320 relations: 'Phags-pa script, Acupuncture, Administrative divisions of the Yuan dynasty, Alans, Arabic numerals, Ariq Böke, Asia, Astronomy, Asud, Autocracy, Avicenna, Ögedei Khan, Banknote, Basalawarmi, Battle of Bạch Đằng (1288), Battle of Xiangyang, Battle of Yamen, Bayan of the Baarin, Bayan of the Merkid, Beijing, Bhikkhu, Blue and white pottery, Bolad, Borjigin, Buddhism, Bukhara, Bureau of Buddhist and Tibetan Affairs, Bureaucracy, Cambridge University Press, Carrot, Cartography, Cash (Chinese coin), Catholic Church, Catholic Church in China, Cavalry, Censorate, Central Asia, Chagatai Khanate, Chao (currency), China, Chinese calligraphy, Chinese ceramics, Chinese classics, Chinese culture, Chinese folk religion, Chinese historiography, Chinese language, Chinese Manichaeism, Chinese opera, Chinese painting, ..., Chinese theology, Christian, Christianity, Christopher Columbus, Church of the East in China, Circumcision, Civil affairs, Cloisonné, Colonialism, Compendium, Confucianism, Confucius, Conquest dynasty, Cotton, Coup d'état, Crown prince, Dali Kingdom, Department of State Affairs, Division of the Mongol Empire, Dragon, Drama, Duke Yansheng, Dynasties in Chinese history, Dynasty, Eggplant, El Temür, Elite, Eljigidey, Emperor of China, Empire, Era of Fragmentation, Europeans in Medieval China, Fangshan District, Feudalism, Finance, Fu (country subdivision), Gaykhatu, Güyük Khan, Genghis Khan, Geography, Glass, Golden Horde, Gong clan of Qufu, Goryeo, Granary, Grand Canal (China), Grand chancellor (China), Gregorian calendar, Guangxi, Guizhou, Guo Shoujing, Han Chinese, Hangzhou, Hebei, Henan, Hindu, History of China, History of Korea, History of Mongolia, History of the Jews in China, History of Tibet, History of Yuan, Hongwu Emperor, Hu Sihui, Hua–Yi distinction, Humorism, I Ching, Ilkhanate, Imperial examination, Imperial Preceptor, Inner Mongolia, International Studies Quarterly, Iran, Islam, Islam during the Yuan dynasty, Ispah rebellion, Jade Mirror of the Four Unknowns, Jalairs, Jayaatu Khan Tugh Temür, Jin dynasty (1115–1234), Jingdezhen porcelain, Joseon, Journal of Song-Yuan Studies, Journal of the American Oriental Society, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, Jun ware, Jurchen people, Justice ministry, Kaidu, Kaiping, Kamikaze (typhoon), Karakorum, Kashmir, Kashrut, Külüg Khan, Khagan, Khanate, Khanbaliq, Khitan people, Khongirad, Khutughtu Khan Kusala, Kipchaks, Korean nobility, Koreans, Kublai Khan, Lan Yu (general), Legalism (Chinese philosophy), Lemon, Liang (realm), Liao dynasty, List of hexagrams of the I Ching, List of Mongol rulers, List of Yuan emperors, Liu Bingzhong, Lunisolar calendar, Magic square, Maharaja, Manchuria, Manchuria under Yuan rule, Mandate of Heaven, Marco Polo, Matrix (mathematics), Möngke Khan, Melon, Middle East, Military, Military history of Myanmar, Ming campaign against the Uriankhai, Ming conquest of Yunnan, Ming dynasty, Ministry of Defence, Mongol conquest of the Jin dynasty, Mongol conquest of the Song dynasty, Mongol Empire, Mongol invasion of Java, Mongol invasions and conquests, Mongol invasions of Vietnam, Mongolia, Mongolia under Yuan rule, Mongolian Cyrillic alphabet, Mongolian language, Mongolian script, Mongols, Movable type, Moxibustion, Mu Ying, Muslim, Naghachu, Neo-Confucianism, Nestorian cross, Nestorianism, North China, Northern and southern China, Northern Yuan dynasty, Novel, Olmaliq, Outlaw, Painting, Pascal's triangle, Pax Mongolica, Persian people, Phagmodrupa dynasty, Playing card, Poetry, Porcelain, Post-classical history, Potassium nitrate, Province, Pulse diagnosis, Pyrrhic victory, Qara Khitai, Qing dynasty, Qinghai, Qocho, Qu (poetry), Quanzhou, Qufu, Quzhou, Ragibagh Khan, Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary, Rashid-al-Din Hamadani, Red Turban Rebellion, Reduction (orthopedic surgery), Regicide, Rinchinbal Khan, Sakya, Samarkand, Sanqu, Second-class citizen, Semu, Shamanism, Shan shui, Shandong, Shangdu, Shanxi, Shōsōin, Shen Kuo, Shi Tianze, Sichuan, Siege of Caizhou, Silk Road, Sinicization, Sino-Roman relations, SinoMaps Press, Smelting, Song dynasty, Sorghaghtani Beki, Sorghum, Standard Tibetan, State religion, Sugar, Sui dynasty, System of equations, Tan Qixiang, Tang dynasty, Tangut people, Taoism, Töregene Khatun, Temür Khan, Ten Wings, The Canon of Medicine, The Historical Atlas of China, Three Departments and Six Ministries, Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors, Tibet, Tibet under Yuan rule, Tibetan Buddhism, Tibetan Empire, Toghon Temür, Toqto'a (Yuan dynasty), Trafford, Trần dynasty, Turkestan, Turnip, Tusi, Underglaze, United Kingdom, Vajrayana, Venice, W. W. Norton & Company, Wang Zhen (inventor), War of the Two Capitals, Wei Yilin, Western Xia, Wonjong of Goryeo, Woodblock printing, Written Chinese, Written vernacular Chinese, Wu Xing, Xiangzhou District, Xiangyang, Xing Prefecture (Hebei), Yam (route), Yao Shu, Yellow River, Yin and yang, Yingchang, Yongle Emperor, Yuan dynasty coinage, Yuan dynasty in Inner Asia, Yuan poetry, Yunnan, Zaju, Zhao Bing, Zhao Mengfu, Zhenjin, Zhongdu, Zhongshu Sheng, Zhou (country subdivision), Zhu Shijie, Zhu Xi. Expand index (270 more) » « Shrink index
The ‘Phags-pa script (дөрвөлжин үсэг "Square script") is an alphabet designed by the Tibetan monk and State Preceptor (later Imperial Preceptor) Drogön Chögyal Phagpa for Kublai Khan, the founder of the Yuan dynasty, as a unified script for the written languages within the Yuan.
Acupuncture is a form of alternative medicine in which thin needles are inserted into the body.
The Yuan dynasty was a vast empire founded by Mongol leader Kublai Khan in China.
The Alans (or Alani) were an Iranian nomadic pastoral people of antiquity.
