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Zheng He

Index Zheng He

Zheng He (1371–1433 or 1435) was a Chinese mariner, explorer, diplomat, fleet admiral, and court eunuch during China's early Ming dynasty. [1]

183 relations: A Deepness in the Sky, Aden, Admiral of the fleet, Ajall Shams al-Din Omar, Ancol, Arabian Peninsula, Asiatic Society of Bangladesh, Barawa, Basalawarmi, Beijing, Bengal, Brunei, Buddhism, Bukit Cina, Burial at sea, Byzantine Empire, Castration, Cenotaph, Champa, Chang Yuchun, Changle District, Chen Zuyi, China, China Central Television, China National Maritime Day, Chinese emigration, Chinese exploration, Chinese mythology, Chinese New Year, Chinese treasure ship, Cirebon, CMA CGM Zheng He, Coimbatore, Corazon Aquino, Cultural Revolution, Deli Serdang Regency, Dhofar Governorate, Dian Lake, Dragon Boat Festival, Dutch East Indies, Earthly Branches, Emotion Media Factory, Emperor Yingzong of Ming, Ethnic groups in Indonesia, Far Cry 3, Fei Xin, Feoffment, Foreign relations of imperial China, French ship Orient (1791), Fu Youde, ..., Fujian, Galle, Galle Trilingual Inscription, Gallen Lo, Gallery of Admiral Cheng Ho, Gautama Buddha, Gong Zhen, Great Wall of China, Guanyin, Haijin, Hajj, Hajji, Hamka, Han dynasty, Hanafi, Hang Li Po, Heather Terrell, Hinduism, Historical revisionism, History of Ming, History of the Ming dynasty, Hong Bao, Hongwu Emperor, Hongxi Emperor, Hormozgan Province, Horn of Africa, Huang-Ming Zuxun, Hui people, Ibn Battuta, International Association of Amusement Parks and Attractions, Islam in China, Ivory, Jack Goldstone, Jakarta, Java, Jianwen Emperor, Jiaomei, Jingnan Campaign, Jingtai Emperor, John K. Fairbank, Joseph Needham, JSTOR, Kayalpatnam, Kingdom of Kotte, Kochi, Kollam, Kozhikode, Kunming, Kunming Changshui International Airport, Kunyang Subdistrict, Lamu Archipelago, Lamuri Kingdom, Li (unit), Liang Qichao, List of explorers, List of longest wooden ships, Liuhe, Taicang, Ma Huan, Majapahit, Malabar Coast, Malacca, Malacca City, Malay Peninsula, Malaysia, Maldives, Malindi, Mandate of Heaven, Mansur Shah of Malacca, Mao Kun map, Marco Polo, Maritime Southeast Asia, Mazu, Mecca, Ming campaign against the Uriankhai, Ming conquest of Yunnan, Ming dynasty, Ming Shilu, Ming treasure voyages, Ming–Kotte War, Mogadishu, Mongol Empire, Muscat, Naghachu, Nanjing, National Museum of Colombo, Naval history of China, Niccolò de' Conti, Ningbo, Northern Yuan dynasty, Pagoda, Palembang, Peranakan, Philippines, Porcelain, Porcelain Tower of Nanjing, Qilin, Quanzhou ship, Refuge (Buddhism), Romon U-Park, Ryukyu Islands, Sam Poo Kong, Samudera Pasai Sultanate, Scholar-official, Semarang, Shafi‘i, Sinicization, Song dynasty, Sri Lanka, Stadthuys, Stele, Surabaya, Suzhou, Swahili coast, Syncretism, Tamil language, Tang dynasty, Tenavaram temple, The New York Times, Three Kingdoms, Tumu Crisis, University of California, Los Angeles, Vernor Vinge, Wang Jinghong, Wokou, Wu (Ten Kingdoms), Wubei Zhi, Xuande Emperor, Yongle Emperor, Yuan dynasty, Yunnan, Zheng (surname), Zheng He Xia Xiyang (TV series), Zhou Man. Expand index (133 more) »

A Deepness in the Sky

A Deepness in the Sky is a science fiction novel by American writer Vernor Vinge.

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Aden (عدن Yemeni) is a port city in Yemen, located by the eastern approach to the Red Sea (the Gulf of Aden), some east of Bab-el-Mandeb.

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Admiral of the fleet

An admiral of the fleet or fleet admiral (sometimes also known as admiral of the navy or grand admiral) is a military naval officer of the highest rank.

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Ajall Shams al-Din Omar

Sayyid Ajall Shams al-Din Omar al-Bukhari (سید اجل شمس‌الدین عمر) (1211–1279) was Yunnan's first provincial governor, appointed by the Mongol Yuan Dynasty.

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Ancol is a coastal lowland area located to the east of Kota Tua Jakarta in northern Jakarta, in Indonesia.

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Arabian Peninsula

The Arabian Peninsula, simplified Arabia (شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, ‘Arabian island’ or جَزِيرَةُ الْعَرَب, ‘Island of the Arabs’), is a peninsula of Western Asia situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian plate.

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Asiatic Society of Bangladesh

The Asiatic Society of Bangladesh was established as the Asiatic Society of Pakistan in Dhaka in 1952, and renamed in 1972.

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Barawa (Baraawe, مدينة ﺑﺮﺍﻭة Madīna Barāwa), also known as Barawe and Brava, is a port town in the southwestern Lower Shebelle region of Somalia.

