214 relations: Abraham, Akbar, Almond milk, Amasi, Ancient Greek cuisine, Andover, Massachusetts, Armenians, Ash (analytical chemistry), Assyrian Neo-Aramaic, Ayran, Élie Metchnikoff, Bacteria, Balkans, Bamboo, Barcelona, Battle Creek Sanitarium, Börek, Betaine, Bhaktapur, Bifidobacterium, Biologist, Biryani, Black pepper, Blackberry, Blueberry, Borani, Bulgarians, Buttermilk, Calorie, Camel, Carbohydrate, Cardamom, Cattle, Caucasus, Central Asia, Central Europe, Chal, Cherry, Chili pepper, Cholesterol, Choline, Circulatory system, Coconut milk, Colony-forming unit, Crème fraîche, Cucumber, Cumin, Curd, Dadiah, Dahi (curd), ..., Dairy product, Danone, Dīwān Lughāt al-Turk, Delal sauce, Denaturation (biochemistry), Dhau, Diarrhea, Dill, Disposable product, Domestic yak, Doogh, Dovga, Eggplant, Enema, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Eurasia, Fat, Fecundity, Fermentation in food processing, Fermentation starter, Fermented milk products, Filmjölk, Folate, Francis I of France, Frozen yogurt, Fruit, Fruit preserves, Galen, Garlic, Gelatin, General Mills, Geneva, Georgia (country), Goat, Gyro (food), Health food, Henry Thomas Riley, Hiatus (linguistics), Honey, Immune system, Indian subcontinent, Isaac Carasso, Jameed, John Bostock (physician), John Harvey Kellogg, Jordan, Kala namak, Kashk, Kefir, Kibbeh, Kumis, Kutadgu Bilig, Lactic acid, Lactobacillus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, Lactose, Lassi, Lingua franca, List of dairy products, List of Nobel laureates, List of yogurt-based dishes and beverages, Mahmud al-Kashgari, Mango, Mare, Matzoon, Mentha, Mesopotamia, Metabolic disorder, Milk, Mishti doi, Modified starch, Mouthfeel, Muslin, Mustard seed, Near East, Neolithic, Nepal, Niacin, Northern Iran, Nutmeg, Olive, Olive oil, Onion, Ottoman Empire, Oxygala, Panchamrita, Paris, Pasteur Institute, Pathogen, Peach, Pectin, Pesto, Phosphorus, Pineapple, Plastic cup, Pliny the Elder, Prague, Probiotic, Protein, Quark (dairy product), Raisin, Ramadan, Raspberry, Reference Daily Intake, Riboflavin, Rice milk, Rose water, Russian Empire, Ryazhenka, Saffron, Salt, Sandwich, Sanskrit, Scalded milk, Selenium, Shallot, Shanklish, Sheep, Shrikhand, Smetana (dairy product), Smoothie, Snow white salad, Sour cream, Southeast Europe, Souvlaki, Soy milk, Soy yogurt, Spinach, Stamen Grigorov, Stephen A. Gaymont, Stewler, Strained yogurt, Strawberry, Streptococcus thermophilus, Sugar, Sugar substitute, Suleiman the Magnificent, Sumatra, Tarator, Taste, Thessaloniki, Thiamine, Tibet, Toffee, Turkey, Turkic peoples, Tzatziki, Vanilla, Veganism, Viili, Vitamin A, Vitamin B12, Vitamin B6, Vitamin C, Vitamin D, Vitamin E, Vitamin K, Walnut, Water, Water buffalo, Western Asia, Whey, Yūsuf Balasaguni, Yogurt soup. Expand index (164 more) » « Shrink index
Abraham (Arabic: إبراهيم Ibrahim), originally Abram, is the common patriarch of the three Abrahamic religions.
Abu'l-Fath Jalal-ud-din Muhammad Akbar (15 October 1542– 27 October 1605), popularly known as Akbar I, was the third Mughal emperor, who reigned from 1556 to 1605.
Almond milk is a plant milk manufactured from almonds with a creamy texture and nutty flavor, although other types or brands are flavored in imitation of dairy milk.
