258 relations: Aluminium, Ammonium chloride, Anders Gustaf Ekeberg, Antoine Lavoisier, Apollo program, Applied Physics Letters, Atomic mass, Atomic nucleus, Atomic number, Bastnäsite, Bayan Obo Mining District, BCS theory, Beta decay, Beta particle, Binary phase, Biology, Block (periodic table), Breast milk, Bromide, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Cabbage, Calcium, Camera lens, Cancer, Carbide, Carbon, Carborane, Carl Axel Arrhenius, Carl Gustaf Mosander, Catalysis, Cathode ray tube, Celsius, Ceramic, Cerium, Chemical element, Chloride, Chromatography, Chromium, Color television, Coordinate covalent bond, Counterion, CRC Press, Crust (geology), Cubic zirconia, Cyanosis, Czochralski process, Deoxidization, Diamond, Dopant, Doping (semiconductor), ..., Ductile iron, Ductility, Dysprosium, Earth (chemistry), Edotreotide, Electric arc furnace, Electrode, Electrolyte, Electron, Electron gun, Electron paramagnetic resonance, Electron shell, Electronegativity, Electronic filter, Emporia State University, Endohedral fullerene, Erbium, Erbium(III) oxide, Ethylene, Europium, Fergusonite, Fermilab, Fluoride, Friedrich Wöhler, Gadolinite, Gadolinium, Gamma ray, Gas mantle, Gemological Institute of America, Gemstone, Glass, Graphite, Graphite intercalation compound, Ground state, Group 3 element, Half-life, Halide, Halogen, Hapticity, Heinrich Rose, Hepatocellular carcinoma, High-temperature superconductivity, Hydrocarbon, Hydrochloric acid, Hydrofluoric acid, Hydrogen fluoride, Hydroxide, Ibritumomab tiuxetan, Immediately dangerous to life or health, Infrared, Inorganic chemistry, Internal conversion, Iodide, Ion, Ion exchange, Iron, Isotope, IUPAC Inorganic Chemistry Division, Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac, Johan Gadolin, Lantern, Lanthanide, Lanthanide contraction, Lanthanum, Laser, Leukemia, Ligand, Light-emitting diode, Liquid helium, Liquid nitrogen, Luminescence, Lymphoma, Magic number (physics), Magnesium, Magnetism, Martin Heinrich Klaproth, Mass number, Materials science, Melting point, Metal foam, Metastatic liver disease, Metric prefix, Micrometre, Microwave, Mohs scale of mineral hardness, Molybdenum, Monazite, Monoclonal antibody, Monoclonal antibody therapy, Mountain Pass rare earth mine, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Neodymium, Nerve, Neutrino, Neutron, Neutron capture, Neutron cross section, Neutron emission, Nitrate, Nitric acid, Nitrogen, Non-ferrous metal, Nuclear fission, Nuclear isomer, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, Organoyttrium chemistry, Oxalate, Oxalic acid, Oxford University Press, Oxide, Oxygen sensor, Parts-per notation, Passivation (chemistry), Period 5 element, Periodic trends, Periodic Videos, Permissible exposure limit, Perovskite, Phosphate, Phosphor, Phosphorus, Physical Review Letters, Placer deposit, Pleural effusion, Polymerization, Positron emission, Propane, Prostatectomy, Proton, Pulmonary edema, R-process, Radioactive decay, Radioactive waste, Rare-earth element, Rare-earth mineral, Recommended exposure limit, Red giant, Redox, Respiratory disease, Rheumatoid arthritis, Royal Academy of Turku, S-process, Samarium, Samarskite-(Y), Scandium, Secular equilibrium, Selective internal radiation therapy, Selenium, Shock (mechanics), Shortness of breath, Silicon, Silicon nitride, Silver, Sintering, Solar System, Solubility, Spark plug, Spinal cord, Stable isotope ratio, Stellar nucleosynthesis, Stockholm archipelago, Strength of materials, Strontium, Strontium-90, Sulfate, Sulfur, Sulfuric acid, Superconductivity, Supernova, Swarf, Sweden, Synovectomy, Terbium, Terbium(III,IV) oxide, Thermal expansion, Thorium, Titanium, Tonne, Toxicity, Trace element, Transition metal, Trimer (chemistry), Tungsten, United States, University of Alabama, University of Houston, Uranium, Valence (chemistry), Valence electron, Vanadium, Water, Water vapor, Xenotime, Ytterbium, Ytterbium(III) oxide, Ytterby, Yttrium aluminium garnet, Yttrium barium copper oxide, Yttrium iron garnet, Yttrium lithium fluoride, Yttrium nitride, Yttrium orthovanadate, Yttrium(III) bromide, Yttrium(III) chloride, Yttrium(III) fluoride, Yttrium(III) oxide, Yttrium(III) phosphate, Zirconium. Expand index (208 more) » « Shrink index
Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13.
