386 relations: Adam Ulam, Adevărul, Afanasi Matushenko, Agrarianism, Alecu Donici, Alexander Herzen, Alexander Pushkin, Alexandru Hâjdeu, Allies of World War I, Anarchism, Anarchism in Russia, Anarchism in Spain, Anarchist St. Imier International, Anarcho-communism, Ancient Egypt, Anti-communism, Anti-imperialism, Anti-Masonry, Anti-Russian sentiment, Antisemitism, Armistice of 11 November 1918, Asociația Transilvană pentru Literatura Română și Cultura Poporului Român, Aurel Popovici, Austria-Hungary, Austrian Empire, Élie Reclus, Élisée Reclus, Babeș-Bolyai University, Barbara Jelavich, Basarabia (newspaper), Bern, Bessarabia, Bessarabia Governorate, Bex, Black Hundreds, Bogdan Petriceicu Hasdeu, Bolsheviks, Boris Nicolaevsky, Boris Savinkov, Boyar, Brill Publishers, Broadview Press, Bucharest, Budjak, Bukovina, Bulgarian language, Bulgarian Navy, Bulgarians, Byloye, C. A. Rosetti, ..., California Digital Library, Cambridge University Press, Camille Flammarion, Canada, Carlo Cafiero, Carol I of Romania, Censorship in Communist Romania, Censorship in the Soviet Union, Central Powers, Centralized government, Chernivtsi, Chișinău, Children's literature, Christian Rakovsky, Collaborationism, Collectivist anarchism, Comic book, Commercial code (law), Communism, Communist International, Congress Poland, Conservatism, Conservative Party (Romania, 1880–1918), Conspiracy theory, Constantin Dobrogeanu-Gherea, Constantin Mille, Constantin Stamati, Constantin Stere, Constitutional Democratic Party, Contraband, Contrafort, Convorbiri Literare, Cuvântul (magazine), Danube Delta, Demons (Dostoevsky novel), Dimitrie Sturdza, Dobruja, Dolna, Strășeni, Don Quixote, Dowry, Duchy of Bukovina, Dumitru C. Moruzi, E-book, Eastern Europe, Eastern Front (World War I), Ecaterina Arbore, Economic geography, Editura Minerva, Enemy of the people, Errico Malatesta, Ethnography, Ethology, European Russia, Extradition, Ștefan cel Mare University of Suceava, Familia (magazine), Far-left politics, Far-right politics, Feminism, Ferdinand I of Romania, Finns, Fire in the Minds of Men, Five-Year Plans of Romania, Francophile, Freemasonry, Freemasonry in Romania, Fyodor Dostoevsky, Gazetteer, Geneva, Geography of Moldova, George Woodcock, German Empire, German language, Germanophile, Germans, Gheorghe Cristescu, Giurgiu, Grand Duchy of Finland, Grand Duchy of Moscow, Grand Master (Masonic), Grand Orient de France, Great Purge, Greater Romania, Greeks in Romania, Habsburg Monarchy, Hague Congress (1872), Henri H. Stahl, Henri Matisse, Hetman, History of Moldova, History of the cooperative movement, History of Ukrainian nationality, Hoover Institution, Hristo Botev, Humanitas (publishing house), I. C. 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Adam Bruno Ulam (8 April 1922 – 28 March 2000) was a Polish-American historian of Jewish descent and political scientist at Harvard University.
Adevărul (meaning "The Truth", formerly spelled Adevĕrul) is a Romanian daily newspaper, based in Bucharest.
Afanasy Nikolayevich Matushenko (Афана́сий Никола́евич Матюшенко, Пана́с Микола́йович Матюшенко, May 2, 1879 -), was a non-commissioned officer in the Russian Black Sea Fleet, revolutionary socialist, and ringleader of the mutiny on the Russian battleship ''Potemkin''.
Agrarianism is a social philosophy or political philosophy which values rural society as superior to urban society, the independent farmer as superior to the paid worker, and sees farming as a way of life that can shape the ideal social values.
Alecu (or Alexandru) Donici (January 19, 1806 – January 21, 1865) was a Moldavian, later Romanian poet and translator.
Aleksandr Ivanovich Herzen (also Aleksandr Ivanovič Gercen, Алекса́ндр Ива́нович Ге́рцен) was a Russian writer and thinker known as the "father of Russian socialism" and one of the main fathers of agrarian populism (being an ideological ancestor of the Narodniki, Socialist-Revolutionaries, Trudoviks and the agrarian American Populist Party).
Alexander Sergeyevich Pushkin (a) was a Russian poet, playwright, and novelist of the Romantic eraBasker, Michael.
Alexandru Hâjdeu (Алекса́ндр Фадде́евич Хижде́у, 30 November 1811 – 9 November 1872) was a Russian writer of Romanian origin, who lived in Bessarabia (Russian Empire).
The Allies of World War I, or Entente Powers, were the countries that opposed the Central Powers in the First World War.
Anarchism is a political philosophy that advocates self-governed societies based on voluntary institutions.
Russian anarchism is anarchism in Russia or among Russians.
Anarchism in Spain has historically gained more support and influence than anywhere else, especially before Francisco Franco's victory in the Spanish Civil War of 1936–39.
The Anarchist International of St.
Anarcho-communism (also known as anarchist communism, free communism, libertarian communism and communist anarchism) is a theory of anarchism which advocates the abolition of the state, capitalism, wage labour and private property (while retaining respect for personal property) in favor of common ownership of the means of production, direct democracy and a horizontal network of workers' councils with production and consumption based on the guiding principle: "From each according to his ability, to each according to his needs".
Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.
Anti-communism is opposition to communism.
Anti-imperialism in political science and international relations is a term used in a variety of contexts, usually by nationalist movements who want to secede from a larger polity (usually in the form of an empire, but also in a multi-ethnic sovereign state) or as a specific theory opposed to capitalism in Marxist–Leninist discourse, derived from Vladimir Lenin's work Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Capitalism.
Anti-Masonry (alternatively called Anti-Freemasonry) is defined as "avowed opposition to Freemasonry".
Anti-Russian sentiment or Russophobia is a diverse spectrum of negative feelings, dislikes, fears, aversion, derision and/or prejudice of Russia, Russians or Russian culture.
Antisemitism (also spelled anti-Semitism or anti-semitism) is hostility to, prejudice, or discrimination against Jews.
The Armistice of 11 November 1918 was the armistice that ended fighting on land, sea and air in World War I between the Allies and their last opponent, Germany.
Asociaţia Transilvană pentru Literatura Română şi Cultura Poporului Român (abbreviated ASTRA; in English, The Transylvanian Association for Romanian Literature and the Culture of the Romanian People) is a cultural association founded in 1861 in Sibiu.
Aurel Constantin Popovici (16 October 1863 Lugoj, Banat, Austrian Empire – 9 February 1917 Geneva, Switzerland) was an ethnic Romanian Austro-Hungarian lawyer and politician.
Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy in English-language sources, was a constitutional union of the Austrian Empire (the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council, or Cisleithania) and the Kingdom of Hungary (Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen or Transleithania) that existed from 1867 to 1918, when it collapsed as a result of defeat in World War I. The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867.
The Austrian Empire (Kaiserthum Oesterreich, modern spelling Kaisertum Österreich) was a Central European multinational great power from 1804 to 1919, created by proclamation out of the realms of the Habsburgs.
Élie Reclus (16 June 1827, Sainte-Foy-la-Grande – 11 February 1904, Brussels) was a French ethnographer who studied what were then called primitive cultures, and an anarchist.
Jacques Élisée Reclus (15 March 1830 – 4 July 1905) was a renowned French geographer, writer and anarchist.
The Babeș-Bolyai University (Universitatea Babeș-Bolyai, Babeș-Bolyai Tudományegyetem, Babeș-Bolyai Universität), commonly known after its abbreviation, UBB, is a public university in Cluj-Napoca, Romania.
Barbara Jelavich (April 12, 1923 – January 14, 1995) was an American professor of history at Indiana University and an expert on the diplomatic histories of the Russian and Habsburg monarchies, the diplomacy of the Ottoman Empire, and the history of the Balkans.
Basarabia was the first Romanian language newspaper to be published in Bessarabian guberniya of the Russian Empire in 1906-1907.
Bern or Berne (Bern, Bärn, Berne, Berna, Berna) is the de facto capital of Switzerland, referred to by the Swiss as their (e.g. in German) Bundesstadt, or "federal city".
Bessarabia (Basarabia; Бессарабия, Bessarabiya; Besarabya; Бессара́бія, Bessarabiya; Бесарабия, Besarabiya) is a historical region in Eastern Europe, bounded by the Dniester river on the east and the Prut river on the west.
