243 relations: A Nong, Animism, Auguste Chapdelaine, Austro-Tai languages, Austronesian languages, Babu District, Bai Chongxi, Baise, Baiyue, Bama Yao Autonomous County, Bao'an District, Battle of Bang Bo (Zhennan Pass), Battle of Yamen, Beijing, Binyang County, Book of the Later Han, Bouyei people, Buddhism, Central Plains War, Changsha, Chen Jiongming, Chengbei District, Chiang Kai-shek, China, Chinese characters, Chinese Civil War, Chinese Wikipedia, Chongzuo, Christianity, Compulsory education, Congjiang County, Cyrillic script, Dahua Yao Autonomous County, Dai people, Dali Kingdom, Daxin County, Debao County, Di Qing, Dongguan, Donglan County, Dongxing, Guangxi, Du'an Yao Autonomous County, Ethnic group, Ethnic minorities in China, Exonym and endonym, Fangcheng District, Fangchenggang, Fengshan County, Fish, Foshan, ..., French Indochina, Funing County, Yunnan, Fusui County, Gangbei District, General History of the Zhuang, Graphic pejoratives in written Chinese, Guangdong, Guangdong–Guangxi War, Guangnan County, Guangxi, Guigang, Guilin, Guiping, Guizhou, Han dynasty, Hechi, Heng County, Heshan, Guangxi, Hezhou, Honghe Hani and Yi Autonomous Prefecture, Huang Shaohong, Huang Xianfan, Huanjiang Maonan Autonomous County, Hunan, Jiangnan, Jiangzhou District, Jiaozhi, Jinchengjiang District, Jingxi, Jinxiu Yao Autonomous County, John DeFrancis, Kam people, Kra–Dai languages, Kuomintang, Lady Xian, Laibin, Latin script, Leye County, Li Ning, Li River, Li Zongren, Lianshan Zhuang and Yao Autonomous County, Lingnan, Lingqu, Lingshan County, Lingyun County, Lipu County, List of ethnic slurs, Liu Yan (emperor), Liubei District, Liucheng County, Liujiang District, Liunan District, Liuzhou, Logogram, Long'an County, Longgang District, Shenzhen, Longlin Various Nationalities Autonomous County, Longsheng Various Nationalities Autonomous County, Longzhou County, Louis Brière de l'Isle, Lu Rongting, Luocheng Mulao Autonomous County, Luzhai County, Ma Yuan (Han dynasty), Maguan County, Malipo County, Mandarin Chinese, Maonan people, Mashan County, Mengzi City, Miao people, Ming dynasty, Mo (religion), Mukden Incident, Mutual intelligibility, Nandan County, Nanhai District, Nanning, Nanyue, Nanzhao, Napo County, National Protection War, Nùng people, New Guangxi clique, Ningming County, Nong Zhigao, Northern and Southern dynasties, Northern Expedition, Old Guangxi clique, Operation Ichi-Go, Panyu District, Pingguo County, Pinghua, Pingle County, Pingxiang, Guangxi, Qiandongnan Miao and Dong Autonomous Prefecture, Qin dynasty, Qin Shi Huang, Qinbei District, Qing dynasty, Qingxiu District, Qingyuan, Qinnan District, Qinzhou, Qiubei County, Qujing, Radical (Chinese characters), Radical 9, Radical 94, Rau peoples, Records of the Grand Historian, Rong'an County, Rongshui Miao Autonomous County, Sanjiang Dong Autonomous County, Sawndip, Second Opium War, Self-Government Army, Shanghai massacre, Shanglin County, Shangsi County, Shanye Huang, Shenzhen, Shi Dakai, Shizong County, Shunde District, Sima Qian, Simplified Chinese characters, Sinicization, Sino-French War, Sino-Tibetan languages, Song dynasty, South China, Southern Han, Standard Zhuang, Sun Yat-sen, Sutra, Tai languages, Taiping Rebellion, Taiwan, Tang dynasty, Tang Jiyao, Taoism, Tay people, Tian'e County, Tiandeng County, Tiandong County, Tianlin County, Tianyang County, Trưng Sisters, Varieties of Chinese, Veneration of the dead, Vietnam, Warring States period, Wei Changhui, Wei Wei (singer), Wenshan City, Wenshan Zhuang and Miao Autonomous Prefecture, Wu Peifu, Wuchang Uprising, Wuming District, Wuxuan County, Wuzhou, Xiang River, Xiangzhou County, Xichou County, Xilin County, Xincheng County, Xingbin District, Xingning District, Yan Xishan, Yangshuo County, Yangtze, Yanshan County, Yunnan, Yao people, Yizhou District, Hechi, Yongfu County, Yongning District, Yongxin County, You River (Guangxi), Yuan dynasty, Yuan Shikai, Yue Chinese, Yufeng District, Yulin, Guangxi, Yunnan, Yunnan–Guangxi War, Zhao Tuo, Zhongshan, Zhuang customs and culture, Zhuang languages, Zhuang studies, Zuojiang Huashan Rock Art. Expand index (193 more) » « Shrink index
A Nong (also A Nùng, 阿儂; 1005–1055) was a Zhuang shamaness, matriarch and warrior.
Animism (from Latin anima, "breath, spirit, life") is the religious belief that objects, places and creatures all possess a distinct spiritual essence.
