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Yukos

Index Yukos

OJSC "Yukos Oil Company" (ОАО Нефтяна́я Компа́ния Ю́КОС) was an oil and gas company based in Moscow, Russia. [1]

113 relations: Alexey Pichugin, Arbitration award, Arbitration Institute of the Stockholm Chamber of Commerce, Asset freezing, Associated Press, Auction, Baikalfinansgrup, Bank Menatep, Banking in Russia, Bankruptcy, Barrel (unit), BBC, Bid rigging, Boris Yeltsin, Center for Global Development, Chairman, Chief executive officer, Chief financial officer, Corporate governance, Corporate transparency, Council of Europe, Crime, Decree of the President of Russia, Due process, Economic history of the Russian Federation, Eminent domain, Energy Charter Treaty, Entrepreneurship, European Court of Human Rights, Expropriation, Exxon, Financial accounting, Forbes, Fossil fuel, Front organization, Gazprom, Gazprom Neft, Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (United States), George W. Bush, Government of Russia, Harvard University, Henry Kissinger, Hermitage Capital Management, Houston, International Monetary Fund, Invest Union, Iraq, Israel, Jacob Rothschild, 4th Baron Rothschild, Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug, ..., Library of Congress, Libya, Liquidation, Magnitsky Act, Management, Market value, Marshall Goldman, Mikhail Khodorkovsky, Ministry of Energy (Russia), Moscow, Nationalization, Nefteyugansk, Norton Rose Fulbright, Novokuybyshevsk, Nulla poena sine lege, Office of the United States Trade Representative, Oil refinery, Open Russia, Open World Program, Order of the Government of Russia, Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe, Pavel Ivlev, Perestroika, Permanent Court of Arbitration, Petroleum industry, Political prisoner, Politics of Russia, Politics of the Soviet Union, Privately held company, Privatization in Russia, Public relations, Reasonable suspicion, Reuters, Revenue, Robber baron (industrialist), Rosneft, Rule of law, Russia, Russian oligarch, Russian ruble, Samara, Samara Oblast, Shearman & Sterling, Siberia, Spain, Subsidiary, Syzran, Tax haven, Tax investigation, The Hague, The Wall Street Journal, The Washington Post, The World's Billionaires, Tver, Tyumen Oblast, United States Department of State, Vasily Aleksanyan, Vedomosti, Viktor Gerashchenko, Vladimir Putin, Washington, D.C., World oil market chronology from 2003, Yuganskneftegaz. Expand index (63 more) »

Alexey Pichugin

Alexey Vladimirovich Pichugin (Алексе́й Влади́мирович Пичу́гин; born July 25, 1962, Orekhovo-Zuevo, Moscow Oblast, USSR) is a former manager in the security department at the Russian oil company Yukos.

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Arbitration award

An arbitration award (or arbitral award) is a determination on the merits by an arbitration tribunal in an arbitration, and is analogous to a judgment in a court of law.

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Arbitration Institute of the Stockholm Chamber of Commerce

The Arbitration Institute of the Stockholm Chamber of Commerce is an institution for arbitration affiliated with the Stockholm Chamber of Commerce in Sweden.

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Asset freezing

Asset freezing is a legal process which prevents a defendant (usually an apparent fraudster) to an action from dissipating their assets from beyond the jurisdiction of a court so as to frustrate a potential judgment.

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Associated Press

The Associated Press (AP) is a U.S.-based not-for-profit news agency headquartered in New York City.

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Auction

An auction is a process of buying and selling goods or services by offering them up for bid, taking bids, and then selling the item to the highest bidder.

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Baikalfinansgrup

Baikalfinansgrup (Байкалфинансгруп) is a Russian limited liability company owned by Rosneft Oil Company.

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Bank Menatep

Bank "MENATEP", Bank "MENATEP SPb" (Russian: Банк "МЕНАТЕП Санкт-Петербург" / Банк «МЕНАТЕП СПб») and "Group Menatep Limited" were financial companies, created by Russian businessman Mikhail Khodorkovsky.

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Banking in Russia

Banking in Russia is subject to significant regulations as banks in the Russian Federation have to meet mandatory Russian legislation requirements, and comply with numerous Bank of Russia instructions and regulations.