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Basalawarmi (died January 6, 1382), commonly known by his hereditary title, the Prince of Liang, was a descendant of Kublai Khan and a Yuan Dynasty loyalist who fought against the ascendant Ming Dynasty in China.

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Beijing, formerly romanized as Peking, is the capital of the People's Republic of China, the world's second most populous city proper, and most populous capital city.

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Bengal (Bānglā/Bôngô /) is a geopolitical, cultural and historical region in Asia, which is located in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent at the apex of the Bay of Bengal.

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Brunei, officially the Nation of Brunei, the Abode of Peace (Negara Brunei Darussalam, Jawi), is a sovereign state located on the north coast of the island of Borneo in Southeast Asia.

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Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.

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Bukit Cina

Bukit China (Malay: "Chinese Hill"; Chinese: 三保山) is a hillside of historical significance in the capital of Malaysian state of Malacca, Malacca Town.

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Burial at sea

Burial at sea is the disposal of human remains in the ocean, normally from a ship or boat.

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Byzantine Empire

The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).

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Castration (also known as gonadectomy) is any action, surgical, chemical, or otherwise, by which an individual loses use of the testicles.

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A cenotaph is an empty tomb or a monument erected in honour of a person or group of people whose remains are elsewhere.

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Champa (Chăm Pa) was a collection of independent Cham polities that extended across the coast of what is today central and southern Vietnam from approximately the 2nd century AD before being absorbed and annexed by Vietnamese Emperor Minh Mạng in AD 1832.

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Chang Yuchun

Chang Yuchun (1330–1369), courtesy name Boren and art name Yanheng, was a Chinese military general of the Ming dynasty.

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Changle District

(Foochow Romanized: Diòng-lŏ̤h) is a district located in eastern Fujian province, China.

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Chen Zuyi

Chen Zuyi (died 1407) was a 15th-century Chinese pirate from Guangdong, and was one of the most feared pirates to ever infest the seas of Southeast Asia.

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China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.

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China Central Television

China Central Television (formerly Beijing Television), commonly abbreviated as CCTV, is the predominant state television broadcaster in the People's Republic of China.

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China National Maritime Day

China National Maritime Day, officially referred to as Maritime Day of China, also known as China Maritime Day, Maritime Day in China,, is celebrated July 11, 2005, commemorating marked Zheng He's first voyage.

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Chinese emigration

Waves of Chinese emigration (also known as the Chinese diaspora) have happened throughout history.

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Chinese exploration

Chinese exploration includes exploratory Chinese travels abroad, on land and by sea, from the 2nd century BC until the 15th century.

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Chinese mythology

Chinese mythology refers to myths found in the historical geographic area of China: these include myths in Chinese and other languages, as transmitted by Han Chinese and other ethnic groups, which have their own languages and myths.

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Chinese New Year

Chinese New Year, usually known as the Spring Festival in modern China, is an important Chinese festival celebrated at the turn of the traditional lunisolar Chinese calendar.

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Chinese treasure ship

A Chinese treasure ship was a type of large wooden ship in the fleet of admiral Zheng He, who led seven voyages during the early 15th-century Ming dynasty.

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Cirebon (formerly referred to as Cheribon in English) is a port city on the north coast of the Indonesian island of Java.

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CMA CGM Zheng He

CMA CGM Zheng He is an Explorer class containership built for CMA CGM.

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Coimbatore (Tamil: கோயம்புத்தூர்), also known as Kovai, is a major city in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.

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Corazon Aquino

Maria Corazon "Cory" Sumulong Cojuangco Aquino (January 25, 1933 – August 1, 2009) was a Filipina politician who served as the 11th President of the Philippines and the first woman to hold that office.

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Cultural Revolution

The Cultural Revolution, formally the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, was a sociopolitical movement in China from 1966 until 1976.

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Deli Serdang Regency

Deli Serdang (Kabupaten Deli Serdang; Jawi: دلي سردڠ) is a regency in the Indonesian province of North Sumatra.

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Dhofar Governorate

The Dhofar Governorate (محافظة ظفار, Muḥāfaẓat Ẓufār) is the largest of the eleven Governorates in the Sultanate of Oman in terms of area.

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Dian Lake

Dianchi Lake (Chinese: 滇池, Diānchí), also known as Lake Dian and Kunming Lake (昆明湖, Kūnmínghú), is a large lake located on the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau close to Kunming, Yunnan, in southern China.

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Dragon Boat Festival

The Duanwu Festival, also often known as the Dragon Boat Festival, is a traditional holiday originating in China, occurring near the summer solstice.

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Dutch East Indies

The Dutch East Indies (or Netherlands East-Indies; Nederlands(ch)-Indië; Hindia Belanda) was a Dutch colony consisting of what is now Indonesia.

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Earthly Branches

The Earthly Branches or Twelve Branches are an ordering system used throughout East Asia in various contexts, including its ancient dating system, astrological traditions, and zodiac.

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Emotion Media Factory

Emotion Media Factory GmbH (EMF) is a creative multimedia attraction and show production company based near Munich in front of the Bavarian Alps in Germany.

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Emperor Yingzong of Ming

Zhu Qizhen (29 November 1427 – 23 February 1464) was the sixth and eighth emperor of the Ming dynasty.

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Ethnic groups in Indonesia

There are over 300 ethnic groups in Indonesia including Javanese, Sundanese, and Batak.

