be endemic (from Greek ἐν en "in, within" and δῆμος demos "people") in a population when that infection is constantly maintained at a baseline level in a geographic area without external inputs.
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a type of organelle found in eukaryotic cells that forms an interconnected network of flattened, membrane-enclosed sacs or tube-like structures known as cisternae.
In cell biology, an endosome is a membrane-bound compartment inside eukaryotic cells.
Eosinophils sometimes called eosinophiles or, less commonly, acidophils, are a variety of white blood cells and one of the immune system components responsible for combating multicellular parasites and certain infections in vertebrates. Along with mast cells and basophils, they also control mechanisms associated with allergy and asthma. They are granulocytes that develop during hematopoiesis in the bone marrow before migrating into blood, after which they are terminally differentiated and do not multiply. These cells are eosinophilic or "acid-loving" due to their large acidophilic cytoplasmic granules, which show their affinity for acids by their affinity to coal tar dyes: Normally transparent, it is this affinity that causes them to appear brick-red after staining with eosin, a red dye, using the Romanowsky method. The staining is concentrated in small granules within the cellular cytoplasm, which contain many chemical mediators, such as eosinophil peroxidase, ribonuclease (RNase), deoxyribonucleases (DNase), lipase, plasminogen, and major basic protein. These mediators are released by a process called degranulation following activation of the eosinophil, and are toxic to both parasite and host tissues. In normal individuals, eosinophils make up about 1–3% of white blood cells, and are about 12–17 micrometres in size with bilobed nuclei. While they are released into the bloodstream as neutrophils are, eosinophils reside in tissue They are found in the medulla and the junction between the cortex and medulla of the thymus, and, in the lower gastrointestinal tract, ovary, uterus, spleen, and lymph nodes, but not in the lung, skin, esophagus, or some other internal organs under normal conditions. The presence of eosinophils in these latter organs is associated with disease. For instance, patients with eosinophilic asthma have high levels of eosinophils that lead to inflammation and tissue damage, making it more difficult for patients to breathe. Eosinophils persist in the circulation for 8–12 hours, and can survive in tissue for an additional 8–12 days in the absence of stimulation. Pioneering work in the 1980s elucidated that eosinophils were unique granulocytes, having the capacity to survive for extended periods of time after their maturation as demonstrated by ex-vivo culture experiments.
Epithelium is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with connective tissue, muscle tissue and nervous tissue.
In epizoology, an epizootic (from Greek: epi- upon + zoon animal) is a disease event in a nonhuman animal population, analogous to an epidemic in humans.
Ezekiel Stone Wiggins (December 4, 1839 – August 14, 1910) was a Canadian weather and earthquake predictor known as the "Ottawa Prophet".
Fever, also known as pyrexia and febrile response, is defined as having a temperature above the normal range due to an increase in the body's temperature set-point.
Flaviviridae is a family of viruses.
Flavivirus is a genus of viruses in the family Flaviviridae.
Furin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FURIN gene.
The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.
Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance (Gavi for short; previously the GAVI Alliance, and before that the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization) is a public–private global health partnership committed to increasing access to immunisation in poor countries.
In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.
In the fields of molecular biology and genetics, a genome is the genetic material of an organism.
The genotype is the part of the genetic makeup of a cell, and therefore of an organism or individual, which determines one of its characteristics (phenotype).
A genus (genera) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, as well as viruses, in biology.
George Washington (February 22, 1732 –, 1799), known as the "Father of His Country," was an American soldier and statesman who served from 1789 to 1797 as the first President of the United States.
Gibraltar is a British Overseas Territory located at the southern tip of the Iberian Peninsula.
The Golgi apparatus, also known as the Golgi complex, Golgi body, or simply the Golgi, is an organelle found in most eukaryotic cells.
The guinea pig or domestic guinea pig (Cavia porcellus), also known as cavy or domestic cavy, is a species of rodent belonging to the family Caviidae and the genus Cavia.
Haemagogus is a genus of mosquitoes in the dipteran family Culicidae.
Haiti (Haïti; Ayiti), officially the Republic of Haiti and formerly called Hayti, is a sovereign state located on the island of Hispaniola in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean Sea.