Amasi (so called in Zulu and Xhosa, and "maas" in Afrikaans) is the common word for fermented milk that tastes like cottage cheese or plain yogurt.
Ancient Greek cuisine was characterized by its frugality, reflecting agricultural hardship.
Andover is a town in Essex County, Massachusetts, United States.
Armenians (հայեր, hayer) are an ethnic group native to the Armenian Highlands.
In analytical chemistry, ashing or ash content determination is the process of mineralization for preconcentration of trace substances prior to a chemical analysis, such as chromatography, or optical analysis, such as spectroscopy.
Assyrian Neo-Aramaic (ܣܘܪܝܬ, sūrët), or just simply Assyrian, is a Neo-Aramaic language within the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family.
Ayran (from ayran, ayran, دوغ "doogh", dew) is a cold savory yogurt-based beverage that is mixed with salt.
Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov (Илья́ Ильи́ч Ме́чников, also written as Élie Metchnikoff; 15 July 1916) was a Russian zoologist best known for his pioneering research in immunology.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
The Balkans, or the Balkan Peninsula, is a geographic area in southeastern Europe with various and disputed definitions.
The bamboos are evergreen perennial flowering plants in the subfamily Bambusoideae of the grass family Poaceae.
Barcelona is a city in Spain.
The Battle Creek Sanitarium in Battle Creek, Michigan, United States, was a health resort based on the health principles advocated by the Seventh-day Adventist Church, most notably associated with John Harvey Kellogg.
Börek (also burek and other variants) is a family of baked filled pastries made of a thin flaky dough known as phyllo (or yufka), of Anatolian origins and also found in the cuisines of the Balkans, Levant, Mediterranean, and other countries in Eastern Europe and Western Asia.
A betaine in chemistry is any neutral chemical compound with a positively charged cationic functional group such as a quaternary ammonium or phosphonium cation (generally: onium ions) that bears no hydrogen atom and with a negatively charged functional group such as a carboxylate group that may not be adjacent to the cationic site.
Bhaktapur (भक्तपुर), literally translates to Place of devotees.
Bifidobacterium is a genus of gram-positive, nonmotile, often branched anaerobic bacteria.
A biologist, is a scientist who has specialized knowledge in the field of biology, the scientific study of life.
Biryani, also known as biriyani, biriani, birani or briyani, ¨spicy rice¨ is a South Asian mixed rice dish with its origins among the Muslims of the Indian subcontinent.
Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its fruit, which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning, known as a peppercorn.
The blackberry is an edible fruit produced by many species in the genus Rubus in the family Rosaceae, hybrids among these species within the subgenus Rubus, and hybrids between the subgenera Rubus and Idaeobatus.
Blueberries are perennial flowering plants with blue– or purple–colored berries.
Borani is an Iranian appetizer made with yogurt and other ingredients.
Bulgarians (българи, Bǎlgari) are a South Slavic ethnic group who are native to Bulgaria and its neighboring regions.
Buttermilk refers to a number of dairy drinks.
A calorie is a unit of energy.
A camel is an even-toed ungulate in the genus Camelus that bears distinctive fatty deposits known as "humps" on its back.
A carbohydrate is a biomolecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula (where m may be different from n).
Cardamom, sometimes cardamon or cardamum, is a spice made from the seeds of several plants in the genera Elettaria and Amomum in the family Zingiberaceae.
Cattle—colloquially cows—are the most common type of large domesticated ungulates.
The Caucasus or Caucasia is a region located at the border of Europe and Asia, situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and occupied by Russia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia.
Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.
Central Europe is the region comprising the central part of Europe.
Chal, or shubat (шұбат), is a Turkic (especially Turkmen and Kazakh) beverage of fermented camel milk, sparkling white with a sour flavor, popular in Central Asia — particularly in Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan.
A cherry is the fruit of many plants of the genus Prunus, and is a fleshy drupe (stone fruit).
The chili pepper (also chile pepper, chilli pepper, or simply chilli) from Nahuatl chīlli) is the fruit of plants from the genus Capsicum, members of the nightshade family, Solanaceae. They are widely used in many cuisines to add spiciness to dishes. The substances that give chili peppers their intensity when ingested or applied topically are capsaicin and related compounds known as capsaicinoids. Chili peppers originated in Mexico. After the Columbian Exchange, many cultivars of chili pepper spread across the world, used for both food and traditional medicine. Worldwide in 2014, 32.3 million tonnes of green chili peppers and 3.8 million tonnes of dried chili peppers were produced. China is the world's largest producer of green chillies, providing half of the global total.