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Far Cry 3

Far Cry 3 is an open world action-adventure first-person shooter video game developed by Ubisoft Montreal and published by Ubisoft for Microsoft Windows, Xbox 360, and PlayStation 3.

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Fei Xin

Fei Xin (ca. 1385 - after 1436) was a member of the military personnel of the fleet of the Ming dynasty admiral Zheng He, known as the author of a book about the countries visited by Chinese ships.

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In the Middle Ages, especially under the European feudal system, feoffment or enfeoffment was the deed by which a person was given land in exchange for a pledge of service.

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Foreign relations of imperial China

Imperial China had a long tradition of foreign relations.

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French ship Orient (1791)

Orient was an 118-gun ship of the line of the French Navy, famous for her role as flagship of the French fleet at the Battle of the Nile in August 1798, and for her spectacular destruction that day when her magazines exploded.

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Fu Youde

Fu Youde (d. 20 December 1394) was a Chinese general and a highly competent commander in the Ming navy.

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Fujian (pronounced), formerly romanised as Foken, Fouken, Fukien, and Hokkien, is a province on the southeast coast of mainland China.

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Galle (ගාල්ල; காலி) is a major city in Sri Lanka, situated on the southwestern tip, 119 km from Colombo.

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Galle Trilingual Inscription

The Galle Trilingual Inscription is a stone tablet (stele) inscription in three languages, Chinese, Tamil and Persian, that was erected in 1409 in Galle, Sri Lanka to commemorate the second visit to the island by the Chinese admiral Zheng He.

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Gallen Lo

Gallen Lo Ka-leung is a Hong Kong actor and singer who primarily acts in television series.

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Gallery of Admiral Cheng Ho

The Gallery of Admiral Cheng Ho (1) is a gallery about Zheng He in Melaka City, Melaka, Malaysia.

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Gautama Buddha

Gautama Buddha (c. 563/480 – c. 483/400 BCE), also known as Siddhārtha Gautama, Shakyamuni Buddha, or simply the Buddha, after the title of Buddha, was an ascetic (śramaṇa) and sage, on whose teachings Buddhism was founded.

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Gong Zhen

Gong Zhen was a fifteenth-century translator and writer famous for his association with the Chinese admiral Zheng He.

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Great Wall of China

The Great Wall of China is a series of fortifications made of stone, brick, tamped earth, wood, and other materials, generally built along an east-to-west line across the historical northern borders of China to protect the Chinese states and empires against the raids and invasions of the various nomadic groups of the Eurasian Steppe with an eye to expansion.

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Guanyin or Guan Yin is an East Asian bodhisattva associated with compassion and venerated by Mahayana Buddhists and followers of Chinese folk religions, also known as the "Goddess of Mercy" in English.

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The Haijin or sea ban was a series of related isolationist Chinese policies restricting private maritime trading and coastal settlement during most of the Ming dynasty and some of the Qing.

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The Hajj (حَجّ "pilgrimage") is an annual Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca, the holiest city for Muslims, and a mandatory religious duty for Muslims that must be carried out at least once in their lifetime by all adult Muslims who are physically and financially capable of undertaking the journey, and can support their family during their absence.

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Hajji (sometimes spelled Hadji, Haji, Alhaji, Al hage, Al hag or El-Hajj) is a title which is originally given to a Muslim person who has successfully completed the Hajj to Mecca.

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Prof. Dr. Haji Abdul Malik bin Dr.

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Han dynasty

The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China (206 BC–220 AD), preceded by the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period (220–280 AD). Spanning over four centuries, the Han period is considered a golden age in Chinese history. To this day, China's majority ethnic group refers to themselves as the "Han Chinese" and the Chinese script is referred to as "Han characters". It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han, and briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty (9–23 AD) of the former regent Wang Mang. This interregnum separates the Han dynasty into two periods: the Western Han or Former Han (206 BC–9 AD) and the Eastern Han or Later Han (25–220 AD). The emperor was at the pinnacle of Han society. He presided over the Han government but shared power with both the nobility and appointed ministers who came largely from the scholarly gentry class. The Han Empire was divided into areas directly controlled by the central government using an innovation inherited from the Qin known as commanderies, and a number of semi-autonomous kingdoms. These kingdoms gradually lost all vestiges of their independence, particularly following the Rebellion of the Seven States. From the reign of Emperor Wu (r. 141–87 BC) onward, the Chinese court officially sponsored Confucianism in education and court politics, synthesized with the cosmology of later scholars such as Dong Zhongshu. This policy endured until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911 AD. The Han dynasty saw an age of economic prosperity and witnessed a significant growth of the money economy first established during the Zhou dynasty (c. 1050–256 BC). The coinage issued by the central government mint in 119 BC remained the standard coinage of China until the Tang dynasty (618–907 AD). The period saw a number of limited institutional innovations. To finance its military campaigns and the settlement of newly conquered frontier territories, the Han government nationalized the private salt and iron industries in 117 BC, but these government monopolies were repealed during the Eastern Han dynasty. Science and technology during the Han period saw significant advances, including the process of papermaking, the nautical steering ship rudder, the use of negative numbers in mathematics, the raised-relief map, the hydraulic-powered armillary sphere for astronomy, and a seismometer for measuring earthquakes employing an inverted pendulum. The Xiongnu, a nomadic steppe confederation, defeated the Han in 200 BC and forced the Han to submit as a de facto inferior partner, but continued their raids on the Han borders. Emperor Wu launched several military campaigns against them. The ultimate Han victory in these wars eventually forced the Xiongnu to accept vassal status as Han tributaries. These campaigns expanded Han sovereignty into the Tarim Basin of Central Asia, divided the Xiongnu into two separate confederations, and helped establish the vast trade network known as the Silk Road, which reached as far as the Mediterranean world. The territories north of Han's borders were quickly overrun by the nomadic Xianbei confederation. Emperor Wu also launched successful military expeditions in the south, annexing Nanyue in 111 BC and Dian in 109 BC, and in the Korean Peninsula where the Xuantu and Lelang Commanderies were established in 108 BC. After 92 AD, the palace eunuchs increasingly involved themselves in court politics, engaging in violent power struggles between the various consort clans of the empresses and empresses dowager, causing the Han's ultimate downfall. Imperial authority was also seriously challenged by large Daoist religious societies which instigated the Yellow Turban Rebellion and the Five Pecks of Rice Rebellion. Following the death of Emperor Ling (r. 168–189 AD), the palace eunuchs suffered wholesale massacre by military officers, allowing members of the aristocracy and military governors to become warlords and divide the empire. When Cao Pi, King of Wei, usurped the throne from Emperor Xian, the Han dynasty would eventually collapse and ceased to exist.