Bessarabia Oblast was an oblast (1812–1871) and later a guberniya (Guberniya of Bessarabia, 1871–1917) in the Russian Empire.
Bex is a municipality in the canton of Vaud, Switzerland, located in the district of Aigle.
The Black Hundred (Чёрная сотня in Russian; Chornaya sotnya), also known as the black-hundredists (Черносотенцы in Russian; chernosotentsy), was an ultra-nationalist movement in Russia in the early 20th century.
Bogdan Petriceicu Hasdeu (26 February 1838 &ndash) was a Romanian writer and philologist, who pioneered many branches of Romanian philology and history.
The Bolsheviks, originally also Bolshevists or Bolsheviki (p; derived from bol'shinstvo (большинство), "majority", literally meaning "one of the majority"), were a faction of the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP) which split apart from the Menshevik faction at the Second Party Congress in 1903.
Boris Ivanovich Nicolaevsky (Борис Иванович Николаевский) (1887–1966) was a revolutionary Russian Marxist activist, archivist, and historian.
Boris Viktorovich Savinkov (Russian: Бори́с Ви́кторович Са́винков; 19 January 1879 – 7 May 1925) was a Russian writer and revolutionary.
A boyar was a member of the highest rank of the feudal Bulgarian, Kievan, Moscovian, Wallachian and Moldavian and later, Romanian aristocracies, second only to the ruling princes (in Bulgaria, tsars), from the 10th century to the 17th century.
Brill (known as E. J. Brill, Koninklijke Brill, Brill Academic Publishers) is a Dutch international academic publisher founded in 1683 in Leiden, Netherlands.
Broadview Press is an independent academic publisher that focuses on the humanities.
Bucharest (București) is the capital and largest city of Romania, as well as its cultural, industrial, and financial centre.
Budjak or Budzhak (Russian, Ukrainian, and Bulgarian: Буджак; Bugeac; Bucak, historical Cyrillic: Буӂак; Bucak) is a historical region in Ukraine.
Bukovina (Bucovina; Bukowina/Buchenland; Bukowina; Bukovina, Буковина Bukovyna; see also other languages) is a historical region in Central Europe,Klaus Peter Berger,, Kluwer Law International, 2010, p. 132 divided between Romania and Ukraine, located on the northern slopes of the central Eastern Carpathians and the adjoining plains.
The Bulgarian Navy (Военноморски сили на Република България, Voennomorski sili na Republika Bǎlgariya) is the navy of the Republic of Bulgaria and forms part of the Bulgarian Armed Forces.
Bulgarians (българи, Bǎlgari) are a South Slavic ethnic group who are native to Bulgaria and its neighboring regions.
Byloye (Былое, The Past) was a monthly historical magazine published in the Russian Empire by Nikolay Elpidiforovich Paramonov and edited by Vasily Y. Bogucharsky (1861–1915), Pavel E. Shchegolev (1877–1931) and Vladimir L. Burtsev (1862–1942).
Constantin Alexandru Rosetti (2 June 1816 – 8 April 1885) was a Romanian literary and political leader, born in Bucharest into the Princely Rosetti family.
The California Digital Library (CDL) was founded by the University of California in 1997 to take advantage of emerging technologies that were transforming the way digital information was being published and accessed.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Nicolas Camille Flammarion FRAS (26 February 1842 – 3 June 1925) was a French astronomer and author.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
Carlo Cafiero (September 1, 1846 – July 17, 1892) was an Italian anarchist, champion of Mikhail Bakunin during the second half of the 19th century and one of the main proponents of insurrectionary anarchism and anarcho-communism during the First International.
Carol I (20 April 1839 – 27 September (O.S.) / 10 October (N.S.) 1914), born Prince Karl of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, was the monarch of Romania from 1866 to 1914.
Censorship in Romania is the censorship in the state of Romania, in five stages: before World War II, the Groza government period (1945- 1947), the first Communist president Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej period (1947-1965), the second and the last Communist president Nicolae period (1965- 1989), and 1990-Present.
Censorship in the Soviet Union was pervasive and strictly enforced.
The Central Powers (Mittelmächte; Központi hatalmak; İttifak Devletleri / Bağlaşma Devletleri; translit), consisting of Germany,, the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria – hence also known as the Quadruple Alliance (Vierbund) – was one of the two main factions during World War I (1914–18).
A centralized government (also centralised government (Oxford spelling)) is one in which power or legal authority is exerted or coordinated by a de facto political executive to which '''federal states''', local authorities, and smaller units are considered subject.
Chernivtsi (Černivci; see also other names) is a city in western Ukraine, situated on the upper course of the River Prut.
Chișinău, also known as Kishinev (r), is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Moldova.
Children's literature or juvenile literature includes stories, books, magazines, and poems that are enjoyed by children.
Christian Rakovsky (– September 11, 1941) was a Bulgarian socialist revolutionary, a Bolshevik politician and Soviet diplomat; he was also noted as a journalist, physician, and essayist.
Collaborationism is cooperation with the enemy against one's country in wartime.
Collectivist anarchism (also known as anarcho-collectivism) is a revolutionaryPatsouras, Louis.
A comic book or comicbook, also called comic magazine or simply comic, is a publication that consists of comic art in the form of sequential juxtaposed panels that represent individual scenes.
In law, a commercial code is a codification of private law relating to merchants, trade, business entities (especially companies), commercial contracts and other matters such as negotiable instruments.
In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin communis, "common, universal") is the philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money and the state.
The Communist International (Comintern), known also as the Third International (1919–1943), was an international communist organization that advocated world communism.
The Kingdom of Poland, informally known as Congress Poland or Russian Poland, was created in 1815 by the Congress of Vienna as a sovereign state of the Russian part of Poland connected by personal union with the Russian Empire under the Constitution of the Kingdom of Poland until 1832.
Conservatism is a political and social philosophy promoting traditional social institutions in the context of culture and civilization.
The Conservative Party (Partidul Conservator) was between 1880 and 1918 one of Romania's two most important parties, the other one being the Liberal Party.
A conspiracy theory is an explanation of an event or situation that invokes an unwarranted conspiracy, generally one involving an illegal or harmful act carried out by government or other powerful actors.
Constantin Dobrogeanu-Gherea (born Solomon Katz; 1855, village of Slavayanka near Yekaterinoslav (modern Dnipro), then in Imperial Russia – 1920, Bucharest) was a Romanian Marxist theorist, politician, sociologist, literary critic, and journalist.
Constantin Mille (December 21, 1861 – February 20, 1927) was a Romanian journalist, novelist, poet, lawyer, and socialist militant, as well as a prominent human rights activist.
Constantin Stamati (1786, Iaşi – September 12, 1869, Ocniţa) was a Romanian/Moldovan writer and translator.
Constantin G. Stere or Constantin Sterea (Romanian; Константин Егорович Стере, Konstantin Yegorovich Stere or Константин Георгиевич Стере, Konstantin Georgiyevich Stere; also known under his pen name Șărcăleanu; June 1, 1865 – June 26, 1936) was a Romanian writer, jurist, politician, ideologue of the Poporanist trend, and, in March 1906, co-founder (together with Garabet Ibrăileanu and Paul Bujor — the latter was afterwards replaced by the physician Ioan Cantacuzino) of the literary magazine Viața Românească.
The Constitutional Democratic Party (Конституционно-демократическая партия, Konstitutsionno-Demokraticheskaya Partiya), also called Constitutional Democrats, formally Party of People's Freedom, was a liberal political party in the Russian Empire, encompassing constitutional monarchists and right-wing republicans.
The word contraband, reported in English since 1529, from Medieval French contrebande "a smuggling," denotes any item that, relating to its nature, is illegal to be possessed or sold.
Contrafort is a magazine based in Chişinău, Moldova.
Convorbiri Literare (meaning Literary Talk in English) is a Romanian literary magazine published in Romania.
Cuvântul (meaning "The Word") is a literary and political monthly, published in Bucharest, Romania.
The Danube Delta (Delta Dunării; Дельта Дунаю, Deľta Dunayu) is the second largest river delta in Europe, after the Volga Delta, and is the best preserved on the continent.
Demons (pre-reform Russian: Бѣсы; post-reform Bésy; sometimes also called The Possessed or The Devils) is a novel by Fyodor Dostoevsky, first published in the journal The Russian Messenger in 1871–2.
Dimitrie Sturdza (in full Dimitrie Alexandru Sturdza-Miclăușanu; 10 March 183321 October 1914) was a Romanian statesman and author of the late 19th century, and president of the Romanian Academy between 1882 and 1884.
Dobruja or Dobrudja (Добруджа, transliterated: Dobrudzha or Dobrudža; Dobrogea or; Dobruca) is a historical region in Eastern Europe that has been divided since the 19th century between the territories of Bulgaria and Romania.
