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Zine El Abidine Ben Ali

Index Zine El Abidine Ben Ali

Zine El Abidine Ben Ali (زين العابدين بن علي,; born 3 September 1936) is a Tunisian former politician who served as President of Tunisia from 1987 until his ousting in 2011. [1]

111 relations: Abdullah of Saudi Arabia, African Union, Al Jazeera, Algeria, Algiers, Amnesty International, Arabs, Associated Press, Authoritarianism, École spéciale militaire de Saint-Cyr, Balance of trade, Benjamin Bounkoulou, Bettino Craxi, Bicameralism, Chad, Chadli Bendjedid, Chairperson of the African Union, Châlons-en-Champagne, Couscous connection, Debt service ratio, Decoration of Honour for Services to the Republic of Austria, Democracy Index, Democratic Constitutional Rally, Election monitoring, Extradition, Federal Council (Switzerland), Fouad Mebazaa, François Mitterrand, Freedom House, Freedom in the World, Freedom of the press, French protectorate of Tunisia, Giulio Andreotti, Global Competitiveness Report, Habib Bourguiba, Hamed Karoui, Hammam Sousse, Hédi Baccouche, Head of Government of Tunisia, Hosni Mubarak, Idi Amin, Illegal drug trade, Imed Trabelsi, Independent politician, Integrism, Interpol, Islam, Islamic fundamentalism, Italy, Jeddah, ..., Le Quotidien d'Oran, Leïla Ben Ali, Legion of Honour, Libya, List of Presidents of Tunisia, Maryland, Meles Zenawi, Military attaché, Mohamed Ghannouchi, Money laundering, Morocco, National Order of Merit (Malta), Order of Good Hope, Order of Isabella the Catholic, Order of Ouissam Alaouite, Order of Saint-Charles, Order of the Chrysanthemum, Order of the Nile, Order of the Republic (Tunisia), Order of the Star of Romania, Palestine Liberation Organization, Polish People's Republic, Politics of Saudi Arabia, President of Tunisia, Privatization, Protection International, Rachid Sfar, René Imbot, Saudi Arabia, School of Applied Artillery, Sfax, SISMI, Socialist Destourian Party, Speaker (politics), State of emergency, Taoufik Ben Brik, The Atlanta Journal-Constitution, The Economist, The New York Times, Trans-Saharan Counterterrorism Initiative, Trial in absentia, Truth and Dignity Commission (Tunisia), Tunis, Tunis–Carthage International Airport, Tunisia, Tunisian bread riots, Tunisian constitutional referendum, 2002, Tunisian dinar, Tunisian general election, 1989, Tunisian general election, 1994, Tunisian general election, 1999, Tunisian general election, 2004, Tunisian general election, 2009, Tunisian Revolution, Uganda, Uganda–Tanzania War, United States Department of State, Vincent Geisser, White House, 18 October Coalition for Rights and Freedoms, 1987 Tunisian coup d'état. Expand index (61 more) »

Abdullah of Saudi Arabia

Abdullah bin Abdulaziz Al Saud (عبدالله بن عبدالعزيز آل سعود,, Najdi Arabic pronunciation:; 1 August 1924 – 23 January 2015) was King of Saudi Arabia and Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques from 2005 to his death in 2015.

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African Union

The African Union (AU) is a continental union consisting of all 55 countries on the African continent, extending slightly into Asia via the Sinai Peninsula in Egypt.

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Al Jazeera

Al Jazeera (translit,, literally "The Island", though referring to the Arabian Peninsula in context), also known as JSC (Jazeera Satellite Channel), is a state-funded broadcaster in Doha, Qatar, owned by the Al Jazeera Media Network.

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Algeria

Algeria (الجزائر, familary Algerian Arabic الدزاير; ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻⵔ; Dzayer; Algérie), officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a sovereign state in North Africa on the Mediterranean coast.

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Algiers

Algiers (الجزائر al-Jazā’er, ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻ, Alger) is the capital and largest city of Algeria.

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Amnesty International

Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a London-based non-governmental organization focused on human rights.

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Arabs

Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.

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Associated Press

The Associated Press (AP) is a U.S.-based not-for-profit news agency headquartered in New York City.

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Authoritarianism

Authoritarianism is a form of government characterized by strong central power and limited political freedoms.

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École spéciale militaire de Saint-Cyr

The École Spéciale Militaire de Saint-Cyr (ESM, literally the "Special Military School of Saint-Cyr") is the foremost French military academy.

