121 relations: Akkadian Empire, Alborz, Almond, Alps, Anshan (Persia), Antoin Sevruguin, Apricot, Arabian Plate, Asiatic lion, Assyria, Barbary lion, Barley, Basra reed warbler, Calcium, Carboniferous, Circa, Cretaceous, Décollement, Deforestation, Dena, Depositional environment, Dolomite, Domestication, Ductility, Ecoregion, Ecosystem, Elam, Endangered species, Endemism, Erosion, Eurasian Plate, Extinction, Fars Province, Fault (geology), Fold and thrust belt, Forest, Forest steppe, Fossil, Friction, Geosyncline, Global Positioning System, Godin Tepe, Grape, Gutian people, Hajji Firuz Tepe, Hydrocarbon exploration, Iran, Iranian Plateau, Iraq, Iraqi Kurdistan, ..., Iris barnumiae, Jarmo, Jurassic, Kaiser's spotted newt, Kassites, Kazerun, Khuzestan Province, Kurdistan, Kurds, Lentil, Limestone, Little Zab, Magnesium, Mediterranean climate, Mesopotamia, Mesozoic, Middle East, Miocene, Mitanni, Mount Arbaba, Mount Elbrus, Mountain range, Mudstone, Neanderthal, Neogene, Oak, Oil field, Oshtorankuh, Overgrazing, Paleogene, Paleozoic, Persian fallow deer, Petroleum, Pistachio, Plate tectonics, Plum, Pomegranate, Precipitation, Quercus brantii, Salt dome, Salt glacier, Sedimentary rock, Semi-arid climate, Shanidar Cave, Silakhor Plain, Siltstone, Strait of Hormuz, Striped hyena, Sumer, Susa, Taurus Mountains, Tell Bazmusian, Tell Shemshara, Tertiary, Threatened species, Triassic, Tulipa humilis, Turkey, Walnut, Western Asia, Wheat, Wildlife of Iran, Wildlife of Iraq, Wildlife of Turkey, Wine, World Wide Fund for Nature, Zagros fold and thrust belt, Zagros Mountains mouse-like hamster, Zard-Kuh, 19th century, 20th century. Expand index (71 more) » « Shrink index
The Akkadian Empire was the first ancient Semitic-speaking empire of Mesopotamia, centered in the city of Akkad and its surrounding region, also called Akkad in ancient Mesopotamia in the Bible.
The Alborz (البرز), also spelled as Alburz, Elburz or Elborz, is a mountain range in northern Iran that stretches from the border of Azerbaijan along the western and entire southern coast of the Caspian Sea and finally runs northeast and merges into the Aladagh Mountains in the northern parts of Khorasan.
The almond (Prunus dulcis, syn. Prunus amygdalus) is a species of tree native to Mediterranean climate regions of the Middle East, from Syria and Turkey to India and Pakistan, although it has been introduced elsewhere.
The Alps (Alpes; Alpen; Alpi; Alps; Alpe) are the highest and most extensive mountain range system that lies entirely in Europe,The Caucasus Mountains are higher, and the Urals longer, but both lie partly in Asia.
Anshan (𒀭𒍝𒀭 Anzan), modern Tall-i Malyan (تل ملیان), was an ancient city.
Antoin Sevruguin (آنتوان سورگین; 1830-1933) was a photographer in Iran during the reign of the Qajar dynasty (1785–1925).
An apricot is a fruit, or the tree that bears the fruit, of several species in the genus Prunus (stone fruits).
The Arabian Plate is a tectonic plate in the northern and eastern hemispheres.
The Asiatic lion (Panthera leo leo) is a lion population in Gujarat, India.
Assyria, also called the Assyrian Empire, was a major Semitic speaking Mesopotamian kingdom and empire of the ancient Near East and the Levant.
The Barbary lion (Panthera leo leo) is the nominate lion subspecies in North Africa.
Barley (Hordeum vulgare), a member of the grass family, is a major cereal grain grown in temperate climates globally.
The Basra reed warbler (Acrocephalus griseldis) is a "warbler" of the genus Acrocephalus.
Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.
The Carboniferous is a geologic period and system that spans 60 million years from the end of the Devonian Period million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Permian Period, Mya.
Circa, usually abbreviated c., ca. or ca (also circ. or cca.), means "approximately" in several European languages (and as a loanword in English), usually in reference to a date.
The Cretaceous is a geologic period and system that spans 79 million years from the end of the Jurassic Period million years ago (mya) to the beginning of the Paleogene Period mya.
Décollement (from the French décoller, 'to detach from') is a gliding plane between two rock masses, also known as a basal detachment fault.
Deforestation, clearance, or clearing is the removal of a forest or stand of trees where the land is thereafter converted to a non-forest use.
Dena (in Persian and Luri: دنا) is the name for a sub-range within the Zagros Mountains.