Dolna is a village in Strășeni District, Moldova.
The Ingenious Nobleman Sir Quixote of La Mancha (El Ingenioso Hidalgo Don Quijote de la Mancha), or just Don Quixote (Oxford English Dictionary, ""), is a Spanish novel by Miguel de Cervantes.
A dowry is a transfer of parental property, gifts or money at the marriage of a daughter.
The Duchy of Bukovina was a constituent land of the Austrian Empire from 1849 and a Cisleithanian crown land of Austria–Hungary from 1867 until 1918.
Dumitru Constantin Moruzi (also known as Dimitrie Moruzi or Moruzzi; Дмитрий Константинович Мурузи, Dmitry Konstantinovich Muruzi; July 1 or 2, 1850 – October 9, 1914) was a Moldavian-born Imperial Russian and Romanian aristocrat, civil servant and writer.
An electronic book (or e-book or eBook) is a book publication made available in digital form, consisting of text, images, or both, readable on the flat-panel display of computers or other electronic devices.
Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent.
The Eastern Front or Eastern Theater of World War I (Восточный фронт, Vostochnıy front, sometimes called the Second Fatherland War or Second Patriotic War (Вторая Отечественная война, Vtoraya Otechestvennaya voyna) in Russian sources) was a theatre of operations that encompassed at its greatest extent the entire frontier between the Russian Empire and Romania on one side and the Austro-Hungarian Empire, Bulgaria, the Ottoman Empire and the German Empire on the other. It stretched from the Baltic Sea in the north to the Black Sea in the south, included most of Eastern Europe and stretched deep into Central Europe as well. The term contrasts with "Western Front", which was being fought in Belgium and France. During 1910, Russian General Yuri Danilov developed "Plan 19" under which four armies would invade East Prussia. This plan was criticised as Austria-Hungary could be a greater threat than the German Empire. So instead of four armies invading East Prussia, the Russians planned to send two armies to East Prussia, and two Armies to defend against Austro-Hungarian forces invading from Galicia. In the opening months of the war, the Imperial Russian Army attempted an invasion of eastern Prussia in the northwestern theater, only to be beaten back by the Germans after some initial success. At the same time, in the south, they successfully invaded Galicia, defeating the Austro-Hungarian forces there. In Russian Poland, the Germans failed to take Warsaw. But by 1915, the German and Austro-Hungarian armies were on the advance, dealing the Russians heavy casualties in Galicia and in Poland, forcing it to retreat. Grand Duke Nicholas was sacked from his position as the commander-in-chief and replaced by the Tsar himself. Several offensives against the Germans in 1916 failed, including Lake Naroch Offensive and the Baranovichi Offensive. However, General Aleksei Brusilov oversaw a highly successful operation against Austria-Hungary that became known as the Brusilov Offensive, which saw the Russian Army make large gains. The Kingdom of Romania entered the war in August 1916. The Entente promised the region of Transylvania (which was part of Austria-Hungary) in return for Romanian support. The Romanian Army invaded Transylvania and had initial successes, but was forced to stop and was pushed back by the Germans and Austro-Hungarians when Bulgaria attacked them in the south. Meanwhile, a revolution occurred in Russia in February 1917 (one of the several causes being the hardships of the war). Tsar Nicholas II was forced to abdicate and a Russian Provisional Government was founded, with Georgy Lvov as its first leader, who was eventually replaced by Alexander Kerensky. The newly formed Russian Republic continued to fight the war alongside Romania and the rest of the Entente until it was overthrown by the Bolsheviks in October 1917. Kerensky oversaw the July Offensive, which was largely a failure and caused a collapse in the Russian Army. The new government established by the Bolsheviks signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with the Central Powers, taking it out of the war and making large territorial concessions. Romania was also forced to surrender and signed a similar treaty, though both of the treaties were nullified with the surrender of the Central Powers in November 1918.
Ecaterina Arbore, Arbore-Ralli or Ralli-Arbore (rendered into Russian as Екатерина Арборе or Арборэ - Yekaterina Arborye or Arbore, with "Ralli" as Ралли; 1873 or 1875–1937), daughter of Zamfir Arbore (a socialist militant in Imperial Russia), was a Romanian, Soviet and Moldovan communist activist and official.
Economic geography is the study of the location, distribution and spatial organization of economic activities across the world.
Editura Minerva is one of the largest publishing houses in Romania.
The term enemy of the people is a designation for the political or class opponents of the subgroup in power within a larger group.
Errico Malatesta (14 December 1853 – 22 July 1932) was an Italian anarchist.
Ethnography (from Greek ἔθνος ethnos "folk, people, nation" and γράφω grapho "I write") is the systematic study of people and cultures.
Ethology is the scientific and objective study of animal behaviour, usually with a focus on behaviour under natural conditions, and viewing behaviour as an evolutionarily adaptive trait.
European Russia is the western part of Russia that is a part of Eastern Europe.
Extradition is the act by one jurisdiction of delivering a person who has been accused of committing a crime in another jurisdiction or has been convicted of a crime in that other jurisdiction into the custody of a law enforcement agency of that other jurisdiction.
The Ștefan cel Mare University of Suceava (Universitatea „Ștefan cel Mare” din Suceava), also known as University of Suceava, is a public university in Suceava, Romania, founded in 1990.
The Romanian-language Familia literary magazine was first published by Iosif Vulcan in Budapest from 5 June 1865 to 17 April 1880.
Far-left politics are political views located further on the left of the left-right spectrum than the standard political left.
Far-right politics are politics further on the right of the left-right spectrum than the standard political right, particularly in terms of more extreme nationalist, and nativist ideologies, as well as authoritarian tendencies.
Feminism is a range of political movements, ideologies, and social movements that share a common goal: to define, establish, and achieve political, economic, personal, and social equality of sexes.
Ferdinand I (Ferdinand Viktor Albert Meinrad; 24 August 1865 – 20 July 1927), nicknamed Întregitorul ("the Unifier"), was King of Romania from 10 October 1914 until his death in 1927.
Finns or Finnish people (suomalaiset) are a Finnic ethnic group native to Finland.
Fire in the Minds of Men: Origins of the Revolutionary Faith is a book about the spread of ideas written by James H. Billington, historian and Librarian of Congress.
The Five-Year Plans of Romania (Cincinal in Romanian, plural Cincinale) were economic development projects in Communist Romania, largely inspired by the Soviet model.
A Francophile (Gallophile) is a person who has a strong affinity towards any or all of the French language, French history, French culture or French people.
Freemasonry or Masonry consists of fraternal organisations that trace their origins to the local fraternities of stonemasons, which from the end of the fourteenth century regulated the qualifications of stonemasons and their interaction with authorities and clients.
Freemasonry in Romania traces its origins to the eighteenth century.
Fyodor Mikhailovich DostoevskyHis name has been variously transcribed into English, his first name sometimes being rendered as Theodore or Fedor.
A gazetteer is a geographical dictionary or directory used in conjunction with a map or atlas.
Geneva (Genève, Genèva, Genf, Ginevra, Genevra) is the second-most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich) and the most populous city of the Romandy, the French-speaking part of Switzerland.
Located in Eastern Europe, Moldova is bordered on the west and southwest by Romania and on the north, south, and east by Ukraine.
George Woodcock (May 8, 1912 – January 28, 1995) was a Canadian writer of political biography and history, an anarchist thinker, an essayist and literary critic.
The German Empire (Deutsches Kaiserreich, officially Deutsches Reich),Herbert Tuttle wrote in September 1881 that the term "Reich" does not literally connote an empire as has been commonly assumed by English-speaking people.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
A Germanophile, Teutonophile or Teutophile is a person who is fond of German culture, German people and Germany in general or who exhibits German nationalism in spite of not even being either an ethnic German or a German citizen.
Germans (Deutsche) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe, who share a common German ancestry, culture and history.
Gheorghe Cristescu (October 10, 1882 – November 29, 1973) was a Romanian socialist and, for a part of his life, communist militant.
Giurgiu is a city in southern Romania.
The Grand Duchy of Finland (Suomen suuriruhtinaskunta, Storfurstendömet Finland, Великое княжество Финляндское,; literally Grand Principality of Finland) was the predecessor state of modern Finland.
The Grand Duchy or Grand Principality of Moscow (Великое Княжество Московское, Velikoye Knyazhestvo Moskovskoye), also known in English simply as Muscovy from the Moscovia, was a late medieval Russian principality centered on Moscow and the predecessor state of the early modern Tsardom of Russia.
A Grand Master is a title of honour as well as an office in Freemasonry, given to a freemason elected to oversee a Masonic jurisdiction, derived from the office of Grand Masters in chivalric orders.
