26 relations: Adrian Room, Arabic, Arabs, Atlantic Ocean, Berber languages, Boutilimit, Char Bouba war, George Grigore, Glottal stop, Hassaniya Arabic, Institut Fondamental d'Afrique Noire, Loanword, Maqil, Mauritania, Mederdra, Nomad, Nouakchott, Podor, René Basset, Right to keep and bear arms, Saint-Louis, Senegal, Sanhaja, Senegal, University of Nice Sophia Antipolis, Varieties of Arabic, Western Berber languages.
Adrian Richard West Room (27 September 1933, Melksham – 6 November 2010, Stamford)Contemporary Authors Online, Gale, 2002; accessed 20 May 2013.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.
The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about.
The Berber languages, also known as Berber or the Amazigh languages (Berber name: Tamaziɣt, Tamazight; Neo-Tifinagh: ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖⵜ, Tuareg Tifinagh: ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⵜ, ⵝⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⵝ), are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family.
Boutilimit (بوتلميت) lies 164 km south east of Mauritania's capital of Nouakchott.
The Char Bouba war (variously transliterated as Sharr Bubba, Shar Buba, etc.), or the Mauritanian Thirty Years' War, took place between 1644-74 in the tribal areas of what is today Mauritania and Western Sahara.
George Grigore (born 2 February 1958) is a Romanian writer, essayist, translator, professor, researcher in Middle Eastern Studies.
The glottal stop is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages, produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract or, more precisely, the glottis.
Hassānīya (حسانية; also known as Hassaniyya, Klem El Bithan, Hasanya, Hassani, Hassaniya) is a variety of Maghrebi Arabic.
IFAN (I.F.A.N., Institut Fondamental d'Afrique Noire or African Institute of Basic research) is a cultural and scientific institute in the nations of the former French West Africa.
A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word adopted from one language (the donor language) and incorporated into another language without translation.
The Maqil (المعقل) were an Arabian nomadic tribe that emigrated to the Maghreb region, with the Banu Hillal and Banu Sulaym tribes, in the 11th century.
Mauritania (موريتانيا; Gànnaar; Soninke: Murutaane; Pulaar: Moritani; Mauritanie), officially the Islamic Republic of Mauritania, is a country in the Maghreb region of Northwestern Africa.
Mederdra is a small town and commune in south-west Mauritania.
A nomad (νομάς, nomas, plural tribe) is a member of a community of people who live in different locations, moving from one place to another in search of grasslands for their animals.
Nouakchott (نواكشوط, originally derived from Berber Nawākšūṭ, "place of the winds") page 273.
Podor is the northernmost town in Senegal, lying on Morfil Island between the Sénégal River and Doué River.
René Basset (24 July 1855 – 4 January 1924) was a French orientalist, specialist of Arabic and Berber languages.
The right to keep and bear arms (often referred to as the right to bear arms) is the people's right to possess weapons (arms) for their own defense, as described in the philosophical and political writings of Aristotle, Cicero, John Locke, Machiavelli, the English Whigs and others.
Saint-Louis, or Ndar as it is called in Wolof, is the capital of Senegal's Saint-Louis Region.
The Sanhaja (Aẓnag, pl. Iẓnagen, and also Aẓnaj, pl. Iẓnajen; صنهاجة, Ṣanhaja) were once one of the largest Berber tribal confederations, along with the Iznaten and Imesmuden confederations.
Senegal (Sénégal), officially the Republic of Senegal, is a country in West Africa.
The Nice Sophia Antipolis University (Université Nice Sophia Antipolis) is a university located in Nice, France and neighboring areas.
There are many varieties of Arabic (dialects or otherwise) in existence.
The Western Berber languages are a branch of the Berber languages.