Father Auguste Chapdelaine (Chinese name: Ma Lai 馬賴) (6 February 1814 – 29 February 1856) was a French Christian missionary of the Paris Foreign Missions Society.
Austro-Tai is a hypothesis that the Austronesian, Kra–Dai, and Japonic language families have a common origin.
The Austronesian languages are a language family that is widely dispersed throughout Maritime Southeast Asia, Madagascar and the islands of the Pacific Ocean, with a few members in continental Asia.
Babu is a district of the city of Hezhou, Guangxi, China.
Bai Chongxi (18 March 1893 – 1 December 1966;;, Xiao'erjing: ﺑَﻰْ ﭼْﻮ ثِ) was a Chinese general in the National Revolutionary Army of the Republic of China (ROC) and a prominent Chinese Nationalist leader.
Baise (local pronunciation), or Bose, is the westernmost prefecture-level city of Guangxi, China bordering Vietnam as well as the provinces of Guizhou and Yunnan.
The Baiyue, Hundred Yue or Yue were various indigenous peoples of mostly non-Chinese ethnicity who inhabited the region stretching along the coastal area from Shandong to the Yangtze basin, and as far to west as the present-day Sichuan province between the first millennium BC and the first millennium AD.
Bama Yao Autonomous County (zhuang) is a county in Guangxi, China.
Bao'an District is one of the six districts comprising the city of Shenzhen, Guangdong province, People's Republic of China.
The Battle of Bang Bo, known in China as the battle of Zhennan Pass (Chinese:鎮南關之役), was a major Chinese victory during the Sino-French War (August 1884–April 1885).
The naval Battle of Yamen (also known as the Naval Battle of Mount Ya) took place on 19 March 1279 and is considered to be the last stand of the Song dynasty against the invading Mongol Yuan dynasty.
Beijing, formerly romanized as Peking, is the capital of the People's Republic of China, the world's second most populous city proper, and most populous capital city.
Binyang County (Standard Zhuang: Binhyangz Yen) is under the administration of Nanning, the capital of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China, with a permanent population of 782,255 and a hukou population of 1,051,373 as of the 2010 Census.
The Book of the Later Han, also known as the History of the Later Han and by its Chinese name Hou Hanshu, is one of the Twenty-Four Histories and covers the history of the Han dynasty from 6 to 189 CE, a period known as the Later or Eastern Han.
The Bouyei (also spelled Puyi, Buyei and Buyi; self called: Buxqyaix, or "Puzhong", "Burao", "Puman";; Pinyin: Bùyīzú; người Bố Y) are an ethnic group living in southern mainland China.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
The Central Plains War of 1930 was a civil war between the Nationalist Kuomintang government in Nanjing led by Chiang Kai-shek and several regional military commanders that were former allies of Chiang during the Northern Expedition.
Changsha is the capital and most populous city of Hunan province in the south central part of the People's Republic of China.
Chen Jiongming (13 January 187822 September 1933), also romanized as Chan Kwing Ming in Cantonese, was a revolutionary figure in the early period of the Republic of China.
Chengbei is a district of Xining, the capital of Qinghai province, People's Republic of China, covering part of the northern portion of the city as its name suggests.
Chiang Kai-shek (31 October 1887 – 5 April 1975), also romanized as Chiang Chieh-shih or Jiang Jieshi and known as Chiang Chungcheng, was a political and military leader who served as the leader of the Republic of China between 1928 and 1975, first in mainland China until 1949 and then in exile in Taiwan.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Chinese characters are logograms primarily used in the writing of Chinese and Japanese.
The Chinese Civil War was a war fought between the Kuomintang (KMT)-led government of the Republic of China and the Communist Party of China (CPC).
The Chinese Wikipedia is the (Standard) Chinese language edition of Wikipedia.
Chóngzuǒ (Cungzcoj) is a prefecture-level city in the south of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region along the Sino-Vietnamese border.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
Compulsory education refers to a period of education that is required of all people and is imposed by government.
A view of one half of the city from the bridge (2003-08-17) Congjiang County is a county in Qiandongnan Miao and Dong Autonomous Prefecture, Guizhou, China.
The Cyrillic script is a writing system used for various alphabets across Eurasia (particularity in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and North Asia).
Dahua Yao Autonomous County (zhuang) is a county of west-central Guangxi, China.
The Dai people (Kam Mueang:; Thai: ไท; Shan: တႆး; Tai Nüa: ᥖᥭᥰ) are one of several ethnic groups living in the Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture and the Dehong Dai and Jingpo Autonomous Prefecture (both in southern Yunnan, China), but by extension can apply to groups in Laos, Vietnam, Thailand, and Myanmar when Dai is used to mean specifically Tai Yai, Lue, Chinese Shan, Tai Dam, Tai Khao or even Tai in general.
The Dali Kingdom, also known as the Dali State (Bai: Dablit Guaif), was a kingdom situated in modern Yunnan province, China from 937 until 1253 when it was conquered by the Mongols.
Daxin County (Zhuang: Dasinh Yen) is a county in the west of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China.
Debao (zhuang: Dwzbauj Yen) is a county of western Guangxi, China.
Di Qing (1008–1057), formerly romanized as Ti Ch'ing, was a military general of the Northern Song dynasty.