Arabic numerals, also called Hindu–Arabic numerals, are the ten digits: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, based on the Hindu–Arabic numeral system, the most common system for the symbolic representation of numbers in the world today.
Ariq Böke (after 1219–1266), the components of his name also spelled Arigh, Arik and Bukha, Buka (Аригбөх; Chinese: 阿里不哥), was the seventh and youngest son of Tolui, a grandson of Genghis Khan.
Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.
Astronomy (from ἀστρονομία) is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena.
The Asud (Mongolian Cyrillic: Асуд, IPA: //) were a military group of Alani origin.
An autocracy is a system of government in which supreme power (social and political) is concentrated in the hands of one person, whose decisions are subject to neither external legal restraints nor regularized mechanisms of popular control (except perhaps for the implicit threat of a coup d'état or mass insurrection).
Avicenna (also Ibn Sīnā or Abu Ali Sina; ابن سینا; – June 1037) was a Persian polymath who is regarded as one of the most significant physicians, astronomers, thinkers and writers of the Islamic Golden Age.
Ögedei (also Ogodei; translit, Mongolian: Ögedei, Ögüdei;; c.1185– 11 December 1241), was the third son of Genghis Khan and second Great Khan of the Mongol Empire, succeeding his father.
A banknote (often known as a bill, paper money, or simply a note) is a type of negotiable promissory note, made by a bank, payable to the bearer on demand.
Basalawarmi (died January 6, 1382), commonly known by his hereditary title, the Prince of Liang, was a descendant of Kublai Khan and a Yuan Dynasty loyalist who fought against the ascendant Ming Dynasty in China.
The Battle of Bạch Đằng (Trận Bạch Đằng, Chữ nôm: 陣白藤) was one of the greatest victories in Vietnamese military history.
The Battle of Xiangyang was a key battle between the invading Mongols of the Yuan dynasty and Southern Song forces from AD 1267 to 1273.
The naval Battle of Yamen (also known as the Naval Battle of Mount Ya) took place on 19 March 1279 and is considered to be the last stand of the Song dynasty against the invading Mongol Yuan dynasty.
Bayan of the Baarin (Mongolian: Баян; 1236 – January 11, 1295), or Boyan, was a Mongol general.
Bayan of the Merkid (died 1340), or Bayan, was a Mongol general of the Merkid clan and an official in the Yuan dynasty.
Beijing, formerly romanized as Peking, is the capital of the People's Republic of China, the world's second most populous city proper, and most populous capital city.
A bhikkhu (from Pali, Sanskrit: bhikṣu) is an ordained male monastic ("monk") in Buddhism.
"Blue and white pottery" covers a wide range of white pottery and porcelain decorated under the glaze with a blue pigment, generally cobalt oxide.
Bolad, also known as Bolad (Steel) chingsang (Mongolian: Болад чинсан, Болад ага, Болд, Persian: Pulad chinksank,, "Chancellor Bolad", d. 1313), was a Mongol minister of the Yuan Dynasty, and later served in the Ilkhanate as the representative of the Great Khan of the Mongol Empire and cultural adviser to the Ilkhans.
Borjigin (plural Borjigid; Боржигин, Borjigin; Борджигин, Bordjigin; Mongolian script:, Borjigit) is the last name of the imperial clan of Genghis Khan and his successors.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
Bukhara (Uzbek Latin: Buxoro; Uzbek Cyrillic: Бухоро) is a city in Uzbekistan.
The Bureau of Buddhist and Tibetan Affairs, or Xuanzheng Yuan was a government agency and top-level administrative department set up in Khanbaliq (modern Beijing) that supervised Buddhist monks in addition to managing the territory of Tibet during the Yuan dynasty (1271-1368) established by Kublai Khan.
Bureaucracy refers to both a body of non-elective government officials and an administrative policy-making group.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
The carrot (Daucus carota subsp. sativus) is a root vegetable, usually orange in colour, though purple, black, red, white, and yellow cultivars exist.
Cartography (from Greek χάρτης chartēs, "papyrus, sheet of paper, map"; and γράφειν graphein, "write") is the study and practice of making maps.
Cash was a type of coin of China and East Asia, used from the 4th century BC until the 20th century AD.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Catholic Church in China (called Tiānzhǔ Jiào, 天主教, literally, "Religion of the Lord of Heaven", after the term for God traditionally used in Chinese by Catholics) has a long and complicated history.
Cavalry (from the French cavalerie, cf. cheval 'horse') or horsemen were soldiers or warriors who fought mounted on horseback.
The Censorate was a high-level supervisory agency in ancient China, first established during the Qin dynasty (221–207 BCE).
Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.
The Chagatai Khanate (Mongolian: Tsagadaina Khaanat Ulus/Цагаадайн Хаант Улс) was a Mongol and later Turkicized khanate that comprised the lands ruled by Chagatai Khan, second son of Genghis Khan, and his descendants and successors.
The chao was the official banknote of the Yuan dynasty in China.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Chinese calligraphy is a form of aesthetically pleasing writing (calligraphy), or, the artistic expression of human language in a tangible form.
Chinese ceramics show a continuous development since pre-dynastic times and are one of the most significant forms of Chinese art and ceramics globally.
Chinese classic texts or canonical texts refers to the Chinese texts which originated before the imperial unification by the Qin dynasty in 221 BC, particularly the "Four Books and Five Classics" of the Neo-Confucian tradition, themselves a customary abridgment of the "Thirteen Classics".
Chinese culture is one of the world's oldest cultures, originating thousands of years ago.
Chinese folk religion (Chinese popular religion) or Han folk religion is the religious tradition of the Han people, including veneration of forces of nature and ancestors, exorcism of harmful forces, and a belief in the rational order of nature which can be influenced by human beings and their rulers as well as spirits and gods.
Chinese historiography is the study of the techniques and sources used by historians to develop the recorded history of China.
Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases mutually unintelligible, language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.
Chinese Manichaeism is the form of Manichaeism (摩尼教 Móníjiào or 明教 Míngjiào, "bright religion") transmitted and practiced in China.
Traditional Chinese opera, or Xiqu, is a popular form of drama and musical theatre in China with roots going back to the early periods in China.
Chinese painting is one of the oldest continuous artistic traditions in the world.
Chinese theology, which comes in different interpretations according to the classic texts and the common religion, and specifically Confucian, Taoist and other philosophical formulations, is fundamentally monistic, that is to say it sees the world and the gods of its phenomena as an organic whole, or cosmos, which continuously emerges from a simple principle.
A Christian is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
Christopher Columbus (before 31 October 145120 May 1506) was an Italian explorer, navigator, and colonizer.
The Church of the East or Nestorian Church had a presence in China during two periods: first from the 7th through the 10th century, and later during the Mongol Yuan Dynasty in the 13th and 14th centuries.
Male circumcision is the removal of the foreskin from the human penis.
Civil Affairs (CA) is a term used by both the United Nations and by military institutions (such as the US military), but for different purposes in each case.
Cloisonné is an ancient technique for decorating metalwork objects.
