C++ ("see plus plus") is a general-purpose programming language.
Object-oriented programming (OOP) is a programming paradigm based on the concept of "objects", which may contain data, in the form of fields, often known as attributes; and code, in the form of procedures, often known as methods. A feature of objects is that an object's procedures can access and often modify the data fields of the object with which they are associated (objects have a notion of "this" or "self").
A specification language is a formal language in computer science used during systems analysis, requirements analysis and systems design to describe a system at a much higher level than a programming language, which is used to produce the executable code for a system.
Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.
The Z notation is a formal specification language used for describing and modelling computing systems.