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The Hanafi (حنفي) school is one of the four religious Sunni Islamic schools of jurisprudence (fiqh).

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Hang Li Po

Hang Li Po was the fifth wife of Malaccan Sultan Mansur Shah (reigned 1456-1477).

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Heather Terrell

Heather Benedict Terrell is an American novelist and lawyer.

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Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent.

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Historical revisionism

In historiography, the term historical revisionism identifies the re-interpretation of the historical record.

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History of Ming

The History of Ming or the Ming History (Míng Shǐ) is one of the official Chinese historical works known as the Twenty-Four Histories.

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History of the Ming dynasty

The Ming dynasty (January 23, 1368 – April 25, 1644), officially the Great Ming or Empire of the Great Ming, founded by the peasant rebel leader Zhu Yuanzhang, known as the Hongwu Emperor, was an imperial dynasty of China.

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Hong Bao

Hong Bao (fl. ca. 1412–1433) was a Chinese eunuch sent on overseas diplomatic missions during the reigns of the Yongle Emperor and Xuande Emperor in the Ming dynasty.

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Hongwu Emperor

The Hongwu Emperor (21 October 1328 – 24 June 1398), personal name Zhu Yuanzhang (Chu Yuan-chang in Wade-Giles), was the founding emperor of China's Ming dynasty.

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Hongxi Emperor

The Hongxi Emperor (洪熙; 16 August 1378 – 29 May 1425), personal name Zhu Gaochi (朱高熾), was the fourth emperor of the Ming dynasty of China.

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Hormozgan Province

Hormozgan Province (استان هرمزگان, Ostān-e Hormozgān) is one of the 31 provinces of Iran.

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Horn of Africa

The Horn of Africa is a peninsula in East Africa that juts into the Guardafui Channel, lying along the southern side of the Gulf of Aden and the southwest Red Sea.

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Huang-Ming Zuxun

The Huáng-Míng Zǔxùn (Instructions of the Ancestor of the August Ming) were admonitions left by the Hongwu Emperor Zhu Yuanzhang, the founder of the Chinese Ming dynasty, to his descendants.

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Hui people

The Hui people (Xiao'erjing: خُوِذُو; Dungan: Хуэйзў, Xuejzw) are an East Asian ethnoreligious group predominantly composed of Han Chinese adherents of the Muslim faith found throughout China, mainly in the northwestern provinces of the country and the Zhongyuan region.

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Ibn Battuta

Ibn Battuta (محمد ابن بطوطة; fully; Arabic: أبو عبد الله محمد بن عبد الله اللواتي الطنجي بن بطوطة) (February 25, 13041368 or 1369) was a Moroccan scholar who widely travelled the medieval world.

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International Association of Amusement Parks and Attractions

The International Association of Amusement Parks and Attractions (IAAPA) represents over 5,300 amusement-industry members in more than 100 countries worldwide and operates several global amusement-industry trade shows.

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Islam in China

Islam in China has existed through 1,400 years of continuous interaction with Chinese society.

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Ivory is a hard, white material from the tusks (traditionally elephants') and teeth of animals, that can be used in art or manufacturing.

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Jack Goldstone

Jack A. Goldstone (born September 30, 1953) is an American sociologist, political scientist, and world historian, specializing in studies of social movements, revolutions, political demography, and the 'Rise of the West' in world history.

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Jakarta, officially the Special Capital Region of Jakarta (Daerah Khusus Ibu Kota Jakarta), is the capital and largest city of Indonesia.

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Java (Indonesian: Jawa; Javanese: ꦗꦮ; Sundanese) is an island of Indonesia.

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Jianwen Emperor

The Jianwen Emperor (5 December 1377 – 13 July 1402?) was the second emperor of the Ming dynasty in China.

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Jiaomei is a Town in the portion of Longhai City north of the Jiulong River, in the municipal region of Zhangzhou, Fujian.

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Jingnan Campaign

Jingnan Campaign, or Jingnan Rebellion, was a civil war in the early years of the Ming Dynasty of China between the Jianwen Emperor and his uncle Zhu Di, the Prince of Yan.