Ammonium chloride is an inorganic compound with the formula NH4Cl and a white crystalline salt that is highly soluble in water.
Anders Gustaf Ekeberg (Stockholm, Sweden, 16 January 1767 – Uppsala, Sweden, 11 February 1813) was a Swedish chemist who discovered tantalum in 1802.
Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier (also Antoine Lavoisier after the French Revolution;; 26 August 17438 May 1794) CNRS (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique) was a French nobleman and chemist who was central to the 18th-century chemical revolution and who had a large influence on both the history of chemistry and the history of biology.
The Apollo program, also known as Project Apollo, was the third United States human spaceflight program carried out by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), which accomplished landing the first humans on the Moon from 1969 to 1972.
Applied Physics Letters is a weekly peer-reviewed scientific journal that is published by the American Institute of Physics.
The atomic mass (ma) is the mass of an atom.
The atomic nucleus is the small, dense region consisting of protons and neutrons at the center of an atom, discovered in 1911 by Ernest Rutherford based on the 1909 Geiger–Marsden gold foil experiment.
The atomic number or proton number (symbol Z) of a chemical element is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom.
The mineral bastnäsite (or bastnaesite) is one of a family of three carbonate-fluoride minerals, which includes bastnäsite-(Ce) with a formula of (Ce, La)CO3F, bastnäsite-(La) with a formula of (La, Ce)CO3F, and bastnäsite-(Y) with a formula of (Y, Ce)CO3F.
Bayan'obo Mining District, (Mongolian: Bayan Oboɣ-a Aɣurqai-yin toɣoriɣ, Баян-Овоо Уурхайн тойрог ("rich" + ovoo)), or Baiyun-Obo or Baiyun'ebo, is a mining town in the west of Inner Mongolia, People's Republic of China.
BCS theory or Bardeen–Cooper–Schrieffer theory (named after John Bardeen, Leon Cooper, and John Robert Schrieffer) is the first microscopic theory of superconductivity since Heike Kamerlingh Onnes's 1911 discovery.
In nuclear physics, beta decay (β-decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta ray (fast energetic electron or positron) and a neutrino are emitted from an atomic nucleus.
A beta particle, also called beta ray or beta radiation, (symbol β) is a high-energy, high-speed electron or positron emitted by the radioactive decay of an atomic nucleus during the process of beta decay.
In materials chemistry, a binary phase is chemical compound containing two different elements.
Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.
A block of the periodic table of elements is a set of adjacent groups.
Breast milk is the milk produced by the breasts (or mammary glands) of a human female to feed a child.
A bromide is a chemical compound containing a bromide ion or ligand.
Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is a United States Department of Energy national laboratory located in Upton, New York, on Long Island, and was formally established in 1947 at the site of Camp Upton, a former U.S. Army base.
Cabbage or headed cabbage (comprising several cultivars of Brassica oleracea) is a leafy green, red (purple), or white (pale green) biennial plant grown as an annual vegetable crop for its dense-leaved heads.
Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.
A camera lens (also known as photographic lens or photographic objective) is an optical lens or assembly of lenses used in conjunction with a camera body and mechanism to make images of objects either on photographic film or on other media capable of storing an image chemically or electronically.
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
In chemistry, a carbide is a compound composed of carbon and a less electronegative element.
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
A carborane is a cluster composed of boron, carbon and hydrogen atoms.
Carl Axel Arrhenius (29 March 1757 – 20 November 1824) was a Swedish chemist.
Carl Gustaf Mosander (10 September 1797 – 15 October 1858) was a Swedish chemist.
Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalysthttp://goldbook.iupac.org/C00876.html, which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly.
The cathode ray tube (CRT) is a vacuum tube that contains one or more electron guns and a phosphorescent screen, and is used to display images.