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Balance of trade

The balance of trade, commercial balance, or net exports (sometimes symbolized as NX), is the difference between the monetary value of a nation's exports and imports over a certain period.

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Benjamin Bounkoulou

Benjamin Bounkoulou (born 25 September 1942"Bounkoulou Benjamin", Congo Brazzaville: Les Hommes de Pouvoir, number 1,, 29 October 2002.) is a Congolese politician who served in the government of Congo-Brazzaville as Minister of Foreign Affairs from 1992 to 1995 under President Pascal Lissouba.

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Bettino Craxi

Benedetto "Bettino" Craxi (24 February 1934 – 19 January 2000) was an Italian politician, leader of the Italian Socialist Party from 1976 to 1993 and Prime Minister of Italy from 1983 to 1987.

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Bicameralism

A bicameral legislature divides the legislators into two separate assemblies, chambers, or houses.

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Chad

Chad (تشاد; Tchad), officially the Republic of Chad ("Republic of the Chad"), is a landlocked country in Central Africa.

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Chadli Bendjedid

Chadli Bendjedid (الشاذلي بن جديد; ALA-LC: ash-Shādhilī bin Jadīd; 14 April 1929 – 6 October 2012) was the third President of Algeria; his presidential term of office ran from 9 February 1979 to 11 January 1992.

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Chairperson of the African Union

The Chairperson of the African Union is the ceremonial head of the African Union elected by the Assembly of Heads of State and Government for a one-year term.

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Châlons-en-Champagne

Châlons-en-Champagne is a city in the Grand Est region of France.

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Couscous connection

The couscous connection was an international drug trafficking gang based in Paris in the 1980s.

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Debt service ratio

In economics and government finance, debt service ratio is the ratio of debt service payments (principal + interest) of a country to that country’s export earnings.

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Decoration of Honour for Services to the Republic of Austria

The Decoration of Honour for Services to the Republic of Austria (Ehrenzeichen für Verdienste um die Republik Österreich) is a national honour awarded by the Republic of Austria.

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Democracy Index

The Democracy Index is an index compiled by the UK-based company the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) that intends to measure the state of democracy in 167 countries, of which 166 are sovereign states and 165 are UN member states.

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Democratic Constitutional Rally

The Democratic Constitutional Rally or Democratic Constitutional Assembly (التجمع الدستوري الديمقراطي, Rassemblement Constitutionnel Démocratique, sometimes also called Constitutional Democratic Rally in English), also referred to by its French initials RCD, formerly called Neo Destour then Socialist Destourian Party, was the ruling party in Tunisia from independence in 1956 until it was overthrown and dissolved in the Tunisian revolution in 2011.

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Election monitoring

Election monitoring is the observation of an election by one or more independent parties, typically from another country or a non-governmental organization (NGO), primarily to assess the conduct of an election process on the basis of national legislation and international election standards.

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Extradition

Extradition is the act by one jurisdiction of delivering a person who has been accused of committing a crime in another jurisdiction or has been convicted of a crime in that other jurisdiction into the custody of a law enforcement agency of that other jurisdiction.

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Federal Council (Switzerland)

The Federal Council is the seven-member executive council which constitutes the federal government of the Swiss Confederation and serves as the collective executive head of government and state of Switzerland.

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Fouad Mebazaa

Fouad Mebazaa (فؤاد المبزع; born 15 June 1933) is a Tunisian politician who was President of Tunisia from 15 January 2011 to 13 December 2011.

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François Mitterrand

François Maurice Adrien Marie Mitterrand (26 October 1916 – 8 January 1996) was a French statesman who was President of France from 1981 to 1995, the longest time in office of any French president.

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Freedom House

Freedom House is a U.S.-based 501(c)(3) U.S. government-funded non-governmental organization (NGO) that conducts research and advocacy on democracy, political freedom, and human rights.

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Freedom in the World

Freedom in the World is a yearly survey and report by the U.S.-based non-governmental organization Freedom House that measures the degree of civil liberties and political rights in every nation and significant related and disputed territories around the world.

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Freedom of the press

Freedom of the press or freedom of the media is the principle that communication and expression through various media, including printed and electronic media, especially published materials, should be considered a right to be exercised freely.

