94 relations: Aaron ben Moses ben Asher, Abraham Isaac Kook, Abtalion, Aden, Ashkenazi Hebrew, Babylonian vocalization, Baladi-rite prayer, Betar (fortress), Charoset, Close back rounded vowel, Close front unrounded vowel, Close-mid front rounded vowel, Close-mid front unrounded vowel, Codex, Dagesh, Dead Sea Scrolls, Dental, alveolar and postalveolar trills, Diaphoneme, Dissimilation, Geoffrey Khan, Geonim, Germanic languages, Germanic umlaut, Ghayn, Glottal stop, Glottalization, Hebrew alphabet, Hebrew language, Hiriq, History of the Jews in Iraq, Holam, Jacob Qirqisani, Jacob Saphir, Jerusalem Talmud, Johann Sebastian Bach, Judeo-Arabic languages, Kamatz, Kaph, Kubutz and Shuruk, Leningrad Codex, Leviticus Rabbah, Linguistic prescription, Lithuanian Jews, Maimonides, Masoretes, Masoretic Text, Meir Mazuz, Midrash, Midrash HaGadol, Midrash Rabba, ..., Mishnah, Mishnaic Hebrew, Mishneh Torah, Mizrahi Hebrew, Modern Hebrew, Near-open front unrounded vowel, Open-mid back rounded vowel, Orthoepy, Patach, Pe (letter), Peninsular Arabic, Phonology, Rabbi, Rafe, Raphe, Rashi, Resh, Rhoticity in English, Saadia Gaon, Sana'a, Schwa, Sefer Yetzirah, Segol, Sephardi Hebrew, Shelomo Dov Goitein, Shema Yisrael, Shlomo Morag, Shmaya (tanna), Shva, Simchat Torah, Suet, Talmud, Targum, Tiberian Hebrew, Tiberian vocalization, Tzere, University of Cambridge, Voiced pharyngeal fricative, Voiceless pharyngeal fricative, Waw (letter), Yad Ben Zvi, Yemeni Arabic, Yemenite Jews, Yosef Qafih. Expand index (44 more) » « Shrink index
Aaron ben Moses ben Asher (Hebrew:; Tiberian Hebrew: ʾAhărôn ben Mōšeh benʾĀšēr; 10th century, died c.960) was a Jewish scribe who lived in Tiberias in northern Israel and refined the Tiberian system of writing vowel sounds in Hebrew, which is still in use today, and serves as the basis for grammatical analysis.
Abraham Isaac Kook (Abraham Yitshak ha-Kohen Kuk; 8 September 1865 – 11 September 1935) was an Orthodox rabbi, the first Ashkenazi chief rabbi of British Mandatory Palestine, the founder of Yeshiva Mercaz HaRav Kook (The Central Universal Yeshiva), a Jewish thinker, Halakhist, Kabbalist, and a renowned Torah scholar.
Abtalion (אַבְטַלְיוֹן ʾAbhtalyôn) or Avtalyon (Modern Hebrew) was a rabbinic sage in the early pre-Mishnaic era who lived at the same time as Sh'maya.
Aden (عدن Yemeni) is a port city in Yemen, located by the eastern approach to the Red Sea (the Gulf of Aden), some east of Bab-el-Mandeb.
Ashkenazi Hebrew (Hagiyya Ashkenazit, Ashkenazishe Havara), is the pronunciation system for Biblical and Mishnaic Hebrew favored for liturgical use and study by Ashkenazi Jewish practice.
The Babylonian vocalization, also known as Babylonian supralinear punctuation, or Babylonian pointing or Babylonian niqqud Hebrew) is a system of diacritics (niqqud) and vowel symbols assigned above the text and devised by the Masoretes of Babylon to add to the consonantal text of the Hebrew Bible to indicate the proper pronunciation of words (vowel quality), reflecting the Hebrew of Babylon. The Babylonian system is no longer in use outside Temani Judaism, having been supplanted by the sublinear Tiberian vocalization.
The Baladi-rite Prayer is the oldest known prayer-rite used by Yemenite Jews, transcribed in a tiklāl ("siddur", plural tikālil) in Yemenite Jewish parlance.
Betar fortress was an ancient, terraced farming village in the Judean highlands.
