216 relations: Abolition of monarchy, Adolf Hitler, Albanians, Aleksandar Ranković, Alexander I of Yugoslavia, Allies of World War II, Ante Trumbić, Anti-bureaucratic revolution, Anti-Fascist Council for the National Liberation of Yugoslavia, Arbitration Commission of the Peace Conference on Yugoslavia, Austria-Hungary, Axis powers, Banovina of Croatia, Barbara Jelavich, BBC, Belgrade, Benito Mussolini, Bihać, Bled agreement (1947), Bogoljub Kočović, Bosnia (region), Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bosniaks, Bosnian language, Bosnian War, Breakup of Yugoslavia, Brioni Agreement, Bulgaria, Capital city, Carinthia, Case Black, Case White, Catholic Church, Central Europe, Central Intelligence Agency, Central Serbia, Chetniks, Clash of Civilizations, Coat of arms, Cold War, Cominform, Confederation, Conference of Ambassadors, Constituent assembly, Constitutional crisis, Constitutionality, Corfu Declaration, Coup d'état, Creation of Yugoslavia, Croatia, ..., Croatian language, Croatian Spring, Croatian War of Independence, Croats, Dalmatia, Dayton Agreement, Debt moratorium, Draža Mihailović, Dušan Simović, Eastern Bloc, Eastern Christianity, Edvard Kardelj, Ethnic hatred, European Union, Flag, Franjo Tuđman, Greater Serbia, Guerrilla warfare, Herzegovina, Hey, Slavs, History (U.S. TV network), History of the Balkans, Illyrian movement, Independence, Independent State of Croatia, Indiana University, Informbiro period, Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization, International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia, International recognition of Kosovo, Interwar period, Invasion of Yugoslavia, Istria, Italian Fascism, Ivan Mihailov, Jajce, John R. Lampe, Joseph Stalin, Josip Broz Tito, Karađorđević dynasty, Kingdom of Italy, Kingdom of Serbia, Kingdom of Yugoslavia, Kiro Gligorov, Kosovo, Kosovo Albanians, League of Communists of Yugoslavia, List of heads of state of Yugoslavia, List of Presidents of Czechoslovakia, List of sovereign states, Ljubljana, Ljubljana Jože Pučnik Airport, Luftwaffe, Marseille, Marshal of Yugoslavia, Marshall Plan, Martin Špegelj, Milan Kučan, Milovan Djilas, Misha Glenny, Montenegrin independence referendum, 2006, Montenegrin language, Montenegro, National Anthem of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, NATO, Nazi Germany, Nazism, Non-Aligned Movement, Novi Sad, ORF (broadcaster), Ottoman Empire, Overthrow of Slobodan Milošević, Pan-Slavic colors, Pannonian Rusyn language, Parliament of Yugoslavia, Peacekeeping, Peter II of Yugoslavia, Plitvice Lakes incident, Podgorica, Preševo, President for Life, Prince Paul of Yugoslavia, Pristina, Protests of 1968, Puniša Račić, Rebecca West, Red Army, Red star, Republic of Macedonia, Republic of Montenegro (1992–2006), Republic of Serbia (1992–2006), Republic of Serbian Krajina, Rijeka, Rump state, Sarajevo, Serbia, Serbia and Montenegro, Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Serbian language, Serbo-Croatian, Serbs, Skopje, Slavs, Slobodan Milošević, Slovenia, Socialist Autonomous Province of Kosovo, Socialist Autonomous Province of Vojvodina, Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Socialist Republic of Croatia, Socialist Republic of Macedonia, Socialist Republic of Montenegro, Socialist Republic of Serbia, Socialist Republic of Slovenia, South Slavs, Southeast Europe, Soviet Union, Stane Dolanc, State of emergency, State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs, Stjepan Radić, Styria, Subdivisions of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, Succession of states, Ten-Day War, The Economist, The World Factbook, Tito–Šubašić Agreements, Totalitarianism, Transcription (linguistics), Treaty of Versailles, Trieste, Tripartite Pact, United Nations, United Nations Security Council, United Nations Security Council Resolution 721, United Nations Security Council Resolution 777, Ustashe, Vladimir Žerjavić, Vladko Maček, Vlado Chernozemski, Vojvodina, Walter Roberts (writer), William Jovanovich, Women in Yugoslavia, Worker cooperative, World War I, World War II casualties, Yugo-nostalgia, Yugoslav Committee, Yugoslav coup d'état, Yugoslav government-in-exile, Yugoslav Partisans, Yugoslav People's Army, Yugoslav Wars, Yugoslavian parliamentary election, 1945, Yugoslavs, Zadar, Zagreb, .yu, 1931 Yugoslav Constitution, 1946 Yugoslav Constitution, 1968 student demonstrations in Yugoslavia, 1974 Yugoslav Constitution, 1981 protests in Kosovo, 1989 Kosovo miners' strike. Expand index (166 more) » « Shrink index
The abolition of monarchy involves the ending of monarchical elements in the government of a country.
Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician, demagogue, and revolutionary, who was the leader of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.
The Albanians (Shqiptarët) are a European ethnic group that is predominantly native to Albania, Kosovo, western Macedonia, southern Serbia, southeastern Montenegro and northwestern Greece, who share a common ancestry, culture and language.
Aleksandar Ranković (nom de guerre Leka; Александар Ранковић Лека; 28 November 1909 – 19 August 1983) was a Yugoslav communist of Serb origin, considered to be the third most powerful man in Yugoslavia after Josip Broz Tito and Edvard Kardelj.