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French protectorate of Tunisia

The French protectorate of Tunisia (Protectorat français de Tunisie; الحماية الفرنسية في تونس) was established in 1881, during the French colonial Empire era, and lasted until Tunisian independence in 1956.

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Giulio Andreotti

Giulio Andreotti (14 January 1919 – 6 May 2013) was an Italian politician and statesman who served as the 41st Prime Minister of Italy and leader of the Christian Democracy party; he was the sixth longest-serving Prime Minister since the Italian Unification and the second longest-serving post-war Prime Minister, after Silvio Berlusconi.

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Global Competitiveness Report

The Global Competitiveness Report (GCR) is a yearly report published by the World Economic Forum.

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Habib Bourguiba

Habib Ben Ali Bourguiba (الحبيب بورقيبة al-Ḥabīb Būrqībah; 3 August 1903 – 6 April 2000) was a Tunisian lawyer, nationalist leader and statesman who served as the country's leader from independence in 1956 to 1987.

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Hamed Karoui

Hamed Karoui (born 30 December 1927) was Prime Minister of Tunisia from 27 September 1989 to 17 November 1999.

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Hammam Sousse

Hammam Sousse (حمّام سوسة) is a coastal town in north-eastern Tunisia.

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Hédi Baccouche

Hédi Baccouche (born 15 January 1930) was the Prime Minister of Tunisia from November 7, 1987 to September 27, 1989.

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Head of Government of Tunisia

This page lists the holders of the office of Head of Government of Tunisia (chef du gouvernement tunisien).

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Hosni Mubarak

Muhammad Hosni El Sayed Mubarak (محمد حسني السيد مبارك,,; born 4 May 1928) is a former Egyptian military and political leader who served as the fourth President of Egypt from 1981 to 2011.

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Idi Amin

Idi Amin Dada (2816 August 2003) was a Ugandan politician and military officer.

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Illegal drug trade

The illegal drug trade or drug trafficking is a global black market dedicated to the cultivation, manufacture, distribution and sale of drugs that are subject to drug prohibition laws.

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Imed Trabelsi

Imed Trabelsi (born August 26, 1974 in Tunis) is a businessman, politician, and favorite nephew of Leïla Ben Ali, the former First Lady of Tunisia, Trabelsi was formerly the mayor of La Goulette, Tunisia.

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Independent politician

An independent or nonpartisan politician is an individual politician not affiliated with any political party.

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Integrism

Integrism (Intégrisme) is a term coined in 19th and early 20th century polemics within the Catholic Church, especially in France, as an epithet to describe those who opposed the "modernists" who had sought to create a synthesis between Christian theology and the liberal philosophy of secular modernity.

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Interpol

The International Criminal Police Organization (Organisation internationale de police criminelle; ICPO-INTERPOL), more commonly known as Interpol, is an international organization that facilitates international police cooperation.

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Islam

IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).

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Islamic fundamentalism

Islamic fundamentalism has been defined as a movement of Muslims who think back to earlier times and seek to return to the fundamentals of the religion and live similarly to how the prophet Muhammad and his companions lived.

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Italy

Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.

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Jeddah

Jeddah (sometimes spelled Jiddah or Jedda;; جدة, Hejazi pronunciation) is a city in the Hijaz Tihamah region on the coast of the Red Sea and is the major urban center of western Saudi Arabia. It is the largest city in Makkah Province, the largest seaport on the Red Sea, and with a population of about four million people, the second-largest city in Saudi Arabia after the capital city, Riyadh. Jeddah is Saudi Arabia's commercial capital. Jeddah is the principal gateway to Mecca and Medina, two of the holiest cities in Islam and popular tourist attractions. Economically, Jeddah is focusing on further developing capital investment in scientific and engineering leadership within Saudi Arabia, and the Middle East. Jeddah was independently ranked fourth in the Africa – Mid-East region in terms of innovation in 2009 in the Innovation Cities Index. Jeddah is one of Saudi Arabia's primary resort cities and was named a Beta world city by the Globalization and World Cities Study Group and Network (GaWC). Given the city's close proximity to the Red Sea, fishing and seafood dominates the food culture unlike other parts of the country. In Arabic, the city's motto is "Jeddah Ghair," which translates to "Jeddah is different." The motto has been widely used among both locals as well as foreign visitors. The city had been previously perceived as the "most open" city in Saudi Arabia.

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Le Quotidien d'Oran

Le Quotidien d'Oran (لو كوتيديان دوران) is a daily French-language Algerian newspaper, headquartered in Oran, Algeria.

