161 relations: Abkhazian Dze, Adam Bede, Affricate consonant, Albanian language, Allophone, Alphabet, American English, Ampersand, Andalusia, Antiqua (typeface class), ASCII, Athens, Atomic number, Azerbaijani language, Ẑ, Ẓ, Å, Ö, ß, Ź, Ż, Ž, Ƹ, Basic English, Basque language, Blackboard bold, Blackletter, Breton language, British English, Caron, Chemistry, Cherokee syllabary, Classical Latin, Coptic alphabet, Crete, Cursive, Cyrillic script, Czech language, Czech orthography, Danish language, Danish orthography, Dž, Diacritic, Dutch language, Dz (digraph), Dze, EBCDIC, English alphabet, English language, English orthography, ..., Esperanto orthography, Eta, Etruscan language, Ezh, Ȥ, Finnish language, Finnish orthography, French language, Ge'ez script, George Eliot, German language, German orthography, Gothic alphabet, Greek alphabet, Greek language, Gujarati alphabet, Headline Daily, Hepburn romanization, Hong Kong English, Hungarian dzs, Hungarian language, Hussites, Icelandic language, Icelandic orthography, Igbo language, Inari Sami language, Indonesian language, Integer, International Phonetic Alphabet, ISO basic Latin alphabet, Italian language, Ja (Indic), Japanese language, John Wycliffe, Koine Greek, Komi Dzje, Kunrei-shiki romanization, Latin, Latin America, Latin script, Latvian language, Letter (alphabet), Letter frequency, Letterlike Symbols, Linguistic reconstruction, List of Latin-script digraphs, Lithium, Lithuanian language, Loanword, Logogram, Long s, Macron below, Mathematical Alphanumeric Symbols, Mathematics, Middle High German, Northern Sami, Norwegian language, Norwegian orthography, Occitan language, Old French, Old Italic script, Old Norse, Oxford spelling, Palatal hook, Phoenician alphabet, Pinyin, Polish language, Portuguese language, Project Gutenberg, Prothesis (linguistics), Proto-Sinaitic script, Reversed Ze, Rhotacism (sound change), Romanian language, Serbo-Croatian, Shona language, Sibilant, Sleep, Slovak language, Snoring, Spanish language, Standard Chinese, Swahili language, Swedish alphabet, Swedish language, Sz (digraph), Tatar language, Theta, Turkish language, Turkmen language, Typographic ligature, Tzsch, Ugaritic alphabet, Unicode, Upsilon, Uralic Phonetic Alphabet, Vietnamese language, Visigothic script, Voiced alveolar fricative, Voiced postalveolar fricative, Vulgar Latin, Z flag, Z with descender, Z with stroke, Z with swash tail, Zayin, Ze (Cyrillic), Zed, Zee, Zeta, Zulu language. Expand index (111 more) » « Shrink index
Abkhazian Dze (Ӡ ӡ; italics: Ӡ ӡ) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
Adam Bede, the first novel written by George Eliot (the pen name of Mary Ann Evans), was published in 1859.
An affricate is a consonant that begins as a stop and releases as a fricative, generally with the same place of articulation (most often coronal).
Albanian (shqip, or gjuha shqipe) is a language of the Indo-European family, in which it occupies an independent branch.
In phonology, an allophone (from the ἄλλος, állos, "other" and φωνή, phōnē, "voice, sound") is one of a set of multiple possible spoken sounds, or phones, or signs used to pronounce a single phoneme in a particular language.
An alphabet is a standard set of letters (basic written symbols or graphemes) that is used to write one or more languages based upon the general principle that the letters represent phonemes (basic significant sounds) of the spoken language.
American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States.
The ampersand is the logogram &, representing the conjunction "and".
Andalusia (Andalucía) is an autonomous community in southern Spain.
Antiqua is a style of typeface used to mimic styles of handwriting or calligraphy common during the 15th and 16th centuries.
ASCII, abbreviated from American Standard Code for Information Interchange, is a character encoding standard for electronic communication.
Athens (Αθήνα, Athína; Ἀθῆναι, Athênai) is the capital and largest city of Greece.
The atomic number or proton number (symbol Z) of a chemical element is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom.
Azerbaijani or Azeri, also referred to as Azeri Turkic or Azeri Turkish, is a Turkic language spoken primarily by the Azerbaijanis, who are concentrated mainly in Transcaucasia and Iranian Azerbaijan (historic Azerbaijan).