The Celsius scale, previously known as the centigrade scale, is a temperature scale used by the International System of Units (SI).
A ceramic is a non-metallic solid material comprising an inorganic compound of metal, non-metal or metalloid atoms primarily held in ionic and covalent bonds.
Cerium is a chemical element with symbol Ce and atomic number 58.
A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).
The chloride ion is the anion (negatively charged ion) Cl−.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.
Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.
Christmas traditions vary from country to country.
Chromatography is a laboratory technique for the separation of a mixture.
Chromium is a chemical element with symbol Cr and atomic number 24.
Color/Colour television is a television transmission technology that includes information on the color of the picture, so the video image can be displayed in color on the television set.
A coordinate covalent bond, also known as a dative bond or coordinate bond is a kind of 2-center, 2-electron covalent bond in which the two electrons derive from the same atom.
Polystyrene sulfonate, a cation exchange resin, is typically supplied with Na+ as the counterion. A counterion (pronounced as two words, i.e. "counter" "ion", and sometimes written as two words) is the ion that accompanies an ionic species in order to maintain electric neutrality.
The CRC Press, LLC is a publishing group based in the United States that specializes in producing technical books.
In geology, the crust is the outermost solid shell of a rocky planet, dwarf planet, or natural satellite.
Cubic zirconia (CZ) is the cubic crystalline form of zirconium dioxide (ZrO2).
Cyanosis is defined as the bluish or purplish discolouration of the skin or mucous membranes due to the tissues near the skin surface having low oxygen saturation.
The Czochralski process is a method of crystal growth used to obtain single crystals of semiconductors (e.g. silicon, germanium and gallium arsenide), metals (e.g. palladium, platinum, silver, gold), salts and synthetic gemstones.
Deoxidization is a method used in metallurgy to remove the oxygen content during steel manufacturing.
Diamond is a solid form of carbon with a diamond cubic crystal structure.
A dopant, also called a doping agent, is a trace impurity element that is inserted into a substance (in very low concentrations) to alter the electrical or optical properties of the substance.
In semiconductor production, doping is the intentional introduction of impurities into an intrinsic semiconductor for the purpose of modulating its electrical properties.
Ductile iron, also known as ductile cast iron, nodular cast iron, spheroidal graphite iron, spheroidal graphite cast iron and SG iron, is a type of graphite-rich cast iron discovered in 1943 by Keith Millis.
Ductility is a measure of a material's ability to undergo significant plastic deformation before rupture, which may be expressed as percent elongation or percent area reduction from a tensile test.
Dysprosium is a chemical element with symbol Dy and atomic number 66.
The chemical term earths was historically applied to certain chemical substances, once thought to be elements, and this name was borrowed from one of the four classical elements of Plato.
Edotreotide (USAN, codenamed SMT487, also known as (DOTA0-Phe1-Tyr3)octreotide, or DOTATOC) is a substance which, when bound to various radionuclides, is used in the treatment and diagnosis of certain types of cancer.
An electric arc furnace (EAF) is a furnace that heats charged material by means of an electric arc.
An electrode is an electrical conductor used to make contact with a nonmetallic part of a circuit (e.g. a semiconductor, an electrolyte, a vacuum or air).
An electrolyte is a substance that produces an electrically conducting solution when dissolved in a polar solvent, such as water.
The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.
An electron gun (also called electron emitter) is an electrical component in some vacuum tubes that produces a narrow, collimated electron beam that has a precise kinetic energy.
Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) or electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy is a method for studying materials with unpaired electrons.
In chemistry and atomic physics, an electron shell, or a principal energy level, may be thought of as an orbit followed by electrons around an atom's nucleus.
Electronegativity, symbol ''χ'', is a chemical property that describes the tendency of an atom to attract a shared pair of electrons (or electron density) towards itself.
Electronic filters are circuits which perform signal processing functions, specifically to remove unwanted frequency components from the signal, to enhance wanted ones, or both.
Emporia State University, often referred to as Emporia State or ESU, is a public university in Emporia, Kansas.
Endohedral fullerenes, also called endofullerenes, are fullerenes that have additional atoms, ions, or clusters enclosed within their inner spheres.
Erbium is a chemical element with symbol Er and atomic number 68.
Erbium(III) oxide, is synthesized from the lanthanide metal erbium.
Ethylene (IUPAC name: ethene) is a hydrocarbon which has the formula or H2C.