Colonialism is the policy of a polity seeking to extend or retain its authority over other people or territories, generally with the aim of developing or exploiting them to the benefit of the colonizing country and of helping the colonies modernize in terms defined by the colonizers, especially in economics, religion and health.
A compendium (plural: compendia) is a concise compilation of a body of knowledge.
Confucianism, also known as Ruism, is described as tradition, a philosophy, a religion, a humanistic or rationalistic religion, a way of governing, or simply a way of life.
Confucius (551–479 BC) was a Chinese teacher, editor, politician, and philosopher of the Spring and Autumn period of Chinese history.
A conquest dynasty in the history of imperial China refers to a dynasty established by non-Han peoples that ruled parts or all of the China proper, such as the Mongol Yuan dynasty and the Manchu Qing dynasty.
Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective case, around the seeds of the cotton plants of the genus Gossypium in the mallow family Malvaceae.
A coup d'état, also known simply as a coup, a putsch, golpe de estado, or an overthrow, is a type of revolution, where the illegal and overt seizure of a state by the military or other elites within the state apparatus occurs.
A crown prince is the male heir apparent to the throne in a royal or imperial monarchy.
The Dali Kingdom, also known as the Dali State (Bai: Dablit Guaif), was a kingdom situated in modern Yunnan province, China from 937 until 1253 when it was conquered by the Mongols.
The Department of State Affairs was one department in the Three Departments and Six Ministries government structure officially established since the Sui dynasty in the history of China.
The division of the Mongol Empire began when Möngke Khan died in 1259 in the siege of Diaoyu castle with no declared successor, precipitating infighting between members of the Tolui family line for the title of Great Khan that escalated to the Toluid Civil War.
A dragon is a large, serpent-like legendary creature that appears in the folklore of many cultures around the world.
Drama is the specific mode of fiction represented in performance: a play performed in a theatre, or on radio or television.
The Duke of Yansheng, literally "Duke Overflowing with Sagacity", sometimes translated as Holy Duke of Yen, was a Chinese title of nobility.
The following is a chronology of the dynasties in Chinese History.
A dynasty is a sequence of rulers from the same family,Oxford English Dictionary, "dynasty, n." Oxford University Press (Oxford), 1897.
Eggplant (Solanum melongena) or aubergine is a species of nightshade grown for its edible fruit.
El Temür (Mongolian:died 1333) was a Kipchak officer who was behind the coup d'état that installed Tugh Temür as the Yuan emperor in the capital Khanbaliq in 1328.
In political and sociological theory, the elite (French élite, from Latin eligere) are a small group of powerful people who hold a disproportionate amount of wealth, privilege, political power, or skill in a society.
Eljigidey was khan of the Chagatai Khanate, a division of the Mongol Empire in 1326–1329.
The Emperor or Huangdi was the secular imperial title of the Chinese sovereign reigning between the founding of the Qin dynasty that unified China in 221 BC, until the abdication of Puyi in 1912 following the Xinhai Revolution and the establishment of the Republic of China, although it was later restored twice in two failed revolutions in 1916 and 1917.
An empire is defined as "an aggregate of nations or people ruled over by an emperor or other powerful sovereign or government, usually a territory of greater extent than a kingdom, as the former British Empire, Spanish Empire, Portuguese Empire, French Empire, Persian Empire, Russian Empire, German Empire, Abbasid Empire, Umayyad Empire, Byzantine Empire, Ottoman Empire, or Roman Empire".
The Era of Fragmentation is a period of Tibetan history in the 9th and 10th century.
Given textual and archaeological evidence, it is thought that thousands of Europeans lived in Imperial China during the period of Mongol rule.
Fangshan District is situated in the southwest of Beijing, away from downtown Beijing.
Feudalism was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries.
Finance is a field that is concerned with the allocation (investment) of assets and liabilities (known as elements of the balance statement) over space and time, often under conditions of risk or uncertainty.
Fu is a traditional administrative division of Chinese origin used in the East Asian cultural sphere, translated variously as commandery, prefecture, urban prefecture, or city.
Gaykhatu (Mongolian: Gaikhalt; Mongolian Cyrillic: Гайхалт, died 1295) was the fifth Ilkhanate ruler in Iran.
Güyük (or Kuyuk; translit h) (c. March 19, 1206 – April 20, 1248) was the third Great Khan of the Mongol Empire, the eldest son of Ögedei Khan and a grandson of Genghis Khan.
Genghis Khan or Temüjin Borjigin (Чингис хаан, Çingis hán) (also transliterated as Chinggis Khaan; born Temüjin, c. 1162 August 18, 1227) was the founder and first Great Khan of the Mongol Empire, which became the largest contiguous empire in history after his death.
Geography (from Greek γεωγραφία, geographia, literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, the features, the inhabitants, and the phenomena of Earth.
Glass is a non-crystalline amorphous solid that is often transparent and has widespread practical, technological, and decorative usage in, for example, window panes, tableware, and optoelectronics.
The Golden Horde (Алтан Орд, Altan Ord; Золотая Орда, Zolotaya Orda; Алтын Урда, Altın Urda) was originally a Mongol and later Turkicized khanate established in the 13th century and originating as the northwestern sector of the Mongol Empire.
Gong clan of Qufu is one of the Korean clans.
Goryeo (918–1392), also spelled as Koryŏ, was a Korean kingdom established in 918 by King Taejo.
A granary is a storehouse or room in a barn for threshed grain or animal feed.
The Grand Canal, known to the Chinese as the Beijing–Hangzhou Grand Canal (Jīng-Háng Dà Yùnhé), a UNESCO World Heritage Site, is the longest as well as one of the oldest canal or artificial river in the world and a famous tourist destination.
The grand chancellor, also translated as counselor-in-chief, chancellor, chief councillor, chief minister, imperial chancellor, lieutenant chancellor and prime minister, was the highest-ranking executive official in the imperial Chinese government.
The Gregorian calendar is the most widely used civil calendar in the world.
Guangxi (pronounced; Zhuang: Gvangjsih), officially the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, is a Chinese autonomous region in South Central China, bordering Vietnam.
Guizhou, formerly romanized as Kweichow, is a province of the People's Republic of China located in the southwestern part of the country.
Guo Shoujing (1231–1316), courtesy name Ruosi (若思), was a Chinese astronomer, engineer, and mathematician born in Xingtai, Hebei who lived during the Yuan Dynasty (1271–1368).
The Han Chinese,.
Hangzhou (Mandarin:; local dialect: /ɦɑŋ tseɪ/) formerly romanized as Hangchow, is the capital and most populous city of Zhejiang Province in East China.
Hebei (postal: Hopeh) is a province of China in the North China region.
Henan is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the central part of the country.
Hindu refers to any person who regards themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism.
The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC,William G. Boltz, Early Chinese Writing, World Archaeology, Vol.
The Lower Paleolithic era in the Korean Peninsula began roughly half a million years ago.
Various nomadic empires, including the Xiongnu (3rd century BCE to 1st century CE), the Xianbei state (93 to 234 CE), the Rouran Khaganate (330-555), the Turkic Khaganate (552-744) and others, ruled the area of present-day Mongolia.