Alexander I (– 9 October 1934), also known as Alexander the Unifier, served as a prince regent of the Kingdom of Serbia from 1914 and later became King of Yugoslavia from 1921 to 1934 (prior to 1929 the state was known as the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes).
The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945).
Ante Trumbić (17 May 1864 – 17 November 1938) was a Croatian politician in the early 20th century.
The Anti-bureaucratic revolution was a campaign of street protests ran between 1986 and 1989 in former Yugoslavia by supporters of Serbian leader Slobodan Milošević.
The Anti-Fascist Council for the National Liberation of Yugoslavia, known more commonly by its Yugoslav abbreviation AVNOJ (Serbo-Croatian: Antifašističko veće narodnog oslobođenja Jugoslavije – AVNOJ / Антифашистичко веће народног ослобођења Југославије – АВНОЈ), was the political umbrella organization for the national liberation councils of the Yugoslav resistance against the Axis occupation during World War II.
The Arbitration Commission of the Conference on Yugoslavia (commonly known as Badinter Arbitration Committee) was an arbitration body set up by the Council of Ministers of the European Economic Community on 27 August 1991 to provide the Conference on Yugoslavia with legal advice.
Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy in English-language sources, was a constitutional union of the Austrian Empire (the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council, or Cisleithania) and the Kingdom of Hungary (Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen or Transleithania) that existed from 1867 to 1918, when it collapsed as a result of defeat in World War I. The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867.
The Axis powers (Achsenmächte; Potenze dell'Asse; 枢軸国 Sūjikukoku), also known as the Axis and the Rome–Berlin–Tokyo Axis, were the nations that fought in World War II against the Allied forces.
The Banovina of Croatia or Banate of Croatia (Banovina Hrvatska, Бановина Хрватска) was an autonomous province (banovina) of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia between 1939 and 1941.
Barbara Jelavich (April 12, 1923 – January 14, 1995) was an American professor of history at Indiana University and an expert on the diplomatic histories of the Russian and Habsburg monarchies, the diplomacy of the Ottoman Empire, and the history of the Balkans.
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
Belgrade (Beograd / Београд, meaning "White city",; names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of Serbia.
Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (29 July 1883 – 28 April 1945) was an Italian politician and journalist who was the leader of the National Fascist Party (Partito Nazionale Fascista, PNF).
Bihać is a city and the administrative center of Una-Sana Canton of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, an entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The Bled agreement (also referred to as the "Tito–Dimitrov treaty") was an agreement signed on the 1 August 1947 in Bled, PR Slovenia, FPR Yugoslavia.
Bogoljub Kočović (born 1920) is a Bosnian jurist and statistician.
Bosnia (Bosna/Босна) is the northern region of Bosnia and Herzegovina, encompassing roughly 81% of the country; the other eponymous region, the southern part, is Herzegovina.
Bosnia and Herzegovina (or; abbreviated B&H; Bosnian and Serbian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH) / Боснa и Херцеговина (БиХ), Croatian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH)), sometimes called Bosnia-Herzegovina, and often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in Southeastern Europe located on the Balkan Peninsula.
The Bosniaks (Bošnjaci,; singular masculine: Bošnjak, feminine: Bošnjakinja) are a South Slavic nation and ethnic group inhabiting mainly the area of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The Bosnian language (bosanski / босански) is the standardized variety of Serbo-Croatian mainly used by Bosniaks.
The Bosnian War was an international armed conflict that took place in Bosnia and Herzegovina between 1992 and 1995.
The breakup of Yugoslavia occurred as a result of a series of political upheavals and conflicts during the early 1990s.
The Brioni Agreement or Brioni Declaration (Brijunska deklaracija, Brionska deklaracija, Brijonska deklaracija) is a document signed by representatives of Slovenia, Croatia and the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia under the political sponsorship of the European Community (EC) on the Brijuni Islands on 7 July 1991.
Bulgaria (България, tr.), officially the Republic of Bulgaria (Република България, tr.), is a country in southeastern Europe.
A capital city (or simply capital) is the municipality exercising primary status in a country, state, province, or other administrative region, usually as its seat of government.
Case Black (Fall Schwarz), also known as the Fifth Enemy Offensive (Peta neprijateljska ofanziva) in Yugoslav historiography and often identified with its final phase, the Battle of the Sutjeska (Bitka na Sutjesci) was a joint attack by the Axis taking place from 15 May to 16 June 1943, which aimed to destroy the main Yugoslav Partisan force, near the Sutjeska river in south-eastern Bosnia.
Case White (Fall Weiss), also known as the Fourth Enemy Offensive (Četvrta neprijateljska ofenziva/ofanziva) was a combined Axis strategic offensive launched against the Yugoslav Partisans throughout occupied Yugoslavia during World War II.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Central Europe is the region comprising the central part of Europe.
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).
Central Serbia (Централна Србија / Centralna Srbija), also referred to as Serbia proper (ужа Србија / uža Srbija), is the part of Serbia lying outside the provinces of Vojvodina to the north and the disputed territory of Kosovo (Kosovo and Metohija) to the south.
The Chetnik Detachments of the Yugoslav Army, also known as the Yugoslav Army in the Homeland or The Ravna Gora Movement, commonly known as the Chetniks (Četnici, Четници,; Četniki), was a World War II movement in Yugoslavia led by Draža Mihailović, an anti-Axis movement in their long-term goals which engaged in marginal resistance activities for limited periods.
The Clash of Civilizations is a hypothesis that people's cultural and religious identities will be the primary source of conflict in the post-Cold War world.