Charoset, haroset, or charoses (Hebrew) is a sweet, dark-colored paste made of fruits and nuts eaten at the Passover Seder.
The close back rounded vowel, or high back rounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound used in many spoken languages.
The close front unrounded vowel, or high front unrounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound that occurs in most spoken languages, represented in the International Phonetic Alphabet by the symbol i. It is similar to the vowel sound in the English word meet—and often called long-e in American English.
The close-mid front rounded vowel, or high-mid front rounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.
The close-mid front unrounded vowel, or high-mid front unrounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages.
A codex (from the Latin caudex for "trunk of a tree" or block of wood, book), plural codices, is a book constructed of a number of sheets of paper, vellum, papyrus, or similar materials.
The dagesh is a diacritic used in the Hebrew alphabet.
Dead Sea Scrolls (also Qumran Caves Scrolls) are ancient Jewish religious, mostly Hebrew, manuscripts found in the Qumran Caves near the Dead Sea.
The alveolar trill is a type of consonantal sound, used in many spoken languages.
A diaphoneme is an abstract phonological unit that identifies a correspondence between related sounds of two or more varieties of a language or language cluster.
In phonology, particularly within historical linguistics, dissimilation is a phenomenon whereby similar consonants or vowels in a word become less similar.
Geoffrey Allan Khan FBA, (b. 1 February 1958, Cheltenham, United Kingdom) is the Regius Professor of Hebrew at the University of Cambridge, a post he has held since 2012.
Geonim (גאונים;; also transliterated Gaonim- singular Gaon) were the presidents of the two great Babylonian, Talmudic Academies of Sura and Pumbedita, in the Abbasid Caliphate, and were the generally accepted spiritual leaders of the Jewish community worldwide in the early medieval era, in contrast to the Resh Galuta (Exilarch) who wielded secular authority over the Jews in Islamic lands.
The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family spoken natively by a population of about 515 million people mainly in Europe, North America, Oceania, and Southern Africa.
The Germanic umlaut (sometimes called i-umlaut or i-mutation) is a type of linguistic umlaut in which a back vowel changes to the associated front vowel (fronting) or a front vowel becomes closer to (raising) when the following syllable contains,, or.
The Arabic letter غ (غين or) is the nineteenth letter of the Arabic alphabet, one of the six letters not in the twenty-two akin to the Phoenician alphabet (the others being). It is the twenty-second letter in the new Persian alphabet.
The glottal stop is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages, produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract or, more precisely, the glottis.
Glottalization is the complete or partial closure of the glottis during the articulation of another sound.
The Hebrew alphabet (אָלֶף־בֵּית עִבְרִי), known variously by scholars as the Jewish script, square script and block script, is an abjad script used in the writing of the Hebrew language, also adapted as an alphabet script in the writing of other Jewish languages, most notably in Yiddish (lit. "Jewish" for Judeo-German), Djudío (lit. "Jewish" for Judeo-Spanish), and Judeo-Arabic.
Hiriq (חִירִיק) is a Hebrew niqqud vowel sign represented by a single dot underneath the letter.
The history of the Jews in Iraq (יְהוּדִים בָּבְלִים,, Yehudim Bavlim, اليهود العراقيون), is documented from the time of the Babylonian captivity c. 586 BC.
Cholam (חוֹלָם, Modern Hebrew:, Biblical Hebrew) is a Hebrew niqqud vowel sign represented by a dot above the upper left corner of the consonant letter.
Jacob Qirqisani (Heb. Ya'akov ben Ephraim ha-Tzerqesi; Arab. Abu Yusuf Yaqub al-Qirkisani) was a Karaite dogmatist and exegete who flourished in the first half of the tenth century.
Jacob Saphir (1822–1886) (יעקב הלוי ספיר) was a Meshulach and traveler of Romanian Jewish descent, born in Ashmyany, government of Wilna.
The Jerusalem Talmud (תַּלְמוּד יְרוּשַׁלְמִי, Talmud Yerushalmi, often Yerushalmi for short), also known as the Palestinian Talmud or Talmuda de-Eretz Yisrael (Talmud of the Land of Israel), is a collection of Rabbinic notes on the second-century Jewish oral tradition known as the Mishnah.