Jews and Judaism in China are predominantly composed of Sephardi Jews and their descendants.
Tibetan history, as it has been recorded, is particularly focused on the history of Buddhism in Tibet.
The History of Yuan (Yuán Shǐ), also known as the Yuanshi, is one of the official Chinese historical works known as the Twenty-Four Histories of China.
The Hongwu Emperor (21 October 1328 – 24 June 1398), personal name Zhu Yuanzhang (Chu Yuan-chang in Wade-Giles), was the founding emperor of China's Ming dynasty.
Hu Sihui (和斯輝, 忽斯慧, also Hu Zheng Qi Huei; active nr. 1314–1330) was a court therapist and dietitian during Yuan dynasty in China.
The distinction between Hua and Yi, also known as Sino–barbarian dichotomy, is an ancient Chinese concept that differentiated a culturally defined "China" (called Hua, Huaxia 華夏, or Xia 夏) from cultural or ethnic outsiders (Yi "barbarians").
Humorism, or humoralism, was a system of medicine detailing the makeup and workings of the human body, adopted by Ancient Greek and Roman physicians and philosophers, positing that an excess or deficiency of any of four distinct bodily fluids in a person—known as humors or humours—directly influences their temperament and health.
The I Ching,.
The Ilkhanate, also spelled Il-khanate (ایلخانان, Ilxānān; Хүлэгийн улс, Hu’legīn Uls), was established as a khanate that formed the southwestern sector of the Mongol Empire, ruled by the Mongol House of Hulagu.
The Chinese imperial examinations were a civil service examination system in Imperial China to select candidates for the state bureaucracy.
The Imperial Preceptor, or Dishi (lit. "Teacher of the Emperor") was a high title and powerful post created by Kublai Khan, founder of the Yuan dynasty.
Inner Mongolia, officially the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region or Nei Mongol Autonomous Region (Ѳвѳр Монголын Ѳѳртѳѳ Засах Орон in Mongolian Cyrillic), is one of the autonomous regions of China, located in the north of the country.
International Studies Quarterly is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal of international studies and the official journal of the International Studies Association.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
The establishment of the Yuan dynasty in China in the 13th century dramatically increased the number of Muslims in China.
The Ispah rebellion was a series of civil wars occurring in the middle of 14th century in Fujian under the Yuan dynasty.
Jade Mirror of the Four Unknowns, Siyuan yujian (四元玉鉴), also referred to as Jade Mirror of the Four Origins, is a 1303 mathematical monograph by Yuan dynasty mathematician Zhu Shijie.
Jalair (Жалайр/Jalair;,also Djalair (~ Yyalair), Jalair) is one of the Darliqin Mongol tribes according to Rashid-al-Din Hamadani's Jami' al-tawarikh.
Jayaatu Khan (Mongolian: Заяат хаан, Jayaγatu qaγan, 1304–1332), born Tugh Temür, also known by the temple name Wenzong (Emperor Wenzong of Yuan, Chinese: 元文宗, 16 February 1304 – 2 September 1332), was an emperor of the Yuan dynasty.
The Jin dynasty, officially known as the Great Jin, lasted from 1115 to 1234 as one of the last dynasties in Chinese history to predate the Mongol invasion of China.
Jingdezhen porcelain is Chinese porcelain produced in or near Jingdezhen in southern China.
The Joseon dynasty (also transcribed as Chosŏn or Chosun, 조선; officially the Kingdom of Great Joseon, 대조선국) was a Korean dynastic kingdom that lasted for approximately five centuries.
Journal of Song-Yuan Studies, known as Journal of Sung-Yuan Studies from 1990 to 2000, Bulletin of Sung-Yuan Studies from 1978 to 1989, and Sung Studies Newsletter from 1970 to 1977, is an American academic journal on "middle imperial Chinese history" or Chinese history from the 10th to 14th centuries, specifically the Five Dynasties period, Liao dynasty, Song dynasty, Western Xia, Jin dynasty (1115–1234), and Yuan dynasty.
The Journal of the American Oriental Society is a quarterly academic journal published by the American Oriental Society since 1843.
The Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society is an academic journal which publishes articles on the history, archaeology, literature, language, religion and art of South Asia, the Middle East (together with North Africa and Ethiopia), Central Asia, East Asia and South-East Asia.
Jun ware is a type of Chinese pottery, one of the Five Great Kilns of Song dynasty ceramics.
The Jurchen (Manchu: Jušen; 女真, Nǚzhēn), also known by many variant names, were a Tungusic people who inhabited the region of Manchuria until around 1630, at which point they were reformed and combined with their neighbors as the Manchu.
A justice ministry, ministry of justice, or department of justice is a ministry or other government agency in charge of the administration of justice.
Kaidu (ᠬᠠᠢᠳᠤ Qaidu, Cyrillic: Хайду) (1230–1301) was the leader of the House of Ögedei and the de facto khan of the Chagatai Khanate, a division of the Mongol Empire.
Kaiping (開平), formerly romanized in Cantonese as Hoiping, is a county-level city in Guangdong Province, China.
The were two winds or storms that are said to have saved Japan from two Mongol fleets under Kublai Khan.
Karakorum (Khalkha Mongolian: Хархорум Kharkhorum) was the capital of the Mongol Empire between 1235 and 1260, and of the Northern Yuan in the 14–15th centuries.
Kashmir is the northernmost geographical region of the Indian subcontinent.
Kashrut (also kashruth or kashrus) is a set of Jewish religious dietary laws.
Külüg Khan (Mongolian: Хөлөг хаан, Hülüg Khaan, Külüg qaγan), born Khayishan (also spelled Khayisan, Хайсан, meaning "wall"), also known by the temple name Wuzong (Emperor Wuzong of Yuan) (August 4, 1281 – January 27, 1311), Prince of Huai-ning (懷寧王) in 1304-7,was an emperor of the Yuan dynasty.
Khagan or Qaghan (Old Turkic: kaɣan; хаан, khaan) is a title of imperial rank in the Turkic and Mongolian languages equal to the status of emperor and someone who rules a khaganate (empire).
A Khanate or Khaganate is a political entity ruled by a Khan or Khagan.
Khanbaliq or Dadu was the capital of the Yuan dynasty, the main center of the Mongol Empire founded by Kublai Khan in what is now Beijing, also the capital of China today.
The Khitan people were a nomadic people from Northeast Asia who, from the 4th century, inhabited an area corresponding to parts of modern Mongolia, Northeast China and the Russian Far East.
The Khongirad (Mongolian: Хонгирад/Khonghirad), also known as QongiratCentral Asia: Foundations of Change, by R. D. McChesney, pub Darwin Press, 1996, p202.
Khutughtu Khan (Mongolian: Хутагт хаан, Hutagt haan, Qutuγtu qaγan), born Kuśala (Mongolian: Хүслэн Höslen), also known by the temple name Mingzong (Emperor Mingzong of Yuan, Chinese: 元明宗, December 22, 1300 – August 30, 1329), was a son of Khayishan who seized the throne of the Yuan dynasty in 1329, but died soon after.