The Grand Orient de France (GODF) is the largest of several Masonic organizations in France and the oldest in Continental Europe.
The Great Purge or the Great Terror (Большо́й терро́р) was a campaign of political repression in the Soviet Union which occurred from 1936 to 1938.
The term Greater Romania (România Mare) usually refers to the borders of the Kingdom of Romania in the interwar period.
There has been a Greek presence in Romania for at least 27 centuries.
The Habsburg Monarchy (Habsburgermonarchie) or Empire is an unofficial appellation among historians for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the junior Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg between 1521 and 1780 and then by the successor branch of Habsburg-Lorraine until 1918.
The Hague Congress was the fifth congress of the International Workingmen's Association (IWA), held from 2–7 September 1872 in The Hague, Holland.
Henri H. Stahl (also known as Henry H. Stahl or H. H. Stahl; 1901 – 9 September 1991) was a Romanian Marxist cultural anthropologist, ethnographer, sociologist, and social historian.
Henri Émile Benoît Matisse (31 December 1869 – 3 November 1954) was a French artist, known for both his use of colour and his fluid and original draughtsmanship.
reason (translit; hejtman; hatman) is a political title from Central and Eastern Europe, historically assigned to military commanders.
The history of Moldova can be traced to the 1350s, when the Principality of Moldavia, the medieval precursor of modern Moldova and Romania, was founded.
The history of the cooperative movement concerns the origins and history of cooperatives.
The history of Ukrainian nationality can be traced back to the Kiev-based kingdom of Kievan Rus' (Kиïвсьκa Pуcь) of the 9th to 12th centuries.
The Hoover Institution is an American public policy think tank and research institution located at Stanford University in California.
Hristo Botev (Христо Ботев, also transliterated as Hristo Botyov), born Hristo Botyov Petkov (Христо Ботьов Петков), was a Bulgarian poet and national revolutionary.
Humanitas (Editura Humanitas) is an independent Romanian publishing house, founded on February 1, 1990 (after the Romanian Revolution) in Bucharest by the philosopher Gabriel Liiceanu, based on a state-owned publishing house, Editura Politică.
Ion Costache Frimu (&ndash) was a Romanian socialist militant and politician, a leading member of the Social Democratic Party of Romania (PSDR) and labor activist.
Iași (also referred to as Jassy or Iassy) is the second-largest city in Romania, after the national capital Bucharest, and the seat of Iași County.
Igor Boţan (born April 15, 1960, Cojuşna) is a political analyst from Moldova, expert on political phenomena and elections.
Ilie V. Cătărău (reportedly born Katarov, last name also Cătărău-Orhei; Bogdan Florin Popovici,,; retrieved October 20, 2011 1888 – ca. 1952) was a Bessarabian-born political adventurer, soldier and spy, who spent parts of his life in Romania.
The Imperial Russian Army (Ру́сская импера́торская а́рмия) was the land armed force of the Russian Empire, active from around 1721 to the Russian Revolution of 1917.
Imperialism is a policy that involves a nation extending its power by the acquisition of lands by purchase, diplomacy or military force.
The Independence of Moldova was officially recognized on March 2, 1992, when Moldova gained membership of the United Nations.
The International Workingmen's Association (IWA, 1864–1876), often called the First International, was an international organization which aimed at uniting a variety of different left-wing socialist, communist and anarchist political groups and trade union organizations that were based on the working class and class struggle.
In the context of the history of the 20th century, the interwar period was the period between the end of the First World War in November 1918 and the beginning of the Second World War in September 1939.
Investigative journalism is a form of journalism in which reporters deeply investigate a single topic of interest, such as serious crimes, political corruption, or corporate wrongdoing.
Involuntary commitment or civil commitment (also known informally as sectioning or being sectioned in some jurisdictions, such as the UK) is a legal process through which an individual who is deemed by a qualified agent to have symptoms of severe mental disorder is court-ordered into treatment in a psychiatric hospital (inpatient) or in the community (outpatient).
Ioan Bianu (1856 or 1857 – February 13, 1935) was an Imperial Austrian-born Romanian philologist and bibliographer.
Ioan Slavici (January 18, 1848 – August 17, 1925) was a Transylvanian, later Romanian writer and journalist.
Ion Constantin Brătianu (June 2, 1821 – May 16, 1891) was one of the major political figures of 19th-century Romania.
Ion Gorun (pen name of Alexandru I. Hodoș; December 30, 1863–March 30, 1928) was an Imperial Austrian-born Romanian prose writer, poet and translator.
Ion Heliade Rădulescu or Ion Heliade (also known as Eliade or Eliade Rădulescu;; January 6, 1802 – April 27, 1872) was a Wallachian, later Romanian academic, Romantic and Classicist poet, essayist, memoirist, short story writer, newspaper editor and politician.
Ion Varta (born December 12, 1958, Larga, Briceni) is a politician from the Republic of Moldova.
Irredentism is any political or popular movement that seeks to reclaim and reoccupy a land that the movement's members consider to be a "lost" (or "unredeemed") territory from their nation's past.
Iulia Hasdeu (14 November 1869 in Bucharest – 29 September 1888 in Bucharest) was a Romanian poet, the daughter of writer and philologist Bogdan Petriceicu Hasdeu.
Iurie Colesnic (born August 12, 1955, Dereneu, Călăraşi) is a Moldovan politician.
Izabela Sadoveanu-Evan (last name also Sadoveanu-Andrei, first name also Isabella or Izabella; born Izabela Morțun, pen names I.Z.S.D. and Iz. Sd.;, in the National Library of Romania Revista Bibliotecii Naționale, Nr. 2/2003, p.36-37 February 24, 1870 – August 6, 1941) was a Romanian literary critic, educationist, opinion journalist, poet and feminist militant.
A Jacobin was a member of the Jacobin Club, a revolutionary political movement that was the most famous political club during the French Revolution (1789–99).
James Guillaume (February 16, 1844, London – November 20, 1916, Paris) was a leading member of the Jura federation, the anarchist wing of the First International.
James Hadley Billington (born June 1, 1929), the Librarian of Congress Emeritus, is a leading American academic and author who taught history at Harvard and Princeton before serving for 42 years as CEO of four federal cultural institutions.
Johann Joseph "Hans" Most (February 5, 1846 in Augsburg, Bavaria – March 17, 1906 in Cincinnati, Ohio) was a German-American anarchist politician, newspaper editor, and orator.
Joseph Conrad (born Józef Teodor Konrad Korzeniowski; 3 December 1857 – 3 August 1924) was a Polish-British writer regarded as one of the greatest novelists to write in the English language.
Juozas Gabrys or Juozas Gabrys-Paršaitis (February 22, 1880 – July 26, 1951) was a Lithuanian politician and diplomat, best remembered for his efforts to popularize the idea of Lithuania's independence in the West during World War I.
The Jura Federation represented the anarchist, Bakuninist faction of the First International during the anti-statist split from the organization.
Jurnalul Național is a Romanian newspaper, part of the INTACT Media Group led by Dan Voiculescu, which also includes the popular television station Antena 1.
Karl MarxThe name "Karl Heinrich Marx", used in various lexicons, is based on an error.
The Kate Sharpley Library (or KSL) is a library dedicated to anarchist texts and history.
The King of the Romanians (Romanian: Regele Românilor) or King of Romania (Romanian: Regele României), was the title of the monarch of the Kingdom of Romania from 1881 until 1947, when Romania was proclaimed the Romanian People's Republic following Michael I's forced abdication.
The Kingdom of Bulgaria (Царство България, Tsarstvo Bǎlgariya), also referred to as the Tsardom of Bulgaria and the Third Bulgarian Tsardom, was a constitutional monarchy in Eastern and Southeastern Europe, which was established on 5 October (O.S. 22 September) 1908 when the Bulgarian state was raised from a principality to a kingdom.
The Kingdom of Romania (Regatul României) was a constitutional monarchy in Southeastern Europe which existed from 1881, when prince Carol I of Romania was proclaimed King, until 1947, when King Michael I of Romania abdicated and the Parliament proclaimed Romania a republic.
The Kingdom of Serbia (Краљевина Србија / Kraljevina Srbija), often rendered as Servia in English sources during the time of its existence, was created when Milan I, ruler of the Principality of Serbia, was proclaimed king in 1882.
Left-wing politics supports social equality and egalitarianism, often in opposition to social hierarchy.
This article gives an overview of liberalism in the Republic of Moldova.
Liberalization (or liberalisation) is a general term for any process whereby a state lifts restrictions on some private individual activities.
Literatura şi Arta (Romanian for "Literature and Art") is a weekly newspaper from Chişinău, Moldova.