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Leïla Ben Ali

Leïla Ben Ali (ليلى بن علي, née Trabelssi; born 24 October 1956) is the wife of Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, who was President of Tunisia from 1987 to 2011.

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Legion of Honour

The Legion of Honour, with its full name National Order of the Legion of Honour (Ordre national de la Légion d'honneur), is the highest French order of merit for military and civil merits, established in 1802 by Napoléon Bonaparte and retained by all the divergent governments and regimes later holding power in France, up to the present.

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Libya

Libya (ليبيا), officially the State of Libya (دولة ليبيا), is a sovereign state in the Maghreb region of North Africa, bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad and Niger to the south and Algeria and Tunisia to the west.

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List of Presidents of Tunisia

This page lists the holders of the office of President of Tunisia and those who have acted in that capacity in the absence of a sworn President.

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Maryland

Maryland is a state in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, bordering Virginia, West Virginia, and Washington, D.C. to its south and west; Pennsylvania to its north; and Delaware to its east.

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Meles Zenawi

Meles Zenawi Asres (Ge'ez: መለስ ዜናዊ አስረስ mäläs zenawi asräs;; birth name Legesse Meles Zenawi Asres 9 May 1955 – 20 August 2012) was the Prime Minister of Ethiopia from 1995 to his death in 2012.

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Military attaché

A military attaché is a military expert who is attached to a diplomatic mission (an attaché).

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Mohamed Ghannouchi

Mohamed Ghannouchi (محمد الغنوشي Muhammad Al-Ghannushi; born 18 August 1941) is a Tunisian politician who was Prime Minister of Tunisia from 1999 to 2011.

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Money laundering

Money laundering is the act of concealing the transformation of profits from illegal activities and corruption into ostensibly "legitimate" assets.

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Morocco

Morocco (officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a unitary sovereign state located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It is one of the native homelands of the indigenous Berber people. Geographically, Morocco is characterised by a rugged mountainous interior, large tracts of desert and a lengthy coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of. Its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Salé, Fes, Meknes and Oujda. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad dynasty, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa. The Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, and Morocco remained the only North African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, and regained its independence in 1956. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Arab, West African and European influences. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, formerly Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, and the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco currently occupies two thirds of the territory, and peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahirs, which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court. Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber, with Berber being the native language of Morocco before the Arab conquest in the 600s AD. The Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken. Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa.

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National Order of Merit (Malta)

The National Order of Merit is a state order of the Republic of Malta.

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Order of Good Hope

The Order of Good Hope or Order of the Cape of Good Hope has been a knighthood order of the Republic of South Africa.

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Order of Isabella the Catholic

The Order of Isabella the Catholic (Orden de Isabel la Católica) is a Spanish civil order in which membership is granted in recognition of services that benefit the country.

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Order of Ouissam Alaouite

The Order of Ouissam Alaouite or the Sharifian Order of Al-Alaoui is a military decoration of Morocco which is bestowed by the King of Morocco upon those civilians and military officers who have displayed heroism in combat or have contributed meritorious service to the Moroccan state.

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Order of Saint-Charles

The Order of Saint-Charles (Ordre de Saint-Charles) is a dynastic order of knighthood established in Monaco on 15 March 1858.

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Order of the Chrysanthemum

is Japan's highest order.

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Order of the Nile

The Order of the Nile (Kiladat El Nil) was established in 1915 and served as one of the Kingdom of Egypt’s principal orders until the monarchy was abolished in 1953.

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Order of the Republic (Tunisia)

The Order of the Republic is an order of Tunisia.

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Order of the Star of Romania

The Order of the Star of Romania (Romanian: Ordinul Steaua României) is Romania's highest civil Order and second highest State decoration after the defunct Order of Michael the Brave.

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Palestine Liberation Organization

The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO; منظمة التحرير الفلسطينية) is an organization founded in 1964 with the purpose of the "liberation of Palestine" through armed struggle, with much of its violence aimed at Israeli civilians.

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Polish People's Republic

The Polish People's Republic (Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa, PRL) covers the history of contemporary Poland between 1952 and 1990 under the Soviet-backed socialist government established after the Red Army's release of its territory from German occupation in World War II.

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Politics of Saudi Arabia

The politics of Saudi Arabia takes place in the context of a totalitarian absolute monarchy with some Islamic lines, where the King is both the head of state and government.