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Bankruptcy

Bankruptcy is a legal status of a person or other entity that cannot repay debts to creditors.

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Barrel (unit)

A barrel is one of several units of volume applied in various contexts; there are dry barrels, fluid barrels (such as the UK beer barrel and US beer barrel), oil barrels and so on.

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BBC

The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.

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Bid rigging

Bid rigging is a form of fraud in which a commercial contract is promised to one party even though for the sake of appearance several other parties also present a bid.

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Boris Yeltsin

Boris Nikolayevich Yeltsin (p; 1 February 1931 – 23 April 2007) was a Soviet and Russian politician and the first President of the Russian Federation, serving from 1991 to 1999.

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Center for Global Development

The Center for Global Development (CGD) is a U.S. nonprofit think tank based in Washington, D.C. that focuses on international development.

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Chairman

The chairman (also chairperson, chairwoman or chair) is the highest officer of an organized group such as a board, a committee, or a deliberative assembly.

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Chief executive officer

Chief executive officer (CEO) is the position of the most senior corporate officer, executive, administrator, or other leader in charge of managing an organization especially an independent legal entity such as a company or nonprofit institution.

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Chief financial officer

The chief financial officer (CFO) is the officer of a company that has primary responsibility for managing the company's finances, including financial planning, management of financial risks, record-keeping, and financial reporting.

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Corporate governance

Corporate governance is the mechanisms, processes and relations by which corporations are controlled and directed.

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Corporate transparency

Corporate transparency describes the extent to which a corporation's actions are observable by outsiders.

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Council of Europe

The Council of Europe (CoE; Conseil de l'Europe) is an international organisation whose stated aim is to uphold human rights, democracy and the rule of law in Europe.

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Crime

In ordinary language, a crime is an unlawful act punishable by a state or other authority.

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Decree of the President of Russia

A Decree of the President of the Russian Federation (Указ Президента Российской Федерации; Ukaz Prezidenta Rossiyskoy Federatsii) or Executive Order (Decree) of the President of Russia is a legal act (ukase) with the status of a by-law made by the Russian president.

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Due process

Due process is the legal requirement that the state must respect all legal rights that are owed to a person.

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Economic history of the Russian Federation

After the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 and collapse of Russia's controlled economy, a new Russian Federation was created under Boris Yeltsin in 1991.

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Eminent domain

Eminent domain (United States, Philippines), land acquisition (Singapore), compulsory purchase (United Kingdom, New Zealand, Ireland), resumption (Hong Kong, Uganda), resumption/compulsory acquisition (Australia), or expropriation (France, Italy, Mexico, South Africa, Canada, Brazil, Portugal, Spain, Chile, Denmark, Sweden) is the power of a state, provincial, or national government to take private property for public use.

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Energy Charter Treaty

The Energy Charter Treaty (ECT) is an international agreement which establishes a multilateral framework for cross-border cooperation in the energy industry.

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Entrepreneurship

Entrepreneurship is the process of designing, launching and running a new business, which is often initially a small business.

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European Court of Human Rights

The European Court of Human Rights (ECHR or ECtHR; Cour européenne des droits de l’homme) is a supranational or international court established by the European Convention on Human Rights.

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Expropriation

The process of expropriation "occurs when a public agency (for example, the provincial government and its agencies, regional districts, municipalities, school boards, post-secondary institutions and utilities) takes private property for a purpose deemed to be in the public interest".

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Exxon

Exxon was the brand name of oil and natural resources company Exxon Corporation, prior to 1972 known as Standard Oil Company of New Jersey.

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Financial accounting

Financial accounting (or financial accountancy) is the field of accounting concerned with the summary, analysis and reporting of financial transactions pertaining to a business.

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Forbes

Forbes is an American business magazine.

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Fossil fuel

A fossil fuel is a fuel formed by natural processes, such as anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms, containing energy originating in ancient photosynthesis.

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Front organization

A front organization is any entity set up by and controlled by another organization, such as intelligence agencies, organized crime groups, banned organizations, religious or political groups, advocacy groups, or corporations.