Cholesterol (from the Ancient Greek chole- (bile) and stereos (solid), followed by the chemical suffix -ol for an alcohol) is an organic molecule.
Choline is a water-soluble vitamin-like essential nutrient.
The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.
Coconut milk is the liquid that comes from the grated meat of a mature coconut.
In microbiology, a colony-forming unit (CFU, cfu, Cfu) is a unit used to estimate the number of viable bacteria or fungal cells in a sample.
Crème fraîche (English pronunciation:,, lit. "fresh cream") is a dairy product, a soured cream containing 10–45% butterfat, with a pH of around 4.5.
Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) is a widely cultivated plant in the gourd family, Cucurbitaceae.
Cumin (Cuminum cyminum) is a flowering plant in the family Apiaceae, native to a territory including Middle East and stretching east to India.
Curds are a dairy product obtained by coagulating milk in a process called curdling.
Dadih (Dadih), a traditional fermented milk popular among people of West Sumatra, Indonesia, is made by pouring fresh raw unheated buffalo milk into a bamboo tube capped with a banana leaf, and allowing it to ferment spontaneously at room temperature for two days.
Curd (Hindi दही dahi, Bengali দই doi) is a traditional fermented milk product usually prepared from cow milk, and sometimes buffalo milk, or goat milk.
Dairy products, milk products or lacticinia are a type of food produced from or containing the milk of mammals, primarily cattle, water buffaloes, goats, sheep, camels, and humans.
Danone is a French multinational food-products corporation based in Paris and founded in Barcelona, Spain.
The Turkic scholar Mahmud Kashgari studied the Turkic languages of his time and wrote the first comprehensive dictionary of Turkic languages, ديوان لغات الترك, i.e., "Compendium of the languages of the Turks") in 1072-74.Kemal H. Karpat, Studies on Turkish Politics and Society:Selected Articles and Essays, (Brill, 2004), 441. It was intended for use by the Caliphs of Baghdad, who were controlled by the Seljuk Turks. Mahmud al-Kashgari's comprehensive dictionary, later edited by the Turkish historian, Ali Amiri,Ali Amiri, R. Mantran, The Encyclopaedia of Islam, Vol. I, ed. H.A.R. Gibb, J.H. Kramers, E. Levi-Provencal and J. Schacht, (E.J. Brill, 1986), 391. contains specimens of old Turkic poetry in the typical form of quatrains of (Perso-Arabic literature, dördəm, رباعیات rubāiyāt; dörtlük), representing all the principal genres: epic, pastoral, didactic, lyric, and elegiac. His book also included the first known map of the areas inhabited by Turkic peoples. This map is housed at the National Library in Istanbul.Roudik, Peter, The History of the Central Asian Republics, (Greenwood Press, 2007), 175.
Category:Iranian cuisine Category:Condiments "Dalar" (دلار) or "Namak sabz" (نمک سبز) is a condiment from Northern Iran, specifically from the Gilan Province.
Denaturation is a process in which proteins or nucleic acids lose the quaternary structure, tertiary structure, and secondary structure which is present in their native state, by application of some external stress or compound such as a strong acid or base, a concentrated inorganic salt, an organic solvent (e.g., alcohol or chloroform), radiation or heat.
Dhau (Nepal Bhasa: धौ) is yogurt prepared by Newars of Nepal.
Diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea, is the condition of having at least three loose or liquid bowel movements each day.
Dill (Anethum graveolens) is an annual herb in the celery family Apiaceae.
A disposable (also called disposable product) is a product designed for a single use after which it is recycled or is disposed as solid waste.
The domestic yak (Bos grunniens) is a long-haired domesticated bovid found throughout the Himalayan region of the Indian subcontinent, the Tibetan Plateau and as far north as Mongolia and Russia.