Ẑ is a Latin script letter, the letter Z with a circumflex, used for transliteration of the Cyrillic letter Ѕ in ISO 9 family of transliteration standards.
Ẓ (minuscule: ẓ) is a letter of the Latin alphabet, formed from Z with the addition of a dot below the letter.
Å (lower case: å) — represents various (although often very similar) sounds in several languages.
Ö, or ö, is a character that represents either a letter from several extended Latin alphabets, or the letter o modified with an umlaut or diaeresis.
In German orthography, the grapheme ß, called Eszett or scharfes S, in English "sharp S", represents the phoneme in Standard German, specifically when following long vowels and diphthongs, while ss is used after short vowels.
Ź (minuscule: ź) is a letter of the Latin alphabet, formed from Z with the addition of an acute accent.
Ż, ż (Z with overdot) is a letter, consisting of the letter Z of the ISO basic Latin alphabet and an overdot.
The grapheme Ž (minuscule: ž) is formed from Latin Z with the addition of caron (háček, mäkčeň, strešica, kvačica).
Ƹ (minuscule: ƹ) is a letter of the Latin alphabet.
Basic English is an English-based controlled language created by linguist and philosopher Charles Kay Ogden as an international auxiliary language, and as an aid for teaching English as a second language.
Basque (euskara) is a language spoken in the Basque country and Navarre. Linguistically, Basque is unrelated to the other languages of Europe and, as a language isolate, to any other known living language. The Basques are indigenous to, and primarily inhabit, the Basque Country, a region that straddles the westernmost Pyrenees in adjacent parts of northern Spain and southwestern France. The Basque language is spoken by 28.4% of Basques in all territories (751,500). Of these, 93.2% (700,300) are in the Spanish area of the Basque Country and the remaining 6.8% (51,200) are in the French portion. Native speakers live in a contiguous area that includes parts of four Spanish provinces and the three "ancient provinces" in France. Gipuzkoa, most of Biscay, a few municipalities of Álava, and the northern area of Navarre formed the core of the remaining Basque-speaking area before measures were introduced in the 1980s to strengthen the language. By contrast, most of Álava, the western part of Biscay and central and southern areas of Navarre are predominantly populated by native speakers of Spanish, either because Basque was replaced by Spanish over the centuries, in some areas (most of Álava and central Navarre), or because it was possibly never spoken there, in other areas (Enkarterri and southeastern Navarre). Under Restorationist and Francoist Spain, public use of Basque was frowned upon, often regarded as a sign of separatism; this applied especially to those regions that did not support Franco's uprising (such as Biscay or Gipuzkoa). However, in those Basque-speaking regions that supported the uprising (such as Navarre or Álava) the Basque language was more than merely tolerated. Overall, in the 1960s and later, the trend reversed and education and publishing in Basque began to flourish. As a part of this process, a standardised form of the Basque language, called Euskara Batua, was developed by the Euskaltzaindia in the late 1960s. Besides its standardised version, the five historic Basque dialects are Biscayan, Gipuzkoan, and Upper Navarrese in Spain, and Navarrese–Lapurdian and Souletin in France. They take their names from the historic Basque provinces, but the dialect boundaries are not congruent with province boundaries. Euskara Batua was created so that Basque language could be used—and easily understood by all Basque speakers—in formal situations (education, mass media, literature), and this is its main use today. In both Spain and France, the use of Basque for education varies from region to region and from school to school. A language isolate, Basque is believed to be one of the few surviving pre-Indo-European languages in Europe, and the only one in Western Europe. The origin of the Basques and of their languages is not conclusively known, though the most accepted current theory is that early forms of Basque developed prior to the arrival of Indo-European languages in the area, including the Romance languages that geographically surround the Basque-speaking region. Basque has adopted a good deal of its vocabulary from the Romance languages, and Basque speakers have in turn lent their own words to Romance speakers. The Basque alphabet uses the Latin script.
Blackboard bold is a typeface style that is often used for certain symbols in mathematical texts, in which certain lines of the symbol (usually vertical or near-vertical lines) are doubled.
Blackletter (sometimes black letter), also known as Gothic script, Gothic minuscule, or Textura, was a script used throughout Western Europe from approximately 1150 to well into the 17th century.
Breton (brezhoneg or in Morbihan) is a Southwestern Brittonic Celtic language spoken in Brittany.
British English is the standard dialect of English language as spoken and written in the United Kingdom.