Dongguan is a prefecture-level city in central Guangdong Province of South China.
Donglan County (zhuang: Dunghlanz Yen) is a county of northwest Guangxi, China.
Dongxing (Vietnamese: Đông Hưng) is a county-level city of Guangxi, People's Republic of China, on the border with Móng Cái, in Vietnam.
Du'an Yao Autonomous County (zhuang) is an autonomous county under the administration of Hechi City, in the northwest of Guangxi, China.
An ethnic group, or an ethnicity, is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestry, language, history, society, culture or nation.
Ethnic minorities in China are the non-Han Chinese population in the People's Republic of China (PRC).
An exonym or xenonym is an external name for a geographical place, or a group of people, an individual person, or a language or dialect.
Fangcheng (Zhuang language: Fangzcwngz Gih) is a district of the city of Fangchenggang, Guangxi, China.
Fángchénggǎng (Phòng Thành Cảng), formerly Fangcheng Various Nationalities Autonomous County (1978.12.25~1993.05.23), is a prefecture-level city in the south of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, People's Republic of China.
Fengshan County (zhuang: Fonghsan Yen) is a county of Guangxi, China.
Fish are gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits.
Foshan, formerly romanized as Fatshan, is a prefecture-level city in central Guangdong Province in southeastern China.
French Indochina (previously spelled as French Indo-China) (French: Indochine française; Lao: ສະຫະພັນອິນດູຈີນ; Khmer: សហភាពឥណ្ឌូចិន; Vietnamese: Đông Dương thuộc Pháp/東洋屬法,, frequently abbreviated to Đông Pháp; Chinese: 法属印度支那), officially known as the Indochinese Union (French: Union indochinoise) after 1887 and the Indochinese Federation (French: Fédération indochinoise) after 1947, was a grouping of French colonial territories in Southeast Asia.
Funing County (Zhuang language: Funingz Yen) is located in Wenshan Zhuang and Miao Autonomous Prefecture, in the east of Yunnan province, China.
Fusui County is a county in southern Guangxi, China.
Gangbei (Zhuang language: Gangjbwz) is a district of the city of Guigang, Guangxi, China.
General History of the Zhuang (Traditional Chinese: 壯族通史; Simplified Chinese: 壮族通史; pinyin: Zhuàngzú tōng shi) is an academic book which relatively systematic and comprehensive response Zhuang history written by Chinese historian Huang Xianfan.
Some historical Chinese characters for non-Chinese peoples were graphically pejorative ethnic slurs, where the racial insult derived not from the Chinese word but from the character used to write it.
Guangdong is a province in South China, located on the South China Sea coast.
The Guangdong–Guangxi War, or the 1st and 2nd Yue-Gui Wars, occurred between the Chinese Revolutionary Party and the Old Guangxi Clique.
Guangnan County is located in Wenshan Zhuang and Miao Autonomous Prefecture, Yunnan province, China.
Guangxi (pronounced; Zhuang: Gvangjsih), officially the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, is a Chinese autonomous region in South Central China, bordering Vietnam.
Guigang (Zhuang: Gveigangj) is a prefecture-level city in eastern Guangxi in the People's Republic of China.
Guilin, formerly romanized as Kweilin, is a prefecture-level city in the northeast of China's Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region.
Guiping is a county-level city in eastern Guangxi (pronounced), China.
Guizhou, formerly romanized as Kweichow, is a province of the People's Republic of China located in the southwestern part of the country.
The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China (206 BC–220 AD), preceded by the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period (220–280 AD). Spanning over four centuries, the Han period is considered a golden age in Chinese history. To this day, China's majority ethnic group refers to themselves as the "Han Chinese" and the Chinese script is referred to as "Han characters". It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han, and briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty (9–23 AD) of the former regent Wang Mang. This interregnum separates the Han dynasty into two periods: the Western Han or Former Han (206 BC–9 AD) and the Eastern Han or Later Han (25–220 AD). The emperor was at the pinnacle of Han society. He presided over the Han government but shared power with both the nobility and appointed ministers who came largely from the scholarly gentry class. The Han Empire was divided into areas directly controlled by the central government using an innovation inherited from the Qin known as commanderies, and a number of semi-autonomous kingdoms. These kingdoms gradually lost all vestiges of their independence, particularly following the Rebellion of the Seven States. From the reign of Emperor Wu (r. 141–87 BC) onward, the Chinese court officially sponsored Confucianism in education and court politics, synthesized with the cosmology of later scholars such as Dong Zhongshu. This policy endured until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911 AD. The Han dynasty saw an age of economic prosperity and witnessed a significant growth of the money economy first established during the Zhou dynasty (c. 1050–256 BC). The coinage issued by the central government mint in 119 BC remained the standard coinage of China until the Tang dynasty (618–907 AD). The period saw a number of limited institutional innovations. To finance its military campaigns and the settlement of newly conquered frontier territories, the Han government nationalized the private salt and iron industries in 117 BC, but these government monopolies were repealed during the Eastern Han dynasty. Science and technology during the Han period saw significant advances, including the process of papermaking, the nautical steering ship rudder, the use of negative numbers in mathematics, the raised-relief map, the hydraulic-powered armillary sphere for astronomy, and a seismometer for measuring earthquakes employing an inverted pendulum. The Xiongnu, a nomadic steppe confederation, defeated the Han in 200 BC and forced the Han to submit as a de facto inferior partner, but continued their raids on the Han borders. Emperor Wu launched several military campaigns against them. The ultimate Han victory in these wars eventually forced the Xiongnu to accept vassal status as Han tributaries. These campaigns expanded Han sovereignty into the Tarim Basin of Central Asia, divided the Xiongnu into two separate confederations, and helped establish the vast trade network known as the Silk Road, which reached as far as the Mediterranean world. The territories north of Han's borders were quickly overrun by the nomadic Xianbei confederation. Emperor Wu also launched successful military expeditions in the south, annexing Nanyue in 111 BC and Dian in 109 BC, and in the Korean Peninsula where the Xuantu and Lelang Commanderies were established in 108 BC. After 92 AD, the palace eunuchs increasingly involved themselves in court politics, engaging in violent power struggles between the various consort clans of the empresses and empresses dowager, causing the Han's ultimate downfall. Imperial authority was also seriously challenged by large Daoist religious societies which instigated the Yellow Turban Rebellion and the Five Pecks of Rice Rebellion. Following the death of Emperor Ling (r. 168–189 AD), the palace eunuchs suffered wholesale massacre by military officers, allowing members of the aristocracy and military governors to become warlords and divide the empire. When Cao Pi, King of Wei, usurped the throne from Emperor Xian, the Han dynasty would eventually collapse and ceased to exist.