In geology, depositional environment or sedimentary environment describes the combination of physical, chemical and biological processes associated with the deposition of a particular type of sediment and, therefore, the rock types that will be formed after lithification, if the sediment is preserved in the rock record.
Dolomite is an anhydrous carbonate mineral composed of calcium magnesium carbonate, ideally The term is also used for a sedimentary carbonate rock composed mostly of the mineral dolomite.
Domestication is a sustained multi-generational relationship in which one group of organisms assumes a significant degree of influence over the reproduction and care of another group to secure a more predictable supply of resources from that second group.
Ductility is a measure of a material's ability to undergo significant plastic deformation before rupture, which may be expressed as percent elongation or percent area reduction from a tensile test.
An ecoregion (ecological region) is an ecologically and geographically defined area that is smaller than a bioregion, which in turn is smaller than an ecozone.
An ecosystem is a community made up of living organisms and nonliving components such as air, water, and mineral soil.
Elam (Elamite: haltamti, Sumerian: NIM.MAki) was an ancient Pre-Iranian civilization centered in the far west and southwest of what is now modern-day Iran, stretching from the lowlands of what is now Khuzestan and Ilam Province as well as a small part of southern Iraq.
An endangered species is a species which has been categorized as very likely to become extinct.
Endemism is the ecological state of a species being unique to a defined geographic location, such as an island, nation, country or other defined zone, or habitat type; organisms that are indigenous to a place are not endemic to it if they are also found elsewhere.
In earth science, erosion is the action of surface processes (such as water flow or wind) that remove soil, rock, or dissolved material from one location on the Earth's crust, and then transport it to another location (not to be confused with weathering which involves no movement).
The Eurasian Plate is a tectonic plate which includes most of the continent of Eurasia (a landmass consisting of the traditional continents of Europe and Asia), with the notable exceptions of the Indian subcontinent, the Arabian subcontinent, and the area east of the Chersky Range in East Siberia.
In biology, extinction is the termination of an organism or of a group of organisms (taxon), normally a species.
Pars Province (استان پارس, Ostān-e Pārs) also known as Fars (Persian: فارس) or Persia in the Greek sources in historical context, is one of the thirty-one provinces of Iran and known as the cultural capital of the country.
In geology, a fault is a planar fracture or discontinuity in a volume of rock, across which there has been significant displacement as a result of rock-mass movement.
A fold and thrust belt is a series of mountainous foothills adjacent to an orogenic belt, which forms due to contractional tectonics.
A forest is a large area dominated by trees.
A forest steppe is a temperate-climate ecotone and habitat type composed of grassland interspersed with areas of woodland or forest.
A fossil (from Classical Latin fossilis; literally, "obtained by digging") is any preserved remains, impression, or trace of any once-living thing from a past geological age.
Friction is the force resisting the relative motion of solid surfaces, fluid layers, and material elements sliding against each other.
Geosyncline originally called a geosynclinalŞengör (1982), p. 11 is an obsolete geological concept to explain orogens which was developed in the late 19th and early 20th centuries before the theory of plate tectonics was envisaged.
The Global Positioning System (GPS), originally Navstar GPS, is a satellite-based radionavigation system owned by the United States government and operated by the United States Air Force.
Godin Tepe is an archaeological site in western Iran, situated in the valley of Kangavar in Kermanshah Province.
A grape is a fruit, botanically a berry, of the deciduous woody vines of the flowering plant genus Vitis.
The Guti or Quti, also known by the derived exonyms Gutians or Guteans, were a nomadic people of the Zagros Mountains (on the border of modern Iran and Iraq) during ancient times.
Hajji Firuz Tepe is an archaeological site located in West Azarbaijan province in north-western Iran.
Hydrocarbon exploration (or oil and gas exploration) is the search by petroleum geologists and geophysicists for hydrocarbon deposits beneath the Earth's surface, such as oil and natural gas.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
The Iranian Plateau or the Persian Plateau is a geological formation in Western Asia and Central Asia.
Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
Iraqi Kurdistan, officially called the Kurdistan Region of Iraq (Herêmî Kurdistan) by the Iraqi constitution, is an autonomous region located in northern Iraq.
Iris barnumiae is a species in the genus Iris, it is also in the subgenus of Iris and in the Oncocyclus section.
Ancient Assyria Jarmo Ancient Assyria (Qal'at Jarmo) is a prehistoric archeological site located in Iraq on the foothills of the Zagros Mountains.
The Jurassic (from Jura Mountains) was a geologic period and system that spanned 56 million years from the end of the Triassic Period million years ago (Mya) to the beginning of the Cretaceous Period Mya.
Kaiser's spotted newt (Neurergus kaiseri), also known as the Luristan newt or emperor spotted newt (not to be confused with Tylototriton shanjing), is a species of very colourful salamander in the Salamandridae family.