Europium is a chemical element with symbol Eu and atomic number 63.
Fergusonite is a mineral comprising a complex oxide of various rare-earth elements.
Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), located just outside Batavia, Illinois, near Chicago, is a United States Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics.
Friedrich Wöhler (31 July 1800 – 23 September 1882) was a German chemist, best known for his synthesis of urea, but also the first to isolate several chemical elements.
Gadolinite, sometimes known as ytterbite, is a silicate mineral consisting principally of the silicates of cerium, lanthanum, neodymium, yttrium, beryllium, and iron with the formula (Ce,La,Nd,Y)2FeBe2Si2O10.
Gadolinium is a chemical element with symbol Gd and atomic number 64.
A gamma ray or gamma radiation (symbol γ or \gamma), is penetrating electromagnetic radiation arising from the radioactive decay of atomic nuclei.
An incandescent gas mantle, gas mantle or Welsbach mantle is a device for generating bright white light when heated by a flame.
The Gemological Institute of America, or GIA, is a nonprofit institute dedicated to research and education in the field of gemology and the jewelry arts.
A gemstone (also called a gem, fine gem, jewel, precious stone, or semi-precious stone) is a piece of mineral crystal which, in cut and polished form, is used to make jewelry or other adornments.
Glass is a non-crystalline amorphous solid that is often transparent and has widespread practical, technological, and decorative usage in, for example, window panes, tableware, and optoelectronics.
Graphite, archaically referred to as plumbago, is a crystalline allotrope of carbon, a semimetal, a native element mineral, and a form of coal.
Graphite intercalation compounds (GICs) are complex materials having a formula CXm where the ion Xn+ or Xn− is inserted (intercalated) between the oppositely charged carbon layers.
The ground state of a quantum mechanical system is its lowest-energy state; the energy of the ground state is known as the zero-point energy of the system.
Group 3 is a group of elements in the periodic table.
Half-life (symbol t1⁄2) is the time required for a quantity to reduce to half its initial value.
A halide is a binary phase, of which one part is a halogen atom and the other part is an element or radical that is less electronegative (or more electropositive) than the halogen, to make a fluoride, chloride, bromide, iodide, astatide, or theoretically tennesside compound.
The halogens are a group in the periodic table consisting of five chemically related elements: fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), iodine (I), and astatine (At).
Hapticity is the coordination of a ligand to a metal center via an uninterrupted and contiguous series of atoms.
Heinrich Rose (6 August 1795 – 27 January 1864) was a German mineralogist and analytical chemist.
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type of primary liver cancer in adults, and is the most common cause of death in people with cirrhosis.
High-temperature superconductors (abbreviated high-Tc or HTS) are materials that behave as superconductors at unusually high temperatures.
In organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon.
Hydrochloric acid is a colorless inorganic chemical system with the formula.
Hydrofluoric acid is a solution of hydrogen fluoride (HF) in water.
Hydrogen fluoride is a chemical compound with the chemical formula.
Hydroxide is a diatomic anion with chemical formula OH−.
Ibritumomab tiuxetan, sold under the trade name Zevalin, is a monoclonal antibody radioimmunotherapy treatment for relapsed or refractory, low grade or transformed B cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, a lymphoproliferative disorder.
The term immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH) is defined by the US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) as exposure to airborne contaminants that is "likely to cause death or immediate or delayed permanent adverse health effects or prevent escape from such an environment." Examples include smoke or other poisonous gases at sufficiently high concentrations.
Infrared radiation (IR) is electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with longer wavelengths than those of visible light, and is therefore generally invisible to the human eye (although IR at wavelengths up to 1050 nm from specially pulsed lasers can be seen by humans under certain conditions). It is sometimes called infrared light.
Inorganic chemistry deals with the synthesis and behavior of inorganic and organometallic compounds.
Internal conversion is a radioactive decay process wherein an excited nucleus interacts electromagnetically with one of the orbital electrons of the atom.
An iodide ion is the ion I−.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
Ion exchange is an exchange of ions between two electrolytes or between an electrolyte solution and a complex.
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
Isotopes are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number.
The Inorganic Chemistry Division of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC), also known as Division II, deals with all aspects of inorganic chemistry, including materials and bioinorganic chemistry, and also with isotopes, atomic weights and the periodic table.
Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac (24 April 1817 – 15 April 1894) was a Swiss chemist whose work with atomic weights suggested the possibility of isotopes and the packing fraction of nuclei and whose study of the rare earth elements led to his discovery of ytterbium in 1878 and co-discovery of gadolinium in 1880.
Johan Gadolin (5 June 1760 – 15 August 1852) was a Finnish chemist, physicist and mineralogist.
Today, English-speakers use the term lantern to describe many types of portable lighting, but lanterns originated as a protective enclosure for a light source—usually a candle or a wick in oil—to make it easier to carry and hang up, and more reliable outdoors or in drafty interiors.
The lanthanide or lanthanoid series of chemical elements comprises the 15 metallic chemical elements with atomic numbers 57 through 71, from lanthanum through lutetium.
The lanthanide contraction is the greater-than-expected decrease in ionic radii of the elements in the lanthanide series from atomic number 57, lanthanum, to 71, lutetium, which results in smaller than otherwise expected ionic radii for the subsequent elements starting with 72, hafnium.
Lanthanum is a chemical element with symbol La and atomic number 57.
A laser is a device that emits light through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of electromagnetic radiation.
Leukemia, also spelled leukaemia, is a group of cancers that usually begin in the bone marrow and result in high numbers of abnormal white blood cells.
In coordination chemistry, a ligand is an ion or molecule (functional group) that binds to a central metal atom to form a coordination complex.
A light-emitting diode (LED) is a two-lead semiconductor light source.
At standard pressure, the chemical element helium exists in a liquid form only at the extremely low temperature of −270 °C (about 4 K or −452.2 °F).
Liquid nitrogen is nitrogen in a liquid state at an extremely low temperature.
Luminescence is emission of light by a substance not resulting from heat; it is thus a form of cold-body radiation.
Lymphoma is a group of blood cancers that develop from lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell).
In nuclear physics, a magic number is a number of nucleons (either protons or neutrons, separately) such that they are arranged into complete shells within the atomic nucleus.
Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12.
Magnetism is a class of physical phenomena that are mediated by magnetic fields.
Martin Heinrich Klaproth (1 December 1743 – 1 January 1817) was a German chemist who discovered uranium (1789), zirconium (1789), and cerium (1803), and named titanium (1795) and tellurium (1798).
The mass number (symbol A, from the German word Atomgewichte (atomic weight), also called atomic mass number or nucleon number, is the total number of protons and neutrons (together known as nucleons) in an atomic nucleus. It determines the atomic mass of atoms. Because protons and neutrons both are baryons, the mass number A is identical with the baryon number B as of the nucleus as of the whole atom or ion. The mass number is different for each different isotope of a chemical element. This is not the same as the atomic number (Z) which denotes the number of protons in a nucleus, and thus uniquely identifies an element. Hence, the difference between the mass number and the atomic number gives the number of neutrons (N) in a given nucleus:. The mass number is written either after the element name or as a superscript to the left of an element's symbol. For example, the most common isotope of carbon is carbon-12, or, which has 6 protons and 6 neutrons. The full isotope symbol would also have the atomic number (Z) as a subscript to the left of the element symbol directly below the mass number:. This is technically redundant, as each element is defined by its atomic number, so it is often omitted.
The interdisciplinary field of materials science, also commonly termed materials science and engineering is the design and discovery of new materials, particularly solids.
The melting point (or, rarely, liquefaction point) of a substance is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid at atmospheric pressure.
Regular foamed aluminium A metal foam is a cellular structure consisting of a solid metal (frequently aluminium) with gas-filled pores comprising a large portion of the volume.
A liver metastasis is a malignant tumor in the liver that has spread from another organ affected by cancer.
A metric prefix is a unit prefix that precedes a basic unit of measure to indicate a multiple or fraction of the unit.
The micrometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: μm) or micrometer (American spelling), also commonly known as a micron, is an SI derived unit of length equaling (SI standard prefix "micro-".
Microwaves are a form of electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths ranging from one meter to one millimeter; with frequencies between and.
The Mohs scale of mineral hardness is a qualitative ordinal scale characterizing scratch resistance of various minerals through the ability of harder material to scratch softer material.
Molybdenum is a chemical element with symbol Mo and atomic number 42.
Monazite is a reddish-brown phosphate mineral containing rare-earth metals.
Monoclonal antibodies (mAb or moAb) are antibodies that are made by identical immune cells that are all clones of a unique parent cell.