Doogh, Ayran or Tan (Dhallë; دوغ, dugh; ајран ayran; Arabic: شنينة šinīna or عيران ayran; ayran; թան tan; شلومبې; Kurdish: ماستاو) is a cold savory yogurt-based beverage that is mixed with salt.
Dovga (Dovğа) is a national meal of Azerbaijani cuisine, a soup traditionally made from plain yoghurt and herbs.
Eggplant (Solanum melongena) or aubergine is a species of nightshade grown for its edible fruit.
An enema is the injection of fluid into the lower bowel by way of the rectum.
Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a serotype of the bacterial species Escherichia coli and is one of the Shiga toxin–producing types of E. coli.
Eurasia is a combined continental landmass of Europe and Asia.
Fat is one of the three main macronutrients, along with carbohydrate and protein.
In human demography and population biology, fecundity is the potential for reproduction of an organism or population, measured by the number of gametes (eggs), seed set, or asexual propagules.
Fermentation in food processing is the process of converting carbohydrates to alcohol or organic acids using microorganisms—yeasts or bacteria—under anaerobic conditions.
A fermentation starter (called simply starter within the corresponding context, sometimes called a mother) is a preparation to assist the beginning of the fermentation process in preparation of various foods and fermented drinks.
Fermented milk products, also known as cultured dairy foods, cultured dairy products, or cultured milk products, are dairy foods that have been fermented with lactic acid bacteria such as Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, and Leuconostoc.
Filmjölk, also known as fil, is a traditional fermented milk product from Sweden, and a common dairy product within the Nordic countries.
Folate, distinct forms of which are known as folic acid, folacin, and vitamin B9, is one of the B vitamins.
Francis I (François Ier) (12 September 1494 – 31 March 1547) was the first King of France from the Angoulême branch of the House of Valois, reigning from 1515 until his death.
Frozen yogurt (also spelled frozen yoghurt; also known as froyo or by the tradename Froyo) is a frozen dessert made with yogurt and sometimes other dairy products including non-dairy products.
In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants (also known as angiosperms) formed from the ovary after flowering.
Fruit preserves are preparations of fruits, vegetables and sugar, often canned or sealed for long-term storage.
Aelius Galenus or Claudius Galenus (Κλαύδιος Γαληνός; September 129 AD – /), often Anglicized as Galen and better known as Galen of Pergamon, was a Greek physician, surgeon and philosopher in the Roman Empire.
Garlic (Allium sativum) is a species in the onion genus, Allium.
Gelatin or gelatine (from gelatus meaning "stiff", "frozen") is a translucent, colorless, brittle (when dry), flavorless food derived from collagen obtained from various animal body parts.
General Mills, Inc., is an American multinational manufacturer and marketer of branded consumer foods sold through retail stores.
Geneva (Genève, Genèva, Genf, Ginevra, Genevra) is the second-most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich) and the most populous city of the Romandy, the French-speaking part of Switzerland.
Georgia (tr) is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia.
The domestic goat (Capra aegagrus hircus) is a subspecies of goat domesticated from the wild goat of southwest Asia and Eastern Europe.
A gyro or gyros (γύρος, gyros, literally 'turn') is a Greek dish made of meat, traditionally pork, chicken, or lamb, and outside Greece with beef and veal, cooked on a vertical rotisserie, and usually served wrapped in a flatbread such as pita, with tomato, onion, tzatziki sauce, and sometimes french fries.
Health food is food marketed to provide human health effects beyond a normal healthy diet required for human nutrition.
Henry Thomas Riley (1816–1878) was an English translator, lexicographer, and antiquary.
In phonology, hiatus or diaeresis refers to two vowel sounds occurring in adjacent syllables, with no intervening consonant.
Honey is a sweet, viscous food substance produced by bees and some related insects.
The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.
The Indian subcontinent is a southern region and peninsula of Asia, mostly situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean from the Himalayas.
Isaac Carasso (1874 – April 19, 1939) was a member of the prominent Sephardic Jewish Carasso family (Karasu) of Ottoman Salonica (modern Thessaloniki, Greece).
Jameed (Arabic: جميد, literally "hardened") is a Jordanian food consisting of hard dry laban made from ewe or goat's milk.