Louis-Xavier de Ricard (January 25, 1843July 2, 1911) was a French poet, author and journalist of the 19th century.
Luca Arbore or Arbure (Old Cyrillic:; Renaissance Latin: HerborusNicolae Iorga, "Cronică", in Revista Istorică, Issues 7–9/1934, p. 291 or Copacius; died April 1523) was a Moldavian boyar, diplomat, and statesman, several times commander of the country's military.
Luceafărul ("The Evening Star") was a Romanian-language literary and cultural magazine that appeared in three series: 1902-1914 and 1919-1920; 1934-1939; and 1941-1945.
Lucian Boia (born 1 February 1944 in Bucharest) is a Romanian historian.
Lumea Nouă is a middle Neolithic to Chalcolithic (possibly Early Bronze Age) archaeological site in Alba Iulia, Romania.
Magazin Istoric (The Historical Magazine) is a Romanian monthly magazine.
Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that views class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical view of social transformation.
A Masonic lodge, often termed a private lodge or constituent lodge, is the basic organisational unit of Freemasonry.
Max Heinrich Hermann Reinhardt Nettlau (30 April 1865 – 23 July 1944) was a German anarchist and historian.
Maximilien François Marie Isidore de Robespierre (6 May 1758 – 28 July 1794) was a French lawyer and politician, as well as one of the best known and most influential figures associated with the French Revolution and the Reign of Terror.
The Mayor of Bucharest (Primarul General al Municipiului Bucureşti in Romanian), sometimes known as the General Mayor, is the head of the Bucharest City Hall in Bucharest, Romania, which is responsible for citywide affairs, such as the water system, the transport system and the main boulevards.
A memoir (US: /ˈmemwɑːr/; from French: mémoire: memoria, meaning memory or reminiscence) is a collection of memories that an individual writes about moments or events, both public or private, that took place in the subject's life.
The Metropolis of Bessarabia (Mitropolia Basarabiei), also referred to as the Bessarabian Orthodox Church, is a Moldovan autonomous Eastern Orthodox Metropolitan bishopric of the Romanian Orthodox Church.
Mihai Eminescu (born Mihail Eminovici; 15 January 1850 – 15 June 1889) was a Romantic poet, novelist and journalist, generally regarded as the most famous and influential Romanian poet.
Mikhail Alexandrovich Bakunin (– 1 July 1876) was a Russian revolutionary anarchist and founder of collectivist anarchism.
Mikhail Nikolayevich von Giers (alternatively styled Mikhail Nikolaevich von Giers or Mikhail Nikolayevich de Giers)(1856–1924) was an Imperial Russian ambassador and the son of Russian Foreign Minister Nikolay Girs.
The Milcov River is a right tributary of the river Putna in eastern Romania.
A military funeral is a memorial or burial rite given by a country's military for a soldier, sailor, marine or airman who died in battle, a veteran, or other prominent military figures or heads of state.
The Ministry of Internal Affairs of Romania (Ministerul Afacerilor Interne) is one of the fifteen ministries of the Government of Romania.
Minority rights are the normal individual rights as applied to members of racial, ethnic, class, religious, linguistic or gender and sexual minorities; and also the collective rights accorded to minority groups.
Modern art includes artistic work produced during the period extending roughly from the 1860s to the 1970s, and denotes the styles and philosophy of the art produced during that era.
Moldavia (Moldova, or Țara Moldovei (in Romanian Latin alphabet), Цара Мѡлдовєй (in old Romanian Cyrillic alphabet) is a historical region and former principality in Central and Eastern Europe, corresponding to the territory between the Eastern Carpathians and the Dniester River. An initially independent and later autonomous state, it existed from the 14th century to 1859, when it united with Wallachia (Țara Românească) as the basis of the modern Romanian state; at various times, Moldavia included the regions of Bessarabia (with the Budjak), all of Bukovina and Hertza. The region of Pokuttya was also part of it for a period of time. The western half of Moldavia is now part of Romania, the eastern side belongs to the Republic of Moldova, and the northern and southeastern parts are territories of Ukraine.
Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic (shortly: Moldavian SSR, abbr.: MSSR; Republica Sovietică Socialistă Moldovenească, in Cyrillic alphabet: Република Советикэ Сочиалистэ Молдовеняскэ; Молда́вская Сове́тская Социалисти́ческая Респу́блика Moldavskaya Sovetskaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika), also known to as Soviet Moldavia or Soviet Moldova, was one of the fifteen republics of the Soviet Union existed from 1940 to 1991.
Moldova (or sometimes), officially the Republic of Moldova (Republica Moldova), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe, bordered by Romania to the west and Ukraine to the north, east, and south (by way of the disputed territory of Transnistria).
Moldovan (also Moldavian; limba moldovenească, or лимба молдовеняскэ in Moldovan Cyrillic) is one of the two names of the Romanian language in the Republic of Moldova, prescribed by the Article 13 of the current constitution; the other name, recognized by the Declaration of Independence of Moldova and the Constitutional Court, is "Romanian".
A monograph is a specialist work of writing (in contrast to reference works) on a single subject or an aspect of a subject, often by a single author, and usually on a scholarly subject.
Moscow (a) is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.1 million within the urban area.
Moskal (Russian and москаль, маскаль, moskal, muszka, maskolis; muscal) is a historical designation used for the residents of the Grand Duchy of Moscow from the 12th-18th centuries.
The Most Holy Governing Synod (Святѣйшій Правительствующій Сѵнодъ, Святейший Правительствующий Синод) was the highest governing body of the Russian Orthodox Church between 1721 and 1918 (when the Church re-instated the Patriarchate).
Mykolaiv (Микола́їв), also known as Nikolaev or Nikolayev (Никола́ев), is a city in southern Ukraine, the administrative center of the Mykolaiv Oblast.
The Narodniks (народники) were a politically conscious movement of the Russian middle class in the 1860s and 1870s, some of whom became involved in revolutionary agitation against tsarism.
The National Archives of Romania (Arhivele Naţionale ale României), until 1996 the State Archives (Arhivele Statului), are the national archives of Romania, headquartered in Bucharest.
The National Liberal Party (Partidul Național Liberal, PNL) was the first organised political party in Romania, a major force in the country's politics from its foundation in 1875 to World War II.
The National Library of the Republic of Moldova (Biblioteca Naţională a Republicii Moldova, BNRM) located in Chişinău, Moldova is the main library of the state which is responsible for conservation, valorization and protection of written cultural heritage.
The National Moldavian Party was a political party in Bessarabia.
A national poet or national bard is a poet held by tradition and popular acclaim to represent the identity, beliefs and principles of a particular national culture.
The National-Christian Defense League (Liga Apărării Național Creștine, LANC) was a far-right political party of Romania formed by A. C. Cuza.
Nationalism is a political, social, and economic system characterized by the promotion of the interests of a particular nation, especially with the aim of gaining and maintaining sovereignty (self-governance) over the homeland.
Naturalization (or naturalisation) is the legal act or process by which a non-citizen in a country may acquire citizenship or nationality of that country.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
Nicolae Iorga (sometimes Neculai Iorga, Nicolas Jorga, Nicolai Jorga or Nicola Jorga, born Nicu N. Iorga;Iova, p. xxvii. January 17, 1871 – November 27, 1940) was a Romanian historian, politician, literary critic, memoirist, poet and playwright.
The Nicolae Iorga Institute of History (Institutul de Istorie „Nicolae Iorga”; abbreviation: IINI) in Bucharest is an institution of research in the field of history under the auspices of the Romanian Academy.
Nicolae Manolescu (b. 27 November 1939, Râmnicu Vâlcea) is a Romanian literary critic.
Nicolae Constantin Paulescu (30 October 1869 (O.S.) – 17 July 1931) was a Romanian physiologist, professor of medicine, and politician, most famous for discovering insulin, who worked on pancreine (a pancreatic extract containing insulin).
Nikola Pašić (Никола Пашић,; 18 December 1845 – 10 December 1926) was a Serbian and Yugoslav politician and diplomat who was the most important Serbian political figure for almost 40 years, the leader of the People's Radical Party who, among other posts, was twice a mayor of Belgrade (1890–91 and 1897) several times Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Serbia (1891–92, 1904–05, 1906–08, 1909–11, 1912–18) and Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia (1918, 1921–24, 1924–26.) He was an important politician in the Balkans, who, together with his counterparts like Eleftherios Venizelos in Greece, managed to strengthen their small, still emerging national states against strong foreign influences, most notably those of Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire and the Russian Empire.
Nikolai Alexandrovich Morozov (Никола́й Алекса́ндрович Моро́зов; 7 July 1854, Borok – 30 July 1946) was a Russian revolutionary who spent about 25 years in prison before turning his attention to various fields of science.