Johann Sebastian Bach (28 July 1750) was a composer and musician of the Baroque period, born in the Duchy of Saxe-Eisenach.
The Judeo-Arabic languages are a continuum of specifically Jewish varieties of Arabic formerly spoken by Arab Jews, i.e. Jews who had been Arabized.
Kamatz or Qamatz (קָמַץ) is a Hebrew niqqud (vowel) sign represented by two perpendicular lines (looking like an uppercase T) underneath a letter.
Kaf (also spelled kaph) is the eleventh letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Kāp, Hebrew Kāf, Aramaic Kāp, Syriac Kāp̄, and Arabic Kāf / (in Abjadi order).
Kubutz (קֻבּוּץ) and Shuruk (שׁוּרוּק) are the two Hebrew niqqud vowel signs that represent the sound.
The Leningrad Codex (Latin: Codex Leningradensis, the "codex of Leningrad") is the oldest complete manuscript of the Hebrew Bible in Hebrew, using the Masoretic Text and Tiberian vocalization.
Leviticus Rabbah, Vayikrah Rabbah, or Wayiqra Rabbah is a homiletic midrash to the Biblical book of Leviticus (Vayikrah in Hebrew).
Linguistic prescription, or prescriptive grammar, is the attempt to lay down rules defining correct use of language.
Lithuanian Jews or Litvaks are Jews with roots in the present-day Lithuania, Belarus, Latvia, northeastern Suwałki and Białystok region of Poland and some border areas of Russia and Ukraine.
Moses ben Maimon (Mōšeh bēn-Maymūn; موسى بن ميمون Mūsā bin Maymūn), commonly known as Maimonides (Μαϊμωνίδης Maïmōnídēs; Moses Maimonides), and also referred to by the acronym Rambam (for Rabbeinu Mōšeh bēn Maimun, "Our Rabbi Moses son of Maimon"), was a medieval Sephardic Jewish philosopher who became one of the most prolific and influential Torah scholars of the Middle Ages.
The Masoretes (Hebrew: Ba'alei ha-Masora) were groups of Jewish scribe-scholars who worked between the 6th and 10th centuries CE, based primarily in early medieval Palestine in the cities of Tiberias and Jerusalem, as well as in Iraq (Babylonia).
The Masoretic Text (MT, 𝕸, or \mathfrak) is the authoritative Hebrew and Aramaic text of the Tanakh for Rabbinic Judaism.
Meir Mazuz, a leading Sephardic Haredi rabbi in Israel, is the dean of the Kisse Rahamim yeshivah, and the son of the Rabbi and Judge of Tunis, Rabbi Matzliah Mazuz (1912 - 1971).
In Judaism, the midrash (. Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary. מִדְרָשׁ; pl. מִדְרָשִׁים midrashim) is the genre of rabbinic literature which contains early interpretations and commentaries on the Written Torah and Oral Torah (spoken law and sermons), as well as non-legalistic rabbinic literature (aggadah) and occasionally the Jewish religious laws (halakha), which usually form a running commentary on specific passages in the Hebrew Scripture (Tanakh).
Midrash HaGadol or The Great Midrash (Hebrew: מדרש הגדול) is an anonymous late (14th century) compilation of aggadic midrashim on the Pentateuch taken from the two Talmuds and earlier Midrashim of Yemenite provenance.
Midrash Rabba or Midrash Rabbah can refer to part of or the collective whole of aggadic midrashim on the books of the Tanakh, generally having the term "Rabbah" (רבה), meaning "great," as part of their name.
The Mishnah or Mishna (מִשְׁנָה, "study by repetition", from the verb shanah, or "to study and review", also "secondary") is the first major written collection of the Jewish oral traditions known as the "Oral Torah".
Mishnaic Hebrew is one of the few Hebrew dialects found in the Talmud, except for direct quotations from the Hebrew Bible.
The Mishneh Torah (מִשְׁנֵה תּוֹרָה, "Repetition of the Torah"), subtitled Sefer Yad ha-Hazaka (ספר יד החזקה "Book of the Strong Hand"), is a code of Jewish religious law (Halakha) authored by Maimonides (Rabbi Moshe ben Maimon, also known as RaMBaM or "Rambam").