John Bostock, Jr. MD FRS (baptised 29 June 1773, died 6 August 1846) was an English physician, scientist and geologist from Liverpool.
John Harvey Kellogg, M.D. (February 26, 1852 – December 14, 1943) was an American medical doctor, nutritionist, inventor, health activist, and businessman.
Jordan (الْأُرْدُنّ), officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (المملكة الأردنية الهاشمية), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia, on the East Bank of the Jordan River.
Kala namak (Urdu / Hindi) or bire noon (Nepalese; literally "black salt") is a type of rock salt, a salty and pungent-smelling condiment used in South Asia.
Kashk (کشک, كشك, keşk, keş peyniri), qurut (құрт, gurt, qurt, qurut, ҡорот, курут, قروت, kurut, sürk, taş yoğurt, kurutulmuş yoğurt, қурут), chortan (չորթան), aaruul (ааруул) is a range of dairy products used in cuisines of Iranian, Kurdish, Turkish, Mongolian, Central Asian, Transcaucasian, and the Levantine peoples.
Kefir or kephir, alternatively milk kefir or búlgaros, is a fermented milk drink that originated in the Caucasus Mountains made with kefir "grains", a yeast/bacterial fermentation starter.
Kibbeh (كبة.), (also spelled and pronounced kibbe, kebbah, kubbeh, kubbah or kubbi depending on region, and known in Egypt as kobeiba and in Turkey as içli köfte) is a Levantine dish made of bulgur, minced onions, and finely ground lean beef, lamb, goat, or camel meat with Middle Eastern spices (cinnamon, nutmeg, clove, allspice).
Kumis (also spelled kumiss or koumiss or kumys, see other transliterations and cognate words below under terminology and etymology - Қымыз, qımız) is a fermented dairy product traditionally made from mare's milk.
The Kutadgu Bilig, or Qutadğu Bilig (proposed Middle Turkic), is a Karakhanid work from the 11th century written by Yusūf Khāṣṣ Ḥājib of Balasagun for the prince of Kashgar.
Lactic acid is an organic compound with the formula CH3CH(OH)COOH.
Lactobacillus is a genus of Gram-positive, facultative anaerobic or microaerophilic, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming bacteria.
Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp.
Lactose is a disaccharide.
Lassi is a popular traditional dahi (yogurt)-based drink that originated in the Indian subcontinent.
A lingua franca, also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vernacular language, or link language is a language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both native languages.
This is a list of dairy products.
The Nobel Prizes (Nobelpriset, Nobelprisen) are prizes awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, the Swedish Academy, the Karolinska Institutet, and the Norwegian Nobel Committee to individuals and organizations who make outstanding contributions in the fields of chemistry, physics, literature, peace, and physiology or medicine.
This is a list of yogurt-based dishes and beverages.
Mahmud ibn Hussayn ibn Muhammed al-Kashgari (محمود بن الحسين بن محمد الكاشغري - Maḥmūd ibnu 'l-Ḥussayn ibn Muḥammad al-Kāšġarī; Mahmûd bin Hüseyin bin Muhammed El Kaşgari, Kaşgarlı Mahmûd; مەھمۇد قەشقىرى, Mehmud Qeshqiri, Мәһмуд Қәшқири) was an 11th-century Kara-Khanid scholar and lexicographer of the Turkic languages from Kashgar.
Mangoes are juicy stone fruit (drupe) from numerous species of tropical trees belonging to the flowering plant genus Mangifera, cultivated mostly for their edible fruit.
A mare is an adult female horse or other equine.
Matzoon (մածուն matsun) or Matsoni (მაწონი mats'oni) also known as Caspian Sea yoghurt in Japan(カスピ海ヨーグルト) is a fermented milk product of Armenian origin, found in Caucasian cuisine, particularly in Armenia and Georgia.
Mentha (also known as mint, from Greek, Linear B mi-ta) is a genus of plants in the family Lamiaceae (mint family).
Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.
A metabolic disorder can happen when abnormal chemical reactions in the body alter the normal metabolic process.
Milk is a white liquid produced by the mammary glands of mammals.