A caron, háček or haček (or; plural háčeks or háčky) also known as a hachek, wedge, check, inverted circumflex, inverted hat, is a diacritic (ˇ) commonly placed over certain letters in the orthography of some Baltic, Slavic, Finnic, Samic, Berber, and other languages to indicate a change in the related letter's pronunciation (c > č; >). The use of the haček differs according to the orthographic rules of a language.
Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds.
The Cherokee syllabary is a syllabary invented by Sequoyah to write the Cherokee language in the late 1810s and early 1820s.
Classical Latin is the modern term used to describe the form of the Latin language recognized as standard by writers of the late Roman Republic and the Roman Empire.
The Coptic alphabet is the script used for writing the Coptic language.
Crete (Κρήτη,; Ancient Greek: Κρήτη, Krḗtē) is the largest and most populous of the Greek islands, the 88th largest island in the world and the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, after Sicily, Sardinia, Cyprus, and Corsica.
Cursive (also known as script or longhand, among other names) is any style of penmanship in which some characters are written joined together in a flowing manner, generally for the purpose of making writing faster.
The Cyrillic script is a writing system used for various alphabets across Eurasia (particularity in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and North Asia).
Czech (čeština), historically also Bohemian (lingua Bohemica in Latin), is a West Slavic language of the Czech–Slovak group.
Czech orthography is a system of rules for correct writing (orthography) in the Czech language.
Danish (dansk, dansk sprog) is a North Germanic language spoken by around six million people, principally in Denmark and in the region of Southern Schleswig in northern Germany, where it has minority language status.
Danish orthography is the system used to write the Danish language.
Dž (titlecase form; all-capitals form DŽ, lowercase dž) is the seventh letter of the Gaj's Latin alphabet for Serbo-Croatian (Bosnian, Croatian, Montenegrin and Serbian), after D and before Đ. It is pronounced.
A diacritic – also diacritical mark, diacritical point, diacritical sign, or an accent – is a glyph added to a letter, or basic glyph.
The Dutch language is a West Germanic language, spoken by around 23 million people as a first language (including the population of the Netherlands where it is the official language, and about sixty percent of Belgium where it is one of the three official languages) and by another 5 million as a second language.
Dz is a digraph of the Latin script, consisting of the consonants D and Z. It may represent,, or, depending on the language.
Dze (Ѕ ѕ) is a letter of the Cyrillic script, used in the Macedonian language to represent the voiced alveolar affricate, pronounced like ⟨ds⟩ in "pods".
Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code (EBCDIC) is an eight-bit character encoding used mainly on IBM mainframe and IBM midrange computer operating systems.
The modern English alphabet is a Latin alphabet consisting of 26 letters, each having an uppercase and a lowercase form: The same letters constitute the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
English orthography is the system of writing conventions used to represent spoken English in written form that allows readers to connect spelling to sound to meaning.
Esperanto is written in a Latin-script alphabet of twenty-eight letters, with upper and lower case.
Eta (uppercase, lowercase; ἦτα ē̂ta or ήτα ita) is the seventh letter of the Greek alphabet.
The Etruscan language was the spoken and written language of the Etruscan civilization, in Italy, in the ancient region of Etruria (modern Tuscany plus western Umbria and northern Latium) and in parts of Corsica, Campania, Veneto, Lombardy and Emilia-Romagna.
Ezh (Ʒ ʒ), also called the "tailed z", is a letter whose lower case form is used in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA), representing the voiced postalveolar fricative consonant.
Ȥ (minuscule: ȥ, Unicode codepoints U+0224 and U+0225, respectively), a Latin letter Z with a hook.
Finnish (or suomen kieli) is a Finnic language spoken by the majority of the population in Finland and by ethnic Finns outside Finland.
Finnish orthography is based on the Latin script, and uses an alphabet derived from the Swedish alphabet, officially comprising 29 letters.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
Ge'ez (Ge'ez: ግዕዝ), also known as Ethiopic, is a script used as an abugida (alphasyllabary) for several languages of Ethiopia and Eritrea.
Mary Anne Evans (22 November 1819 – 22 December 1880; alternatively "Mary Ann" or "Marian"), known by her pen name George Eliot, was an English novelist, poet, journalist, translator, and one of the leading writers of the Victorian era.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
German orthography is the orthography used in writing the German language, which is largely phonemic.
The Gothic alphabet is an alphabet for writing the Gothic language, created in the 4th century by Ulfilas (or Wulfila) for the purpose of translating the Bible.