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Gazprom

Public Joint Stock Company Gazprom (Публи́чное акционе́рное о́бщество «Газпром», Publichnoe Aktsionernoe Obshchestvo Gazprom, abbreviated PAO Gazprom, ПАО «Газпром») is a large Russian company founded in 1989, which carries on the business of extraction, production, transport, and sale of natural gas.

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Gazprom Neft

Gazprom Neft (Газпром нефть, formerly: Sibneft), is the third largest oil producer in Russia and ranked third according to refining throughput.

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Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (United States)

Generally Accepted Accounting Principles, also called GAAP or US GAAP, is the accounting standard adopted by the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC).

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George W. Bush

George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is an American politician who served as the 43rd President of the United States from 2001 to 2009.

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Government of Russia

The Government of Russia exercises executive power in the Russian Federation.

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Harvard University

Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts.

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Henry Kissinger

Henry Alfred Kissinger (born Heinz Alfred Kissinger, May 27, 1923) is an American statesman, political scientist, diplomat and geopolitical consultant who served as the United States Secretary of State and National Security Advisor under the presidential administrations of Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford.

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Hermitage Capital Management

Hermitage Capital Management is an investment fund and asset management company specializing in Russian markets founded by Bill Browder and Edmond Safra.

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Houston

Houston is the most populous city in the U.S. state of Texas and the fourth most populous city in the United States, with a census-estimated 2017 population of 2.312 million within a land area of.

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International Monetary Fund

The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1945 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system.

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Invest Union

This article is about a former subsidiary of Gazprom.

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Iraq

Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.

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Israel

Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.

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Jacob Rothschild, 4th Baron Rothschild

Nathaniel Charles Jacob Rothschild, 4th Baron Rothschild, OM, GBE, FRCA, Hon FKC, Hon FBA (born 29 April 1936) is a British investment banker and a member of the prominent Rothschild banking family.

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Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug

Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug — Yugra or Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug – Yugra (Ха́нты-Манси́йский автоно́мный о́круг — Югра́, Khanty-Mansiysky avtonomny okrug – Yugra), is a federal subject of Russia (an autonomous okrug of Tyumen Oblast).

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Library of Congress

The Library of Congress (LOC) is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States.

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Libya

Libya (ليبيا), officially the State of Libya (دولة ليبيا), is a sovereign state in the Maghreb region of North Africa, bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad and Niger to the south and Algeria and Tunisia to the west.

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Liquidation

In United Kingdom, Republic of Ireland and United States law and business, liquidation is the process by which a company is brought to an end.

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Magnitsky Act

The Magnitsky Act, formally known as the Russia and Moldova Jackson–Vanik Repeal and Sergei Magnitsky Rule of Law Accountability Act of 2012, is a bipartisan bill passed by the U.S. Congress and signed by President Obama in December 2012, intending to punish Russian officials responsible for the death of Russian tax accountant Sergei Magnitsky in a Moscow prison in 2009.

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Management

Management (or managing) is the administration of an organization, whether it is a business, a not-for-profit organization, or government body.

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Market value

Market value or OMV (Open Market Valuation) is the price at which an asset would trade in a competitive auction setting.

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Marshall Goldman

Marshall Irwin Goldman (July 26, 1930 – August 2, 2017) was an expert on the economy of the former Soviet Union.

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Mikhail Khodorkovsky

Mikhail Borisovich Khodorkovsky (Михаи́л Бори́сович Ходорко́вский,; born 26 June 1963) is an exiled Russian businessman, philanthropist and former oligarch, now resident in Switzerland.

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Ministry of Energy (Russia)

The Ministry of Energy of the Russian Federation is, since 2008, the Russian federal ministry responsible for energy policy.

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Moscow

Moscow (a) is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.1 million within the urban area.

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Nationalization

Nationalization (or nationalisation) is the process of transforming private assets into public assets by bringing them under the public ownership of a national government or state.

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Nefteyugansk

Nefteyugansk (Нефтеюга́нск) is a city in Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug, Russia, located south of the Ob River, close to the larger city of Surgut.

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Norton Rose Fulbright

Norton Rose Fulbright is an international law firm, with more than 4000 lawyers and other legal staff based in 33 countries across Europe, the United States, Canada, Latin America, Asia, Australia, Africa, the Middle East and Central Asia.