A coat of arms is a heraldic visual design on an escutcheon (i.e., shield), surcoat, or tabard.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
Founded on October 5, 1947, Cominform (from Communist Information Bureau) is the common name for what was officially referred to as the Information Bureau of the Communist and Workers' Parties.
A confederation (also known as a confederacy or league) is a union of sovereign states, united for purposes of common action often in relation to other states.
The Conference of Ambassadors of the Principal Allied and Associated Powers was an inter-allied organization of the Entente in the period following the end of World War I. Formed in Paris in January 1920 it became a successor of the Supreme War Council and was later on de facto incorporated into the League of Nations as one of its governing bodies.
A constituent assembly or constitutional assembly is a body or assembly of popularly elected representatives composed for the purpose of drafting or adopting a document called the constitution.
In political science, a constitutional crisis is a problem or conflict in the function of a government that the political constitution or other fundamental governing law is perceived to be unable to resolve.
Constitutionality is the condition of acting in accordance with an applicable constitution; the status of a law, a procedure, or an act's accordance with the laws or guidelines set forth in the applicable constitution.
The Corfu Declaration is the agreement that made the creation of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia possible.
A coup d'état, also known simply as a coup, a putsch, golpe de estado, or an overthrow, is a type of revolution, where the illegal and overt seizure of a state by the military or other elites within the state apparatus occurs.
Yugoslavia was a state concept among the South Slavic intelligentsia and later popular masses from the 17th to early 20th centuries that culminated in its realization after the 1918 collapse of Austria-Hungary at the end of World War I and the formation of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes.
Croatia (Hrvatska), officially the Republic of Croatia (Republika Hrvatska), is a country at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, on the Adriatic Sea.
Croatian (hrvatski) is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian language used by Croats, principally in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Serbian province of Vojvodina and other neighboring countries.
The Croatian Spring (Hrvatsko proljeće, also called masovni pokret or MASPOK, for "mass movement") was a cultural and political movement that emerged from the League of Communists of Croatia in the late 1960s which opposed the unitarisation and called for economic, cultural and political reforms in SFR Yugoslavia and therefore more rights for SR Croatia within Yugoslavia.
The Croatian War of Independence was fought from 1991 to 1995 between Croat forces loyal to the government of Croatia—which had declared independence from the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY)—and the Serb-controlled Yugoslav People's Army (JNA) and local Serb forces, with the JNA ending its combat operations in Croatia by 1992.
Croats (Hrvati) or Croatians are a nation and South Slavic ethnic group native to Croatia.
Dalmatia (Dalmacija; see names in other languages) is one of the four historical regions of Croatia, alongside Croatia proper, Slavonia and Istria.
The General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina, also known as the Dayton Agreement, Dayton Accords, Paris Protocol or Dayton–Paris Agreement, (Dejtonski mirovni sporazum, Dejtonski mirovni sporazum, Daytonski sporazum) is the peace agreement reached at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base near Dayton, Ohio, United States, in November 1995, and formally signed in Paris, France, on 14 December 1995.
A debt moratorium is a delay in the payment of debts or obligations.
Dragoljub "Draža" Mihailović (Драгољуб Дража Михаиловић, known to his supporters as Uncle Draža (Чича Дража / Čiča Draža; 27 April 1893 – 17 July 1946), was a Yugoslav Serb general during World War II. A staunch royalist, he retreated to the mountains near Belgrade when the Germans overran Yugoslavia in April 1941 and there he organized bands of guerrillas known as the Chetnik Detachments of the Yugoslav Army. The organisation is commonly known as the Chetniks, although the name of the organisation was later changed to the Yugoslav Army in the Homeland (JVUO, ЈВУО). Founded as the first Yugoslav resistance movement, it was royalist and nationalist, as opposed to the other, Josip Broz Tito's Partisans who were communist. Initially, the two groups operated in parallel, but by late 1941 began fighting each other in the attempt to gain control of post-war Yugoslavia. Many Chetnik groups collaborated or established modus vivendi with the Axis powers. Mihailović himself collaborated with Milan Nedić and Dimitrije Ljotić at the end of the war. After the war, Mihailović was captured by the communists. He was tried and convicted of high treason and war crimes by the communist authorities of the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia, and executed by firing squad in Belgrade. The nature and extent of his responsibility for collaboration and ethnic massacres remains controversial. On 14 May 2015, Mihailović was rehabilitated after a ruling by the Supreme Court of Cassation, the highest appellate court in Serbia.
Dušan Simović (Душан Симовић; 28 October 1882 – 26 August 1962) was a Serbian general who served as Chief of the General Staff of the Royal Yugoslav Army and as the Prime Minister of Yugoslavia.
The Eastern Bloc was the group of socialist states of Central and Eastern Europe, generally the Soviet Union and the countries of the Warsaw Pact.
Eastern Christianity consists of four main church families: the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Oriental Orthodox churches, the Eastern Catholic churches (that are in communion with Rome but still maintain Eastern liturgies), and the denominations descended from the Church of the East.
Edvard Kardelj (27 January 1910 – 10 February 1979), also known under the pseudonyms Bevc, Sperans and Krištof, was a Yugoslav journalist from Ljubljana, Slovenia, and one of the leading members of the illegal Communist Party of Slovenia before World War II.
Ethnic hatred, inter-ethnic hatred, racial hatred, or ethnic tension refers to feelings and acts of prejudice and hostility towards an ethnic group in various degrees.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
A flag is a piece of fabric (most often rectangular or quadrilateral) with a distinctive design and colors.