Hechi is a prefecture-level city in the northwest of the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, People's Republic of China, bordering Guizhou to the north.
Heng County, or Hengxian (Standard Zhuang: Hwngz Yen) is under the administration of Nanning, the capital of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China, with a permanent population of 863,001 and a hukou population of 1,200,521 as of the 2010 Census.
Heshan is a county-level city of central Guangxi, China, located on the lower reaches of the Hongshui River.
Hezhou (贺州) is a prefecture-level city in the northeast of the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, People's Republic of China.
Honghe Hani and Yi Autonomous Prefecture is an autonomous prefecture in southeast-central Yunnan province, People's Republic of China.
Huang Shaohong (1895 – August 31, 1966) was a warlord in Guangxi province and governed Guangxi as part of the New Guangxi Clique through the latter part of the Warlord era, and a leader in later years of the Republic of China.
Huang Xianfan (zhuang) (November 13, 1899 – January 18, 1982) was a Chinese historian, ethnologist and educator.
Huanjiang Maonan Autonomous County(zhuang) is a county in the north of Guangxi, China, bordering Guizhou province to the north and northwest.
Hunan is the 7th most populous province of China and the 10th most extensive by area.
Jiangnan or Jiang Nan (sometimes spelled Kiang-nan, literally "South of the river") is a geographic area in China referring to lands immediately to the south of the lower reaches of the Yangtze River, including the southern part of its delta.
Jiangzhou District (zhuang: Gyanghcouh Gih) is a district and the seat of Chongzuo, Guangxi, People's Republic of China.
Jiaozhi (Tai: kɛɛuA1, Wade-Giles: Chiāo-chǐh), was the name for various provinces, commanderies, prefectures, and counties in northern Vietnam from the era of the Hùng kings to the middle of the Third Chinese domination of Vietnam (–10th centuries) and again during the Fourth Chinese domination (1407–1427).
Jinchengjiang is a district and the seat of Hechi, Guangxi, People's Republic of China.
Jingxi (Zhuang: Cingsae Si) is a county-level city of western Guangxi, China.
Jinxiu is a county of eastern Guangxi, China, located in an area of relatively high concentrations of the Yao people.
John DeFrancis (August 31, 1911January 2, 2009) was an American linguist, sinologist, author of Chinese language textbooks, lexicographer of Chinese dictionaries, and Professor Emeritus of Chinese Studies at the University of Hawaiokinai at Mānoa.
The Dong people, also known as Kam people (endonym), a Kam–Sui people of southern China, are one of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the People's Republic of China.
The Kra–Dai languages (also known as Tai–Kadai, Daic and Kadai) are a language family of tonal languages found in southern China, Northeast India and Southeast Asia.
The Kuomintang of China (KMT; often translated as the Nationalist Party of China) is a major political party in the Republic of China on Taiwan, based in Taipei and is currently the opposition political party in the Legislative Yuan.
Lady Xian (or Hsien,; Vietnamese: Tiển phu nhân; 512-602), also known as Lady of Qiao Guo (or Ch'iao Kuo), was a noblewoman of the Li people (黎) born to the chieftain of the Xian tribe in Southern China, in what is now Guangdong during the Sui dynasty.
Láibīn (Zhuang: Laizbinh Si) is a prefecture-level city in the central part of the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, People's Republic of China.
Latin or Roman script is a set of graphic signs (script) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet, which is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet, used by the Etruscans.
Leye County is a county in the northwest of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China.
Li Ning (born March 10, 1963 in Laibin, Guangxi) is a retired Chinese gymnast and entrepreneur.
The Li River or Li Jiang is a river in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China.
Li Zongren or Li Tsung-jen (13 August 1890 – 30 January 1969), courtesy name Delin (Te-lin; 德鄰), was a prominent Guangxi warlord and Kuomintang (KMT) military commander during the Northern Expedition, Second Sino-Japanese War and Chinese Civil War.