Nikolai Konstantinovich Sudzilovsky (Николай Константинович Судзиловский, Мікалай Канстанцінавіч Судзілоўскі also known as Nicholas Russel, and Kauka Lukini December 15, 1850 – April 30, 1930) was a revolutionary and scientist.
Nikolay Ivanovich Zhukovsky (Николай Иванович Жуковский; (in Ufa –) was a Russian revolutionary and narodnik, a follower of Mikhail Bakunin; he was born in Ufa and died in Geneva.
Nikolay Platonovich Ogarev (Ogaryov;; –) was a Russian poet, historian and political activist.
Tamara Nina Arbore (8 October 1889, Tecuci – 7 March 1942, Bucharest) was a Romanian painter and illustrator, known for her still-lifes.
The October Revolution (p), officially known in Soviet literature as the Great October Socialist Revolution (Вели́кая Октя́брьская социалисти́ческая револю́ция), and commonly referred to as Red October, the October Uprising, the Bolshevik Revolution, or the Bolshevik Coup, was a revolution in Russia led by the Bolsheviks and Vladimir Lenin that was instrumental in the larger Russian Revolution of 1917.
The Order of the Star of Romania (Romanian: Ordinul Steaua României) is Romania's highest civil Order and second highest State decoration after the defunct Order of Michael the Brave.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
Ovid S. Crohmălniceanu (born Moise Cahn or Cohn; 16 August 1921, in Galați, Romania – 27 April or 28 April 2000, in Berlin, Germany) was a Romanian literary critic and science fiction writer.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Pantelimon "Pan" Halippa (1 August 1883 – 30 April 1979) was a Bessarabian and later Romanian journalist and politician.
The Paris Commune (La Commune de Paris) was a radical socialist and revolutionary government that ruled Paris from 18 March to 28 May 1871.
The Parliament of Romania (Parlamentul României) is the national legislature of Romania, consisting of the Chamber of Deputies (Camera Deputaților), and the Senate (Senat).
Pavel Borisovich Axelrod (Па́вел Бори́сович Аксельро́д; 25 August 1850 – 16 April 1928) was a Russian Menshevik.
The Peasants' Party (Partidul Țărănesc, PȚ) was a political party in post-World War I Romania that espoused a left-wing ideology partly connected with Agrarianism and Populism, and aimed to represent the interests of the Romanian peasantry.
The People's Party (Romanian: Partidul Poporului, PP), originally People's League (Liga Poporului), was an eclectic, essentially populist, mass movement in Romania.
The People's Radical Party (Народна радикална странка; Narodna radikalna stranka, NRS) was a political party in the Kingdom of Serbia and Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (Yugoslavia) formed on 8 January 1881.
In diplomacy, a persona non grata (Latin: "person not appreciated", plural: personae non gratae) is a foreign person whose entering or remaining in a particular country is prohibited by that country's government.
Pessimism is a mental attitude.
The Peter and Paul Fortress is the original citadel of St. Petersburg, Russia, founded by Peter the Great in 1703 and built to Domenico Trezzini's designs from 1706 to 1740 as a star fortress.
Pyotr Alexeevich Kropotkin (Пётр Алексе́евич Кропо́ткин; December 9, 1842 – February 8, 1921) was a Russian activist, revolutionary, scientist and philosopher who advocated anarcho-communism.
Romania was the largest European producer of oil in World War II.
Petru Cazacu (October 6, 1873 in Chişinău – August 1956 in Bucharest) was a Romanian politician.
Filippo Giuseppe Maria Ludovico Buonarroti, more usually referred to under the French version Philippe Buonarroti (11 November 1761 – 16 September 1837), was an Italian utopian socialist, writer, agitator, freemason, and conspirator; he was active in Corsica, France, and Geneva.
Philology is the study of language in oral and written historical sources; it is a combination of literary criticism, history, and linguistics.
Plagiarism is the "wrongful appropriation" and "stealing and publication" of another author's "language, thoughts, ideas, or expressions" and the representation of them as one's own original work.
Ploiești (older spelling: Ploești) is a city and county seat in Prahova County, Romania.
The Poles (Polacy,; singular masculine: Polak, singular feminine: Polka), commonly referred to as the Polish people, are a nation and West Slavic ethnic group native to Poland in Central Europe who share a common ancestry, culture, history and are native speakers of the Polish language.
Polirom or Editura Polirom ("Polirom" Publishing House) is a Romanian publishing house with a tradition of publishing classics of international literature and also various titles in the fields of social sciences, such as psychology, sociology and anthropology.
Political geography is concerned with the study of both the spatially uneven outcomes of political processes and the ways in which political processes are themselves affected by spatial structures.
A political prisoner is someone imprisoned because they have opposed or criticized the government responsible for their imprisonment.
Poporanism is a Romanian version of nationalism and populism.
Popular history is a broad and somewhat ill-defined genre of historiography that takes a popular approach, aims at a wide readership, and usually emphasizes narrative, personality and vivid detail over scholarly analysis.
Prahova is a county (județ) of Romania, in the historical region Muntenia, with the capital city at Ploiești.
The Prime Minister of the Government of Romania (Prim-ministrul Guvernului României) is the head of the Government of Romania.
A professional association (also called a professional body, professional organization, or professional society) is usually a nonprofit organization seeking to further a particular profession, the interests of individuals engaged in that profession and the public interest.
Propaganda of the deed (or propaganda by the deed, from the French propagande par le fait) is specific political action meant to be exemplary to others and serve as a catalyst for revolution.
In international relations, a rapprochement, which comes from the French word rapprocher ("to bring together"), is a re-establishment of cordial relations, as between two countries.
Rehabilitation (реабилитация, transliterated in English as reabilitatsiya or academically rendered as reabilitacija) was a term used in the context of the former Soviet Union, and the Post-Soviet states.
The Restoration (Restauración), or Bourbon Restoration (Restauración borbónica), is the name given to the period that began on 29 December 1874 — after a coup d'état by Martínez-Campos ended the First Spanish Republic and restored the monarchy under Alfonso XII — and ended on 14 April 1931 with the proclamation of the Second Spanish Republic.
Revista 22 (22 Magazine) is a Romanian weekly magazine, issued by the Group for Social Dialogue and focused mainly on politics and culture.
Robinson Crusoe is a novel by Daniel Defoe, first published on 25 April 1719.
Romania (România) is a sovereign state located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.
The Kingdom of Romania was neutral for the first two years of World War I, entering on the side of the Allied powers from 27 August 1916 until Central Power occupation led to the Treaty of Bucharest in May 1918, before reentering the war on 10 November 1918. It had the only oil fields in Europe, and Germany eagerly bought its petroleum, as well as food exports. King Carol favored Germany but after his death in 1914, King Ferdinand and the nation's political elite favored the Entente. For Romania, the highest priority was taking Transylvania from Hungary, with its 3,000,000 Romanians. The Allies wanted Romania to join its side in order to cut the rail communications between Germany and Turkey, and to cut off Germany's oil supplies. Britain made loans, France sent a military training mission, and Russia promised modern munitions. The Allies promised at least 200,000 soldiers to defend Romania against Bulgaria to the south, and help it invade Austria. The Romanian campaign was part of the Balkan theatre of World War I, with Romania and Russia allied with Britain and France against the Central Powers of Germany, Austria, and Turkey. Fighting took place from August 1916 to December 1917 across most of present-day Romania, including Transylvania, which was part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire at the time, as well as in southern Dobruja, which is currently part of Bulgaria. Despite initial successes, the Romanian forces (aided by Russia) suffered massive setbacks, and by the end of 1916 only Moldavia remained. After several defensive victories in 1917, with Russia's withdrawal from the war following the October Revolution, Romania, almost completely surrounded by the Central Powers, was also forced to drop out of the war; it signed the Treaty of Bucharest with the Central Powers in May 1918. On 10 November 1918, just one day before the German armistice and after all the other Central Powers had already capitulated, Romania re-entered the war after the successful Allied advances on the Macedonian Front.
The Romanian Academy (Academia Română) is a cultural forum founded in Bucharest, Romania, in 1866.
The Romanian alphabet is a variant of the Latin alphabet used by the Romanian language.
The Romanian Communist Party (Romanian: Partidul Comunist Român, PCR) was a communist party in Romania.
The Romanian Cultural Institute (Institutul Cultural Român, abbreviation: ICR) is a state-funded institution that promotes Romanian culture and civilization in Romania and abroad.
The Romanian Cyrillic alphabet is the Cyrillic alphabet that was used to write the Romanian language before 1860–1862, when it was officially replaced by a Latin-based Romanian alphabet.
The Romanian diaspora is the ethnically Romanian population outside Romania and Moldova.