Franjo Tuđman, also written as Franjo Tudjman (14 May 1922 – 10 December 1999) was a Croatian politician and historian.
The term Greater Serbia or Great Serbia (Велика Србија / Velika Srbija) describes the Serbian nationalist and irredentist ideology of the creation of a Serb state which would incorporate all regions of traditional significance to Serbs, including regions outside Serbia that are populated by Serbs.
Guerrilla warfare is a form of irregular warfare in which a small group of combatants, such as paramilitary personnel, armed civilians, or irregulars, use military tactics including ambushes, sabotage, raids, petty warfare, hit-and-run tactics, and mobility to fight a larger and less-mobile traditional military.
Herzegovina (or; Serbian: Hercegovina, Херцеговина) is the southern region of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
"Hey, Slavs" is a patriotic song dedicated to the Slavic peoples.
History (originally The History Channel from 1995 to 2008) is a history-based digital cable and satellite television network that is owned by A&E Networks, a joint venture between the Hearst Communications and the Disney–ABC Television Group division of the Walt Disney Company.
The Balkans is an area situated in Southeastern and Eastern Europe.
The Illyrian movement (Ilirski pokret, Ilirsko gibanje) was a pan-South-Slavist cultural and political campaign with roots in the early modern period, and revived by a group of young Croatian intellectuals during the first half of the 19th century, around the years of 1835–1849 (there is some disagreement regarding the official dates).
Independence is a condition of a nation, country, or state in which its residents and population, or some portion thereof, exercise self-government, and usually sovereignty, over the territory.
The Independent State of Croatia (Nezavisna Država Hrvatska, NDH; Unabhängiger Staat Kroatien; Stato Indipendente di Croazia) was a World War II fascist puppet state of Germany and Italy.
Indiana University (IU) is a multi-campus public university system in the state of Indiana, United States.
Informbiro (also the Informbiro period or the time of the Informbiro) was a period in the history of Yugoslavia which spanned from 1948 to 1955, characterised by conflict and schism with the Soviet Union.
The Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization (IMRO; Вътрешна Македонска Революционна Организация (ВМРО), Vatreshna Makedonska Revolyutsionna Organizatsiya (VMRO); Внатрешна Македонска Револуционерна Организација, Vnatrešna Makedonska Revolucionerna Organizacija) was a revolutionary national liberation movement in the Ottoman territories in Europe, that operated in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
The International Tribunal for the Prosecution of Persons Responsible for Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law Committed in the Territory of the Former Yugoslavia since 1991, more commonly referred to as the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY), was a body of the United Nations established to prosecute serious crimes committed during the Yugoslav Wars, and to try their perpetrators.
Since its declaration of independence from Serbia (enacted on 17 February 2008), international recognition of Kosovo has been mixed, and the international community continues to be divided on the issue.
In the context of the history of the 20th century, the interwar period was the period between the end of the First World War in November 1918 and the beginning of the Second World War in September 1939.
The invasion of Yugoslavia, also known as the April War or Operation 25, was a German-led attack on the Kingdom of Yugoslavia by the Axis powers which began on 6 April 1941 during World War II.
Istria (Croatian, Slovene: Istra; Istriot: Eîstria; Istria; Istrien), formerly Histria (Latin), is the largest peninsula in the Adriatic Sea.
Italian Fascism (fascismo italiano), also known simply as Fascism, is the original fascist ideology as developed in Italy.
Ivan Mihailov Gavrilov (Иван Михайлов ГавриловHe is credited in English language sources as Mihailov, while the Bulgarian and Macedonian transliteration schemes would render it Mihaylov and Mihajlov, respectively.; 26 August 1896 – 5 September 1990), sometimes Vancho Mihailov, was a Bulgarian revolutionary in Ottoman and interwar Macedonia, and leader of the Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization (IMRO) after 1924.
Jajce is a town and municipality located in Central Bosnia Canton of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, an entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
John R. Lampe is a professor of history at the University of Maryland.
Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was a Soviet revolutionary and politician of Georgian nationality.
Josip Broz (Cyrillic: Јосип Броз,; 7 May 1892 – 4 May 1980), commonly known as Tito (Cyrillic: Тито), was a Yugoslav communist revolutionary and political leader, serving in various roles from 1943 until his death in 1980.
The Karađorđević (Карађорђевић, Karađorđevići / Карађорђевићи) is a Serbian dynastic family, founded by Karađorđe Petrović, the Veliki Vožd ("Grand Leader") of Serbia in the early 1800s during the First Serbian Uprising.
The Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia) was a state which existed from 1861—when King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia was proclaimed King of Italy—until 1946—when a constitutional referendum led civil discontent to abandon the monarchy and form the modern Italian Republic.
The Kingdom of Serbia (Краљевина Србија / Kraljevina Srbija), often rendered as Servia in English sources during the time of its existence, was created when Milan I, ruler of the Principality of Serbia, was proclaimed king in 1882.
The Kingdom of Yugoslavia (Serbo-Croatian, Slovene: Kraljevina Jugoslavija, Краљевина Југославија; Кралство Југославија) was a state in Southeast Europe and Central Europe, that existed from 1918 until 1941, during the interwar period and beginning of World War II.
Kiro Gligorov (Киро Глигоров); May 3, 1917January 1, 2012) was the first President of the Republic of Macedonia, serving from 1991 to 1999. He held various high positions in the political establishment of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, including as Secretary of State for Finance in the Federal Executive Council, a member of the Yugoslav Presidency, as well as President of the Assembly of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia from May 15, 1974 to May 15, 1978.