Lianshan Zhuang and Yao Autonomous County (postal: Lienshan;; Cantonese jyutping: lin4 saan1; Lenzsanh) is located in northern Guangdong province, China, and is under the administration of Qingyuan prefecture-level city.
Lingnan is a geographic area referring to the lands in the south of the Nanling Mountains.
The Lingqu is a canal in Xing'an County, near Guilin, in the northwestern corner of Guangxi, China.
Lingshan County (postal: Lingshan) is a county under the administration of Qinzhou City in southeastern Guangxi, China.
Lingyun County is a county in the northwest of Guangxi, China.
Lipu County is a county in the northeast of Guangxi, China.
The following is a list of ethnic slurs (ethnophaulisms) that are, or have been, used as insinuations or allegations about members of a given ethnicity, or to refer to them in a derogatory (that is, critical or disrespectful), pejorative (disapproving or contemptuous), or otherwise insulting manner.
Liu Yan (Lưu Nghiễm; 889 – June 10, 942), né Liu Yan (劉巖), also known as Liu Zhi (劉陟) (from c. 896 to 911) and briefly as Liu Gong (劉龔), formally Tianhuang Dadi (天皇大帝) with the temple name Gaozu (高祖), was the first emperor of the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period state Southern Han.
Liubei District (Standard Zhuang: Liujbwj Gih) is one of four districts of Liuzhou, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China.
Liucheng County (Standard Zhuang: Liujcwngz Yen) is under the administration of Liuzhou, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China.
Liujiang District (Standard Zhuang: Liujgyangh Gih) is under the administration of Liuzhou, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China, located on the southwest bank of the Liu River.
Liunan District (Standard Zhuang: Liujnanz Gih) is one of four districts of Liuzhou, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China.
Liuzhou is a prefecture-level city in north-central Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, People's Republic of China.
In written language, a logogram or logograph is a written character that represents a word or phrase.
Long'an County (Standard Zhuang: Lungzanh Yen) is under the administration of Nanning, the capital of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China.
Longgang District is one of the six districts of Shenzhen, China.
Longlin Various Nationalities Autonomous County is an autonomous county, under the jurisdiction of the prefecture-level city of Baise, in western Guangxi, China, near the border with Yunnan and Guizhou.
Longsheng Various Nationalities Autonomous County (Yungzsuij Myauzcuz Swciyen) is a county in the northeast of Guangxi, China, bordering Hunan province to the north.
Longzhou County Zhuang: Lungzcouh Yen) is a county of southwestern Guangxi, China, bordering Cao Bằng province, Vietnam.
Louis Alexandre Esprit Gaston Brière de l'Isle (24 June 1827 – 19 June 1897) was a French Army general who achieved distinction firstly as Governor of Senegal (1876–81), and then as general-in-chief of the Tonkin Expeditionary Corps during the Sino-French War (August 1884–April 1885).
Lu Rongting (September 9, 1859 – November 6, 1928), also spelled as Lu Yung-ting and Lu Jung-t'ing, was a late Qing/early Republican military and political leader from Wuming, Guangxi.
Luocheng Mulao Autonomous County (zhuang) is a county of northern Guangxi, China.
Luzhai County (Standard Zhuang: Luzcai Yen) is under the administration of Liuzhou, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China.
Ma Yuan (14 BC – 49 AD), courtesy name Wenyuan, also known by his official title Fubo Jiangjun (伏波将军; "General who Calms the Waves"), was a Chinese military general and politician of the Eastern Han dynasty.
Maguan County (马关县; pinyin: Mǎguān Xiàn, Mã Quan) is located in Wenshan Zhuang and Miao Autonomous Prefecture, Yunnan province, China.
Malipo County (麻栗坡县; pinyin: Málìpō Xiàn, Ma Lật Pha) is located in Wenshan Zhuang and Miao Autonomous Prefecture, Yunnan province, China.
Mandarin is a group of related varieties of Chinese spoken across most of northern and southwestern China.
The Maonan (Maonan: Anan, translates to local people) people are one of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the People's Republic of China.
Mashan County (Standard Zhuang: Majsanh Yen) is under the administration of Nanning, the capital of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China.
Mengzi is a city in the southeast of Yunnan province, People's Republic of China.
The Miao is an ethnic group belonging to South China, and is recognized by the government of China as one of the 55 official minority groups.
The Ming dynasty was the ruling dynasty of China – then known as the – for 276 years (1368–1644) following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty.
Mo or Moism, occasionally called Zhuang Shigongism, is the religion of most Zhuang people, the largest ethnic minority of China.
The Mukden Incident, or Manchurian Incident, was a staged event engineered by Japanese military personnel as a pretext for the Japanese invasion in 1931 of northeastern China, known as Manchuria.
In linguistics, mutual intelligibility is a relationship between languages or dialects in which speakers of different but related varieties can readily understand each other without prior familiarity or special effort.
Nandan (zhuang: Namzdan Yen) is a county of Hechi City, in the northwest of Guangxi, China.
Nanhai District, is a district of Foshan, Guangdong, China.
Nanning (Zhuang: Namzningz) is the capital of the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region in southern China.
Nanyue or, or Nam Viet (Nam Việt) was an ancient kingdom that covered parts of northern Vietnam and the modern Chinese provinces of Guangdong, Guangxi, and Yunnan.