The Kassites were people of the ancient Near East, who controlled Babylonia after the fall of the Old Babylonian Empire c. 1531 BC and until c. 1155 BC (short chronology).
Kazeroon (كازرون, also Romanized as Kāzerūn, Kāzeroūn, and Kazeroon; also known as Kasrun) is a city and capital of Kazeroon County, Fars Province, Iran.
Khuzestan Province (استان خوزستان Ostān-e Khūzestān, محافظة خوزستان Muḥāfaẓa Khūzistān) is one of the 31 provinces of Iran.
Kurdistan (کوردستان; lit. "homeland of the Kurds") or Greater Kurdistan is a roughly defined geo-cultural historical region wherein the Kurdish people form a prominent majority population and Kurdish culture, languages and national identity have historically been based.
The Kurds (rtl, Kurd) or the Kurdish people (rtl, Gelî kurd), are an ethnic group in the Middle East, mostly inhabiting a contiguous area spanning adjacent parts of southeastern Turkey (Northern Kurdistan), northwestern Iran (Eastern Kurdistan), northern Iraq (Southern Kurdistan), and northern Syria (Western Kurdistan).
The lentil (Lens culinaris or Lens esculenta) is an edible pulse.
Limestone is a sedimentary rock, composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral, forams and molluscs.
The Little Zab or Lower Zab (al-Zāb al-Asfal; or Zêyê Biçûk;, Zâb-e Kuchak;, Zāba Taḥtāya) originates in Iran and joins the Tigris just south of Al Zab in the Kurdistan region of Iraq.
Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12.
A Mediterranean climate or dry summer climate is characterized by rainy winters and dry summers.
Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.
The Mesozoic Era is an interval of geological time from about.
The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).
The Miocene is the first geological epoch of the Neogene Period and extends from about (Ma).
Mitanni (Hittite cuneiform; Mittani), also called Hanigalbat (Hanigalbat, Khanigalbat cuneiform) in Assyrian or Naharin in Egyptian texts, was a Hurrian-speaking state in northern Syria and southeast Anatolia from c. 1500 to 1300 BC.
Mount Arbaba (Arbeba, Erbeba, ئاربهبا) is a mountain of the Zagros Mountains range, near the city of Baneh in Kurdistan Province of western Iran.
Mount Elbrus (ɪlʲˈbrus; Минги тау, Miñi taw,; Ӏуащхьэмахуэ, ’Wāśhamāxwa) is the highest mountain in Europe, and the tenth most prominent peak in the world.
A mountain range or hill range is a series of mountains or hills ranged in a line and connected by high ground.
Mudstone, a type of mudrock, is a fine-grained sedimentary rock whose original constituents were clays or muds.
Neanderthals (also; also Neanderthal Man, taxonomically Homo neanderthalensis or Homo sapiens neanderthalensis) are an extinct species or subspecies of archaic humans in the genus Homo, who lived in Eurasia during at least 430,000 to 38,000 years ago.
The Neogene (informally Upper Tertiary or Late Tertiary) is a geologic period and system that spans 20.45 million years from the end of the Paleogene Period million years ago (Mya) to the beginning of the present Quaternary Period Mya.
An oak is a tree or shrub in the genus Quercus (Latin "oak tree") of the beech family, Fagaceae.
An "oil field" or "oilfield" is a region with an abundance of oil wells extracting petroleum (crude oil) from below ground.
Oshtorankuh (اشترانکوه) is a mountain that is located about 15 kilometres southwest of the city of Azna in Lorestan Province in Iran.
Overgrazing occurs when plants are exposed to intensive grazing for extended periods of time, or without sufficient recovery periods.
The Paleogene (also spelled Palaeogene or Palæogene; informally Lower Tertiary or Early Tertiary) is a geologic period and system that spans 43 million years from the end of the Cretaceous Period million years ago (Mya) to the beginning of the Neogene Period Mya.
The Paleozoic (or Palaeozoic) Era (from the Greek palaios (παλαιός), "old" and zoe (ζωή), "life", meaning "ancient life") is the earliest of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic Eon.
The Persian fallow deer (Dama dama mesopotamica) (gavazn-i zard in Persian) is a rare ruminant mammal belonging to the family Cervidae.
Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface.
The pistachio (Pistacia vera), a member of the cashew family, is a small tree originating from Central Asia and the Middle East.
Plate tectonics (from the Late Latin tectonicus, from the τεκτονικός "pertaining to building") is a scientific theory describing the large-scale motion of seven large plates and the movements of a larger number of smaller plates of the Earth's lithosphere, since tectonic processes began on Earth between 3 and 3.5 billion years ago.