The Haitian Revolution (Révolution haïtienne) was a successful anti-slavery and anti-colonial insurrection by self-liberated slaves against French colonial rule in Saint-Domingue, now the sovereign nation of Haiti.
Hampton Roads is the name of both a body of water in Virginia and the surrounding metropolitan region in Southeastern Virginia and Northeastern North Carolina, United States.
Havana (Spanish: La Habana) is the capital city, largest city, province, major port, and leading commercial center of Cuba.
Headache is the symptom of pain anywhere in the region of the head or neck.
Hematemesis or haematemesis is the vomiting of blood.
Hepatitis is inflammation of the liver tissue.
Hepatitis C is an infectious disease caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV) that primarily affects the liver.
A hepatocyte is a cell of the main parenchymal tissue of the liver.
The history of slavery spans many cultures, nationalities, and religions from ancient times to the present day.
Sugar is a common part of human life.
In biology and medicine, a host is an organism that harbours a parasitic, a mutualistic, or a commensalist guest (symbiont), the guest typically being provided with nourishment and shelter.
Humans (taxonomically Homo sapiens) are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina.
Icaridin, also known as picaridin, is an insect repellent.
In biology, immunity is the balanced state of multicellular organisms having adequate biological defenses to fight infection, disease, or other unwanted biological invasion, while having adequate tolerance to avoid allergy, and autoimmune diseases.
Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is a type of antibody.
Immunoglobulin M (IgM) is one of several forms of antibody that are produced by vertebrates.
Indigenous peoples, also known as first peoples, aboriginal peoples or native peoples, are ethnic groups who are the pre-colonial original inhabitants of a given region, in contrast to groups that have settled, occupied or colonized the area more recently.
Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.
Infectious disease, also known as infectious diseases, infectious medicine, infectious disease medicine or infectiology, is a medical specialty dealing with the diagnosis, control and treatment of infections.
Inflammation (from inflammatio) is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants, and is a protective response involving immune cells, blood vessels, and molecular mediators.
Influenza, commonly known as "the flu", is an infectious disease caused by an influenza virus.
Informed consent is a process for getting permission before conducting a healthcare intervention on a person, or for disclosing personal information.
Interferons (IFNs) are a group of signaling proteins made and released by host cells in response to the presence of several pathogens, such as viruses, bacteria, parasites, and also tumor cells.
The International Health Division of the Rockefeller Foundation (also known as the International Health Board (1916-1927) and the International Health Commission (1913-1916)) was an early public health entity which conducted campaigns against malaria, yellow fever, and hookworm in areas throughout Europe, Latin America and the Caribbean including Italy, France, Venezuela, Mexico, and Puerto Rico.
IR3535 (Insect Repellent 3535) or ethyl butylacetylaminopropionate, is one of the most common active ingredients in insect repellents.
Irwin William Sherman (born February 12, 1933) is a biology professor emeritus.
Jacksonville is the most populous city in the U.S. state of Florida and the largest city by area in the contiguous United States.
Jamaica is an island country situated in the Caribbean Sea.
Major James Carroll (June 5, 1854 – September 16, 1907) was a US Army physician.
Jaundice, also known as icterus, is a yellowish or greenish pigmentation of the skin and whites of the eyes due to high bilirubin levels.
John Mitchell (April 13, 1711 – February 29, 1768) was a colonial American physician and botanist.
Josiah Clark Nott (March 31, 1804March 31, 1873) was an American physician and surgeon.
A jungle is land covered with dense vegetation dominated by trees.
The Junin virus or Junín virus is an arenavirus that causes Argentine hemorrhagic fever (AHF).
Kidney failure, also known as end-stage kidney disease, is a medical condition in which the kidneys no longer work.
Kupffer cells, also known as stellate macrophages and Kupffer-Browicz cells, are specialized macrophages located in the liver, lining the walls of the sinusoids.
A larvicide (alternatively larvacide) is an insecticide that is specifically targeted against the larval life stage of an insect.
Lassa virus (LASV) is an arenavirus that causes Lassa hemorrhagic fever, a type of viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF), in humans and other primates.