Monoclonal antibody therapy is a form of immunotherapy that uses monoclonal antibodies (mAb) to bind monospecifically to certain cells or proteins.
The Mountain Pass Rare Earth Mine is an open-pit mine of rare-earth elements (REEs) on the south flank of the Clark Mountain Range, just north of the unincorporated community of Mountain Pass, California, United States.
The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is the United States federal agency responsible for conducting research and making recommendations for the prevention of work-related injury and illness.
Neodymium is a chemical element with symbol Nd and atomic number 60.
A nerve is an enclosed, cable-like bundle of axons (nerve fibers, the long and slender projections of neurons) in the peripheral nervous system.
A neutrino (denoted by the Greek letter ν) is a fermion (an elementary particle with half-integer spin) that interacts only via the weak subatomic force and gravity.
Neutron capture is a nuclear reaction in which an atomic nucleus and one or more neutrons collide and merge to form a heavier nucleus.
In nuclear and particle physics, the concept of a neutron cross section is used to express the likelihood of interaction between an incident neutron and a target nucleus.
Neutron emission is a mode of radioactive decay in which one or more neutrons are ejected from a nucleus.
New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.
New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.
Nitrate is a polyatomic ion with the molecular formula and a molecular mass of 62.0049 u.
Nitric acid (HNO3), also known as aqua fortis (Latin for "strong water") and spirit of niter, is a highly corrosive mineral acid.
Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
In metallurgy, a non-ferrous metal is a metal, including alloys, that does not contain iron (ferrite) in appreciable amounts.
In nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry, nuclear fission is either a nuclear reaction or a radioactive decay process in which the nucleus of an atom splits into smaller parts (lighter nuclei).
A nuclear isomer is a metastable state of an atomic nucleus caused by the excitation of one or more of its nucleons (protons or neutrons).
The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is an agency of the United States Department of Labor.
Organoyttrium chemistry is the study of compounds containing carbon-yttrium bonds.
Oxalate (IUPAC: ethanedioate) is the dianion with the formula, also written.
Oxalic acid is an organic compound with the formula C2H2O4.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
An oxide is a chemical compound that contains at least one oxygen atom and one other element in its chemical formula.
An oxygen sensor (or lambda sensor) is an electronic device that measures the proportion of oxygen (O2) in the gas or liquid being analysed.
In science and engineering, the parts-per notation is a set of pseudo-units to describe small values of miscellaneous dimensionless quantities, e.g. mole fraction or mass fraction.
Passivation, in physical chemistry and engineering, refers to a material becoming "passive," that is, less affected or corroded by the environment of future use.
A period 5 element is one of the chemical elements in the fifth row (or period) of the periodic table of the elements.
Periodic trends are specific patterns that are present in the periodic table that illustrate different aspects of a certain element, including its radius and its electronic properties.
The Periodic Table of Videos (usually shortened to Periodic Videos) is a series of videos about chemical elements and the periodic table.
The permissible exposure limit (PEL or OSHA PEL) is a legal limit in the United States for exposure of an employee to a chemical substance or physical agent such as loud noise.
Perovskite (pronunciation) is a calcium titanium oxide mineral composed of calcium titanate (Ca Ti O3).
A phosphate is chemical derivative of phosphoric acid.
A phosphor, most generally, is a substance that exhibits the phenomenon of luminescence.
Phosphorus is a chemical element with symbol P and atomic number 15.
Physical Review Letters (PRL), established in 1958, is a peer-reviewed, scientific journal that is published 52 times per year by the American Physical Society.
In geology, a placer deposit or placer is an accumulation of valuable minerals formed by gravity separation from a specific source rock during sedimentary processes.
A pleural effusion is excess fluid that accumulates in the pleural cavity, the fluid-filled space that surrounds the lungs.
In polymer chemistry, polymerization is a process of reacting monomer molecules together in a chemical reaction to form polymer chains or three-dimensional networks.
Positron emission or beta plus decay (β+ decay) is a subtype of radioactive decay called beta decay, in which a proton inside a radionuclide nucleus is converted into a neutron while releasing a positron and an electron neutrino (νe).
Propane is a three-carbon alkane with the molecular formula C3H8.
Prostatectomy (from the Greek prostates, "prostate", combined with the suffix -ektomē, "excision") as a medical term refers to the surgical removal of all or part of the prostate gland.