Mizrahi Hebrew, or Eastern Hebrew, refers to any of the pronunciation systems for Biblical Hebrew used liturgically by Mizrahi Jews, that is, Jews from Arab countries or further east and with a background of Arabic, Persian, or other languages of the Middle East and Asia.
The open-mid back rounded vowel, or low-mid back rounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages.
Orthoepy is the study of pronunciation of a particular language, within a specific oral tradition.
Pataḥ (פַּתַח,, Biblical Hebrew) is a Hebrew niqqud vowel sign represented by a horizontal line underneath a letter.
Pe is the seventeenth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Pē, Hebrew Pē פ, Aramaic Pē, Syriac Pē ܦ, and Arabic ف (in abjadi order).
Peninsular Arabic, or Southern Arabic, is the varieties of Arabic spoken throughout the Arabian Peninsula.
Phonology is a branch of linguistics concerned with the systematic organization of sounds in languages.
In Judaism, a rabbi is a teacher of Torah.
In Hebrew orthography the rafe, or more commonly spelt raphe (רָפֵה), is a diacritic, a subtle horizontal overbar placed above certain letters to indicate that they are to be pronounced as fricatives.
Raphe (from Greek ῥαφή, "seam"Liddell, H.G. & Scott, R. (1940). A Greek-English Lexicon. revised and augmented throughout by Sir Henry Stuart Jones. with the assistance of. Roderick McKenzie. Oxford: Clarendon Press.) has several different meanings in science.
Shlomo Yitzchaki (רבי שלמה יצחקי; Salomon Isaacides; Salomon de Troyes, 22 February 1040 – 13 July 1105), today generally known by the acronym Rashi (רש"י, RAbbi SHlomo Itzhaki), was a medieval French rabbi and author of a comprehensive commentary on the Talmud and commentary on the ''Tanakh''.
Resh is the twentieth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Rēsh, Hebrew Rēsh, Aramaic Rēsh, Syriac Rēsh ܪ, and Arabic.
Rhoticity in English refers to English speakers' pronunciation of the historical rhotic consonant, and is one of the most prominent distinctions by which varieties of English can be classified.
Rabbi Sa'adiah ben Yosef Gaon (سعيد بن يوسف الفيومي / Saʻīd bin Yūsuf al-Fayyūmi, Sa'id ibn Yusuf al-Dilasi, Saadia ben Yosef aluf, Sa'id ben Yusuf ra's al-Kull; רבי סעדיה בן יוסף אלפיומי גאון' or in short:; alternative English Names: Rabeinu Sa'adiah Gaon ("our Rabbi Saadia Gaon"), RaSaG, Saadia b. Joseph, Saadia ben Joseph or Saadia ben Joseph of Faym or Saadia ben Joseph Al-Fayyumi; 882/892 – 942) was a prominent rabbi, Jewish philosopher, and exegete of the Geonic period who was active in the Abbasid Caliphate.
Sana'a (صنعاء, Yemeni Arabic), also spelled Sanaa or Sana, is the largest city in Yemen and the centre of Sana'a Governorate.
In linguistics, specifically phonetics and phonology, schwa (rarely or; sometimes spelled shwa) is the mid central vowel sound (rounded or unrounded) in the middle of the vowel chart, denoted by the IPA symbol ə, or another vowel sound close to that position.
Sefer Yetzirah (Sēpher Yəṣîrâh, Book of Formation, or Book of Creation) is the title of the earliest extant book on Jewish esotericism, although some early commentators treated it as a treatise on mathematical and linguistic theory as opposed to Kabbalah.
Segol (סֶגּוֹל) is a Hebrew niqqud vowel sign that is represented by three dots forming an upside down equilateral triangle "ֶ ". As such, it resembles an upside down therefore sign (a because sign) underneath a letter.
Sephardi Hebrew (or Sepharadi Hebrew) is the pronunciation system for Biblical Hebrew favored for liturgical use by Sephardi Jewish practice.
Shelomo Dov Goitein (April 3, 1900 – February 6, 1985) was a German-Jewish ethnographer, historian and Arabist known for his research on Jewish life in the Islamic Middle Ages, and particularly on the Cairo Geniza.