Mishti doi (মিষ্টি দই) is a fermented sweet doi (yogurt) originating from the Indian subcontinent; and common in the Indian state of West Bengal and in Bangladesh.It has a shelf life of about a week to a day It is made with milk and sugar/jaggery.
Modified starch, also called starch derivatives, are prepared by physically, enzymatically, or chemically treating native starch to change its properties.
Mouthfeel refers to the physical sensations in the mouth caused by food or drink, as distinct from taste.
Muslin, also mousseline, is a cotton fabric of plain weave.
Mustard seeds are the small round seeds of various mustard plants.
The Near East is a geographical term that roughly encompasses Western Asia.
The Neolithic was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of Western Asia, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC.
Nepal (नेपाल), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal (सङ्घीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपाल), is a landlocked country in South Asia located mainly in the Himalayas but also includes parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain.
Niacin, also known as nicotinic acid, is an organic compound and a form of vitamin B3, an essential human nutrient.
Northern Iran includes the Southern Caspian regions representing provinces of Gilan, Mazandaran, and Golestan of Iran (Ancient kingdom of Hyrcania, medieval region of Tabaristan).
Nutmeg is the seed or ground spice of several species of the genus Myristica.
The olive, known by the botanical name Olea europaea, meaning "European olive", is a species of small tree in the family Oleaceae, found in the Mediterranean Basin from Portugal to the Levant, the Arabian Peninsula, and southern Asia as far east as China, as well as the Canary Islands and Réunion.
Olive oil is a liquid fat obtained from olives (the fruit of Olea europaea; family Oleaceae), a traditional tree crop of the Mediterranean Basin.
The onion (Allium cepa L., from Latin cepa "onion"), also known as the bulb onion or common onion, is a vegetable that is the most widely cultivated species of the genus Allium.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
Oxygala known today as ξινογαλα xinogala (ὀξύγαλα) was an ancient Greek dairy product consumed in the cuisines of ancient Greece and Rome.
Panchamrita (lit. five Amṛtas in Sanskrit) is a mixture of five foods used in Hindu worship and puja which are usually honey, liquid jaggery, milk, yogurt and ghee.
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.
The Pasteur Institute (Institut Pasteur) is a French non-profit private foundation dedicated to the study of biology, micro-organisms, diseases, and vaccines.
In biology, a pathogen (πάθος pathos "suffering, passion" and -γενής -genēs "producer of") or a '''germ''' in the oldest and broadest sense is anything that can produce disease; the term came into use in the 1880s.
The peach (Prunus persica) is a deciduous tree native to the region of Northwest China between the Tarim Basin and the north slopes of the Kunlun Mountains, where it was first domesticated and cultivated.
Pectin (from πηκτικός, "congealed, curdled") is a structural heteropolysaccharide contained in the primary cell walls of terrestrial plants.
Pesto, sometimes spelled as pasto or to refer to the original dish pesto alla genovese, is a sauce originating in Genoa, the capital city of Liguria, Italy.
Phosphorus is a chemical element with symbol P and atomic number 15.
The pineapple (Ananas comosus) is a tropical plant with an edible multiple fruit consisting of coalesced berries, also called pineapples, and the most economically significant plant in the family Bromeliaceae.
A plastic cup is a cup made out of plastic.
Pliny the Elder (born Gaius Plinius Secundus, AD 23–79) was a Roman author, naturalist and natural philosopher, a naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and friend of emperor Vespasian.
Prague (Praha, Prag) is the capital and largest city in the Czech Republic, the 14th largest city in the European Union and also the historical capital of Bohemia.
Probiotics are microorganisms that are claimed to provide health benefits when consumed.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
Quark or quarg is a type of fresh dairy product made by warming soured milk until the desired amount of curdling is met, and then straining it.
A raisin is a dried grape.
Ramadan (رمضان,;In Arabic phonology, it can be, depending on the region. also known as Ramazan, romanized as Ramzan, Ramadhan, or Ramathan) is the ninth month of the Islamic calendar, and is observed by Muslims worldwide as a month of fasting (Sawm) to commemorate the first revelation of the Quran to Muhammad according to Islamic belief.
The raspberry is the edible fruit of a multitude of plant species in the genus Rubus of the rose family, most of which are in the subgenus Idaeobatus; the name also applies to these plants themselves.