The Kipchaks were a Turkic nomadic people and confederation that existed in the Middle Ages, inhabiting parts of the Eurasian Steppe.
Korean monarchy existed in Korea until the end of the Japanese occupation.
Koreans (in South Korean; alternatively in North Korean,; see names of Korea) are an East Asian ethnic group originating from and native to Korea and southern and central Manchuria.
Kublai (Хубилай, Hubilai; Simplified Chinese: 忽必烈) was the fifth Khagan (Great Khan) of the Mongol Empire (Ikh Mongol Uls), reigning from 1260 to 1294 (although due to the division of the empire this was a nominal position).
Lan Yu (died 1393) was a Chinese general who contributed to the founding of the Ming Dynasty.
Fajia or Legalism is one of Sima Tan's six classical schools of thought in Chinese philosophy.
The lemon, Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck, is a species of small evergreen tree in the flowering plant family Rutaceae, native to Asia.
Liang was a traditional Chinese fief centered on present-day Kaifeng.
The Liao dynasty (Khitan: Mos Jælud), also known as the Liao Empire, officially the Great Liao, or the Khitan (Qidan) State (Khitan: Mos diau-d kitai huldʒi gur), was an empire in East Asia that ruled from 907 to 1125 over present-day Mongolia and portions of the Russian Far East, northern China, and northeastern Korea.
This is a list of the 64 hexagrams of the I Ching, or Book of Changes, and their Unicode character codes.
The list of states is chronological but follows the development of different dynasties.
The following is a list of Emperors of the Yuan dynasty (1271–1368) in China.
Liu Bingzhong (1216–1274), or Liu Kan was a Yuan dynasty court adviser and architect.
A lunisolar calendar is a calendar in many cultures whose date indicates both the moon phase and the time of the solar year.
In recreational mathematics and combinatorial design, a magic square is a n\times n square grid (where is the number of cells on each side) filled with distinct positive integers in the range 1,2,...,n^2 such that each cell contains a different integer and the sum of the integers in each row, column and diagonal is equal.
Mahārāja (महाराज, also spelled Maharajah, Moharaja) is a Sanskrit title for a "great ruler", "great king" or "high king".
Manchuria is a name first used in the 17th century by Chinese people to refer to a large geographic region in Northeast Asia.
Manchuria under Yuan rule refers to the Yuan dynasty's rule over Manchuria, including modern Northeast China and Outer Manchuria from the beginning to the end of the dynasty.
The Mandate of Heaven or Tian Ming is a Chinese political and religious doctrine used since ancient times to justify the rule of the King or Emperor of China.
Marco Polo (1254January 8–9, 1324) was an Italian merchant, explorer, and writer, born in the Republic of Venice.
In mathematics, a matrix (plural: matrices) is a rectangular array of numbers, symbols, or expressions, arranged in rows and columns.
Möngke (valign / Мөнх;; January 11, 1209 – August 11, 1259) was the fourth khagan of the Mongol Empire, ruling from July 1, 1251, to August 11, 1259.
A melon is any of various plants of the family Cucurbitaceae with sweet edible, fleshy fruit.
The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).
A military or armed force is a professional organization formally authorized by a sovereign state to use lethal or deadly force and weapons to support the interests of the state.
The military history of Myanmar (Burma) spans over a millennium, and is one of the main factors that have shaped the history of the country, and to a lesser degree the histories of the country's neighbours.
The Ming campaign against the Uriankhai of 1387 was an offensive military expedition campaign of Ming China's army led by General Feng Sheng against the Uriankhai horde of the Mongol chieftain Naghachu in Manchuria.
The Ming conquest of Yunnan was the final phase in the Chinese Ming dynasty expulsion of Mongol Yuan dynasty rule from China in the 1380s.
The Ming dynasty was the ruling dynasty of China – then known as the – for 276 years (1368–1644) following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty.
A Ministry of Defence or Defense (see spelling differences), also known as a Department of Defence or Defense, is the common name for a part of the government found in states where the government is divided into ministries or departments, responsible for matters of defence.
The Mongol conquest of the Jin dynasty, also known as the Mongol–Jin War, was fought between the Mongol Empire and the Jurchen-led Jin dynasty in Manchuria and north China.
The Mongol conquest of the Song dynasty under Kublai Khan (r. 1260–1294) was the final step for the Mongols to rule the whole of China under the Yuan dynasty.
The Mongol Empire (Mongolian: Mongolyn Ezent Güren; Mongolian Cyrillic: Монголын эзэнт гүрэн;; also Орда ("Horde") in Russian chronicles) existed during the 13th and 14th centuries and was the largest contiguous land empire in history.
The Mongol invasion of Java was a military effort made by Kublai Khan, founder of the Yuan dynasty (one of the fragments of the Mongol Empire), to invade Java, an island in modern Indonesia.
Mongol invasions and conquests took place throughout the 13th century, resulting in the vast Mongol Empire, which by 1300 covered much of Asia and Eastern Europe.
The Mongol invasions of Vietnam or Mongol-Vietnamese War refer to the three times that the Mongol Empire and its chief khanate the Yuan dynasty invaded Đại Việt during the time of the Trần dynasty, along with Champa: in 1258, 1285, and 1287–88. The first invasion began in 1258 under the united Mongol Empire, as it looked for alternative paths to invade Song China. The Mongol high ranking commander Uriyangkhadai was successful in capturing the Dai Viet capital (Thang Long); however, his army was weakened by the tropical climate and were later defeated. The second and third invasions occurred during the reign of Kublai Khan of the Yuan Dynasty. By this point, the Mongolian Empire had fractured into 4 separate entities with Yuan Dynasty being the strongest and biggest empire. These invasions resulted in a disastrous land defeat for the Mongols in 1285 and the annihilation of the Mongol navy in 1288. However, both the Trần dynasty and Champa decided to accept the nominal supremacy of the Yuan dynasty and serve as tributary states in order to avoid further conflicts.
Mongolia (Monggol Ulus in Mongolian; in Mongolian Cyrillic) is a landlocked unitary sovereign state in East Asia.
The Yuan dynasty ruled over the Mongolian steppe, including both Inner and Outer Mongolia as well as part of southern Siberia, for roughly a century between 1271 and 1368.
The Mongolian Cyrillic alphabet (Mongolian: Монгол Кирилл үсэг, Mongol Kirill üseg or Кирилл цагаан толгой, Kirill tsagaan tolgoi) is the writing system used for the standard dialect of the Mongolian language in the modern state of Mongolia.
The Mongolian language (in Mongolian script: Moŋɣol kele; in Mongolian Cyrillic: монгол хэл, mongol khel.) is the official language of Mongolia and both the most widely-spoken and best-known member of the Mongolic language family.