A plum is a fruit of the subgenus Prunus of the genus Prunus. The subgenus is distinguished from other subgenera (peaches, cherries, bird cherries, etc.) in the shoots having terminal bud and solitary side buds (not clustered), the flowers in groups of one to five together on short stems, and the fruit having a groove running down one side and a smooth stone (or pit).
The pomegranate (Punica granatum) is a fruit-bearing deciduous shrub or small tree in the family Lythraceae that grows between tall.
In meteorology, precipitation is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravity.
Quercus brantii, the Brant's oak or Persian oak, is a species of oak native to Western Asia, including Iran, Iraq, Syria, and Turkey.
A salt dome is a type of structural dome formed when a thick bed of evaporite minerals (mainly salt, or halite) found at depth intrudes vertically into surrounding rock strata, forming a diapir.
A salt glacier (or namakier) is a rare flow of salt that is created when a rising diapir in a salt dome breaches the surface of the Earth.
Sedimentary rocks are types of rock that are formed by the deposition and subsequent cementation of that material at the Earth's surface and within bodies of water.
A semi-arid climate or steppe climate is the climate of a region that receives precipitation below potential evapotranspiration, but not as low as a desert climate.
Shanidar Cave (Kurdish: Şaneder or Zewî Çemî Şaneder) is an archaeological site located on Bradost Mountain in the Erbil Governorate of Iraqi Kurdistan.
Silakhor Plain (Dasht-e Silakhor) is the largest flat land in Lorestan province of Iran.
Siltstone is a sedimentary rock which has a grain size in the silt range, finer than sandstone and coarser than claystones.
The Strait of Hormuz (تنگه هرمز Tangeye Hormoz) is a strait between the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman.
The striped hyena (Hyaena hyaena) is a species of hyena native to North and East Africa, the Middle East, the Caucasus, Central Asia and the Indian subcontinent.
SumerThe name is from Akkadian Šumeru; Sumerian en-ĝir15, approximately "land of the civilized kings" or "native land".
Susa (fa Šuš;; שׁוּשָׁן Šušān; Greek: Σοῦσα; ܫܘܫ Šuš; Old Persian Çūšā) was an ancient city of the Proto-Elamite, Elamite, First Persian Empire, Seleucid, Parthian, and Sasanian empires of Iran, and one of the most important cities of the Ancient Near East.
The Taurus Mountains (Turkish: Toros Dağları, Armenian: Թորոս լեռներ, Ancient Greek: Ὄρη Ταύρου) are a mountain complex in southern Turkey, separating the Mediterranean coastal region of southern Turkey from the central Anatolian Plateau.
Tell Bazmusian is an archaeological site on the right bank of the Little Zab in the Ranya Plain (Sulaymaniyah Governorate, Iraq).
Tell Shemshara is an archaeological site located along the Little Zab in Sulaymaniyah Governorate, northeastern Iraq.
Tertiary is the former term for the geologic period from 65 million to 2.58 million years ago, a timespan that occurs between the superseded Secondary period and the Quaternary.
Threatened species are any species (including animals, plants, fungi, etc.) which are vulnerable to endangerment in the near future.
The Triassic is a geologic period and system which spans 50.6 million years from the end of the Permian Period 251.9 million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Jurassic Period Mya.
Tulipa humilis is a species of flowering plant in the lily family, found in Syria, Lebanon, Israel, Turkey, Iran, and the North Caucasus region of Russia.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
A walnut is the nut of any tree of the genus Juglans (Family Juglandaceae), particularly the Persian or English walnut, Juglans regia.
Western Asia, West Asia, Southwestern Asia or Southwest Asia is the westernmost subregion of Asia.
Wheat is a grass widely cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food.
The wildlife of Iran has first been partly described by Hamdallah Mustawfi in the 14th century who only referred to animals.
The wildlife of Iraq includes its flora and fauna and their natural habitats.
The wildlife of Turkey is abundant and very varied.
Wine is an alcoholic beverage made from grapes fermented without the addition of sugars, acids, enzymes, water, or other nutrients.
The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) is an international non-governmental organization founded in 1961, working in the field of the wilderness preservation, and the reduction of human impact on the environment.
The Zagros fold and thrust belt (Zagros FTB) is an approximately long zone of deformed crustal rocks, formed in the foreland of the collision between the Arabian Plate and the Eurasian Plate.
The Zagros Mountains mouse-like hamster (Calomyscus bailwardi) is a relatively little-known rodent which was the first species of mouse-like hamster to be described.
Zard Kuh (meaning "Yellow Mountain", also spelled Zardkuh, Zarduh Kuh or Zard Kuh-e Bakhtiari; Persian: زردكوه بختياري) is a sub-range in the central Zagros Range, Iran.
The 19th century was a century that began on January 1, 1801, and ended on December 31, 1900.
The 20th century was a century that began on January 1, 1901 and ended on December 31, 2000.