The Greek alphabet has been used to write the Greek language since the late 9th or early 8th century BC.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
The Gujarati script (ગુજરાતી લિપિ Gujǎrātī Lipi) is an abugida, like all Nagari writing systems, and is used to write the Gujarati and Kutchi languages.
Headline Daily was launched on 12 July 2005, by Sing Tao Newspaper Group Limited and became the second free Chinese newspaper published officially in Hong Kong (Metro Daily being the first).
is a system for the romanization of Japanese, that uses the Latin alphabet to write the Japanese language.
Hong Kong English is the dialect of the English language most commonly used in Hong Kong.
Dzs is the eighth letter, and only trigraph, of the Hungarian alphabet.
Hungarian is a Finno-Ugric language spoken in Hungary and several neighbouring countries. It is the official language of Hungary and one of the 24 official languages of the European Union. Outside Hungary it is also spoken by communities of Hungarians in the countries that today make up Slovakia, western Ukraine, central and western Romania (Transylvania and Partium), northern Serbia (Vojvodina), northern Croatia, and northern Slovenia due to the effects of the Treaty of Trianon, which resulted in many ethnic Hungarians being displaced from their homes and communities in the former territories of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. It is also spoken by Hungarian diaspora communities worldwide, especially in North America (particularly the United States). Like Finnish and Estonian, Hungarian belongs to the Uralic language family branch, its closest relatives being Mansi and Khanty.
The Hussites (Husité or Kališníci; "Chalice People") were a pre-Protestant Christian movement that followed the teachings of Czech reformer Jan Hus, who became the best known representative of the Bohemian Reformation.
Icelandic (íslenska) is a North Germanic language, and the language of Iceland.
Icelandic orthography is the way in which Icelandic words are spelled and how their spelling corresponds with their pronunciation.
Igbo (Laurie Bauer, 2007, The Linguistics Student's Handbook, Edinburgh), is the principal native language of the Igbo people, an ethnic group of southeastern Nigeria.
Inari Sami (anarâškielâ) is a Sami language spoken by the Inari Sami of Finland.
Indonesian (bahasa Indonesia) is the official language of Indonesia.
An integer (from the Latin ''integer'' meaning "whole")Integer 's first literal meaning in Latin is "untouched", from in ("not") plus tangere ("to touch").
The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet.
The ISO basic Latin alphabet is a Latin-script alphabet and consists of two sets of 26 letters, codified in various national and international standards and used widely in international communication.
Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.
Ja is the eighth consonant of Indic abugidas.
is an East Asian language spoken by about 128 million people, primarily in Japan, where it is the national language.
John Wycliffe (also spelled Wyclif, Wycliff, Wiclef, Wicliffe, Wickliffe; 1320s – 31 December 1384) was an English scholastic philosopher, theologian, Biblical translator, reformer, English priest, and a seminary professor at the University of Oxford.
Komi Dzje (Ԇ ԇ; italics: Ԇ ԇ) is a letter of the Molodtsov alphabet, a variant of Cyrillic.
is a Cabinet-ordered romanization system to transcribe the Japanese language into the Latin alphabet.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Latin America is a group of countries and dependencies in the Western Hemisphere where Spanish, French and Portuguese are spoken; it is broader than the terms Ibero-America or Hispanic America.
Latin or Roman script is a set of graphic signs (script) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet, which is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet, used by the Etruscans.
Latvian (latviešu valoda) is a Baltic language spoken in the Baltic region.
A letter is a grapheme (written character) in an alphabetic system of writing.
The frequency of letters in text has been studied for use in cryptanalysis, and frequency analysis in particular, dating back to the Iraqi mathematician Al-Kindi (c. 801–873 AD), who formally developed the method (the ciphers breakable by this technique go back at least to the Caesar cipher invented by Julius Caesar, so this method could have been explored in classical times).
Letterlike Symbols is a Unicode block containing 80 characters which are constructed mainly from the glyphs of one or more letters.
Linguistic reconstruction is the practice of establishing the features of an unattested ancestor language of one or more given languages.
This is a list of digraphs used in various Latin alphabets.
Lithium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol Li and atomic number 3.
Lithuanian (lietuvių kalba) is a Baltic language spoken in the Baltic region.
A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word adopted from one language (the donor language) and incorporated into another language without translation.
In written language, a logogram or logograph is a written character that represents a word or phrase.
The long, medial, or descending s (ſ) is an archaic form of the lower case letter s. It replaced a single s, or the first in a double s, at the beginning or in the middle of a word (e.g. "ſinfulneſs" for "sinfulness" and "ſucceſsful" for "successful").