Pulmonary edema is fluid accumulation in the tissue and air spaces of the lungs.
The rapid neutron-capture process, or so-called r-process, is a set of nuclear reactions that in nuclear astrophysics is responsible for the creation (nucleosynthesis) of approximately half the abundances of the atomic nuclei heavier than iron, usually synthesizing the entire abundance of the two most neutron-rich stable isotopes of each heavy element.
Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.
Radioactive waste is waste that contains radioactive material.
A rare-earth element (REE) or rare-earth metal (REM), as defined by IUPAC, is one of a set of seventeen chemical elements in the periodic table, specifically the fifteen lanthanides, as well as scandium and yttrium.
A rare-earth mineral contains one or more rare-earth elements as major metal constituents.
A recommended exposure limit (REL) is an occupational exposure limit that has been recommended by the United States National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) for adoption as a permissible exposure limit.
A red giant is a luminous giant star of low or intermediate mass (roughly 0.3–8 solar masses) in a late phase of stellar evolution.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
Respiratory disease is a medical term that encompasses pathological conditions affecting the organs and tissues that make gas exchange possible in higher organisms, and includes conditions of the upper respiratory tract, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli, pleura and pleural cavity, and the nerves and muscles of breathing.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a long-term autoimmune disorder that primarily affects joints.
The Royal Academy of Turku (Kungliga Akademin i Åbo or Åbo Kungliga Akademi, Regia Academia Aboensis, Turun akatemia) was the first university in Finland, and the only Finnish university that was founded when the country still was a part of Sweden.
The slow neutron-capture process or s-process is a series of reactions in nuclear astrophysics that occur in stars, particularly AGB stars.
Samarium is a chemical element with symbol Sm and atomic number 62.
Samarskite is a radioactive rare earth mineral series which includes samarskite-(Y) with formula: (YFe3+Fe2+U,Th,Ca)2(Nb,Ta)2O8 and samarskite-(Yb) with formula (YbFe3+)2(Nb,Ta)2O8.
Scandium is a chemical element with symbol Sc and atomic number 21.
In nuclear physics, secular equilibrium is a situation in which the quantity of a radioactive isotope remains constant because its production rate (e.g., due to decay of a parent isotope) is equal to its decay rate.
Selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT), also known as transarterial radioembolization (TARE), radioembolization or intra-arterial microbrachytherapy is a form of radiation therapy used in interventional radiology to treat cancer.
Selenium is a chemical element with symbol Se and atomic number 34.
A mechanical or physical shock is a sudden acceleration caused, for example, by impact, drop, kick, earthquake, or explosion.
Shortness of breath, also known as dyspnea, is the feeling that one cannot breathe well enough.
Silicon is a chemical element with symbol Si and atomic number 14.
Silicon nitride is a chemical compound of the elements silicon and nitrogen.
Silver is a chemical element with symbol Ag (from the Latin argentum, derived from the Proto-Indo-European ''h₂erǵ'': "shiny" or "white") and atomic number 47.
Clinker nodules produced by sintering Sintering is the process of compacting and forming a solid mass of material by heat or pressure without melting it to the point of liquefaction.
The Solar SystemCapitalization of the name varies.
Solubility is the property of a solid, liquid or gaseous chemical substance called solute to dissolve in a solid, liquid or gaseous solvent.
A spark plug (sometimes, in British English, a sparking plug, and, colloquially, a plug) is a device for delivering electric current from an ignition system to the combustion chamber of a spark-ignition engine to ignite the compressed fuel/air mixture by an electric spark, while containing combustion pressure within the engine.
The spinal cord is a long, thin, tubular bundle of nervous tissue and support cells that extends from the medulla oblongata in the brainstem to the lumbar region of the vertebral column.
The term stable isotope has a meaning similar to stable nuclide, but is preferably used when speaking of nuclides of a specific element.
Stellar nucleosynthesis is the theory explaining the creation (nucleosynthesis) of chemical elements by nuclear fusion reactions between atoms within the stars.
The Stockholm archipelago (Stockholms skärgård) is the largest archipelago in Sweden, and the second-largest archipelago in the Baltic Sea (the largest being across the Baltic in Finland).
Strength of materials, also called mechanics of materials, is a subject which deals with the behavior of solid objects subject to stresses and strains.