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Novokuybyshevsk

Novokuybyshevsk (Новоку́йбышевск) is a city in Samara Oblast, Russia, located on the eastern bank of the Volga River, away from it.

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Nulla poena sine lege

Nulla poena sine lege (Latin for "no penalty without a law") is a legal principle, requiring that one cannot be punished for doing something that is not prohibited by law.

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Office of the United States Trade Representative

The Office of the United States Trade Representative (USTR) is the United States government agency responsible for developing and recommending United States trade policy to the President of the United States, conducting trade negotiations at bilateral and multilateral levels, and coordinating trade policy within the government through the interagency Trade Policy Staff Committee (TPSC) and Trade Policy Review Group (TPRG).

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Oil refinery

Oil refinery or petroleum refinery is an industrial process plant where crude oil is transformed and refined into more useful products such as petroleum naphtha, gasoline, diesel fuel, asphalt base, heating oil, kerosene, liquefied petroleum gas, jet fuel and fuel oils.

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Open Russia

Open Russia is a name shared by two initiatives advocating democracy and human rights in Russia founded by former businessman and democracy activist Mikhail Khodorkovsky.

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Open World Program

Open World is a ten-day program which brings emerging leaders from Eurasia to the United States to engage with professional counterparts.

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Order of the Government of Russia

Orders and Resolutions of the Government of Russia (Постановления и Pаспоряжения) is secondary legislation, a normative administrative directive content published by the Government of the Russian Federation within the limits of its competence, on the basis and in pursuance of the Constitution of the Russian Federation, federal constitutional laws, federal laws and Decrees of the President of Russia.

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Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe

The Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe (PACE) is the parliamentary arm of the Council of Europe, a 47-nation international organisation dedicated to upholding human rights, democracy and the rule of law.

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Pavel Ivlev

Pavel Petrovich Ivlev (born 6 January 1970, Khimki, Moscow Region, Russia) is a Russian lawyer, and now a political refugee in the USA.

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Perestroika

Perestroika (a) was a political movement for reformation within the Communist Party of the Soviet Union during the 1980s until 1991 and is widely associated with Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev and his glasnost (meaning "openness") policy reform.

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Permanent Court of Arbitration

The Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA) is an intergovernmental organization located at The Hague in the Netherlands.

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Petroleum industry

The petroleum industry, also known as the oil industry or the oil patch, includes the global processes of exploration, extraction, refining, transporting (often by oil tankers and pipelines), and marketing of petroleum products.

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Political prisoner

A political prisoner is someone imprisoned because they have opposed or criticized the government responsible for their imprisonment.

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Politics of Russia

The politics of Russia (the Russian Federation) takes place in the framework of a federal semi-presidential republic.

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Politics of the Soviet Union

The political system of the Soviet Union took place in a single-party socialist republic framework which was characterized by the superior role of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU), the only party permitted by the Constitution.

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Privately held company

A privately held company, private company, or close corporation is a business company owned either by non-governmental organizations or by a relatively small number of shareholders or company members which does not offer or trade its company stock (shares) to the general public on the stock market exchanges, but rather the company's stock is offered, owned and traded or exchanged privately.

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Privatization in Russia

Privatization in Russia describes the series of post-Soviet reforms that resulted in large-scale privatization of Russia's state-owned assets, particularly in the industrial, energy, and financial sectors.

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Public relations

Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing the spread of information between an individual or an organization (such as a business, government agency, or a nonprofit organization) and the public.

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Reasonable suspicion

Reasonable suspicion is a legal standard of proof in United States law that is less than probable cause, the legal standard for arrests and warrants, but more than an "inchoate and unparticularized suspicion or 'hunch; it must be based on "specific and articulable facts", "taken together with rational inferences from those facts", and the suspicion must be associated with the specific individual.

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Reuters

Reuters is an international news agency headquartered in London, United Kingdom.

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Revenue

In accounting, revenue is the income that a business has from its normal business activities, usually from the sale of goods and services to customers.

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Robber baron (industrialist)

"Robber baron" is a derogatory metaphor of social criticism originally applied to certain late 19th-century American businessmen who used unscrupulous methods to get rich.

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Rosneft

PJSC Rosneft Oil Company (stylized as ROSNEFT) is a Russian integrated energy company headquartered in the Russian capital of Moscow.