Macron below,, is a combining diacritical mark used in various orthographies.
Mathematical Alphanumeric Symbols is a Unicode block of Latin and Greek letters and decimal digits that enable mathematicians to denote different notions with different letter styles.
Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") is the study of such topics as quantity, structure, space, and change.
Middle High German (abbreviated MHG, Mittelhochdeutsch, abbr. Mhd.) is the term for the form of German spoken in the High Middle Ages.
Northern or North Sami (davvisámegiella; disapproved exonym Lappish or Lapp), sometimes also simply referred to as Sami, is the most widely spoken of all Sami languages.
Norwegian (norsk) is a North Germanic language spoken mainly in Norway, where it is the official language.
Norwegian orthography is the method of writing the Norwegian language, of which there are two written standards: Bokmål and Nynorsk.
Occitan, also known as lenga d'òc (langue d'oc) by its native speakers, is a Romance language.
Old French (franceis, françois, romanz; Modern French: ancien français) was the language spoken in Northern France from the 8th century to the 14th century.
Old Italic is one of several now extinct alphabet systems used on the Italian Peninsula in ancient times for various Indo-European languages (predominantly Italic) and non-Indo-European (e.g. Etruscan) languages.
Old Norse was a North Germanic language that was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia and inhabitants of their overseas settlements from about the 9th to the 13th century.
Oxford spelling (also Oxford English Dictionary spelling, Oxford style, or Oxford English spelling) is the spelling standard used by the Oxford University Press (OUP) for British publications, including its Oxford English Dictionary (OED) and its influential British style guide Hart's Rules, and by other publishers who are "etymology conscious", according to Merriam-Webster.
The palatal hook is a type of hook diacritic formerly used in the International Phonetic Alphabet to represent palatalized consonants.
The Phoenician alphabet, called by convention the Proto-Canaanite alphabet for inscriptions older than around 1050 BC, is the oldest verified alphabet.
Hanyu Pinyin Romanization, often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China and to some extent in Taiwan.
Polish (język polski or simply polski) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland and is the native language of the Poles.
Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.
Project Gutenberg (PG) is a volunteer effort to digitize and archive cultural works, to "encourage the creation and distribution of eBooks".
In linguistics, prothesis (from post-classical Latin based on πρόθεσις próthesis 'placing before'), or less commonly prosthesis (from Ancient Greek πρόσθεσις prósthesis 'addition') is the addition of a sound or syllable at the beginning of a word without changing the word's meaning or the rest of its structure.
Proto-Sinaitic, also referred to as Sinaitic, Proto-Canaanite, Old Canaanite, or Canaanite, is a term for both a Middle Bronze Age (Middle Kingdom) script attested in a small corpus of inscriptions found at Serabit el-Khadim in the Sinai Peninsula, Egypt, and the reconstructed common ancestor of the Paleo-Hebrew, Phoenician and South Arabian scripts (and, by extension, of most historical and modern alphabets).
Reversed Ze (Ԑ ԑ; italics: Ԑ ԑ) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
Rhotacism or rhotacization is a sound change that converts one consonant (usually a voiced alveolar consonant:,,, or) to a rhotic consonant in a certain environment.
Romanian (obsolete spellings Rumanian, Roumanian; autonym: limba română, "the Romanian language", or românește, lit. "in Romanian") is an East Romance language spoken by approximately 24–26 million people as a native language, primarily in Romania and Moldova, and by another 4 million people as a second language.
Serbo-Croatian, also called Serbo-Croat, Serbo-Croat-Bosnian (SCB), Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian (BCS), or Bosnian-Croatian-Montenegrin-Serbian (BCMS), is a South Slavic language and the primary language of Serbia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Montenegro.
Shona (chiShona) is the most widely spoken Bantu language as a first language and is native to the Shona people of Zimbabwe.
Sibilance is an acoustic characteristic of fricative and affricate consonants of higher amplitude and pitch, made by directing a stream of air with the tongue towards the sharp edge of the teeth, which are held close together; a consonant that uses sibilance may be called a sibilant.
Sleep is a naturally recurring state of mind and body, characterized by altered consciousness, relatively inhibited sensory activity, inhibition of nearly all voluntary muscles, and reduced interactions with surroundings.
Slovak is an Indo-European language that belongs to the West Slavic languages (together with Czech, Polish, and Sorbian).