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Jingtai Emperor

The Jingtai Emperor (景泰) (21 September 1428 – 14 March 1457), born Zhu Qiyu, was Emperor of China from 1449 to 1457.

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John K. Fairbank

John King Fairbank (May 24, 1907 – September 14, 1991), was a prominent American historian of China.

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Joseph Needham

Noel Joseph Terence Montgomery Needham (9 December 1900 – 24 March 1995) was a British biochemist, historian and sinologist known for his scientific research and writing on the history of Chinese science and technology.

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JSTOR (short for Journal Storage) is a digital library founded in 1995.

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Kayalpatnam (also known as Kayalpattinam or Korkai, Arabic - قاهر فطن, Tamil - காயல்பட்டினம்) is a Municipality in Thoothukudi district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.

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Kingdom of Kotte

The Kingdom of Kotte (Sinhala: කෝට්ටේ රාජධානිය Kottay Rajadhaniya), centered on Sri Jayawardenepura Kotte, was a kingdom that flourished in Sri Lanka during the 15th century.

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Kochi, also known as Cochin, is a major port city on the south-west coast of India bordering the Laccadive Sea.

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Kollam or Quilon (Coulão), formerly Desinganadu, is an old seaport and city on the Laccadive Sea coast of the Indian state of Kerala.

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Kozhikode, or Calicut, is a city in Kerala, India on the Malabar Coast.

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Kunming is the capital and largest city of Yunnan province in southwest China.

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Kunming Changshui International Airport

Kunming Changshui International Airport is the primary airport serving Kunming, the capital of Yunnan Province, China.

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Kunyang Subdistrict

Kunyang Subdistrict is a subdistrict and the administrative center of Jinning District, Yunnan, China.

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Lamu Archipelago

The Lamu Archipelago is located in the Indian Ocean close to the northern coast of Kenya, to which it belongs.

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Lamuri Kingdom

Lamuri (or Lambri) was a kingdom in northern Sumatra, Indonesia from the Srivijaya period until the early 16th century.

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Li (unit)

The li (lǐ, or 市里, shìlǐ), also known as the Chinese mile, is a traditional Chinese unit of distance.

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Liang Qichao

Liang Qichao (Cantonese: Lèuhng Kái-chīu; 23 February 1873 – 19 January 1929), courtesy name Zhuoru, art name Rengong, was a Chinese scholar, journalist, philosopher, and reformist who lived during the late Qing dynasty and the early Republic of China.

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List of explorers

The following is a list of explorers.

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List of longest wooden ships

A list of the world's longest wooden ships is compiled below.

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Liuhe, Taicang

Liuhe (lit. "Liu Creek") is a town under the jurisdiction of Taicang county-level city in Jiangsu province, China.

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Ma Huan

Ma Huan (Xiao'erjing: ﻣَﺎ ﺧُﻮًا.) (c. 1380–1460), courtesy name Zongdao, pen name Mountain-woodcutter (會稽山樵), was a Chinese voyager and translator who accompanied Admiral Zheng He on three of his seven expeditions to the Western Oceans.

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The Majapahit Empire (Javanese: ꦏꦫꦠꦺꦴꦤ꧀ꦩꦗꦥꦲꦶꦠ꧀ Karaton Majapahit, Kerajaan Majapahit) was a thalassocracy in Southeast Asia, based on the island of Java (part of modern-day Indonesia), that existed from 1293 to circa 1500.

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Malabar Coast

The Malabar Coast is a long, narrow coastline on the southwestern shore line of the mainland Indian subcontinent.

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Malacca (Melaka; மலாக்கா) dubbed "The Historic State", is a state in Malaysia located in the southern region of the Malay Peninsula, next to the Strait of Malacca.

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Malacca City

Malacca City (Malay: Bandaraya Melaka, Jawi:,, Tamil: மலாக்கா மாநகரம்), is the capital city of the Malaysian state of Malacca.

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Malay Peninsula

The Malay Peninsula (Tanah Melayu, تانه ملايو; คาบสมุทรมลายู,, မလေး ကျွန်းဆွယ်, 马来半岛 / 馬來半島) is a peninsula in Southeast Asia.

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Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy in Southeast Asia.

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The Maldives (or; ދިވެހިރާއްޖެ Dhivehi Raa'jey), officially the Republic of Maldives, is a South Asian sovereign state, located in the Indian Ocean, situated in the Arabian Sea.

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Malindi (known as Melinde in antiquity) is a town on Malindi Bay at the mouth of the Galana River, lying on the Indian Ocean coast of Kenya.

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Mandate of Heaven

The Mandate of Heaven or Tian Ming is a Chinese political and religious doctrine used since ancient times to justify the rule of the King or Emperor of China.

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Mansur Shah of Malacca

Sultan Mansur Shah ibni Almarhum Sultan Muzaffar Shah (died 1477) was the sixth Sultan of Malacca.

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Mao Kun map

Mao Kun map, usually referred to in modern Chinese sources as Zheng He's Navigation Map, is a set of navigation charts published in the Ming dynasty military treatise Wubei Zhi.

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Marco Polo

Marco Polo (1254January 8–9, 1324) was an Italian merchant, explorer, and writer, born in the Republic of Venice.

