183 relations: Academic Press, Aliso, Allopatric speciation, Alpinia, Alpinia purpurata, American Journal of Botany, Amomum, Angiosperm Phylogeny Group, Angiosperm Phylogeny Website, Annals of Botany, Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, Antoine Laurent de Jussieu, APG II system, APG III system, APG IV system, Aquatic ecosystem, Arborescent, Arecales, Areole, Armen Takhtajan, Arrowroot, Arthur Cronquist, August Grisebach, Author citation (botany), Banana, Banana-families, Bat, Bee, Bentham & Hooker system, Biochemical Systematics and Ecology, Bird, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, Botany (journal), Bract, Butterfly, Canna (plant), Canna coccinea, Canna glauca, Canopy (biology), Capsule (fruit), Cardamom, Clade, Cladistics, Commelinales, Commelinids, Cooking banana, Costaceae, Costus, Cretaceous, Cronquist system, ..., Crown group, Culinary arts, Curcuma, Desert, Dicotyledon, Dormancy, Dung beetle, Early Cretaceous, Ecology, Elettaria, Endemism, Engler system, Etlingera elatior, Eugenius Warming, Evolution (journal), Evolutionary radiation, Floral formula, Floral symmetry, Flower, Flowering plant, Fossil, Friedrich von Berchtold, Fruit, Galangal, Genus, Ginger, Ginger-families, Glossary of leaf morphology, Gondwana, Gynoecium, Heliconia, Heliconia latispatha, Henry Nicholas Ridley, Herbaceous plant, Homology (biology), Horticulture, Hutchinson system, Hypanthium, Inflorescence, Insect, Ivan Martinov, James L. Reveal, Jan Svatopluk Presl, John Hutchinson (botanist), John Lindley, Late Cretaceous, Leaf, Lemur, Lilianae, Liliopsida, List of systems of plant taxonomy, Mammal, Maranta (plant), Maranta leuconeura, Marantaceae, Merosity, Missouri Botanical Garden, Molecular phylogenetics, Monocotyledon, Monophyly, Monsoon, Moth, Musa (genus), Musa rosea, Musaceae, Myoga, Nectar, Neotropical realm, New Phytologist, Ontogeny, Orchidantha, Order (biology), Ornamental plant, Ovary (botany), Pantropical, Paraphyly, PeerJ, Perianth, Petal, Petiole (botany), Philip Miller, Phyllotaxis, Phylogenetic tree, Phylogenetics, Phytochemistry, Phytolith, Phytotaxa, Plant morphology, Plant stem, Poales, Pollen, Pollination, Pollinator, Raphide, Ravenala, Rhizome, Robert Brown (botanist, born 1773), Rolf Dahlgren, Santonian, Scitamineae, Seed, Silicon dioxide, Sister group, Speciation, Species, Spice, Springer Science+Business Media, Stamen, Staminode, Strelitzia, Strelitzia reginae, Strelitziaceae, Sulcus (morphology), Sydney Howard Vines, Synapomorphy and apomorphy, Systematic Biology, Takenoshin Nakai, Takhtajan system, Tapeinochilos ananassae, Tepal, Tertiary, Theca, Thyrse, Traditional medicine, Tribe (biology), Tuber, Turmeric, Understory, Wettstein system, Whorl (botany), Zingiber, Zingiberaceae, Zingiberidae. Expand index (133 more) » « Shrink index
Academic Press is an academic book publisher.
Aliso: A Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany is a peer-reviewed scientific journal that publishes original research on plant taxonomy and evolutionary botany with a worldwide scope, but with a particular focus on the floristics of the Western United States.
Allopatric speciation (from the ancient Greek allos, meaning "other", and patris, meaning "fatherland"), also referred to as geographic speciation, vicariant speciation, or its earlier name, the dumbbell model, is a mode of speciation that occurs when biological populations of the same species become isolated from each other to an extent that prevents or interferes with genetic interchange.
Alpinia is a genus of flowering plants in the ginger family, Zingiberaceae.
Alpinia purpurata, red ginger, also called ostrich plume and pink cone ginger, are native Malaysian plants with showy flowers on long brightly colored red bracts.
The American Journal of Botany is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal which covers all aspects of plant biology.
Amomum is a genus of plants native to China, the Indian subcontinent, Southeast Asia, New Guinea, and Queensland.
The Angiosperm Phylogeny Group, or APG, refers to an informal international group of systematic botanists who collaborate to establish a consensus on the taxonomy of flowering plants (angiosperms) that reflects new knowledge about plant relationships discovered through phylogenetic studies.
The Angiosperm Phylogeny Website (or APweb) is a well-known website dedicated to research on angiosperm phylogeny and taxonomy.
Annals of Botany is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal, founded in 1887, that publishes research articles, brief communications, and reviews in all areas of botany.
The Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden is a long-established major peer-reviewed journal of botany, established in 1914 by the Missouri Botanical Garden, under the directorship of botanist and phycologist, George Thomas Moore, and still published quarterly by the Missouri Botanical Garden Press.
Antoine Laurent de Jussieu (12 April 1748 – 17 September 1836) was a French botanist, notable as the first to publish a natural classification of flowering plants; much of his system remains in use today.
The APG II system (Angiosperm Phylogeny Group II system) of plant classification is the second, now obsolete, version of a modern, mostly molecular-based, system of plant taxonomy that was published in April 2003 by the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group.
The APG III system of flowering plant classification is the third version of a modern, mostly molecular-based, system of plant taxonomy being developed by the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (APG).
The APG IV system of flowering plant classification is the fourth version of a modern, mostly molecular-based, system of plant taxonomy for flowering plants (angiosperms) being developed by the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (APG).
An aquatic ecosystem is an ecosystem in a body of water.