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President of Tunisia

The President of Tunisia, formally known as the President of the Republic of Tunisia (رئيس الجمهورية التونسية, Président de la République tunisienne) is the head of state of Tunisia.

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Privatization

Privatization (also spelled privatisation) is the purchase of all outstanding shares of a publicly traded company by private investors, or the sale of a state-owned enterprise to private investors.

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Protection International

Protection International (PI) is an international non-profit organisation dedicated to the protection of human rights defenders (HRDs).

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Rachid Sfar

Rachid Sfar, the former Prime Minister of Tunisian President Habib Bourguiba, was born on September 11, 1933 at Mahdia, the ancient Fatimite capital of Tunisia.

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René Imbot

René Imbot (17 March 1925 - 19 February 2007) was a French general.

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Saudi Arabia

Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.

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School of Applied Artillery

The School of Applied Artillery (French: École d'application de l'artillerie) is an applied military academy of the French Army.

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Sfax

Sfax (صفاقس; ⵙⵉⴼⴰⴽⵙ Sifaks) is a city in Tunisia, located southeast of Tunis.

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SISMI

Servizio per le Informazioni e la Sicurezza Militare (Military Intelligence and Security Service) was the military intelligence agency of Italy from 1977–2007.

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Socialist Destourian Party

The Socialist Destourian Party (الحزب الاشتراكي الدستوري; Parti socialiste destourien) was the ruling political party of Tunisia from 1964 to 1988.

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Speaker (politics)

The speaker of a deliberative assembly, especially a legislative body, is its presiding officer, or the chair.

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State of emergency

A state of emergency is a situation in which a government is empowered to perform actions that it would normally not be permitted.

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Taoufik Ben Brik

Taoufik Ben Brik (born 1960 in Jerissa) is a Tunisian journalist.

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The Atlanta Journal-Constitution

The Atlanta Journal-Constitution (AJC) is the only major daily newspaper in the metropolitan area of Atlanta, Georgia, United States.

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The Economist

The Economist is an English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited at offices in London.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

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Trans-Saharan Counterterrorism Initiative

The Trans-Saharan Counterterrorism Partnership (TSCTP) is an interagency plan by the United States government, combining efforts by both civil and military agencies, "to combat terrorism in Trans-Saharan Africa.

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Trial in absentia

Trial in absentia is a criminal proceeding in a court of law in which the person who is subject to it is not physically present at those proceedings.

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Truth and Dignity Commission (Tunisia)

The Truth and Dignity Commission (هيئة الحقيقة والكرامة) (Instance Vérité et Dignité) is an independent tribunal established by law in Tunisia on 23 December 2013 and formally launched on 9 June 2014 by then-President Moncef Marzouki.

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Tunis

Tunis (تونس) is the capital and the largest city of Tunisia.

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Tunis–Carthage International Airport

Tunis–Carthage Airport (Aéroport de Tunis-Carthage, مطار تونس قرطاج الدولي) is the international airport of Tunis, the capital of Tunisia.

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Tunisia

Tunisia (تونس; Berber: Tunes, ⵜⵓⵏⴻⵙ; Tunisie), officially the Republic of Tunisia, (الجمهورية التونسية) is a sovereign state in Northwest Africa, covering. Its northernmost point, Cape Angela, is the northernmost point on the African continent. It is bordered by Algeria to the west and southwest, Libya to the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. Tunisia's population was estimated to be just under 11.93 million in 2016. Tunisia's name is derived from its capital city, Tunis, which is located on its northeast coast. Geographically, Tunisia contains the eastern end of the Atlas Mountains, and the northern reaches of the Sahara desert. Much of the rest of the country's land is fertile soil. Its of coastline include the African conjunction of the western and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Basin and, by means of the Sicilian Strait and Sardinian Channel, feature the African mainland's second and third nearest points to Europe after Gibraltar. Tunisia is a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic. It is considered to be the only full democracy in the Arab World. It has a high human development index. It has an association agreement with the European Union; is a member of La Francophonie, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Arab Maghreb Union, the Arab League, the OIC, the Greater Arab Free Trade Area, the Community of Sahel-Saharan States, the African Union, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Group of 77; and has obtained the status of major non-NATO ally of the United States. In addition, Tunisia is also a member state of the United Nations and a state party to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Close relations with Europe in particular with France and with Italy have been forged through economic cooperation, privatisation and industrial modernization. In ancient times, Tunisia was primarily inhabited by Berbers. Phoenician immigration began in the 12th century BC; these immigrants founded Carthage. A major mercantile power and a military rival of the Roman Republic, Carthage was defeated by the Romans in 146 BC. The Romans, who would occupy Tunisia for most of the next eight hundred years, introduced Christianity and left architectural legacies like the El Djem amphitheater. After several attempts starting in 647, the Muslims conquered the whole of Tunisia by 697, followed by the Ottoman Empire between 1534 and 1574. The Ottomans held sway for over three hundred years. The French colonization of Tunisia occurred in 1881. Tunisia gained independence with Habib Bourguiba and declared the Tunisian Republic in 1957. In 2011, the Tunisian Revolution resulted in the overthrow of President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, followed by parliamentary elections. The country voted for parliament again on 26 October 2014, and for President on 23 November 2014.