The classical or traditional Mongolian script (in Mongolian script: Mongγol bičig; in Mongolian Cyrillic: Монгол бичиг Mongol bichig), also known as Hudum Mongol bichig, was the first writing system created specifically for the Mongolian language, and was the most successful until the introduction of Cyrillic in 1946.
The Mongols (ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ, Mongolchuud) are an East-Central Asian ethnic group native to Mongolia and China's Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.
Movable type (US English; moveable type in British English) is the system and technology of printing and typography that uses movable components to reproduce the elements of a document (usually individual letters or punctuation) usually on the medium of paper.
Moxibustion is a traditional Chinese medicine therapy which consists of burning dried mugwort (wikt:moxa) on particular points on the body.
Mu Ying (1345-1392) was a general during the Ming Dynasty, and an adopted son of its founder, the Hongwu Emperor (aka Zhu Yuanzhang).
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
Naghachu (script, d. 1388), also written as Nahacu, was a Uriankhai leader and general of the Northern Yuan dynasty in Manchuria, which was under Liaoyang province of the former Yuan dynasty.
Neo-Confucianism (often shortened to lixue 理學) is a moral, ethical, and metaphysical Chinese philosophy influenced by Confucianism, and originated with Han Yu and Li Ao (772–841) in the Tang Dynasty, and became prominent during the Song and Ming dynasties.
The Nestorian Cross is associated with the Assyrian Church of the East.
Nestorianism is a Christological doctrine that emphasizes a distinction between the human and divine natures of the divine person, Jesus.
North China (literally "China's north") is a geographical region of China, lying North of the Qinling Huaihe Line.
Northern China and southern China are two approximate regions within China. The exact boundary between these two regions are not precisely defined. Nevertheless, the self-perception of Chinese people, especially regional stereotypes, has often been dominated by these two concepts, given that regional differences in culture and language have historically fostered strong regional identities of the Chinese people.
The Northern Yuan dynasty, was a Mongol régime based in the Mongolian homeland.
A novel is a relatively long work of narrative fiction, normally in prose, which is typically published as a book.
Olmaliq also spelled as Almalyk (Olmaliq / Олмалиқ; Алмалык) is a city (2004 pop est 138,000) in the Tashkent Region of central Uzbekistan, approximately 65 km east of Tashkent.
In historical legal systems, an outlaw is declared as outside the protection of the law.
Painting is the practice of applying paint, pigment, color or other medium to a solid surface (support base).
In mathematics, Pascal's triangle is a triangular array of the binomial coefficients.
The Pax Mongolica (Latin for "Mongol Peace"), less often known as Pax Tatarica ("Tatar Peace"), is a historiographical term modelled after the original phrase Pax Romana which describes the stabilising effects of the conquests of the Mongol Empire on the social, cultural and economic life of the inhabitants of the vast Eurasian territory that the Mongols conquered in the 13th and 14th centuries.
The Persians--> are an Iranian ethnic group that make up over half the population of Iran.
The Phagmodrupa Dynasty or Pagmodru was a dynastic regime that held sway over Tibet or parts thereof from 1354 to the early 17th century.
A playing card is a piece of specially prepared heavy paper, thin cardboard, plastic-coated paper, cotton-paper blend, or thin plastic, marked with distinguishing motifs and used as one of a set for playing card games.
Poetry (the term derives from a variant of the Greek term, poiesis, "making") is a form of literature that uses aesthetic and rhythmic qualities of language—such as phonaesthetics, sound symbolism, and metre—to evoke meanings in addition to, or in place of, the prosaic ostensible meaning.
Porcelain is a ceramic material made by heating materials, generally including kaolin, in a kiln to temperatures between.
Post-classical history (also called the Post-Antiquity era, Post-Ancient Era, or Pre-Modern Era) is a periodization commonly used by the school of "world history" instead of Middle Ages (Medieval) which is roughly synonymous.
Potassium nitrate is a chemical compound with the chemical formula KNO3.
A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state.
Pulse diagnosis is a diagnostic technique used in Ayurveda, traditional Chinese medicine, traditional Mongolian medicine, Siddha medicine, traditional Tibetan medicine, and Unani.
A Pyrrhic victory is a victory that inflicts such a devastating toll on the victor that it is tantamount to defeat.
The Qara Khitai (alternatively spelled Kara Khitai; Хар Хятан; 1124–1218), also known as the Kara Khitan Khanate or Western Liao, officially the Great Liao, was a sinicized Khitan empire in Central Asia.
The Qing dynasty, also known as the Qing Empire, officially the Great Qing, was the last imperial dynasty of China, established in 1636 and ruling China from 1644 to 1912.
Qinghai, formerly known in English as Kokonur, is a province of the People's Republic of China located in the northwest of the country.
Qocho (Mongolian Uihur "id."), also known as Idiqut, ("holy wealth"; "glory") was a Tocharian-Uyghur kingdom created in 843.
The Qu form of poetry is a type of Classical Chinese poetry form, consisting of words written in one of a number of certain, set tone patterns, based upon the tunes of various songs.
Quanzhou, formerly known as Chinchew, is a prefecture-level city beside the Taiwan Strait in Fujian Province, China.
Qufu is a city in southwestern Shandong Province, China.
is a prefecture-level city in western Zhejiang province, People's Republic of China.
Ragibagh (Arigabag), also known as Emperor Tianshun of Yuan (Chinese: 元天順帝), was a son of Yesün Temür who was briefly installed to the throne of the Yuan dynasty in Shangdu in 1328.
Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary is a large American dictionary, first published in 1966 as The Random House Dictionary of the English Language: The Unabridged Edition.
Rashīd al-Dīn Ṭabīb (رشیدالدین طبیب), also known as Rashīd al-Dīn Faḍlullāh Hamadānī (رشیدالدین فضلالله همدانی, 1247–1318), was a statesman, historian and physician in Ilkhanate-ruled Iran.
The Red Turban Rebellion was an uprising influenced by the White Lotus Society members that, between 1351 and 1368, targeted the ruling Mongol Yuan dynasty, eventually leading to the overthrowing of Mongol rule in China.
Reduction is a surgical procedure to restore a fracture or dislocation to the correct alignment.
The broad definition of regicide (regis "of king" + cida "killer" or cidium "killing") is the deliberate killing of a monarch, or the person responsible for the killing of a person of royalty.
Rinchinbal (translit; ᠷᠢᠨᠴᠢᠨᠪᠠᠯ,; from Tibetan ཡིད་བཞིན་འགྲུབ་པ།rin chen dpal), also known by the temple name Ningzong (Emperor Ningzong of Yuan, Chinese: 元寧宗, May 1, 1326 – December 14, 1332), was a son of Kuśala who was briefly installed to the throne of the Yuan dynasty, but died soon after he seized the throne.
The Sakya ("pale earth") school is one of four major schools of Tibetan Buddhism, the others being the Nyingma, Kagyu, and Gelug.
Samarkand (Uzbek language Uzbek alphabet: Samarqand; سمرقند; Самарканд; Σαμαρκάνδη), alternatively Samarqand, is a city in modern-day Uzbekistan and is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in Central Asia.