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Maritime Southeast Asia

Maritime Southeast Asia is the maritime region of Southeast Asia as opposed to mainland Southeast Asia and comprises what is now Malaysia, Brunei, Philippines, Singapore, Indonesia, and Timor Leste.

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Mazu, also known by several other names and titles, is a Chinese sea goddess.

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Mecca or Makkah (مكة is a city in the Hejazi region of the Arabian Peninsula, and the plain of Tihamah in Saudi Arabia, and is also the capital and administrative headquarters of the Makkah Region. The city is located inland from Jeddah in a narrow valley at a height of above sea level, and south of Medina. Its resident population in 2012 was roughly 2 million, although visitors more than triple this number every year during the Ḥajj (حَـجّ, "Pilgrimage") period held in the twelfth Muslim lunar month of Dhūl-Ḥijjah (ذُو الْـحِـجَّـة). As the birthplace of Muhammad, and the site of Muhammad's first revelation of the Quran (specifically, a cave from Mecca), Mecca is regarded as the holiest city in the religion of Islam and a pilgrimage to it known as the Hajj is obligatory for all able Muslims. Mecca is home to the Kaaba, by majority description Islam's holiest site, as well as being the direction of Muslim prayer. Mecca was long ruled by Muhammad's descendants, the sharifs, acting either as independent rulers or as vassals to larger polities. It was conquered by Ibn Saud in 1925. In its modern period, Mecca has seen tremendous expansion in size and infrastructure, home to structures such as the Abraj Al Bait, also known as the Makkah Royal Clock Tower Hotel, the world's fourth tallest building and the building with the third largest amount of floor area. During this expansion, Mecca has lost some historical structures and archaeological sites, such as the Ajyad Fortress. Today, more than 15 million Muslims visit Mecca annually, including several million during the few days of the Hajj. As a result, Mecca has become one of the most cosmopolitan cities in the Muslim world,Fattah, Hassan M., The New York Times (20 January 2005). even though non-Muslims are prohibited from entering the city.

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Ming campaign against the Uriankhai

The Ming campaign against the Uriankhai of 1387 was an offensive military expedition campaign of Ming China's army led by General Feng Sheng against the Uriankhai horde of the Mongol chieftain Naghachu in Manchuria.

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Ming conquest of Yunnan

The Ming conquest of Yunnan was the final phase in the Chinese Ming dynasty expulsion of Mongol Yuan dynasty rule from China in the 1380s.

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Ming dynasty

The Ming dynasty was the ruling dynasty of China – then known as the – for 276 years (1368–1644) following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty.

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Ming Shilu

The Ming Shilu contains the imperial annals of the Ming emperors (1368–1644).

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Ming treasure voyages

The Ming treasure voyages were the seven maritime expeditions by Ming China's treasure fleet between 1405 and 1433.

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Ming–Kotte War

The Ming–Kotte War was a military conflict between the expeditionary forces of the Chinese Ming empire with the Sinhalese Kotte kingdom, located in the southern territories of present-day Sri Lanka.

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Mogadishu (Muqdisho), known locally as Xamar or Hamar, is the capital and most populous city of Somalia.

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Mongol Empire

The Mongol Empire (Mongolian: Mongolyn Ezent Güren; Mongolian Cyrillic: Монголын эзэнт гүрэн;; also Орда ("Horde") in Russian chronicles) existed during the 13th and 14th centuries and was the largest contiguous land empire in history.

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Muscat (مسقط) is the capital and largest city of Oman.

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Naghachu (script, d. 1388), also written as Nahacu, was a Uriankhai leader and general of the Northern Yuan dynasty in Manchuria, which was under Liaoyang province of the former Yuan dynasty.

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Nanjing, formerly romanized as Nanking and Nankin, is the capital of Jiangsu province of the People's Republic of China and the second largest city in the East China region, with an administrative area of and a total population of 8,270,500.

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National Museum of Colombo

National Museum of Colombo, also known as the Sri Lanka National Museum is one of two museums in Colombo.

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Naval history of China

The naval history of China dates back thousands of years, with archives existing since the late Spring and Autumn period (722 BC – 481 BC) about the ancient navy of China and the various ship types used in war.

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Niccolò de' Conti

Niccolò de' Conti (c. 1395–1469) was an Italian merchant and explorer, born in Chioggia, who traveled to India and Southeast Asia, and possibly to Southern China, during the early 15th century.

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Ningbo, formerly written Ningpo, is a sub-provincial city in northeast Zhejiang province in China. It comprises the urban districts of Ningbo proper, three satellite cities, and a number of rural counties including islands in Hangzhou Bay and the East China Sea. Its port, spread across several locations, is among the busiest in the world and the municipality possesses a separate state-planning status. As of the 2010 census, the entire administrated area had a population of 7.6 million, with 3.5 million in the six urban districts of Ningbo proper. To the north, Hangzhou Bay separates Ningbo from Shanghai; to the east lies Zhoushan in the East China Sea; on the west and south, Ningbo borders Shaoxing and Taizhou respectively.

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Northern Yuan dynasty

The Northern Yuan dynasty, was a Mongol régime based in the Mongolian homeland.

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A pagoda is a tiered tower with multiple eaves, built in traditions originating as stupa in historic South Asia and further developed in East Asia or with respect to those traditions, common to Nepal, China, Japan, Korea, Vietnam, Myanmar, India, Sri Lanka and other parts of Asia.

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Palembang (Indonesian pronunciation: palɛmˈbaŋ) is the capital city of South Sumatra province of Indonesia.