The Reference Daily Intake (RDI) is the daily intake level of a nutrient that is considered to be sufficient to meet the requirements of 97–98% of healthy individuals in every demographic in the United States.
Riboflavin, also known as vitamin B2, is a vitamin found in food and used as a dietary supplement.
Rice milk is a grain milk made from rice.
Rose water (گلاب; golāb) is a flavoured water made by steeping rose petals in water.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
Ryazhenka (ряжaнка, p) is a traditional fermented milk product in Belarus, Russia and Ukraine.
Saffron (pronounced or) is a spice derived from the flower of Crocus sativus, commonly known as the "saffron crocus".
Salt, table salt or common salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl), a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of salts; salt in its natural form as a crystalline mineral is known as rock salt or halite.
A sandwich is a food typically consisting of vegetables, sliced cheese or meat, placed on or between slices of bread, or more generally any dish wherein two or more pieces of bread serve as a container or wrapper for another food type.
Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.
Scalded milk is milk that has been heated to.
Selenium is a chemical element with symbol Se and atomic number 34.
The shallot is a type of onion, specifically a botanical variety of the species Allium cepa.
Shanklish (shanklīsh or شنغليش shanghlīsh), also known as shinklish, shankleesh, sorke, or sürke, is a type of cow's milk or sheep milk cheese in Levantine cuisine.
Domestic sheep (Ovis aries) are quadrupedal, ruminant mammal typically kept as livestock.
Shrikhand is an Indian sweet dish made of strained dahi (yogurt).
Smetana is one of the names for a range of sour creams from Central and Eastern Europe.
A smoothie (occasionally spelled smoothee or smoothy) is a thick, cold beverage made from pureed raw fruit (and sometimes vegetables) blended with ice cream or frozen yogurt, along with other ingredients such as water, crushed ice, fruit juice, sweeteners (e.g. honey, sugar, stevia, syrup), dairy products (e.g. milk, yogurt, or cottage cheese, whey powder), plant milk, nuts, nut butter, seeds, tea, chocolate, herbal supplements, or nutritional supplements.
Snezhanka salad or Snow White salad or Milk salad (Салата Снежанка), sometimes called "Mlechna salad" (Млечна Салата — Yogurt Salad) or "Tarator salata" (Сух таратор салата — Dry Tarator Salad), is a traditional Bulgarian salad, which is made of strained yogurt, cucumber, garlic, salt, usually cooking oil, dill, sometimes roasted peppers, walnuts and parsley.
Sour cream is a dairy product obtained by fermenting regular cream with certain kinds of lactic acid bacteria.
Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe is a geographical region of Europe, consisting primarily of the coterminous Balkan peninsula.
Souvlaki (Greek: σουβλάκι), plural souvlakia, is a popular Greek fast food consisting of small pieces of meat and sometimes vegetables grilled on a skewer.
Soy milk or soymilk is a plant-based drink produced by soaking and grinding soybeans, boiling the mixture, and filtering out remaining particulates.
Soy yogurt, also referred to as Soya yogurt, Soygurt or Yofu (a portmanteau of '''yo'''gurt and to'''fu'''), is yogurt prepared with soy milk.
Spinach (Spinacia oleracea) is an edible flowering plant in the family Amaranthaceae native to central and western Asia.
Stamen Grigorov (Стамен Григоров) (October 27, 1878 - October 27, 1945) was a prominent Bulgarian physician and microbiologist.
Stephen A. Gaymont (c. 1906 - December 16, 1994) was a Hungarian bacteriologist who was one of the pioneers in the United States yogurt market.
Varenets (варенец), sometimes anglicised as stewler or simmeler, is a fermented milk product that is popular in Russia.
Strained yogurt, Greek yogurt, yogurt cheese, sack yoghurt, labaneh or suzma yogurt (Greek: στραγγιστό γιαούρτι, لبنة labnah, süzme yoğurt), is yogurt that has been strained to remove most of its whey, resulting in a thicker consistency than unstrained yogurt, while preserving yogurt's distinctive sour taste.
The garden strawberry (or simply strawberry; Fragaria × ananassa) is a widely grown hybrid species of the genus Fragaria, collectively known as the strawberries.