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Tunisian bread riots

The Tunisian bread riots (émeutes du pain, أحداث الخبز) were a series of violent demonstrations in Tunisia in December 1983 – January 1984 triggered by a rise in the price of bread due to an IMF-imposed austerity program.

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Tunisian constitutional referendum, 2002

A constitutional referendum was held in Tunisia on 26 May 2002.

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Tunisian dinar

The dinar (دينار, Dinar, ISO 4217 currency code: TND) is the currency of Tunisia.

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Tunisian general election, 1989

General elections were held in Tunisia on 2 April 1989.

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Tunisian general election, 1994

General elections were held in Tunisia on 20 March 1994 to elect a President and Chamber of Deputies.

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Tunisian general election, 1999

General elections were held in Tunisia on 24 October 1999 to elect a President and Chamber of Deputies.

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Tunisian general election, 2004

General elections were held in Tunisia on 24 October 2004 to elect a President and Chamber of Deputies.

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Tunisian general election, 2009

Presidential and parliamentary elections were held in Tunisia on 25 October 2009.

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Tunisian Revolution

The Tunisian Revolution was an intensive campaign of civil resistance, including a series of street demonstrations taking place in Tunisia, and led to the ousting of longtime president Zine El Abidine Ben Ali in January 2011.

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Uganda

Uganda, officially the Republic of Uganda (Jamhuri ya Uganda), is a landlocked country in East Africa.

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Uganda–Tanzania War

The Uganda–Tanzania war (commonly known in Uganda as the Liberation War) was fought between Uganda and Tanzania in 1978–1979, and led to the overthrow of Idi Amin's regime.

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United States Department of State

The United States Department of State (DOS), often referred to as the State Department, is the United States federal executive department that advises the President and represents the country in international affairs and foreign policy issues.

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Vincent Geisser

Vincent Geisser (born 15 January 1968) is a French sociologist and political scientist.

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White House

The White House is the official residence and workplace of the President of the United States.

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18 October Coalition for Rights and Freedoms

The 18 October Coalition for Rights and Freedoms in Tunisia, (French: Collectif du 18 Octobre) was formed when a number of political parties, NGOs and human rights activists advocating various political ideologies, among them Islamists, secularists and communists, came together to campaign against the dictatorship, political misconduct and human rights violations of Tunisian president Zine El Abidine Ben Ali’s regime in pre-revolutionary Tunisia.

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1987 Tunisian coup d'état

The 1987 Tunisian coup d'état involved the bloodless ousting of the ageing President of Tunisia Habib Bourguiba on 7 November 1987, and his replacement as president by his recently appointed Prime Minister, Zine El Abidine Ben Ali.

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Redirects here:

Ben Ali, President Ben Ali, Zajn al-Abidin Ibn Ali, Zayn al-'Abidin Ibn 'Ali, Zayn al-Abidin bin Ali, Zayn al-‘Ābidīn bin ‘Alī, Zein al-Abidin Ben Ali, Zin al-Abidin bin Ali, Zine Abidine Ben-Ali, Zine Ben Ali, Zine El Abidene ben Ali, Zine El-Abidine Ben Ali, Zine al-Abidine Ben Ali, Zine el Abidine Ben Ali, Zine el-Abedine Ben Ali, Zine el-Abidine Ben Ali, Zīn al-‘Ābidīn bin ‘Alī, Zīna al-‘Ābidīna bin ‘Alī, زين العابدين بن علي.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zine_El_Abidine_Ben_Ali

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