Strontium is the chemical element with symbol Sr and atomic number 38.
Strontium-90 is a radioactive isotope of strontium produced by nuclear fission, with a half-life of 28.8 years.
The sulfate or sulphate (see spelling differences) ion is a polyatomic anion with the empirical formula.
Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.
Sulfuric acid (alternative spelling sulphuric acid) is a mineral acid with molecular formula H2SO4.
Superconductivity is a phenomenon of exactly zero electrical resistance and expulsion of magnetic flux fields occurring in certain materials, called superconductors, when cooled below a characteristic critical temperature.
A supernova (plural: supernovae or supernovas, abbreviations: SN and SNe) is a transient astronomical event that occurs during the last stellar evolutionary stages of a star's life, either a massive star or a white dwarf, whose destruction is marked by one final, titanic explosion.
Swarf, also known as chips or by other process-specific names (such as turnings, filings, or shavings), are pieces of metal, wood, or plastic that are the debris or waste resulting from machining, woodworking, or similar subtractive (material-removing) manufacturing processes.
Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
Synovectomy is a procedure where the synovial tissue surrounding a joint is removed.
Terbium is a chemical element with symbol Tb and atomic number 65.
Terbium(III,IV) oxide, occasionally called tetraterbium heptaoxide, has the formula Tb4O7, though some texts refer to it as TbO1.75.
Thermal expansion is the tendency of matter to change in shape, area, and volume in response to a change in temperature.
Thorium is a weakly radioactive metallic chemical element with symbol Th and atomic number 90.
Titanium is a chemical element with symbol Ti and atomic number 22.
The tonne (Non-SI unit, symbol: t), commonly referred to as the metric ton in the United States, is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms;.
Toxicity is the degree to which a chemical substance or a particular mixture of substances can damage an organism.
A trace element is a chemical element whose concentration (or other measure of amount) is very low (a "trace amount").
In chemistry, the term transition metal (or transition element) has three possible meanings.
In chemistry, a trimer is a molecule or an anion formed by combination or association of three molecules or ions of the same substance.
Tungsten, or wolfram, is a chemical element with symbol W (referring to wolfram) and atomic number 74.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The University of Alabama (Alabama or UA) is a public research university located in Tuscaloosa, Alabama, United States, and the flagship of the University of Alabama System.
The University of Houston (UH) is a state research university and the flagship institution of the University of Houston System.
Uranium is a chemical element with symbol U and atomic number 92.
In chemistry, the valence or valency of an element is a measure of its combining power with other atoms when it forms chemical compounds or molecules.
In chemistry, a valence electron is an outer shell electron that is associated with an atom, and that can participate in the formation of a chemical bond if the outer shell is not closed; in a single covalent bond, both atoms in the bond contribute one valence electron in order to form a shared pair.
Vanadium is a chemical element with symbol V and atomic number 23.
Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.
Xenotime is a rare-earth phosphate mineral, the major component of which is yttrium orthophosphate (YPO4).
Ytterbium is a chemical element with symbol Yb and atomic number 70.
Ytterbium(III) oxide is the chemical compound with the formula Yb2O3.
Ytterby is a village on the Swedish island of Resarö, in Vaxholm Municipality in the Stockholm archipelago.
Yttrium aluminium garnet (YAG, Y3Al5O12) is a synthetic crystalline material of the garnet group.
Yttrium barium copper oxide (YBCO) is a family of crystalline chemical compounds, famous for displaying high-temperature superconductivity.
Yttrium iron garnet (YIG) is a kind of synthetic garnet, with chemical composition 32(Fe4)3, or Y3Fe5O12.
Yttrium lithium fluoride (LiYF4, sometimes abbreviated YLF) is a birefringent crystal, typically doped with neodymium and used as a gain medium in solid-state lasers.
Yttrium nitride, YN, is a nitride of yttrium.
Yttrium orthovanadate (YVO4) is a transparent crystal.
Yttrium(III) bromide (YBr3) is an inorganic chemical compound.
Yttrium(III) chloride is an inorganic compound of yttrium and chloride.
Yttrium(III) fluoride is an inorganic chemical compound with the chemical formula YF3.
Yttrium oxide, also known as yttria, is Y2O3.
Yttrium phosphate, YPO4, is a phosphate of yttrium.
Zirconium is a chemical element with symbol Zr and atomic number 40.
2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.
2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.