Kosovo (Kosova or Kosovë; Косово) is a partially recognised state and disputed territory in Southeastern Europe that declared independence from Serbia in February 2008 as the Republic of Kosovo (Republika e Kosovës; Република Косово / Republika Kosovo).
Albanians are the largest ethnic group in Kosovo, commonly called Kosovar Albanians, Kosovan Albanians or Kosovo Albanians and simply Kosovars.
The League of Communists of Yugoslavia, before 1952 the Communist Party of Yugoslavia, was the country's largest communist party, and the ruling party of SFR Yugoslavia.
This article lists the heads of state of Yugoslavia from the creation of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (Kingdom of Yugoslavia) in 1918 until the breakup of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in 1992.
The President of Czechoslovakia was the head of state of Czechoslovakia, from the creation of the First Czechoslovak Republic in 1918 until the dissolution of the Czech and Slovak Federative Republic in 1992.
This list of sovereign states provides an overview of sovereign states around the world, with information on their status and recognition of their sovereignty.
Ljubljana (locally also; also known by other, historical names) is the capital and largest city of Slovenia.
Ljubljana Jože Pučnik Airport (Letališče Jožeta Pučnika Ljubljana), also known by its previous name Brnik Airport, is the international airport of Ljubljana, the capital of Slovenia.
The Luftwaffe was the aerial warfare branch of the combined German Wehrmacht military forces during World War II.
Marseille (Provençal: Marselha), is the second-largest city of France and the largest city of the Provence historical region.
Marshal of Yugoslavia (Serbo-Croatian, Slovene: Maršal Jugoslavije, Cyrillic script: Маршал Југославије; Macedonian: Маршал на Југославија) was the highest rank of Yugoslav People's Army (equivalent to field marshal), and, simultaneously, a Yugoslav honorific title.
The Marshall Plan (officially the European Recovery Program, ERP) was an American initiative to aid Western Europe, in which the United States gave over $13 billion (nearly $ billion in US dollars) in economic assistance to help rebuild Western European economies after the end of World War II.
Martin Špegelj (11 November 1927 – 11 May 2014) was the second Defense Minister of Croatia and, later, the chief of staff of the newborn Croatian army and inspector-general of the army.
Milan Kučan (born 14 January 1941) is a Slovenian politician who was the first President of Slovenia from 1991 to 2002.
Milovan Djilas (Milovan Đilas/Милован Ђилас; 12 June 1911 – 20 April 1995) was a Yugoslav communist politician, theorist and author.
Misha Glenny (born 25 April 1958) is a multilingual British journalist, specialising in southeast Europe, global organised crime, and cybersecurity.
An independence referendum was held in Montenegro on 21 May 2006.
Montenegrin (црногорски / crnogorski) is the variety of the Serbo-Croatian language used as the official language of Montenegro.
Montenegro (Montenegrin: Црна Гора / Crna Gora, meaning "Black Mountain") is a sovereign state in Southeastern Europe.
The "National anthem of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia" (Himna Kraljevine Jugoslavije, Химна Краљевине Југославије) was created in December 1918 from the national anthems of the Kingdom's main three constituent historical provinces: Croatia, Serbia and Slovenia.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus), more commonly known as Nazism, is the ideology and practices associated with the Nazi Party – officially the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) – in Nazi Germany, and of other far-right groups with similar aims.
The Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) is a group of states that are not formally aligned with or against any major power bloc.
Novi Sad (Нови Сад,; Újvidék; Nový Sad; see below for other names) is the second largest city of Serbia, the capital of the autonomous province of Vojvodina and the administrative center of the South Bačka District.
Österreichischer Rundfunk (Austrian Broadcasting Corporation, ORF) is the Austrian national public service broadcaster.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
The overthrow of Slobodan Milošević occurred on 5 October 2000, in Belgrade, in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, following the presidential election on September 24th, and culminating in the downfall of Slobodan Milošević's government on 5 October 2000.
The Pan-Slavic colors — red, blue and white — were defined by the Prague Slavic Congress, 1848, based on the flag of Russia, which was introduced in the late 17th century.
Pannonian Rusyn (руски язик or руска бешеда), or simply Rusyn (or Ruthenian), is a dialect of Rusyn language spoken by the Pannonian Rusyns, in north-western Serbia (Bačka region) and eastern Croatia.
The Parliament of Yugoslavia was the deliberative body of Yugoslavia.
Peacekeeping refers to activities intended to create conditions that favour lasting peace.
Peter II (Petar/Петар; 6 September 1923 – 3 November 1970) was the last King of Yugoslavia, and the last reigning member of the Karađorđević dynasty which came to prominence in the early 19th century.
The Plitvice Lakes incident (Krvavi Uskrs na Plitvicama or Plitvički krvavi Uskrs, both translating as "Plitvice Bloody Easter") was an armed clash at the beginning of the Croatian War of Independence.
Podgorica (Montenegrin Cyrillic: Подгорица,, lit. " below Gorica ") is the capital and largest city of Montenegro.
Preševo (Прешево) or Presheva (Preshevë), is a town and municipality located in the Pčinja District of southern Serbia.
President for Life is a title assumed by or granted to some leaders to remove their term limit irrevocably as a way of removing future challenges to their authority and legitimacy.
Prince Paul of Yugoslavia, also known as Paul Karađorđević (Pavle Karađorđević, Павле Карађорђевић, English transliteration: Paul Karageorgevich; 27 April 1893 – 14 September 1976), was regent of Yugoslavia during the minority of King Peter II.
Pristina (Prishtina or Prishtinë) or Priština (Приштина), is the capital and largest city of Kosovo.