Sanqu refers to a fixed-rhythm form of Classical Chinese poetry, or "literary song".
A second-class citizen is a person who is systematically discriminated against within a state or other political jurisdiction, despite their nominal status as a citizen or legal resident there.
Semu is the name of a caste established by the Yuan dynasty.
Shamanism is a practice that involves a practitioner reaching altered states of consciousness in order to perceive and interact with what they believe to be a spirit world and channel these transcendental energies into this world.
Shan shui (pronounced) refers to a style of traditional Chinese painting that involves or depicts scenery or natural landscapes, using a brush and ink rather than more conventional paints.
Shandong (formerly romanized as Shantung) is a coastal province of the People's Republic of China, and is part of the East China region.
Shangdu, also known as Xanadu (Mongolian: Šandu), was the capital of Kublai Khan's Yuan dynasty in China, before he decided to move his throne to the Jin dynasty capital of Zhōngdū, which he renamed Khanbaliq, present-day Beijing.
Shanxi (postal: Shansi) is a province of China, located in the North China region.
The is the treasure house that belongs to Tōdai-ji in Nara, Nara, Japan.
Shen Kuo (1031–1095), courtesy name Cunzhong (存中) and pseudonym Mengqi (now usually given as Mengxi) Weng (夢溪翁),Yao (2003), 544.
Shi Tianze (1202 – 5 March 1275) was a general in the early period of the Yuan dynasty of China.
Sichuan, formerly romanized as Szechuan or Szechwan, is a province in southwest China occupying most of the Sichuan Basin and the easternmost part of the Tibetan Plateau between the Jinsha River on the west, the Daba Mountains in the north, and the Yungui Plateau to the south.
The siege of Caizhou between 1233 and 1234 was fought between the Jurchen-led Jin dynasty and the allied forces of the Mongol Empire and Southern Song dynasty.
The Silk Road was an ancient network of trade routes that connected the East and West.
Sinicization, sinicisation, sinofication, or sinification is a process whereby non-Chinese societies come under the influence of Chinese culture, particularly Han Chinese culture and societal norms.
Sino-Roman relations comprised the mostly indirect contact, flow of trade goods, information, and occasional travellers between the Roman Empire and Han Empire of China, as well as between the later Eastern Roman Empire and various Chinese dynasties.
SinoMaps Press, previously known as China Cartographic Publishing House, is a publisher in Beijing, China, specializing in professional map publishing.
Smelting is a process of applying heat to ore in order to melt out a base metal.
The Song dynasty (960–1279) was an era of Chinese history that began in 960 and continued until 1279.
Sorghaghtani Beki (ᠰᠥᠯᠺᠥᠺᠲᠠᠨᠢᠪᠡᠺᠢ) or Bekhi (Bek(h)i is a title), also written Sorkaktani, Sorkhokhtani, Sorkhogtani, Siyurkuktiti (c.1190-1252; posthumous name) was a Keraite princess and daughter-in-law of Genghis Khan.
Sorghum is a genus of flowering plants in the grass family Poaceae.
Standard Tibetan is the most widely spoken form of the Tibetic languages.
A state religion (also called an established religion or official religion) is a religious body or creed officially endorsed by the state.
Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food.
The Sui Dynasty was a short-lived imperial dynasty of China of pivotal significance.
In mathematics, a set of simultaneous equations, also known as a system of equations or an equation system, is a finite set of equations for which common solutions are sought.
Tan Qixiang (25 February 1911 − 28 August 1992) was a historian and is considered a founder of the field of historical geography in Modern China.
The Tang dynasty or the Tang Empire was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.
The Tangut first appeared as a tribal union living under Tuyuhun authority and moved to Northwest China sometime before the 10th century to found the Western Xia or Tangut Empire (1038–1227).
Taoism, also known as Daoism, is a religious or philosophical tradition of Chinese origin which emphasizes living in harmony with the Tao (also romanized as ''Dao'').
Töregene Khatun (also Turakina) (d. 1246) was the Great Khatun and regent of the Mongol Empire from the death of her husband Ögedei Khan in 1241 until the election of her eldest son Güyük Khan in 1246.
Temür Öljeytü Khan (translit; ᠥᠯᠵᠡᠶᠢᠲᠦ ᠲᠡᠮᠦᠷ), born Temür (also spelled Timur, Төмөр, October 15, 1265 – February 10, 1307), also known by the temple name Chengzong (Emperor Chengzong of Yuan) was the second emperor of the Yuan dynasty, ruling from May 10, 1294 to February 10, 1307.
Ten Wings (十翼 shí yì) is a collection of commentaries (zhuan 傳) to the classical Chinese Book of Changes traditionally ascribed to Confucius.
The Canon of Medicine (القانون في الطب al-Qānūn fī al-Ṭibb) is an encyclopedia of medicine in five books compiled by Persian philosopher Avicenna (Ibn Sina) and completed in 1025.
The Historical Atlas of China is an 8-volume work published in Beijing between 1982 and 1988, edited by Tan Qixiang.
The Three Departments and Six Ministries system was the main central government structure in imperial China from the Sui dynasty (581–618) to the Yuan dynasty (1271–1368).
The Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors were a group of mythological rulers or deities in ancient northern China who in later history have been assigned dates in a period from circa 2852 BC to 2070 BC.
Tibet is a historical region covering much of the Tibetan Plateau in Central Asia.
Tibet under Yuan rule refers to the Yuan dynasty's rule over Tibet from approximately 1270 to 1354.
Tibetan Buddhism is the form of Buddhist doctrine and institutions named after the lands of Tibet, but also found in the regions surrounding the Himalayas and much of Central Asia.
The Tibetan Empire ("Great Tibet") existed from the 7th to 9th centuries AD when Tibet was unified as a large and powerful empire, and ruled an area considerably larger than the Tibetan Plateau, stretching to parts of East Asia, Central Asia and South Asia.
Toghon Temür (Тогоонтөмөр, Togoontömör; 25 May 1320 – 23 May 1370), also known by the temple name Emperor Huizong bestowed by the Northern Yuan dynasty in Mongolia and by the posthumous name Shundi bestowed by the Hongwu Emperor of the Ming dynasty China, was a son of Khutughtu Khan Kusala who ruled as emperor of the Yuan dynasty.
Toqto’a (ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠ Toqtogha; Cyrillic: Тогтох;; 1314－1356), also called "The Great Historian Tuotuo", was a Yuan official historian and the high-ranking minister of the Yuan dynasty of China.
Trafford is a metropolitan borough of Greater Manchester, England, with an estimated population of 233,300 in 2015.
The Trần dynasty (Nhà Trần, 陳朝, Trần triều,.) ruled in Vietnam (then known as Đại Việt) from 1225 to 1400.
Turkestan, also spelt Turkistan (literally "Land of the Turks" in Persian), refers to an area in Central Asia between Siberia to the north and Tibet, India and Afghanistan to the south, the Caspian Sea to the west and the Gobi Desert to the east.