Nanzhao, also spelled Nanchao or Nan Chao, was a polity that flourished in what is now southern China and Southeast Asia during the 8th and 9th centuries.
Napo County is a county of Guangxi, China.
The National Protection War, also known as the anti-Monarchy War, was a civil war that took place in China between 1915-16.
The Nung (pronounced as noong nuːŋ) are a Central Tai ethnic group living primarily in northeastern Vietnam and southwestern Guangxi.
After the founding of the Republic of China, Guangxi served as the base for one of the most powerful warlord cliques of China: the Old Guangxi clique.
Ningming County (zhuang: Ningzmingz Yen) is a county in southwestern Guangxi, China.
Nong Zhigao (modern Zhuang language:;, Nùng Trí Cao) (1025–1055?) is a hero admired by the Nùng people of Vietnam, and Zhuang people of China.
The Northern and Southern dynasties was a period in the history of China that lasted from 420 to 589, following the tumultuous era of the Sixteen Kingdoms and the Wu Hu states.
The Northern Expedition was a military campaign launched by the National Revolutionary Army of the Kuomintang (KMT), also known as the Nationalists, against the Beiyang government and other regional warlords in 1926.
After the founding of the Republic of China, Guangxi served as the base for one of the most powerful warlord cliques of China: the Old Guangxi Clique.
Operation Ichi-Go (一号作戦 Ichi-gō Sakusen, lit. "Operation Number One") was a campaign of a series of major battles between the Imperial Japanese Army forces and the National Revolutionary Army of the Republic of China, fought from April to December 1944.
Panyu, formerly romanized as Punyu, is a district of Guangzhou, the capital of Guangdong province in southern China.
Pingguo (zhuang: Bingzgoj Yen) is a county of west-central Guangxi, China.
Pinghua (Yale: Pìhng Wá; sometimes disambiguated as /广西平话) is a group of related varieties of Chinese spoken mainly in parts of the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, with some speakers in Yunnan province.
Pingle County is a county of Guangxi, China.
Pingxiang (Bingzsiengz Si) is a county-level city in the municipal region of Chongzuo in southern China's Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region.
Qiandongnan Miao and Dong Autonomous Prefecture, also known as Southeast Qian Autonomous Prefecture of Miao and Dong and can be shortened as S.E. Qian Prefecture, is an autonomous prefecture in the southeast of Guizhou province in the People's Republic of China, bordering Hunan to the east and Guangxi to the south.
The Qin dynasty was the first dynasty of Imperial China, lasting from 221 to 206 BC.
Qin Shi Huang (18 February 25910 September 210) was the founder of the Qin dynasty and was the first emperor of a unified China.
Qinbei District (Zhuang language: Ginhbwz Gih) is a district of the city of Qinzhou, Guangxi, China.
The Qing dynasty, also known as the Qing Empire, officially the Great Qing, was the last imperial dynasty of China, established in 1636 and ruling China from 1644 to 1912.
Qingxiu District (Standard Zhuang: Cinghsiu Gih) is one of six districts of Nanning, the capital of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China.
Qingyuan, formerly romanized as Tsingyun, is a prefecture-level city in northern Guangdong province, China, on the banks of the Bei or North River.
Qinnan District is a district of Guangxi, China.
Qinzhou (postal: Yamchow,, Jyutping: Jam1 zau1 (Canton) /Ham1 zau1 (Local)) is a prefecture-level city in Guangxi, China, lying on the Gulf of Tonkin and having an urban population of 433,000.
Qiubei County (丘北县; pinyin: Qiūběi Xiàn) is located in Wenshan Zhuang and Miao Autonomous Prefecture, Yunnan province, China.
Qujing is a prefecture-level city in eastern Yunnan province of southwest China.
A Chinese radical is a graphical component of a Chinese character under which the character is traditionally listed in a Chinese dictionary.
Radical 9 meaning "person" is one of 23 of the 214 Kangxi radicals that are composed of 2 strokes.
Radical 94 meaning "dog" is 1 of 34 Kangxi radicals (214 radicals total) composed of 4 strokes.
Rauz (Zhuang), Liao (Chinese: 僚人), or Lao peoples (Lao) is an ethnic cluster covering Zhuang, Buyei, Tay–Nùng, and other northern Tai language-speaking peoples.
The Records of the Grand Historian, also known by its Chinese name Shiji, is a monumental history of ancient China and the world finished around 94 BC by the Han dynasty official Sima Qian after having been started by his father, Sima Tan, Grand Astrologer to the imperial court.
Rong'an County (Standard Zhuang: Yungz'anh Yen) is under the administration of Liuzhou, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China.
Rongshui Miao Autonomous County (Standard Zhuang: Yungzsuij Myauzcuz Swciyen) is under the administration of Liuzhou, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China.
Sanjiang Dong Autonomous County (Standard Zhuang: Sanhgyangh Dungcuz Swciyen) is under the administration of Liuzhou, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China.
Zhuang characters, or Sawndip, are logograms derived from Han characters and used by the Zhuang people of Guangxi and Yunnan, China to write the Zhuang languages for more than one thousand years.