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Rule of law

The rule of law is the "authority and influence of law in society, especially when viewed as a constraint on individual and institutional behavior; (hence) the principle whereby all members of a society (including those in government) are considered equally subject to publicly disclosed legal codes and processes".

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Russia

Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

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Russian oligarch

The Russian oligarchs (see the related term "New Russians") are business oligarchs of the former Soviet republics who rapidly accumulated wealth during the era of Russian privatization in the aftermath of the dissolution of the Soviet Union in the 1990s.

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Russian ruble

The Russian ruble or rouble (рубль rublʹ, plural: рубли́ rubli; sign: ₽, руб; code: RUB) is the currency of the Russian Federation, the two partially recognized republics of Abkhazia and South Ossetia and the two unrecognized republics of Donetsk and Luhansk.

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Samara

Samara (p), known from 1935 to 1991 as Kuybyshev (Ќуйбышев), is the sixth largest city in Russia and the administrative center of Samara Oblast.

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Samara Oblast

Samara Oblast (p) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast).

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Shearman & Sterling

Shearman & Sterling LLP is a multinational law firm headquartered in New York City, United States.

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Siberia

Siberia (a) is an extensive geographical region, and by the broadest definition is also known as North Asia.

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Spain

Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.

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Subsidiary

A subsidiary, subsidiary company or daughter company"daughter company.

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Syzran

Syzran (p) is the third largest city in Samara Oblast, Russia, located on the right bank of Saratov Reservoir of the Volga River.

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Tax haven

A tax haven is defined as a jurisdiction with very low "effective" rates of taxation ("headline" rates may be higher).

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Tax investigation

Tax investigation is an in-depth investigation processed by a tax authority in order to recover tax undercharged in previous years of assessment.

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The Hague

The Hague (Den Haag,, short for 's-Gravenhage) is a city on the western coast of the Netherlands and the capital of the province of South Holland.

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The Wall Street Journal

The Wall Street Journal is a U.S. business-focused, English-language international daily newspaper based in New York City.

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The Washington Post

The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.

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The World's Billionaires

The World's Billionaires is an annual ranking by documented net worth of the world's wealthiest billionaires compiled and published in March annually by the American business magazine Forbes.

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Tver

Tver (p; IPA: tvʲerʲi) is a city and the administrative center of Tver Oblast, Russia.

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Tyumen Oblast

Tyumen Oblast (Тюме́нская о́бласть, Tyumenskaya oblast) is a federal subject (an oblast) of Russia.

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United States Department of State

The United States Department of State (DOS), often referred to as the State Department, is the United States federal executive department that advises the President and represents the country in international affairs and foreign policy issues.

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Vasily Aleksanyan

Vasily Georgievich Aleksanyan (Васи́лий Гео́ргиевич Алексаня́н, Վասիլի Ալեքսանյան; 15 December 1971 – 2 October 2011) was a Russian lawyer, businessman, and a former Executive Vice President of Yukos oil company.

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Vedomosti

Vedomosti (p, "The Record") is a Russian-language business daily published in Moscow.

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Viktor Gerashchenko

Viktor Vladimirovich Gerashchenko (Russian: Ви́ктор Влади́мирович Гера́щенко), nicknamed Gerakl (the Russian version of Heracles), was the Chairman of the Soviet and then Russian Central Bank during much of the Perestroika and post-Perestroika periods.

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Vladimir Putin

Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (a; born 7 October 1952) is a Russian statesman and former intelligence officer serving as President of Russia since 2012, previously holding the position from 2000 until 2008.

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Washington, D.C.

Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington or D.C., is the capital of the United States of America.

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World oil market chronology from 2003

From the mid-1980s to September 2003, the inflation adjusted price of a barrel of crude oil on NYMEX was generally under $25/barrel.

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Yuganskneftegaz

Yuganskneftegaz (Юганскнефтегаз) is a wholly integrated subsidiary of Rosneft that owns and operates the second largest oil production complex in Russia.

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Redirects here:

YUKOS, Yukos Oil, Yukos Oil Company, Yukos Oil Company (ОАО НК ЮКОС), Yukos oil company, ОАО НК ЮКОС.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yukos

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