The turnip or white turnip (Brassica rapa subsp. rapa) is a root vegetable commonly grown in temperate climates worldwide for its white, bulbous taproot.
Tusi (Wade–Giles: t'u3-szu1; ᠠᡳᠮᠠᠨ ᡳ ᡥᠠᡶᠠᠨ|v.
Underglaze is a method of decorating pottery in which the decoration is applied to the surface before it is glazed.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
Vajrayāna, Mantrayāna, Tantrayāna, Tantric Buddhism and Esoteric Buddhism are the various Buddhist traditions of Tantra and "Secret Mantra", which developed in medieval India and spread to Tibet and East Asia.
Venice (Venezia,; Venesia) is a city in northeastern Italy and the capital of the Veneto region.
Wang Zhen (1290–1333) was a Chinese agronomist, inventor, writer, and politician of the Yuan Dynasty (1271–1368).
The War of the Two Capitals was a civil war that occurred in 1328 under the Yuan dynasty based in China.
Wei Yilin (–1347) was a Chinese physician and surgeon who lived during the Mongol Yuan dynasty.
The Western Xia, also known as the Xi Xia Empire, to the Mongols as the Tangut Empire and to the Tangut people themselves and to the Tibetans as Mi-nyak,Stein (1972), pp.
Wonjong of Goryeo (5 April 1219 – 23 July 1274) was the 24th ruler of the Goryeo dynasty of Korea from 1260 to 1274.
Woodblock printing is a technique for printing text, images or patterns used widely throughout East Asia and originating in China in antiquity as a method of printing on textiles and later paper.
Written Chinese comprises Chinese characters (汉字/漢字; pinyin: Hànzì, literally "Han characters") used to represent the Chinese language.
Written Vernacular Chinese is the forms of written Chinese based on the varieties of Chinese spoken throughout China, in contrast to Classical Chinese, the written standard used during imperial China up to the early twentieth century.
The Wu Xing, also known as the Five Elements, Five Phases, the Five Agents, the Five Movements, Five Processes, the Five Steps/Stages and the Five Planets of significant gravity: Jupiter-木, Saturn-土, Mercury-水, Venus-金, Mars-火Dr Zai, J..
Xiangzhou District is a district of the city of Xiangyang, Hubei, People's Republic of China.
Xingzhou or Xing Prefecture (邢州) was a zhou (prefecture) in imperial China centering in modern Xingtai, Hebei, China.
Yam (Өртөө, Örtöö, checkpoint) was a supply point route messenger system employed and extensively used and expanded by Genghis Khan and used by subsequent Great Khans and Khans.
Yao Shu (姚璹) (632–705), courtesy name Lingzhang (令璋), formally Count Cheng of Wuxing (吳興成伯), was an official of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty and Wu Zetian's Zhou Dynasty, serving twice as chancellor during Wu Zetian's reign.
The Yellow River or Huang He is the second longest river in Asia, after the Yangtze River, and the sixth longest river system in the world at the estimated length of.
In Chinese philosophy, yin and yang (and; 陽 yīnyáng, lit. "dark-bright", "negative-positive") describes how seemingly opposite or contrary forces may actually be complementary, interconnected, and interdependent in the natural world, and how they may give rise to each other as they interrelate to one another.
Yingchang was one of the important cities in the Yuan dynasty.
The Yongle Emperor (Yung-lo in Wade–Giles; 2 May 1360 – 12 August 1424) — personal name Zhu Di (WG: Chu Ti) — was the third emperor of the Ming dynasty in China, reigning from 1402 to 1424.
The Yuan dynasty was a Mongol khanate that ruled over China from 1271 to 1368, after the Mongols conquered the Western Xia, Western Liao, and Jin dynasties they allowed for the continuation of locally minted copper currency, as well as allowing for the continued use of previously created and older forms of currency (from previous Chinese dynasties), while they immediately abolished the Jin dynasty’s paper money as it suffered heavily from inflation due to the wars with the Mongols.
The Yuan dynasty in Inner Asia was the domination of the Yuan dynasty in Inner Asia in the 13th and the 14th centuries.
Yuan poetry refers to those types or styles of poetry particularly associated with the era of the Yuan dynasty (1271–1368), in China.
Yunnan is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the far southwest of the country.
Zaju (literally meaning "variety show") was a form of Chinese drama or Chinese opera which provided entertainment through a synthesis of recitations of prose and poetry, dance, singing, and mime, with a certain emphasis on comedy (or, happy endings).
Zhao Bing (12 February 1272 – 19 March 1279), also known as Emperor Bing of Song or Bing, Emperor of Song (宋帝昺),Note that the "Bing" refers to the emperor's personal given name.
Zhao Mengfu (courtesy name Zi'ang (子昂); pseudonyms Songxue (松雪, "Pine Snow"), Oubo (鸥波, "Gull Waves"), and Shuijing-gong Dao-ren (水精宫道人, "Master of the Crystal Palace"); 1254–1322), was a descendant of the Song Dynasty's imperial family, and a Chinese scholar, painter and calligrapher during the Yuan Dynasty.
Zhenjin (1243 – January 5, 1286), also Jingim, Chinkim, or Chingkim (Чингим/Chingim), was the second son of Kublai Khan, founder of the Yuan dynasty.
Zhongdu (中都, lit. "Central Capital") was the capital of the Jurchen-led Jin dynasty in medieval China.
Zhongshu Sheng, commonly translated as the Secretariat, Central Secretariat or Imperial Secretariat, was one department in the Three Departments and Six Ministries government structure officially established beginning in the Sui dynasty in the history of China.
Zhou were historical political divisions of China.
Zhu Shijie (1249–1314), courtesy name Hanqing (汉卿), pseudonym Songting (松庭), was one of the greatest Chinese mathematicians living during the Yuan Dynasty.
Zhu Xi (October 18, 1130 – April 23, 1200), also known by his courtesy name Yuanhui (or Zhonghui), and self-titled Hui'an, was a Chinese philosopher, politician, and writer of the Song dynasty.
Empire of Great Khan, Empire of great khan, Empire of the Great Khan, Great Khanate, Great Yuan, Great Yuan Empire, Great Yuan Great Mongol State, Khanate of The Great Khan, Mongol China, Mongol Yuan, Mongol Yuan Dynasty, Mongol Yuan Empire, Mongol Yuan dynasty, Mongol Yüan, Yeke Mongghul-un Yuwan Ulus, Yu'an Dynasty, Yuan (Mongol) Dynasty, Yuan (Mongol) dynasty, Yuan China, Yuan Dynasty, Yuan Empire, Yuan Khanate, Yuan Mongol, Yuan Mongol regime, Yuan dyansty, Yuan dynasty/Archive 1, Yuan dynasty/Archive 2, Yuan era, Yuan period, Yuan regime, Yuean Dynasty, Yuen Dynasty, Yuán Cháo, Yuán Dynasty, Yüan Dynasty, Yüan Mongol, Yüan Mongol regime, Yüen dynasty, 元朝, 大元.