A lethal ovitrap is a device which attracts gravid female container-breeding mosquitoes and kills them.
This article is a list of epidemics of infectious disease.
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
Liver failure or hepatic insufficiency is the inability of the liver to perform its normal synthetic and metabolic function as part of normal physiology.
A lymph node or lymph gland is an ovoid or kidney-shaped organ of the lymphatic system, and of the adaptive immune system, that is widely present throughout the body.
Macrophages (big eaters, from Greek μακρός (makrós).
Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease affecting humans and other animals caused by parasitic protozoans (a group of single-celled microorganisms) belonging to the Plasmodium type.
Marburg virus is a hemorrhagic fever virus of the Filoviridae family of viruses and a member of the species Marburg marburgvirus, genus Marburgvirus.
Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second-smallest planet in the Solar System after Mercury.
For a time in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, it was erroneously believed that there were canals on Mars.
Max Theiler (30 January 1899 – 11 August 1972) was a South African-American virologist and physician.
The Maya peoples are a large group of Indigenous peoples of Mesoamerica.
Memphis is a city located along the Mississippi River in the southwestern corner of the U.S. state of Tennessee.
Meningoencephalitis (from Greek μῆνιγξ meninx, "membrane", ἐγκέφαλος, enképhalos "brain", and the medical suffix -itis, "inflammation") is a medical condition that simultaneously resembles both meningitis, which is an infection or inflammation of the meninges, and encephalitis, which is an infection or inflammation of the brain.
Mesocyclops is a genus of copepod crustaceans in the family Cyclopidae.
A micrograph or photomicrograph is a photograph or digital image taken through a microscope or similar device to show a magnified image of an item.
Minas Gerais is a state in the north of Southeastern Brazil.
The Mississippi Embayment is a physiographic feature in the south-central United States, part of the Mississippi Alluvial Plain.
Monocytes are a type of leukocyte, or white blood cell.
Mosquitoes are small, midge-like flies that constitute the family Culicidae.
A mosquito net offers protection against mosquitos, flies, and other insects, and thus against the diseases they may carry.
Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS), also known as multiple organ failure (MOF), total organ failure (TOF) or multisystem organ failure (MSOF), is altered organ function in an acutely ill patient requiring medical intervention to achieve homeostasis.
Myalgia, or muscle pain, is a symptom of many diseases and disorders.
The nanometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: nm) or nanometer (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one billionth (short scale) of a metre (m).
Nausea or queasiness is an unpleasant sense of unease, discomfort, and revulsion towards food.
Necrosis (from the Greek νέκρωσις "death, the stage of dying, the act of killing" from νεκρός "dead") is a form of cell injury which results in the premature death of cells in living tissue by autolysis.
New Orleans (. Merriam-Webster.; La Nouvelle-Orléans) is a major United States port and the largest city and metropolitan area in the state of Louisiana.
Nigeria, officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria is a federal republic in West Africa, bordering Benin in the west, Chad and Cameroon in the east, and Niger in the north.
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (Nobelpriset i fysiologi eller medicin), administered by the Nobel Foundation, is awarded once a year for outstanding discoveries in the fields of life sciences and medicine.
Norfolk is an independent city in the Commonwealth of Virginia in the United States.
Nucleotides are organic molecules that serve as the monomer units for forming the nucleic acid polymers deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), both of which are essential biomolecules within all life-forms on Earth.
In molecular genetics, an open reading frame (ORF) is the part of a reading frame that has the ability to be translated.
Oswaldo Gonçalves Cruz, better known as Oswaldo Cruz (August 5, 1872 in São Luís do Paraitinga, São Paulo province, Brazil – February 11, 1917 in Petrópolis, Rio de Janeiro state), was a Brazilian physician, pioneer bacteriologist, epidemiologist and public health officer and the founder of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute.
In epidemiology, an outbreak is a sudden increase in occurrences of a disease in a particular time and place.
p-Menthane-3,8-diol, also known as para-menthane-3,8-diol, PMD, or menthoglycol, is an organic compound classified as a diol and a terpinoid.
