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# Z-buffering

In computer graphics, z-buffering, also known as depth buffering, is the management of image depth coordinates in 3D graphics, usually done in hardware, sometimes in software. [1]

## A-buffer

In computer graphics, A-buffer, also known as anti-aliased, area-averaged or accumulation buffer, is a general hidden surface mechanism suited to medium scale virtual memory computers.

## Accuracy and precision

Precision is a description of random errors, a measure of statistical variability.

## Artifact (error)

In natural science and signal processing, an artifact is any error in the perception or representation of any information, introduced by the involved equipment or technique(s).

## Bandwidth (computing)

In computing, bandwidth is the maximum rate of data transfer across a given path.

## Bottleneck (engineering)

In engineering, a bottleneck is a phenomenon by which the performance or capacity of an entire system is severely limited by a single component.

## Camera matrix

In computer vision a camera matrix or (camera) projection matrix is a 3 \times 4 matrix which describes the mapping of a pinhole camera from 3D points in the world to 2D points in an image.

## Centroid

In mathematics and physics, the centroid or geometric center of a plane figure is the arithmetic mean position of all the points in the shape.

## Computer data storage

Computer data storage, often called storage or memory, is a technology consisting of computer components and recording media that are used to retain digital data.

## Computer graphics

Computer graphics are pictures and films created using computers.

## Coordinate system

In geometry, a coordinate system is a system which uses one or more numbers, or coordinates, to uniquely determine the position of the points or other geometric elements on a manifold such as Euclidean space.

## Data buffer

In computer science, a data buffer (or just buffer) is a region of a physical memory storage used to temporarily store data while it is being moved from one place to another.

## Depth map

In 3D computer graphics a depth map is an image or image channel that contains information relating to the distance of the surfaces of scene objects from a viewpoint.

## Edwin Catmull

Edwin Earl Catmull (born March 31, 1945) is an American computer scientist and current president of Pixar and Walt Disney Animation Studios.

## Fillrate

The term pixel fillrate refers to the number of pixels a video card can render to screen and write to video memory in a second or in case of texture fillrate the number of texture map elements (texels) GPU can map to pixels in a second.

## Fixed-point arithmetic

In computing, a fixed-point number representation is a real data type for a number that has a fixed number of digits after (and sometimes also before) the radix point (after the decimal point '.' in English decimal notation).

## Floating-point arithmetic

In computing, floating-point arithmetic is arithmetic using formulaic representation of real numbers as an approximation so as to support a trade-off between range and precision.

## Frustum

In geometry, a frustum (plural: frusta or frustums) is the portion of a solid (normally a cone or pyramid) that lies between one or two parallel planes cutting it.

## HyperZ

HyperZ is the brand for a set of processing techniques developed by ATI Technologies and later Advanced Micro Devices and implemented in their Radeon-GPUs.

## Irregular Z-buffer

The irregular Z-buffer is an algorithm designed to solve the visibility problem in real-time 3-d computer graphics.

## Linear interpolation

In mathematics, linear interpolation is a method of curve fitting using linear polynomials to construct new data points within the range of a discrete set of known data points.

## Lossless compression

Lossless compression is a class of data compression algorithms that allows the original data to be perfectly reconstructed from the compressed data.

## Multiplicative inverse

In mathematics, a multiplicative inverse or reciprocal for a number x, denoted by 1/x or x&minus;1, is a number which when multiplied by x yields the multiplicative identity, 1.

## Orthographic projection

Orthographic projection (sometimes orthogonal projection), is a means of representing three-dimensional objects in two dimensions.

## Painter's algorithm

The painter's algorithm, also known as a priority fill, is one of the simplest solutions to the visibility problem in 3D computer graphics.

## Pixel

In digital imaging, a pixel, pel, dots, or picture element is a physical point in a raster image, or the smallest addressable element in an all points addressable display device; so it is the smallest controllable element of a picture represented on the screen.

## Plane (geometry)

In mathematics, a plane is a flat, two-dimensional surface that extends infinitely far.

## Polygon

In elementary geometry, a polygon is a plane figure that is bounded by a finite chain of straight line segments closing in a loop to form a closed polygonal chain or circuit.

## Rendering (computer graphics)

Rendering or image synthesis is the automatic process of generating a photorealistic or non-photorealistic image from a 2D or 3D model (or models in what collectively could be called a scene file) by means of computer programs.

In computer graphics, a shader is a type of computer program that was originally used for shading (the production of appropriate levels of light, darkness, and color within an image) but which now performs a variety of specialized functions in various fields of computer graphics special effects or does video post-processing unrelated to shading, or even functions unrelated to graphics at all.

## Software

Computer software, or simply software, is a generic term that refers to a collection of data or computer instructions that tell the computer how to work, in contrast to the physical hardware from which the system is built, that actually performs the work.

## Stencil buffer

A stencil buffer is an extra data buffer, in addition to the color buffer and depth buffer, found on modern graphics hardware.

## Texture mapping

Texture mapping is a method for defining high frequency detail, surface texture, or color information on a computer-generated graphic or 3D model.

## Vertex (geometry)

In geometry, a vertex (plural: vertices or vertexes) is a point where two or more curves, lines, or edges meet.

## Viewing frustum

In 3D computer graphics, the view frustum (also called viewing frustum) is the region of space in the modeled world that may appear on the screen; it is the field of view of the notional camera.

## Visibility (geometry)

Visibility in geometry is a mathematical abstraction of the real-life notion of visibility.

## Z-fighting

Demonstration of z-fighting with multiple colors and textures over a grey background Z-fighting, also called stitching, is a phenomenon in 3D rendering that occurs when two or more primitives have similar or identical values in the z-buffer.

## Z-index

z-index is a CSS property that sets the stack order of specific elements.

## Z-order

Z-order is an ordering of overlapping two-dimensional objects, such as windows in a stacking window manager, shapes in a vector graphics editor, or objects in a 3D application.

## 16-bit

16-bit microcomputers are computers in which 16-bit microprocessors were the norm.

## 24-bit

Notable 24-bit machines include the CDC 924 – a 24-bit version of the CDC 1604, CDC lower 3000 series, SDS 930 and SDS 940, the ICT 1900 series, and the Datacraft minicomputers/Harris H series.

## 32-bit

32-bit microcomputers are computers in which 32-bit microprocessors are the norm.

## 3D computer graphics

3D computer graphics or three-dimensional computer graphics, (in contrast to 2D computer graphics) are graphics that use a three-dimensional representation of geometric data (often Cartesian) that is stored in the computer for the purposes of performing calculations and rendering 2D images.

## 3D projection

3D projection is any method of mapping three-dimensional points to a two-dimensional plane.

## 8-bit

8-bit is also a generation of microcomputers in which 8-bit microprocessors were the norm.

## References

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