The Second Opium War (第二次鴉片戰爭), the Second Anglo-Chinese War, the Second China War, the Arrow War, or the Anglo-French expedition to China, was a war pitting the United Kingdom and the French Empire against the Qing dynasty of China, lasting from 1856 to 1860.
The Self-Government Army was a regional army in Guangxi during the Warlord era of the early 1920s.
The Shanghai massacre of April 12, 1927, known commonly as the April 12 Incident, was the violent suppression of Communist Party of China (CPC) organizations in Shanghai by the military forces of Chiang Kai-shek and conservative factions in the Kuomintang (Nationalist Party, or KMT).
Not to be confused with the ancient Qin pleasure park of the same name, reconstructed and extended by Han Wudi. Shanglin County (Standard Zhuang: Sanglinz Yen) is under the administration of Nanning, the capital of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China.
Shangsi County (上思县) is a county of Guangxi, China.
Shanye Huang (Chinese: 黃閃夜; born 1958) is a Chinese-American professional artist.
Shenzhen is a major city in Guangdong Province, China.
Shi Dakai (March 1831 – 25 June 1863), born in Guigang, Guangxi, also known as Wing King or phonetically translated as Yi-Wang, was one of the most highly acclaimed leaders in the Taiping Rebellion and a poet.
Shizong County (师宗县; pinyin: Shīzōng Xiàn) is located in Qujing Prefecture, Yunnan, China.
Shunde District is a district in the city of Foshan in the Pearl River Delta, Guangdong Province, China.
Sima Qian was a Chinese historian of the early Han dynasty (206AD220).
Simplified Chinese characters are standardized Chinese characters prescribed in the Table of General Standard Chinese Characters for use in mainland China.
Sinicization, sinicisation, sinofication, or sinification is a process whereby non-Chinese societies come under the influence of Chinese culture, particularly Han Chinese culture and societal norms.
The Sino-French War (Guerre franco-chinoise, សង្គ្រាមបារាំង-ចិន, Chiến tranh Pháp-Thanh), also known as the Tonkin War and Tonquin War, was a limited conflict fought from August 1884 through April 1885, to decide whether France would supplant China's control of Tonkin (northern Vietnam).
The Sino-Tibetan languages, in a few sources also known as Trans-Himalayan, are a family of more than 400 languages spoken in East Asia, Southeast Asia and South Asia.
The Song dynasty (960–1279) was an era of Chinese history that began in 960 and continued until 1279.
South China or Southern China is a geographical and cultural region that covers the southernmost part of China.
Southern Han (917–971), originally Great Yue, was one of the ten kingdoms that existed during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.
Standard Zhuang (autonym) is the official standardized form of the Zhuang languages, which are a branch of the Northern Tai languages.
Sun Yat-sen (12 November 1866 – 12 March 1925)Singtao daily.
A sutra (Sanskrit: IAST: sūtra; Pali: sutta) is a religious discourse (teaching) in text form originating from the spiritual traditions of India, particularly Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism.
The Tai or Zhuang–Tai languages (ภาษาไท or ภาษาไต, transliteration: or) are a branch of the Kra–Dai language family.
The Taiping Rebellion, also known as the Taiping Civil War or the Taiping Revolution, was a massive rebellion or total civil war in China that was waged from 1850 to 1864 between the established Manchu-led Qing dynasty and the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom under Hong Xiuquan.
Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.
The Tang dynasty or the Tang Empire was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.
Tang Jiyao (August 14, 1883 – May 23, 1927) was a Chinese general and warlord of Yunnan during the Warlord Era of early Republican China.
Taoism, also known as Daoism, is a religious or philosophical tradition of Chinese origin which emphasizes living in harmony with the Tao (also romanized as ''Dao'').
The Tày people speak a language of the Central Tai language group, and live in northern Vietnam.
Tian'e (zhuang: Dienhngoz Yen) is a county of northwestern Guangxi, China, located on the upper reaches of the Hongshui River.
Tiandeng (zhuang: Denhdwngj Yen) is a county of southwestern Guangxi, China.
Tiandong County(zhuang: Denzdoeng Yen) is a county of Guangxi, China.
Tianlin County is a county of Guangxi, China.
Tianyang County (Standard Zhuang: Denzyangz Yen, Youjiang Zhuang Denzyangz Hen) is a county in western Guangxi, China.
The Trưng sisters (AD 12 – c. AD 43) were Vietnamese military leaders who ruled for three years after rebelling in CE 40 against the first Chinese domination of Vietnam.
Chinese, also known as Sinitic, is a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family consisting of hundreds of local language varieties, many of which are not mutually intelligible.
The veneration of the dead, including one's ancestors, is based on love and respect for the deceased.
Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia.
The Warring States period was an era in ancient Chinese history of warfare, as well as bureaucratic and military reforms and consolidation, following the Spring and Autumn period and concluding with the Qin wars of conquest that saw the annexation of all other contender states, which ultimately led to the Qin state's victory in 221 BC as the first unified Chinese empire known as the Qin dynasty.
Wei Changhui was the North King of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom during the Taiping Rebellion.
Wei Wei (born 28 September 1963) is a Mandopop singer and actress.
Wenshan is a city in and the seat of Wenshan Zhuang and Miao Autonomous Prefecture, in southeastern Yunnan province, People's Republic of China.