General elections were held in Romania between 4 and 8 November 1919.
General elections were held in Romania between 25 and 27 May 1920.
The Romanian Land Forces (Forțele Terestre Române) is the army of Romania, and the main component of the Romanian Armed Forces.
The Romanian leu (plural lei; ISO 4217 code RON; numeric code 946) is the currency of Romania.
Romanian literature is literature written by Romanian authors, although the term may also be used to refer to all literature written in the Romanian language.
The Romanian Police (Poliția Română) is the national police force and main civil law enforcement agency in Romania.
The Romanian Revolution (Revoluția Română) was a period of violent civil unrest in Romania in December 1989 and part of the Revolutions of 1989 that occurred in several countries.
The Romanian Social Democratic Workers' Party (Romanian: Partidul Social-Democrat al Muncitorilor din Romȃnia, PSDMR), established in 1893, was the first modern socialist political party in Romania.
The Romanian Writers' Society (Societatea Scriitorilor Români) was a professional association based in Bucharest, Romania, that aided the country's writers and promoted their interests.
The Romanians (români or—historically, but now a seldom-used regionalism—rumâni; dated exonym: Vlachs) are a Latin European ethnic group and nation native to Romania, that share a common Romanian culture, ancestry, and speak the Romanian language, the most widespread spoken Eastern Romance language which is descended from the Latin language. According to the 2011 Romanian census, just under 89% of Romania's citizens identified themselves as ethnic Romanians. In one interpretation of the census results in Moldova, the Moldovans are counted as Romanians, which would mean that the latter form part of the majority in that country as well.Ethnic Groups Worldwide: A Ready Reference Handbook By David Levinson, Published 1998 – Greenwood Publishing Group.At the time of the 1989 census, Moldova's total population was 4,335,400. The largest nationality in the republic, ethnic Romanians, numbered 2,795,000 persons, accounting for 64.5 percent of the population. Source:: "however it is one interpretation of census data results. The subject of Moldovan vs Romanian ethnicity touches upon the sensitive topic of", page 108 sqq. Romanians are also an ethnic minority in several nearby countries situated in Central, respectively Eastern Europe, particularly in Hungary, Czech Republic, Ukraine (including Moldovans), Serbia, and Bulgaria. Today, estimates of the number of Romanian people worldwide vary from 26 to 30 million according to various sources, evidently depending on the definition of the term 'Romanian', Romanians native to Romania and Republic of Moldova and their afferent diasporas, native speakers of Romanian, as well as other Eastern Romance-speaking groups considered by most scholars as a constituent part of the broader Romanian people, specifically Aromanians, Megleno-Romanians, Istro-Romanians, and Vlachs in Serbia (including medieval Vlachs), in Croatia, in Bulgaria, or in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
România Literară is a cultural and literary magazine from Romania.
România Muncitoare ("Working Romania" or "Laborer Romania") was a socialist newspaper, published in Bucharest, Romania.
Românul (meaning "The Romanian"; originally spelled Romanulu or Românulŭ, also known as Romînul, Concordia, Libertatea and Consciinti'a Nationala), was a political and literary newspaper published in Bucharest, Romania, from 1857 to 1905.
The Russian battleship Potemkin (translit, "Prince Potemkin of Taurida") was a pre-dreadnought battleship built for the Imperial Russian Navy's Black Sea Fleet.
The Russian Civil War (Grazhdanskaya voyna v Rossiyi; November 1917 – October 1922) was a multi-party war in the former Russian Empire immediately after the Russian Revolutions of 1917, as many factions vied to determine Russia's political future.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
The Nihilist movement was a Russian movement in the 1860s which rejected all authorities.
The Russian Orthodox Church (ROC; Rússkaya pravoslávnaya tsérkov), alternatively legally known as the Moscow Patriarchate (Moskóvskiy patriarkhát), is one of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox churches, in full communion with other Eastern Orthodox patriarchates.
The Russian Provisional Government (Vremennoye pravitel'stvo Rossii) was a provisional government of Russia established immediately following the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II of the Russian Empire on 2 March 1917.
The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR or RSFSR; Ru-Российская Советская Федеративная Социалистическая Республика.ogg), also unofficially known as the Russian Federation, Soviet Russia,Declaration of Rights of the laboring and exploited people, article I or Russia (rɐˈsʲijə; from the Ρωσία Rōsía — Rus'), was an independent state from 1917 to 1922, and afterwards the largest, most populous, and most economically developed union republic of the Soviet Union from 1922 to 1991 and then a sovereign part of the Soviet Union with priority of Russian laws over Union-level legislation in 1990 and 1991.
Russians (русские, russkiye) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Eastern Europe. The majority of Russians inhabit the nation state of Russia, while notable minorities exist in other former Soviet states such as Belarus, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Ukraine and the Baltic states. A large Russian diaspora also exists all over the world, with notable numbers in the United States, Germany, Israel, and Canada. Russians are the most numerous ethnic group in Europe. The Russians share many cultural traits with their fellow East Slavic counterparts, specifically Belarusians and Ukrainians. They are predominantly Orthodox Christians by religion. The Russian language is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan, and also spoken as a secondary language in many former Soviet states.
Russification (Русификация), or Russianization, is a form of cultural assimilation process during which non-Russian communities, voluntarily or not, give up their culture and language in favor of the Russian one.
The Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78 (lit, named for the year 1293 in the Islamic calendar; Руско-турска Освободителна война, Russian-Turkish Liberation war) was a conflict between the Ottoman Empire and the Eastern Orthodox coalition led by the Russian Empire and composed of Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia, and Montenegro.
Saint Petersburg (p) is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, with 5 million inhabitants in 2012, part of the Saint Petersburg agglomeration with a population of 6.2 million (2015).
The Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry (the Northern Masonic Jurisdiction in the United States often omits the and, while the English Constitution in the United Kingdom omits the Scottish), commonly known as simply the Scottish Rite (or, in England and Australia, as the Rose Croix although this is only one of its degrees), is one of several Rites of Freemasonry.
Seara (meaning "The Evening") was a daily newspaper published in Bucharest, Romania, before and during World War I. Owned by politician Grigore Gheorghe Cantacuzino and, through most of its existence, managed by the controversial Alexandru Bogdan-Pitești, it was an unofficial and unorthodox tribune for the Conservative Party.
Self-governance, self-government, or autonomy, is an abstract concept that applies to several scales of organization.
The Senate (Senat) is the upper house in the bicameral Parliament of Romania.
Sergey Gennadiyevich Nechayev (or Nyechayev; Серге́й Генна́диевич Неча́ев) (October 2, 1847 – November 21 or December 3, 1882) was a Russian revolutionary associated with the Nihilist movement and known for his single-minded pursuit of revolution by any means necessary, including terrorism.
Sfatul Țării (Country Council) was a council that united political, public, cultural, and professional organizations in the greater part of the territory of the Governorate of Bessarabia in the disintegrating Russian Empire, which proclaimed the Moldavian Democratic Republic as part of the Russian Federative Republic in December 1917, and then union with Romania in April (according to the old style, March) 1918.
Siberia (a) is an extensive geographical region, and by the broadest definition is also known as North Asia.
Siguranța was the generic name for the successive secret police services in the Kingdom of Romania.
Slavic studies (North America), Slavonic studies (Britain and Ireland) or Slavistics (borrowed from Russian славистика or Polish slawistyka) is the academic field of area studies concerned with Slavic areas, Slavic languages, literature, history, and culture.
Social democracy is a political, social and economic ideology that supports economic and social interventions to promote social justice within the framework of a liberal democratic polity and capitalist economy.
The Social Democratic Party of Romania (Partidul Social Democrat din România, or Partidul Social Democrat, PSD) was a Marxist social-democratic political party in Romania.
Social geography is the branch of human geography that is most closely related to social theory in general and sociology in particular, dealing with the relation of social phenomena and its spatial components.
The field of social medicine seeks to implement social care through.
Social science is a major category of academic disciplines, concerned with society and the relationships among individuals within a society.
Socialism is a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership and democratic control of the means of production as well as the political theories and movements associated with them.
The Socialist Party of Romania (Partidul Socialist din România, commonly known as Partidul Socialist, PS) was a Romanian socialist political party, created on December 11, 1918 by members of the Social Democratic Party of Romania (PSDR), after the latter emerged from clandestinity.
The Socialist Peasants' Party (Romanian: Partidul Socialist Țărănesc, or Partidul Socialist Țărănist, PSȚ) was a short-lived political party in Romania, presided over by the academic Mihai Ralea.
The Socialist Republic of Romania (Republica Socialistă România, RSR) refers to Romania under Marxist-Leninist one-party Communist rule that existed officially from 1947 to 1989.