The Panama Canal (Canal de Panamá) is an artificial waterway in Panama that connects the Atlantic Ocean with the Pacific Ocean.
--> Acetanilide was the first aniline derivative serendipitously found to possess analgesic as well as antipyretic properties, and was quickly introduced into medical practice under the name of Antifebrin by A. Cahn and P. Hepp in 1886. But its unacceptable toxic effects, the most alarming being cyanosis due to methemoglobinemia, prompted the search for less toxic aniline derivatives. Harmon Northrop Morse had already synthesised paracetamol at Johns Hopkins University via the reduction of ''p''-nitrophenol with tin in glacial acetic acid in 1877, but it was not until 1887 that clinical pharmacologist Joseph von Mering tried paracetamol on humans. In 1893, von Mering published a paper reporting on the clinical results of paracetamol with phenacetin, another aniline derivative. Von Mering claimed that, unlike phenacetin, paracetamol had a slight tendency to produce methemoglobinemia. Paracetamol was then quickly discarded in favor of phenacetin. The sales of phenacetin established Bayer as a leading pharmaceutical company. Overshadowed in part by aspirin, introduced into medicine by Heinrich Dreser in 1899, phenacetin was popular for many decades, particularly in widely advertised over-the-counter "headache mixtures", usually containing phenacetin, an aminopyrine derivative of aspirin, caffeine, and sometimes a barbiturate. Paracetamol is the active metabolite of phenacetin and acetanilide, both once popular as analgesics and antipyretics in their own right. However, unlike phenacetin, acetanilide and their combinations, paracetamol is not considered carcinogenic at therapeutic doses. Von Mering's claims remained essentially unchallenged for half a century, until two teams of researchers from the United States analyzed the metabolism of acetanilide and paracetamol. In 1947 David Lester and Leon Greenberg found strong evidence that paracetamol was a major metabolite of acetanilide in human blood, and in a subsequent study they reported that large doses of paracetamol given to albino rats did not cause methemoglobinemia. In three papers published in the September 1948 issue of the Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Bernard Brodie, Julius Axelrod and Frederick Flinn confirmed using more specific methods that paracetamol was the major metabolite of acetanilide in human blood, and established that it was just as efficacious an analgesic as its precursor. They also suggested that methemoglobinemia is produced in humans mainly by another metabolite, phenylhydroxylamine. A follow-up paper by Brodie and Axelrod in 1949 established that phenacetin was also metabolised to paracetamol. This led to a "rediscovery" of paracetamol. It has been suggested that contamination of paracetamol with 4-aminophenol, the substance von Mering synthesised it from, may be the cause for his spurious findings. Paracetamol was first marketed in the United States in 1950 under the name Triagesic, a combination of paracetamol, aspirin, and caffeine. Reports in 1951 of three users stricken with the blood disease agranulocytosis led to its removal from the marketplace, and it took several years until it became clear that the disease was unconnected. Paracetamol was marketed in 1953 by Sterling-Winthrop Co. as Panadol, available only by prescription, and promoted as preferable to aspirin since it was safe for children and people with ulcers. In 1955, paracetamol was marketed as Children's Tylenol Elixir by McNeil Laboratories. In 1956, 500 mg tablets of paracetamol went on sale in the United Kingdom under the trade name Panadol, produced by Frederick Stearns & Co, a subsidiary of Sterling Drug Inc. In 1963, paracetamol was added to the British Pharmacopoeia, and has gained popularity since then as an analgesic agent with few side-effects and little interaction with other pharmaceutical agents. Concerns about paracetamol's safety delayed its widespread acceptance until the 1970s, but in the 1980s paracetamol sales exceeded those of aspirin in many countries, including the United Kingdom. This was accompanied by the commercial demise of phenacetin, blamed as the cause of analgesic nephropathy and hematological toxicity. In 1988 Sterling Winthrop was acquired by Eastman Kodak which sold the over the counter drug rights to SmithKline Beecham in 1994. Available without a prescription since 1959, it has since become a common household drug. Patents on paracetamol have long expired, and generic versions of the drug are widely available.