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Peranakan Chinese, or Straits-born Chinese, are the descendants of Chinese immigrants who came to the Malay archipelago including British Malaya (now Malaysia and Singapore, where they are also referred to as Baba-Nyonya) and Dutch East Indies (now Indonesia; where they are also referred as Kiau-Seng) and southern Thailand, primarily in Phuket and Ranong between the 15th and 17th centuries.

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The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.

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Porcelain is a ceramic material made by heating materials, generally including kaolin, in a kiln to temperatures between.

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Porcelain Tower of Nanjing

The Porcelain Tower of Nanjing, part of the former Bao'en Temple, is a historical site located on the south bank of external Qinhuai River in Nanjing, China.

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The qilin is a mythical hooved chimerical creature known in Chinese and other East Asian cultures, said to appear with the imminent arrival or passing of a sage or illustrious ruler.

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Quanzhou ship

The Quanzhou Ship (泉州湾古船), or Quanzhou wreck, was a 13th-century Chinese seagoing sailing junk – rounds the length and beam width to 34 and 9.8 m, respectively (also abstract on pp. 62–63, 240-242) that sank near the city of Quanzhou in Fujian Province, and was discovered in 1973.

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Refuge (Buddhism)

Buddhists take refuge in the Three Jewels or Triple Gem (also known as the "Three Refuges").

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Romon U-Park

Romon U-park (Chinese: 罗蒙环球乐园) is a 200,000 ㎡ amusement park located in the south of Ningbo, China.

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Ryukyu Islands

The, also known as the or the, are a chain of islands annexed by Japan that stretch southwest from Kyushu to Taiwan: the Ōsumi, Tokara, Amami, Okinawa, and Sakishima Islands (further divided into the Miyako and Yaeyama Islands), with Yonaguni the southernmost.

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Sam Poo Kong

Sam Poo Kong, also known as Gedung Batu Temple, is the oldest Chinese temple in Semarang, Central Java, Indonesia.

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Samudera Pasai Sultanate

Samudera Pasai, also known as Samudera or Pasai or Samudera Darussalam, was a Muslim harbour kingdom on the north coast of Sumatra from the 13th to the 16th centuries CE.

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Scholar-officials, also known as Literati, Scholar-gentlemen, Scholar-bureaucrats or Scholar-gentry were politicians and government officials appointed by the emperor of China to perform day-to-day political duties from the Han dynasty to the end of the Qing dynasty in 1912, China's last imperial dynasty.

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Semarang (formerly Dutch: Samarang), is a city on the north coast of the island of Java, Indonesia.

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The Shafi‘i (شافعي, alternative spelling Shafei) madhhab is one of the four schools of Islamic law in Sunni Islam.

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Sinicization, sinicisation, sinofication, or sinification is a process whereby non-Chinese societies come under the influence of Chinese culture, particularly Han Chinese culture and societal norms.

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Song dynasty

The Song dynasty (960–1279) was an era of Chinese history that began in 960 and continued until 1279.

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Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්‍රී ලංකා; Tamil: இலங்கை Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea.

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The Stadthuys (an old Dutch spelling, meaning city hall) is a historical structure situated in the heart of Malacca City, the administrative capital of the state of Malacca, Malaysia in a place known as the Red Square.

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A steleAnglicized plural steles; Greek plural stelai, from Greek στήλη, stēlē.

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Surabaya (formerly Dutch: Soerabaia and later Surabaja) is a port city and the capital of East Java (Jawa Timur) province of Indonesia.

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Suzhou (Wu Chinese), formerly romanized as Soochow, is a major city located in southeastern Jiangsu Province of East China, about northwest of Shanghai.

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Swahili coast

The Swahili Coast is a coastal area in Southeast Africa inhabited by the Swahili people.

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Syncretism is the combining of different beliefs, while blending practices of various schools of thought.

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Tamil language

Tamil (தமிழ்) is a Dravidian language predominantly spoken by the Tamil people of India and Sri Lanka, and by the Tamil diaspora, Sri Lankan Moors, Burghers, Douglas, and Chindians.

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Tang dynasty

The Tang dynasty or the Tang Empire was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.