The Socialist Revolutionary Party, or Party of Socialists-Revolutionaries (the SRs; Партия социалистов-революционеров (ПСР), эсеры, esery) was a major political party in early 20th century Imperial Russia.
Sociology is the scientific study of society, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture.
Sofia Nădejde (born Sofia Băncilă; September 14, 1856 – June 11, 1946) was a Romanian novelist, playwright, translator, journalist, women's rights activist and socialist.
The Soviet occupation of Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina was the military occupation, by the Soviet Red Army, during June 28 – July 4, 1940, of the Romanian regions of Northern Bukovina and Hertza, and of Bessarabia, a region under Romanian administration since Russian Civil War times.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Spiritism is a spiritualistic religion codified in the 19th century by the French educator Hippolyte Léon Denizard Rivail, under the codename Allan Kardec; it proposed the study of "the nature, origin, and destiny of spirits, and their relation with the corporeal world".
Spiritualism is a new religious movement based on the belief that the spirits of the dead exist and have both the ability and the inclination to communicate with the living.
Stanford University (officially Leland Stanford Junior University, colloquially the Farm) is a private research university in Stanford, California.
A statistician is a person who works with theoretical or applied statistics.
The Stolypin agrarian reforms were a series of changes to Imperial Russia's agricultural sector instituted during the tenure of Pyotr Stolypin, Chairman of the Council of Ministers (Prime Minister).
Sud-Est (Romanian for "South-East") is a magazine from Chișinău, Moldova.
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.
Take or Tache Ionescu (born Dumitru Ghiță Ioan and also known as Demetriu G. Ionnescu; – June 21, 1922) was a Romanian centrist politician, journalist, lawyer and diplomat, who also enjoyed reputation as a short story author.
Tartarin of Tarascon (Tartarin de Tarascon) is an 1872 novel written by the French author Alphonse Daudet.
Timpul (Romanian for "The Time") is a literary magazine published in Romania.
Topography is the study of the shape and features of the surface of the Earth and other observable astronomical objects including planets, moons, and asteroids.
Transaction Publishers was a New Jersey–based publishing house that specialized in social science books.
Transylvania is a historical region in today's central Romania.
The Treaty of Bucharest was a peace treaty between Romania on one side and the Central Powers on the other, following the stalemate reached after the campaign of 1916–17 and Romania's isolation after Russia's unilateral exit from World War I (see Treaty of Brest-Litovsk).
The Trial of the Fourteen ("Процесс 14-ти" in Russian) was a trial of fourteen members of Narodnaya Volya.
Tsarist autocracy (царское самодержавие, transcr. tsarskoye samoderzhaviye) is a form of autocracy (later absolute monarchy) specific to the Grand Duchy of Moscow, which later became Tsardom of Russia and the Russian Empire.
Tudor Vladimirescu (c. 1780 –) was a Romanian revolutionary hero, the leader of the Wallachian uprising of 1821 and of the Pandur militia.
Tulcea (Bulgarian, Russian and Ukrainian: Тулча, Tulcha; Greek: Αιγισσός, Aegyssus; Turkish: Hora-Tepé or Tolçu) is a city in Dobruja, Romania.
A two-party system is a party system where two major political parties dominate the government.
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
Ukrainian nationalism refers to the Ukrainian version of nationalism.
Ukrainians (українці, ukrayintsi) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Ukraine, which is by total population the sixth-largest nation in Europe.
Under Western Eyes (1911) is a novel by Joseph Conrad.
On, the Sfatul Țării, or National Council, of Bessarabia proclaimed union with the Kingdom of Romania.
The Union of Transylvania with Romania was declared on by the assembly of the delegates of ethnic Romanians held in Alba Iulia.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States of Greater Austria (Vereinigte Staaten von Groß-Österreich) was a proposal, conceived by a group of scholars surrounding Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, that never came to pass.
The concept of universal suffrage, also known as general suffrage or common suffrage, consists of the right to vote of all adult citizens, regardless of property ownership, income, race, or ethnicity, subject only to minor exceptions.
The University of Bucharest (Universitatea din București), commonly known after its abbreviation UB in Romania, is a public university founded in 1864 by decree of Prince Alexandru Ioan Cuza to convert the former Saint Sava Academy into the current University of Bucharest, making it the second oldest modern university in Romania.
University of California Press, otherwise known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing.
The University of Florence (Italian: Università degli Studi di Firenze, UniFI) is an Italian public research university located in Florence, Italy.
The University of New Brunswick (UNB) is a public university with two primary campuses, located in Fredericton and Saint John, New Brunswick.
The University of Rouen (Université de Rouen) is a French university, in the Academy of Rouen.
Vasile Conta (Վասիլե Գրիգորեիի Կոնտա (Գոնտա); November 15, 1845 – April 21, 1882) was a Romanian philosopher, poet, and politician.
Vasile Ghenzul was a Bessarabian politician.
Vasile G. Morțun (November 30, 1860 – July 20, 1919) was a Romanian politician, playwright and prose writer.
Vera Nikolayevna Figner Filippova (Russian: Ве́ра Никола́евна Фи́гнер Фили́ппова, 1852–1942) was a revolutionary political activist born in Kazan Governorate, Russian Empire, into a noble family of ethnic German and Russian descent.
Vevey is a town in Switzerland in the canton of Vaud, on the north shore of Lake Geneva, near Lausanne.
Viaţa Basarabiei (Romanian for "Bessarabia's Life") is a Romanian-language periodical from Chişinău, Moldova.
Victor Crăsescu (October 16, 1849–1918) was an Imperial Russian-born Romanian prose writer.
Vitalism is the belief that "living organisms are fundamentally different from non-living entities because they contain some non-physical element or are governed by different principles than are inanimate things".
Vladimir Beşleagă (born July 25, 1931 in Mălăieşti) is a Moldovan writer and politician.
Vladimir Galaktionovich Korolenko (Влади́мир Галактио́нович Короле́нко) (27 July 1853 – 25 December 1921) was a Russian short story writer, journalist, human rights activist and humanitarian of Ukrainian and Polish origin.
Vladimir Tismăneanu (born July 4, 1951) is a Romanian and American political scientist, political analyst, sociologist, and professor at the University of Maryland, College Park.
Wallachia or Walachia (Țara Românească; archaic: Țeara Rumânească, Romanian Cyrillic alphabet: Цѣра Рȣмѫнѣскъ) is a historical and geographical region of Romania.
The uprising of 1821 was a social and political rebellion in Wallachia, which was at the time a tributary state of the Ottoman Empire.
Sir William Crookes (17 June 1832 – 4 April 1919) was a British chemist and physicist who attended the Royal College of Chemistry in London, and worked on spectroscopy.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Zahariy Stoyanov (Захарий Стоянов; archaic: Захарий Стоянов) (1850 – 2 September 1889), born Dzhendo Stoyanov Dzhedev (Джендо Стоянов Джедев), was a Bulgarian revolutionary, writer, and historian.
Zürich or Zurich is the largest city in Switzerland and the capital of the canton of Zürich.
Ze'ev Iviansky is a former lecturer at the department of General History and Russian Studies of the Hebrew University David C. Rapoport, "Inside Terrorist Organizations",, Psychology Press, 2001, He is the author of the book Individual Terror, Theory and Practice (1977) and numerous articles on terrorism.
Ziarul Financiar is a daily financial newspaper published in Bucharest, Romania.
The Zimmerwald Conference was held in Zimmerwald, Switzerland, from 5 to 8 September 1915.
"1 Decembrie 1918" University, Alba Iulia is a public higher education and research institution founded in 1991 in Alba Iulia, Romania.
The 1866 Constitution of Romania was the fundamental law that capped a period of nation-building in the Danubian Principalities, which had united in 1859.
The Russian Revolution of 1905 was a wave of mass political and social unrest that spread through vast areas of the Russian Empire, some of which was directed at the government.
The 1907 Romanian Peasants' revolt took place between 21 February and 5 April 1907.
Aivaza, Z Arbore, Z. Arbore, Z. Arbure, Z. C. Arbore, Z. K. Arbore, Z. K. Ralli, Z. K. Rally, Z. Ralli, Z. Rally, Zamfir Arbore-Ralli, Zamfir Arbure, Zamfir C. Arbore, Zamfir C. Arbure Ralli, Zamfir Constantin Arbore, Zamfir Ralli, Zamfir Ralli-Arbore, Zamfir Rally, Zemfir Ralli, Zemfiri Arbore Ralli, Zemfiri Konstantinovich Ralli, Zemfiri Ralli, Zemfiriyi Konstantinovich Arborye-Ralli, Zemfiry Ralli, Zemphiri Arbure, Zemphiri Ralli.