Paraguay (Paraguái), officially the Republic of Paraguay (República del Paraguay; Tetã Paraguái), is a landlocked country in central South America, bordered by Argentina to the south and southwest, Brazil to the east and northeast, and Bolivia to the northwest.
Permethrin, sold under the brand name Nix among others, is a medication and insecticide.
Peru (Perú; Piruw Republika; Piruw Suyu), officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America.
In chemistry, pH is a logarithmic scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution.
Philadelphia is the largest city in the U.S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, and the sixth-most populous U.S. city, with a 2017 census-estimated population of 1,580,863.
In biology, phylogenetics (Greek: φυλή, φῦλον – phylé, phylon.
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a technique used in molecular biology to amplify a single copy or a few copies of a segment of DNA across several orders of magnitude, generating thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence.
Portsmouth is an independent city in the Commonwealth of Virginia.
A primate is a mammal of the order Primates (Latin: "prime, first rank").
A protease (also called a peptidase or proteinase) is an enzyme that performs proteolysis: protein catabolism by hydrolysis of peptide bonds.
In biochemistry, a protein dimer is a macromolecular complex formed by two protein monomers, or single proteins, which are usually non-covalently bound.
In biochemistry, a protein trimer is a macromolecular complex formed by three, usually non-covalently bound, macromolecules like proteins or nucleic acids.
Proteolysis is the breakdown of proteins into smaller polypeptides or amino acids.
Pyriproxyfen is a pyridine-based pesticide which is found to be effective against a variety of arthropoda.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a receptor is a protein molecule that receives chemical signals from outside a cell.
Recife is the fourth-largest urban agglomeration in Brazil with 3,995,949 inhabitants, the largest urban agglomeration of the North/Northeast Regions, and the capital and largest city of the state of Pernambuco in the northeast corner of South America.
Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), a variant of polymerase chain reaction (PCR), is a technique commonly used in molecular biology to detect RNA expression.
Ribavirin, also known as tribavirin, is an antiviral medication used to treat RSV infection, hepatitis C, and viral hemorrhagic fever.
Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes.
An RNA virus is a virus that has RNA (ribonucleic acid) as its genetic material.
The Rockefeller Foundation is a private foundation based at 420 Fifth Avenue, New York City.
The Rockefeller University is a center for scientific research, primarily in the biological and medical sciences, that provides doctoral and postdoctoral education.
Sabethes mosquitoes are primarily an arboreal genus, breeding in plant cavities.
Saint-Domingue was a French colony on the Caribbean island of Hispaniola from 1659 to 1804.
The salivary glands in mammals are exocrine glands that produce saliva through a system of ducts.
Santa Cruz de la Sierra ('Holy Cross of the Mountain Range'), commonly known as Santa Cruz, is the largest city in Bolivia and the capital of the Santa Cruz department.
Santo Domingo (meaning "Saint Dominic"), officially Santo Domingo de Guzmán, is the capital and largest city in the Dominican Republic and the largest metropolitan area in the Caribbean by population.
A savanna or savannah is a mixed woodland grassland ecosystem characterised by the trees being sufficiently widely spaced so that the canopy does not close.
Savannah is the oldest city in the U.S. state of Georgia and is the county seat of Chatham County.
In molecular biology and genetics, the sense of nucleic acid molecules (often DNA or RNA) is the nature of their roles and their complementary molecules' nucleic acid units' roles in specifying amino acids.
Sentinel species are organisms, often animals, used to detect risks to humans by providing advance warning of a danger.
Shock is the state of low blood perfusion to tissues resulting in cellular injury and inadequate tissue function.
Shreveport is the third-largest city in the state of Louisiana and the 122nd-largest city in the United States.
South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.
South America is a continent in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere.
The Spanish–American War (Guerra hispano-americana or Guerra hispano-estadounidense; Digmaang Espanyol-Amerikano) was fought between the United States and Spain in 1898.
The spleen is an organ found in virtually all vertebrates.
The German Evangelical Lutheran Church of Charleston, South Carolina, was incorporated on December 3, 1840.
Steatosis, also called fatty change, is the process describing the abnormal retention of lipids within a cell.