Snoring is the vibration of respiratory structures and the resulting sound due to obstructed air movement during breathing while sleeping.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
Standard Chinese, also known as Modern Standard Mandarin, Standard Mandarin, or simply Mandarin, is a standard variety of Chinese that is the sole official language of both China and Taiwan (de facto), and also one of the four official languages of Singapore.
Swahili, also known as Kiswahili (translation: coast language), is a Bantu language and the first language of the Swahili people.
The Swedish alphabet is the writing system used for the Swedish language.
Swedish is a North Germanic language spoken natively by 9.6 million people, predominantly in Sweden (as the sole official language), and in parts of Finland, where it has equal legal standing with Finnish.
Sz is a digraph of the Latin script, used in Hungarian, Polish, Kashubian and German, and in the Wade–Giles system of Romanization of Chinese.
The Tatar language (татар теле, tatar tele; татарча, tatarça) is a Turkic language spoken by Tatars mainly located in modern Tatarstan, Bashkortostan (European Russia), as well as Siberia.
Theta (uppercase Θ or ϴ, lowercase θ (which resembles digit 0 with horizontal line) or ϑ; θῆτα thē̂ta; Modern: θήτα| thī́ta) is the eighth letter of the Greek alphabet, derived from the Phoenician letter Teth.
Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 10–15 million native speakers in Southeast Europe (mostly in East and Western Thrace) and 60–65 million native speakers in Western Asia (mostly in Anatolia).
Turkmen (Türkmençe, türkmen dili; Түркменче, түркмен дили; تۆرکمن دﻴﻠی,تۆرکمنچه) is an official language of Turkmenistan.
In writing and typography, a ligature occurs where two or more graphemes or letters are joined as a single glyph.
Tzsch is an old pentagraph used in German to write the sound.
The Ugaritic script is a cuneiform abjad used from around either the fifteenth century BCE or 1300 BCE for Ugaritic, an extinct Northwest Semitic language, and discovered in Ugarit (modern Ras Shamra), Syria, in 1928.
Unicode is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding, representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems.
Upsilon (or; uppercase Υ, lowercase υ; ύψιλον ýpsilon) or ypsilon is the 20th letter of the Greek alphabet.
The Uralic Phonetic Alphabet (UPA) or Finno-Ugric transcription system is a phonetic transcription or notational system used predominantly for the transcription and reconstruction of Uralic languages.
Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt) is an Austroasiatic language that originated in Vietnam, where it is the national and official language.
Visigothic script was a type of medieval script that originated in the Visigothic kingdom in Hispania (the Iberian Peninsula, modern Spain and Portugal).
The voiced alveolar fricatives are consonantal sounds.
Voiced fricatives produced in the postalveolar region include the voiced palato-alveolar fricative, the voiced postalveolar non-sibilant fricative, the voiced retroflex fricative, and the voiced alveolo-palatal fricative.
Vulgar Latin or Sermo Vulgaris ("common speech") was a nonstandard form of Latin (as opposed to Classical Latin, the standard and literary version of the language) spoken in the Mediterranean region during and after the classical period of the Roman Empire.
The Z flag is one of the international maritime signal flags.
(minuscule: ⱬ, Unicode codepoints U+2C6B and U+2C6C, respectively) is a Latin letter Z with a descender.
Ƶ (minuscule: ƶ) is a letter of the Latin alphabet, derived from Z with the addition of a stroke.
Ɀ (lowercase: ɀ) is a Latin letter z with a "swash tail" (encoded by Unicode, at codepoints U+2C7F for uppercase and U+0240 for lowercase) was used as a phonetic symbol by linguists studying African languages to represent a voiced labio-alveolar fricative.
Zayin (also spelled zain or zayn or simply zay) is the seventh letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Zayin, Hebrew 'Zayin, Yiddish Zoyen, Aramaic Zain, Syriac Zayn ܙ, and Arabic Zayn or Zāy ز. It represents the sound.
Ze (З з; italics: З з) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
Zed is the pronunciation of the letter Z in Commonwealth English ("zee" in American English).
Zee is the phonetic pronunciation of the letter Z in American English ("zed" in Commonwealth English).
Zeta (uppercase Ζ, lowercase ζ; ζῆτα, label, classical or zē̂ta; zíta) is the sixth letter of the Greek alphabet.
Zulu (Zulu: isiZulu) is the language of the Zulu people, with about 10 million speakers, the vast majority (over 95%) of whom live in South Africa.