Streptococcus thermophilus also known as Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus is a gram-positive bacterium, and a fermentative facultative anaerobe, of the viridans group.
Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food.
A sugar substitute is a food additive that provides a sweet taste like that of sugar while containing significantly less food energy.
Sumatra is an Indonesian island in Southeast Asia that is part of the Sunda Islands.
Tarator, tarathor, taratur, or ttalattouri (Bulgarian, Macedonian and Serbian Cyrillic: таратор, Tarator, طرطور, cacık, τζατζίκι / τταλαττούρι. (Cyprus)), is a soup, appetizer, or sauce found in the cuisines of Southeast Europe and Middle East.
Taste, gustatory perception, or gustation is one of the five traditional senses that belongs to the gustatory system.
Thessaloniki (Θεσσαλονίκη, Thessaloníki), also familiarly known as Thessalonica, Salonica, or Salonika is the second-largest city in Greece, with over 1 million inhabitants in its metropolitan area, and the capital of Greek Macedonia, the administrative region of Central Macedonia and the Decentralized Administration of Macedonia and Thrace.
Thiamine, also known as thiamin or vitamin B1, is a vitamin found in food, and manufactured as a dietary supplement and medication.
Tibet is a historical region covering much of the Tibetan Plateau in Central Asia.
Toffee is a confection made by caramelizing sugar or molasses (creating inverted sugar) along with butter, and occasionally flour.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
The Turkic peoples are a collection of ethno-linguistic groups of Central, Eastern, Northern and Western Asia as well as parts of Europe and North Africa.
Tzatziki (from the Turkish word cacık), is a sauce served with grilled meats or as a dip.
Vanilla is a flavoring derived from orchids of the genus Vanilla, primarily from the Mexican species, flat-leaved vanilla (V. planifolia).
Veganism is the practice of abstaining from the use of animal products, particularly in diet, and an associated philosophy that rejects the commodity status of animals.
Viili (Finnish) or filbunke (Swedish, or simply fil) is a mesophilic fermented milk product found in Finland that originated in Scandinavia.
Vitamin A is a group of unsaturated nutritional organic compounds that includes retinol, retinal, retinoic acid, and several provitamin A carotenoids (most notably beta-carotene).
Vitamin B12, also called cobalamin, is a water-soluble vitamin that is involved in the metabolism of every cell of the human body: it is a cofactor in DNA synthesis, and in both fatty acid and amino acid metabolism.
Vitamin B6 refers to a group of chemically similar compounds which can be interconverted in biological systems.
Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid and L-ascorbic acid, is a vitamin found in food and used as a dietary supplement.
Vitamin D is a group of fat-soluble secosteroids responsible for increasing intestinal absorption of calcium, magnesium, and phosphate, and multiple other biological effects.
Vitamin E is a group of eight compounds that include four tocopherols and four tocotrienols.
Vitamin K is a group of structurally similar, fat-soluble vitamins that the human body requires for complete synthesis of certain proteins that are prerequisites for blood coagulation (K from Koagulation, Danish for "coagulation") and which the body also needs for controlling binding of calcium in bones and other tissues.
A walnut is the nut of any tree of the genus Juglans (Family Juglandaceae), particularly the Persian or English walnut, Juglans regia.
Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.
The water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) or domestic Asian water buffalo is a large bovid originating in South Asia, Southeast Asia, and China.
Western Asia, West Asia, Southwestern Asia or Southwest Asia is the westernmost subregion of Asia.
Whey is the liquid remaining after milk has been curdled and strained.
Yusuf Khass Hajib Balasaguni (يوسف خاصّ حاجب; Yūsuf Khāṣṣ Ḥājib Balasağuni; Жүсіп Баласағұни; يۈسۈپ خاس ھاجىپ; Жусуп Баласагын) was an 11th-century Central Asian Uyghur poet, statesman, vizier, and philosopher from the city of Balasaghun, the capital of the Kara-Khanid Khanate in modern-day Kyrgyzstan.
Yogurt soup (yoğurtlu çorba), sometimes known as yayla çorbası ("highland soup"), is a meal of Turkish cuisine.
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