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Tenavaram temple

Tenavaram temple (தென்னாவரம் கோயில்) (historically known as the Tenavaram Kovil, Tevanthurai Kovil or Naga-Risa Nila Kovil) was a historic Hindu temple complex situated in the port town Tenavaram, Tevanthurai (or Dondra Head), Matara) near Galle, Southern Province, Sri Lanka.(see) Its primary deity was a Hindu god Tenavarai Nayanar (Upulvan) and at its zenith was one of the most celebrated Hindu temple complexes of the island, containing eight major kovil shrines to a thousand deity statues of stone and bronze and two major shrines to Vishnu and Shiva. Administration and maintenance was conducted by residing Hindu Tamil merchants during Tenavaram's time as a popular pilgrimage destination and famed emporium employing over five hundred devadasis. The complex, bordered by a large quadrangle cloister, was a collection of several historic Hindu Kovil shrines, with its principle shrine designed in the Kerala and Pallava style of Dravidian architecture. The central temple dedicated to Vishnu (Tenavarai Nayanar) known as Upulvan to the Sinhalese was the most prestigious and biggest, popular amongst its large Tamil population, pilgrims and benefactors of other faiths such as Buddhism, kings and artisans. The other shrines that made up the Kovil Vatta were dedicated to Ganesh, Murukan, Kannagi and Shiva, widely exalted examples of stonework construction of the Dravidian style. The Shiva shrine is venerated as the southernmost of the ancient Pancha Ishwarams of Lord Shiva (called Tondeswaram), built at coastal points around the circumference of the island in the classical period. Tenavaram temple owned the entire property and land of the town and the surrounding villages, ownership of which was affirmed through several royal grants in the early medieval period. Its keepers lived along streets of its ancient agraharam within the complex. Due to patronage by various royal dynasties and pilgrims across Asia, it became one of the most important surviving buildings of the classical Dravidian architectural period by the late 16th century. The temple compound was destroyed by Portuguese colonial Thome de Sousa d'Arronches, who devastated the entire southern coast. The property was then handed over to Catholics. Tenavaram's splendor and prominence ranked it in stature alongside the other famous Pallava-developed medieval Hindu temple complex in the region, Koneswaram of Trincomalee. Excavations at the complex mandapam's partially buried ruins of granite pillars, stairs and slab stonework over the entire town have led to numerous findings. Reflecting the high points of Pallava artistic influence and contributions to the south of the island are the temple's 5th- to 7th-century statues of Ganesh, the Lingam, sculpture of Nandi and the Vishnu shrine's 10th-century Makara Thoranam (stone gateway), the frame and lintel of which include small guardians, a lustrated Lakshmi, dancers, musicians, ganas, and yali-riders. Tenavaram temple was built on vaulted arches on the promontory overlooking the Indian Ocean. The central gopuram tower of the vimana and the other gopura towers that dominated the town were covered with plates of gilded brass, gold and copper on their roofs. Its outer body featured intricately carved domes, with elaborate arches and gates opening to various verandas and shrines of the complex, giving Tenavaram the appearance of a golden city to sailors who visited the port to trade and relied on its light reflecting gopura roofs for navigational purposes.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

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Three Kingdoms

The Three Kingdoms (220–280) was the tripartite division of China between the states of Wei (魏), Shu (蜀), and Wu (吳).

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Tumu Crisis

The Tumu Crisis (Тумугийн тулалдаан); also called the Crisis of Tumu Fortress or Battle of Tumu, was a frontier conflict between the Oirat tribes of Mongols and the Chinese Ming dynasty which led to the capture of the Zhengtong Emperor on September 1, 1449, and the defeat of an army of 500,000 men by a much smaller force.

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University of California, Los Angeles

The University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) is a public research university in the Westwood district of Los Angeles, United States.

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Vernor Vinge

Vernor Steffen Vinge (born October 2, 1944) is an American science fiction author and retired professor.

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Wang Jinghong

Wang Jinghong (died 1434) was a Ming dynasty Chinese mariner, explorer, diplomat and fleet admiral, who was deputy to Zheng He on his treasure voyages to Southeast Asia, South Asia, and East Africa, from 1405 to 1433.

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Wokou (Japanese: Wakō; Korean: 왜구 Waegu), which literally translates to "Japanese pirates" or "dwarf pirates", were pirates who raided the coastlines of China, Japan and Korea.

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Wu (Ten Kingdoms)

Wu (吳), also referred to as Huainan (淮南), Hongnong (弘農), Southern Wu (南吳), or Yang Wu (楊吳), was one of the Ten Kingdoms in south-central China which was in existence from 907 to 937.

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Wubei Zhi

The Wubei Zhi (Treatise on Armament Technology or Records of Armaments and Military Provisions), also commonly known by its Japanese translated name Bubishi, is the most comprehensive military book in Chinese history.

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Xuande Emperor

The Xuande Emperor (16 March 1399 31 January 1435), personal name Zhu Zhanji (朱瞻基), was the fifth emperor of the Ming dynasty of China, ruling from 1425 to 1435.

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Yongle Emperor

The Yongle Emperor (Yung-lo in Wade–Giles; 2 May 1360 – 12 August 1424) — personal name Zhu Di (WG: Chu Ti) — was the third emperor of the Ming dynasty in China, reigning from 1402 to 1424.

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Yuan dynasty

The Yuan dynasty, officially the Great Yuan (Yehe Yuan Ulus), was the empire or ruling dynasty of China established by Kublai Khan, leader of the Mongolian Borjigin clan.

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Yunnan is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the far southwest of the country.

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Zheng (surname)

Zhèng (Hanyu Pinyin) or Cheng (Wade-Giles) is a Chinese surname and also the name of an ancient state in today's Henan province.

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Zheng He Xia Xiyang (TV series)

Zheng He Xia Xiyang is a 2009 Chinese television series based on the voyages of Zheng He, the explorer who led seven expeditions to Southeast Asia, South Asia and East Africa in the 15th century.

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Zhou Man

Zhou Man, was a 15th-century Chinese admiral and explorer.

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Redirects here:

Admiral Zheng He, Admiral of the Western Seas, Cheng Ho, Cheng-Ho, Cheng-ho, Hajji Mahmud Shams, Ho Cheng, Jung Ha, Ma Ho, Ma Sanbao, Mǎ Sānbǎo, Sanbao Taijian, Zeng he, Zhen He, Zheng Ha, Zheng he, Zheng ho, Zheng-He, Zhèng Hé, حجّي محمود شمس, 郑和, 鄭和, 馬三寶, 马三宝.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zheng_He

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