The protests of 1968 comprised a worldwide escalation of social conflicts, predominantly characterized by popular rebellions against military and bureaucratic elites, who responded with an escalation of political repression.
Puniša Račić (Пуниша Рачић; 12 July 1886 – 16 October 1944) was a Serb leader and People's Radical Party (NRS) politician who assassinated Croatian Peasant Party (HSS) representatives Pavle Radić and Đuro Basariček, and mortally wounded HSS leader Stjepan Radić in a shooting which took place on the floor of the parliament of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes on 20 June 1928.
Dame Cicely Isabel Fairfield DBE (21 December 1892 – 15 March 1983), known as Rebecca West, or Dame Rebecca West, was a British author, journalist, literary critic and travel writer.
The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army (Рабоче-крестьянская Красная армия (РККА), Raboche-krest'yanskaya Krasnaya armiya (RKKA), frequently shortened in Russian to Красная aрмия (КА), Krasnaya armiya (KA), in English: Red Army, also in critical literature and folklore of that epoch – Red Horde, Army of Work) was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, and, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
A red star, five-pointed and filled (★), is an important symbol often associated with communist ideology, particularly in combination with hammer and sickle.
Macedonia (translit), officially the Republic of Macedonia, is a country in the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
The Republic of Montenegro (Република Црна Гора/Republika Crna Gora) was a constituent country of Serbia and Montenegro (Federal Republic of Yugoslavia) between 1992 and 2006.
The Republic of Serbia (Република Србија; Republika Srbija) was a constituent republic of Serbia and Montenegro (Federal Republic of Yugoslavia) between 1992 and 2006.
The Republic of Serbian Krajina or Serb Republic of Krajina (Република Српска Крајина / Republika Srpska Krajina or РСК/RSK)), known as Serb Krajina (Српска Крајина / Srpska Krajina) or simply Krajina, was a self-proclaimed Serb proto-state, a territory within the newly independent Croatia (formerly part of Yugoslavia), which it defied, active during the Croatian War (1991–95). It was not recognized internationally. The name Krajina ("Frontier") was adopted from the historical Military Frontier of the Habsburg Monarchy and Austria-Hungary, which had a substantial Serb population and existed up to the late 19th century. The RSK government waged a war for ethnic Serb independence from Croatia and unification with FR Yugoslavia and Republika Srpska (in Bosnia). The RSK was armed and funded by Serbia. The government of Krajina had de facto control over central parts of the territory while control of the outskirts changed with the successes and failures of its military activities. The territory was legally protected by the United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR). Its main portion was overrun by Croatian forces in 1995 and the Republic of Serbian Krajina was ultimately disbanded as a result; a rump remained in eastern Slavonia under UNTAES administration until its peaceful reintegration into Croatia in 1998.
Rijeka (Fiume; Reka; Sankt Veit am Flaum; see other names) is the principal seaport and the third-largest city in Croatia (after Zagreb and Split).
A rump state is the remnant of a once much larger state, left with a reduced territory in the wake of secession, annexation, occupation, decolonization, or a successful coup d'état or revolution on part of its former territory.
Sarajevo (see names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of Bosnia and Herzegovina, with a population of 275,524 in its current administrative limits.
Serbia (Србија / Srbija),Pannonian Rusyn: Сербия; Szerbia; Albanian and Romanian: Serbia; Slovak and Czech: Srbsko,; Сърбия.
Serbia and Montenegro (Srbija i Crna Gora, Србија и Црна Гора; SCG, СЦГ), officially the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro (Državna Zajednica Srbija i Crna Gora, Државна Заједница Србија и Црна Гора), was a country in Southeast Europe, created from the two remaining federal republics of Yugoslavia after its breakup in 1992.
The Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts (Српска академија наука и уметности/Srpska akademija nauka i umetnosti, abbr. САНУ/SANU) is a national academy and the most prominent academic institution in Serbia, founded in 1841.
Serbian (српски / srpski) is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian language mainly used by Serbs.
Serbo-Croatian, also called Serbo-Croat, Serbo-Croat-Bosnian (SCB), Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian (BCS), or Bosnian-Croatian-Montenegrin-Serbian (BCMS), is a South Slavic language and the primary language of Serbia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Montenegro.
The Serbs (Срби / Srbi) are a South Slavic ethnic group that formed in the Balkans.
Skopje (Скопје) is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Macedonia.
Slavs are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group who speak the various Slavic languages of the larger Balto-Slavic linguistic group.
Slobodan Milošević (Слободан Милошевић; 20 August 1941 – 11 March 2006) was a Yugoslav and Serbian politician and the President of Serbia (originally the Socialist Republic of Serbia, a constituent republic within the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia) from 1989 to 1997 and President of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia from 1997 to 2000.
Slovenia (Slovenija), officially the Republic of Slovenia (Slovene:, abbr.: RS), is a country in southern Central Europe, located at the crossroads of main European cultural and trade routes.
The Socialist Autonomous Province of Kosovo (Социјалистичка Аутономна Покрајина Косово / Socijalistička Autonomna Pokrajina Kosovo, Krahina Socialiste Autonome e Kosovës; often abbreviated SAP Kosovo), comprising the Kosovo region, was one of the two autonomous provinces of Serbia within Yugoslavia (the other being Vojvodina), between 1945 and 1990, when it was renamed Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija.