The subtropics are geographic and climate zones located roughly between the tropics at latitude 23.5° (the Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn) and temperate zones (normally referring to latitudes 35–66.5°) north and south of the Equator.
The sylvatic cycle, also enzootic or sylvatic transmission cycle, is a portion of the natural transmission cycle of a pathogen.
Therapy (often abbreviated tx, Tx, or Tx) is the attempted remediation of a health problem, usually following a diagnosis.
A titer (or titre) is a way of expressing concentration.
Tobago is an autonomous island within the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago.
Togo, officially the Togolese Republic (République Togolaise), is a sovereign state in West Africa bordered by Ghana to the west, Benin to the east and Burkina Faso to the north.
Transmission electron microscopy (TEM, also sometimes conventional transmission electron microscopy or CTEM) is a microscopy technique in which a beam of electrons is transmitted through a specimen to form an image.
Transovarial or transovarian transmission occurs in certain arthropod vectors as they transmit disease-causing pathogens from parent arthropod to offspring arthropod.
Transstadial transmission occurs when a pathogen remains with the vector from one life stage ("stadium") to the next.
Trinidad is the larger and more populous of the two major islands of Trinidad and Tobago.
The tropics are a region of the Earth surrounding the Equator.
The University of Virginia (U.Va. or UVA), frequently referred to simply as Virginia, is a public research university and the flagship for the Commonwealth of Virginia.
Vaccination is the administration of antigenic material (a vaccine) to stimulate an individual's immune system to develop adaptive immunity to a pathogen.
A vaccine is a biological preparation that provides active acquired immunity to a particular disease.
In epidemiology, a disease vector is any agent that carries and transmits an infectious pathogen into another living organism; most agents regarded as vectors are organisms, such as intermediate parasites or microbes, but it could be an inanimate medium of infection such as dust particles.
Venezuela, officially denominated Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (República Bolivariana de Venezuela),Previously, the official name was Estado de Venezuela (1830–1856), República de Venezuela (1856–1864), Estados Unidos de Venezuela (1864–1953), and again República de Venezuela (1953–1999).
Vero cells are a lineage of cells used in cell cultures.
In cell biology, a vesicle is a small structure within a cell, or extracellular, consisting of fluid enclosed by a lipid bilayer.
Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia.
Some viruses (e.g. HIV and many animal viruses) have viral envelopes covering their protective protein capsids.
Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) are a diverse group of animal and human illnesses in which fever and hemorrhage are caused by a viral infection.
Virginia (officially the Commonwealth of Virginia) is a state in the Southeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States located between the Atlantic Coast and the Appalachian Mountains.
A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms.
Major Walter Reed, M.D., U.S. Army, (September 13, 1851 – November 22, 1902) was a U.S. Army physician who in 1901 led the team that postulated and confirmed the theory that yellow fever is transmitted by a particular mosquito species, rather than by direct contact.
William Crawford Gorgas KCMG (October 3, 1854 – July 3, 1920) was a United States Army physician and 22nd Surgeon General of the U.S. Army (1914–1918).
Wolbachia is a genus of Gram-negative bacteria which infects arthropod species, including a high proportion of insects, but also some nematodes.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
Yellow fever vaccine is a vaccine that protects against yellow fever.
The Yucatán Peninsula (Península de Yucatán), in southeastern Mexico, separates the Caribbean Sea from the Gulf of Mexico, with the northern coastline on the Yucatán Channel.
Zika fever, also known as Zika virus disease or simply Zika, is an infectious disease caused by the Zika virus.
During the Yellow Fever Epidemic of 1793 in Philadelphia, 5,000 or more people were listed in the official register of deaths between August 1 and November 9.
On 20 January 2016, the health minister of Angola reported 23 cases of yellow fever with 7 deaths among Eritrean and Congolese citizens living in Angola in Viana municipality, a suburb of the capital of Luanda.
American Plague, Black vomit, Bronze John, Saffron Scourge, YFV, Yellow Fever, Yellow Fever Epidemic of 1855, Yellow Plague, Yellow fever disease, Yellow fever virus, Yellow jack (viral disease), Yellow plague, Yellow-fever, Yellowfever.