Wenshan Zhuang and Miao Autonomous Prefecture is an autonomous prefecture in southeastern Yunnan province, People's Republic of China, and the easternmost prefecture-level division of the province.
Wu Peifu or Wu P'ei-fu (April 22, 1874 – December 4, 1939), was a major figure in the struggles between the warlords who dominated Republican China from 1916-27.
The Wuchang Uprising was an armed rebellion against the ruling Qing dynasty that took place in Wuchang, Hubei, in China.
Wuming District (Standard Zhuang: Vujmingz Yen) is under the administration of Nanning, the capital of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China.
Wuxuan County is a county of Guangxi, China.
Wúzhōu (postal: Wuchow), formerly Ngchow, is a prefecture-level city in the east of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, People's Republic of China.
The Xiang River is the chief river of the Lake Dongting drainage system of the middle Yangtze, the largest river in Hunan Province, China.
Xiangzhou County is a county of Guangxi, China.
Xichou County (西畴县; pinyin: Xīchóu Xiàn) is located in Wenshan Zhuang and Miao Autonomous Prefecture, Yunnan province, China.
Xilin County is a county of Guangxi, China.
Xincheng County is a county of Guangxi, China.
Xingbin District (Zhuang language: Hinghbinh Gih) is the only district of the city of Laibin, Guangxi, China.
Xingning District (Standard Zhuang: Singhningz Gih) is one of six districts of Nanning, the capital of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China.
Yan Xishan; 8 October 1883 – 22 July 1960) was a Chinese warlord who served in the government of the Republic of China. He effectively controlled the province of Shanxi from the 1911 Xinhai Revolution to the 1949 Communist victory in the Chinese Civil War. As the leader of a relatively small, poor, remote province, he survived the machinations of Yuan Shikai, the Warlord Era, the Nationalist Era, the Japanese invasion of China and the subsequent civil war, being forced from office only when the Nationalist armies with which he was aligned had completely lost control of the Chinese mainland, isolating Shanxi from any source of economic or military supply. He has been viewed by Western biographers as a transitional figure who advocated using Western technology to protect Chinese traditions, while at the same time reforming older political, social and economic conditions in a way that paved the way for the radical changes that would occur after his rule.Gillin The Journal of Asian Studies 289.
Yangshuo County is a county under the jurisdiction of Guilin City, in the northeast of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China.
The Yangtze, which is 6,380 km (3,964 miles) long, is the longest river in Asia and the third-longest in the world.
Yanshan County (砚山县; pinyin: Yànshān Xiàn) is located in Wenshan Zhuang and Miao Autonomous Prefecture, Yunnan province, China.
The Yao people (its majority branch is also known as Mien;; người Dao) is a government classification for various minorities in China and Vietnam.
Yizhou, formerly Yishan County (宜山县), is a district under the administration of Hechi City, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, People's Republic of China.
Yongfu County is a county in Guilin, Guangxi, China, located 55 km to the southwest of Guilin.
Yongning District (Standard Zhuang: Yunghningz Gih) is one of six districts of Nanning, the capital of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China.
Yongxin County is a county in the west of Jiangxi province, People's Republic of China, bordering Hunan province to the west.
The You River, also known as the Youjiang River, is a river of Guangxi, China.
The Yuan dynasty, officially the Great Yuan (Yehe Yuan Ulus), was the empire or ruling dynasty of China established by Kublai Khan, leader of the Mongolian Borjigin clan.
Yuan Shikai (16 September 1859 – 6 June 1916) was a Chinese warlord, famous for his influence during the late Qing dynasty, his role in the events leading up to the abdication of the last Qing Emperor, his autocratic rule as the first formal President of the Republic of China, and his short-lived attempt to restore monarchy in China, with himself as the Hongxian Emperor.
Yue or Yueh is one of the primary branches of Chinese spoken in southern China, particularly the provinces of Guangdong and Guangxi, collectively known as Liangguang.
Yufeng District (Standard Zhuang: Yizfungh Gih) is one of four districts of Liuzhou, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China.
Yulin, formerly romanized as Watlam, is one of the fourteen prefecture-level cities of the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, People's Republic of China.
Yunnan is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the far southwest of the country.
The Yunnan–Guangxi War was a war of succession fought for control of the Chinese Nationalist Party after the death of Sun Yat-sen in 1925.
Zhao Tuo, known in Vietnamese contexts as Triệu Đà, was a Qin dynasty Chinese general who participated in the conquest of the Baiyue peoples of Guangdong, Guangxi and Northern Vietnam.
Zhongshan is a prefecture-level city in the south of the Pearl River Delta in Guangdong province, China, with a population of over 3 million (2012).
The Zhuang have a rich variety of customs and culture.
The Zhuang languages (autonym:, pre-1982:, Sawndip: 話僮, from vah 'language' and Cuengh 'Zhuang') are any of more than a dozen Tai languages spoken by the Zhuang people of southern China in the province of Guangxi and adjacent parts of Yunnan and Guangdong.
Zhuang studies (or Zhuangology; Standard Zhuang: Cuenghhag) is an interdisciplinary intellectual field concerned with the Zhuang people – their history, anthropology, religion, politics, languages, and literature.
The Zuojiang Huashan Rock Art Cultural Landscape is an extensive assembly of historical rock art that were painted on limestone cliff faces in Guangxi, southern China over a period of several hundred years at least.