The Socialist Autonomous Province of Vojvodina (Socijalistička Autonomna Pokrajina Vojvodina, Социјалистичка Аутономна Покрајина Војводина; often abbreviated SAP Vojvodina) was one of political entities formed in Yugoslavia after World War II and one of the two autonomous provinces of Serbia within Yugoslavia (the other being Kosovo), between 1945 and the breakup of Yugoslavia.
The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFR Yugoslavia or SFRY) was a socialist state led by the League of Communists of Yugoslavia, that existed from its foundation in the aftermath of World War II until its dissolution in 1992 amid the Yugoslav Wars.
The Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Socijalistička Republika Bosna i Hercegovina/ Социјалистичка Pепублика Босна и Херцеговина) was one of the six constituent federal units forming the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.
The Socialist Republic of Croatia (Socijalistička Republika Hrvatska; Serbian: Социјалистичка Република Хрватска; Socijalistička Republika Hrvatska/Социјалистичка Република Хрватска) was a constituent republic and federated state of Yugoslavia. By its constitution, modern-day Croatia is its direct continuation. Along with five other Yugoslav republics, it was formed during World War II and became a socialist republic after the war. It had four full official names during its 48-year existence (see below). By territory and population, it was the second largest republic in Yugoslavia, after the Socialist Republic of Serbia. In 1990, the government dismantled the single-party system of government - installed by the Communist Party - and adopted a multi-party democracy. The newly elected government of Franjo Tuđman moved the republic towards independence, formally seceding from Yugoslavia in 1991 and thereby contributing to its dissolution.
The Socialist Republic of Macedonia (Macedonian: Социјалистичка Република Македонија, Socijalistička Republika Makedonija) was one of the six constituent countries of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, and a socialist nation state of the Macedonians.
Socialist Republic of Montenegro (Socijalistička republika Crna Gora/Социјалистичка република Црна Гора), was one of the 6 republics forming the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.
The Socialist Republic of Serbia (Serbo-Croatian: Социјалистичка Република Србија/Socijalistička Republika Srbija) was one of the six constitutional republics of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.
The Socialist Republic of Slovenia (Socialistična republika Slovenija) was one of the six republics forming the post-World War II country of Yugoslavia.
The South Slavs are a subgroup of Slavic peoples who speak the South Slavic languages.
Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe is a geographical region of Europe, consisting primarily of the coterminous Balkan peninsula.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Stane Dolanc (16 November 1925 – 13 December 1999) was a Yugoslav communist politician, one of president Josip Broz Tito's closest collaborators and one of the most influential people in Yugoslav federal politics in the 1970s and 1980s.
A state of emergency is a situation in which a government is empowered to perform actions that it would normally not be permitted.
The State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs (Država Slovenaca, Hrvata i Srba/Држава Словенаца, Хрвата и Срба; Država Slovencev, Hrvatov in Srbov) was a short-lived entity formed at the end of World War I by Slovenes, Croats and Serbs residing in what were the southernmost parts of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
Stjepan Radić (11 June 1871 – 8 August 1928) was a Croatian and Yugoslav politician and the founder of the Croatian People's Peasant Party (HPSS).
Styria (Steiermark,, Štajerska, Stájerország, Štýrsko) is a state or Bundesland, located in the southeast of Austria.
The subdivisions of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia (initially known as the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes) existed successively in three different forms.
Succession of states is a theory and practice in international relations regarding successor states.
The Ten-Day War (desetdnevna vojna) or the Slovenian Independence War (slovenska osamosvojitvena vojna), was a brief war of independence that followed the Slovenian declaration of independence on 25 June 1991.
The Economist is an English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited at offices in London.
The World Factbook, also known as the CIA World Factbook, is a reference resource produced by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) with almanac-style information about the countries of the world.
The Tito–Šubašić Agreements (sporazumi Tito-Šubašić) was an attempt by the Western Powers to merge the royal Yugoslav government-in-exile with the Communist-led Partisans who were fighting the Axis occupation of Yugoslavia in the Second World War and were de facto rulers on the liberated territories.
Benito Mussolini Totalitarianism is a political concept where the state recognizes no limits to its authority and strives to control every aspect of public and private life wherever feasible.
Transcription in the linguistic sense is the systematic representation of language in written form.
The Treaty of Versailles (Traité de Versailles) was the most important of the peace treaties that brought World War I to an end.
Trieste (Trst) is a city and a seaport in northeastern Italy.
The Tripartite Pact, also known as the Berlin Pact, was an agreement between Germany, Italy and Japan signed in Berlin on 27 September 1940 by, respectively, Joachim von Ribbentrop, Galeazzo Ciano and Saburō Kurusu.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations, charged with the maintenance of international peace and security as well as accepting new members to the United Nations and approving any changes to its United Nations Charter.
United Nations Security Council resolution 721, adopted unanimously on 27 November 1991, after reaffirming Resolution 713 (1991) on the situation in the SFR Yugoslavia, the Council strongly supported the efforts of the Secretary-General Javier Pérez de Cuéllar and his Personal Envoy to help end the outbreak of fighting in parts of the country, in the hope of establishing a peacekeeping mission.
United Nations Security Council resolution 777, adopted unanimously on 19 September 1992, after reaffirming Resolution 713 (1992) and all subsequent resolutions on the topic, the Council considered that, as the state known as the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY) ceased to exist, it noted that under Resolution 757 (1992), the claim by the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) to continue automatic membership in the United Nations was not widely accepted and so determined that membership of the SFRY in the United Nations cannot continue.
The Ustasha – Croatian Revolutionary Movement (Ustaša – Hrvatski revolucionarni pokret), commonly known as Ustashe (Ustaše), was a Croatian fascist, racist, ultranationalist and terrorist organization, active, in its original form, between 1929 and 1945.