Shema Yisrael (or Sh'ma Yisrael; שְׁמַע יִשְׂרָאֵל; "Hear, Israel") are the first two words of a section of the Torah, and is the title (better known as The Shema) of a prayer that serves as a centerpiece of the morning and evening Jewish prayer services.
Shlomo Morag, also spelled Shelomo Morag (שלמה מורג; 17 July 1926 – 1999), was an Israeli professor at the department of Hebrew Language at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.
Shemaiah (שְׁמַעְיָה Šəmaʿyāh; Σαμαίᾱς Samaíās) or Shmaya (Modern Hebrew) was a rabbinic sage in the early pre-Mishnaic era who lived at the same time as Avtalyon.
Shva or, in Biblical Hebrew, shĕwa (שְׁוָא) is a Hebrew niqqud vowel sign written as two vertical dots (ְ) beneath a letter.
Simchat Torah or Simhat Torah (Ashkenazi: Simchas Torah,, lit., "Rejoicing of/ Torah") is a Jewish holiday that celebrates and marks the conclusion of the annual cycle of public Torah readings, and the beginning of a new cycle.
Suet is the raw, hard fat of beef or mutton found around the loins and kidneys.
The Talmud (Hebrew: תַּלְמוּד talmūd "instruction, learning", from a root LMD "teach, study") is the central text of Rabbinic Judaism and the primary source of Jewish religious law and theology.
The targumim (singular: "targum", תרגום) were spoken paraphrases, explanations and expansions of the Jewish scriptures (also called the Tanakh) that a rabbi would give in the common language of the listeners, which was then often Aramaic.
Tiberian Hebrew is the canonical pronunciation of the Hebrew Bible or Tanakh committed to writing by Masoretic scholars living in the Jewish community of Tiberias in ancient Judea.
The Tiberian vocalization, Tiberian pointing, or Tiberian niqqud (Hebrew: Nikkud Tveriyani) is a system of diacritics (niqqud) devised by the Masoretes of Tiberias to add to the consonantal text of the Hebrew Bible to produce the Masoretic Text.
Tzere (also spelled Tsere, Tzeirei, Zere, Zeire, Ṣerî, Ṣerê etc.; צֵירֵי, sometimes צירה) is a Hebrew niqqud vowel sign represented by two dots "◌ֵ" underneath a letter.
The University of Cambridge (informally Cambridge University)The corporate title of the university is The Chancellor, Masters, and Scholars of the University of Cambridge.
The voiced pharyngeal approximant or fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
The voiceless pharyngeal fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
Waw/Vav ("hook") is the sixth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician wāw, Aramaic waw, Hebrew vav, Syriac waw ܘ and Arabic wāw و (sixth in abjadi order; 27th in modern Arabic order).
Yad Ben Zvi (יד יצחק בן-צבי), also known as the Ben-Zvi Institute, is a research institute and publishing house named for Israeli president Yitzhak Ben-Zvi in Jerusalem, Israel.
Yemeni Arabic is a cluster of varieties of Arabic spoken in Yemen, southwestern Saudi Arabia, Somalia, and Djibouti.
Yemenite Jews or Yemeni Jews or Teimanim (from Yehudey Teman; اليهود اليمنيون) are those Jews who live, or once lived, in Yemen.
Yosef Qafiḥ (יוסף קאפח), widely known as Rabbi Kapach (27 November 1917 – 21 July 2000), was a Yemenite-Israeli authority on Jewish religious law (halakha), a dayan of the Supreme Rabbinical Court in Israel, and one of the foremost leaders of the Yemenite Jewish community in Israel, where he was sought after by non-Yemenites as well.
Sanaani Hebrew, Sanaani Hebrew language, Teimani Hebrew, Teimani Hebrew dialect, Teimani Hebrew language, Teimani dialect, Temani Hebrew, Temani Hebrew dialect, Temani Hebrew language, Temani dialect, Temanic Hebrew, Temanic Hebrew dialect, Temanic Hebrew language, Temanic dialect, Temoni, Yemeni Hebrew, Yemenite Hebrew dialect, Yemenite Hebrew language, Yemenite Hebrew pronunciation.