Vladimir Žerjavić (2 August 1912 – 5 September 2001) was a Croatian economist and demographer who published a series of historical articles and books during the 1980s and 1990s on demographic losses in Yugoslavia during World War II and of Axis forces and civilians in the Bleiburg repatriations shortly after the capitulation of Germany.
Vladimir "Vladko" Maček (20 June 1879 – 15 May 1964) was a Croatian politician in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia and as a leader of the Croatian Peasant Party (HSS) following the 1928 assassination of Stjepan Radić, was a leading Croatian political figure until the Axis invasion of Yugoslavia in 1941.
Vlado Chernozemski (Владо Черноземски) (19 October 1897 – 9 October 1934), born Velichko Dimitrov Kerin (Величко Димитров Керин), was a Bulgarian revolutionary.
Vojvodina (Serbian and Croatian: Vojvodina; Војводина; Pannonian Rusyn: Войводина; Vajdaság; Slovak and Czech: Vojvodina; Voivodina), officially the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina (Аутономна Покрајина Војводина / Autonomna Pokrajina Vojvodina; see Names in other languages), is an autonomous province of Serbia, located in the northern part of the country, in the Pannonian Plain.
Walter R. Roberts was a writer, lecturer, and former government official.
William Jovanovich (1920 – 4 December 2001) was an American publisher, author, and businessman of Serbian origin.
The role of the woman in Yugoslavia changed significantly throughout the twentieth century.
A worker cooperative, is a cooperative that is owned and self-managed by its workers.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II was the deadliest military conflict in history in absolute terms of total casualties.
Yugo-nostalgia (jugonostalgija/југоносталгија, jugonostalgija, југоносталгија) is a little-studied psychological and cultural phenomenon occurring among citizens of the former Yugoslav republics Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia and Slovenia.
Yugoslav Committee (Jugoslavenski odbor) was a political interest group formed by South Slavs from Austria-Hungary during World War I aimed at joining the existing south Slavic nations in an independent state.
The Yugoslav coup d'état of 27 March 1941 in Belgrade, Kingdom of Yugoslavia, replaced the regency led by Prince Paul and installed King Peter II.
The Government of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia in Exile (Владе Краљевине Југославије у егзилу; Vlada Kraljevine Jugoslavije u egzilu) was an official government of Yugoslavia, headed by King Peter II.
The Yugoslav Partisans,Serbo-Croatian, Macedonian, Slovene: Partizani, Партизани or the National Liberation Army,Narodnooslobodilačka vojska (NOV), Народноослободилачка војска (НОВ); Народноослободителна војска (НОВ); Narodnoosvobodilna vojska (NOV) officially the National Liberation Army and Partisan Detachments of Yugoslavia,Narodnooslobodilačka vojska i partizanski odredi Jugoslavije (NOV i POJ), Народноослободилачка војска и партизански одреди Југославије (НОВ и ПОЈ); Народноослободителна војска и партизански одреди на Југославија (НОВ и ПОЈ); Narodnoosvobodilna vojska in partizanski odredi Jugoslavije (NOV in POJ) was the Communist-led resistance to the Axis powers (chiefly Germany) in occupied Yugoslavia during World War II.
The Yugoslav People's Army (Jugoslovenska narodna armija / Југословенска народна армија / Jugoslavenska narodna armija; also Yugoslav National Army), often referred-to simply by the initialism JNA, was the military of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.
The Yugoslav Wars were a series of ethnic conflicts, wars of independence and insurgencies fought from 1991 to 1999/2001 in the former Yugoslavia.
Parliamentary elections were held in Yugoslavia on 11 November 1945.
Yugoslavs or Yugoslavians (Serbo-Croatian: Jugoslaveni/Југославени, Jugosloveni/Југословени; Macedonian: Југословени; Slovene: Jugoslovani) is a designation that was originally designed to refer to a united South Slavic people.
Zadar (see other names) is the oldest continuously inhabited Croatian city.
Zagreb is the capital and the largest city of Croatia.
.yu was the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) that was assigned to Yugoslavia and was mainly used by the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and its successor Serbia and Montenegro between 1994 and 2010.
The 1931 Yugoslav Constitution, also known as September Constitution or Octroic constitution, was the second and final Constitution of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia.
The 1946 Yugoslav Constitution was the first constitution of the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia.
Student protests were held in Belgrade, Yugoslavia, as the first mass protest in Yugoslavia after the Second World War.
The 1974 Yugoslav Constitution was the fourth and final constitution of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.
In March and April 1981, a student protest in Pristina, the capital of the then Socialist Autonomous Province of Kosovo, led to widespread protests by Kosovo Albanians demanding more autonomy within the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.
The 1989 Kosovo miners' strike was a hunger strike initiated by the workers of the Trepča Mines on 20 February 1989 against the abolition of the autonomy of the Province of Kosovo by the Socialist Republic of Serbia.
British ambassador to Yugoslavia, Changes in Yugoslavian Religious Demographics, Changes in yugoslavian religious demographics, Demographics of the former Yugoslavia, History of Yugoslavia, ISO 3166-1:YU, Jugo-Slavia, Jugoslavia, Jugoslavija, Jugoslavije, North Yugoslavia, Northern Yugoslavia, Politics of Yugoslavia, Serboslavia, South Slavia, South slavia, Yougoslavia, Yugo., Yugosalvia, Yugosavia, Yugoslav state, Yugoslavia/History, Yugoslavians (demonym), Yugoslavs (demonym), Yugosphere, Југославија.