Arborescent is a term used by the French thinkers Deleuze and Guattari to characterize thinking marked by insistence on totalizing principles, binarism, and dualism.
Arecales is an order of flowering plants.
In botany, areoles are small light- to dark-colored bumps on cacti out of which grow clusters of spines.
Armen Leonovich Takhtajan or Takhtajian (Արմեն Լևոնի Թախտաջյան; Армен Леонович Тахтаджян; surname also transliterated Takhtadjan, Takhtadzhi︠a︡n or Takhtadzhian, pronounced TAHK-tuh-jahn) (June 10, 1910 – November 13, 2009), was a Soviet-Armenian botanist, one of the most important figures in 20th century plant evolution and systematics and biogeography.
Arrowroot is a starch obtained from the rhizomes (rootstock) of several tropical plants, traditionally Maranta arundinacea, but also Florida arrowroot from Zamia integrifolia, and tapioca from cassava (Manihot esculenta), which is often labelled as arrowroot.
Arthur John Cronquist (March 19, 1919 – March 22, 1992) was a United States biologist, botanist and a specialist on Compositae.
August Heinrich Rudolf Grisebach was a German botanist and phytogeographer.
In botanical nomenclature, author citation refers to citing the person or group of people who validly published a botanical name, i.e. who first published the name while fulfilling the formal requirements as specified by the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN).
A banana is an edible fruit – botanically a berry – produced by several kinds of large herbaceous flowering plants in the genus Musa.
The "banana-families"Kress, W. J., Prince, L. M., Hahn, W. J., & Zimmer, E. A. (2001).
Bats are mammals of the order Chiroptera; with their forelimbs adapted as wings, they are the only mammals naturally capable of true and sustained flight.
Bees are flying insects closely related to wasps and ants, known for their role in pollination and, in the case of the best-known bee species, the European honey bee, for producing honey and beeswax.
A taxonomic system, the Bentham & Hooker system for seed plants, was published in Bentham and Hooker's Genera plantarum ad exemplaria imprimis in herbariis kewensibus servata definita in three volumes between 1862 and 1883.
Biochemical Systematics and Ecology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering chemotaxonomy and ecology.
Birds, also known as Aves, are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a strong yet lightweight skeleton.
The Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society is a scientific journal publishing original papers relating to the taxonomy of all plant groups and fungi, including anatomy, biosystematics, cytology, ecology, ethnobotany, electron microscopy, morphogenesis, palaeobotany, palynology and phytochemistry.
Botany is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal that has been published since 1951 by NRC Research Press.
In botany, a bract is a modified or specialized leaf, especially one associated with a reproductive structure such as a flower, inflorescence axis or cone scale.
Butterflies are insects in the macrolepidopteran clade Rhopalocera from the order Lepidoptera, which also includes moths.
Canna (or canna lily, although not a true lily) is a genus of 10 species of flowering plants.
Canna coccinea is a species of the ''Canna'' genus, belonging to the family Cannaceae, a native of northern Argentina.
Canna glauca is a species of the ''Canna'' genus, a member of the family Cannaceae.
In biology, the canopy is the aboveground portion of a plant community or crop, formed by the collection of individual plant crowns.
In botany a capsule is a type of simple, dry, though rarely fleshy dehiscent fruit produced by many species of angiosperms (flowering plants).
Cardamom, sometimes cardamon or cardamum, is a spice made from the seeds of several plants in the genera Elettaria and Amomum in the family Zingiberaceae.
A clade (from κλάδος, klados, "branch"), also known as monophyletic group, is a group of organisms that consists of a common ancestor and all its lineal descendants, and represents a single "branch" on the "tree of life".
Cladistics (from Greek κλάδος, cládos, i.e., "branch") is an approach to biological classification in which organisms are categorized in groups ("clades") based on the most recent common ancestor.
Commelinales is the botanical name of an order of flowering plants.
In plant taxonomy, commelinids (originally commelinoids) (plural, not capitalised) is a name used by the APG IV system for a clade within the monocots, which in its turn is a clade within the angiosperms.
Cooking bananas are banana cultivars in the genus Musa whose fruits are generally used in cooking.
Costaceae, or the Costus family, is a family of pantropical monocots.
Costus is a group of perennial herbaceous plants in the family (Costaceae) described by Linnaeus as a genus in 1753.
The Cretaceous is a geologic period and system that spans 79 million years from the end of the Jurassic Period million years ago (mya) to the beginning of the Paleogene Period mya.
The Cronquist system is a taxonomic classification system of flowering plants.
In phylogenetics, the crown group of a collection of species consists of the living representatives of the collection together with their ancestors back to their most recent common ancestor as well as all of that ancestor's descendants.
Culinary arts, in which culinary means "related to cooking", are the arts of preparation, cooking and presentation of food, usually in the form of meals.
Curcuma is a genus of about 100 accepted species in the family Zingiberaceae that contains such species as turmeric and Siam Tulip.
A desert is a barren area of landscape where little precipitation occurs and consequently living conditions are hostile for plant and animal life.
The dicotyledons, also known as dicots (or more rarely dicotyls), are one of the two groups into which all the flowering plants or angiosperms were formerly divided.
Dormancy is a period in an organism's life cycle when growth, development, and (in animals) physical activity are temporarily stopped.
Dung beetles are beetles that feed partly or exclusively on feces (dung).
The Early Cretaceous/Middle Cretaceous (geochronological name) or the Lower Cretaceous (chronostratigraphic name), is the earlier or lower of the two major divisions of the Cretaceous.
Ecology (from οἶκος, "house", or "environment"; -λογία, "study of") is the branch of biology which studies the interactions among organisms and their environment.
Elettaria is a genus of plants in the Zingiberaceae native to India, Sri Lanka, Borneo, Sumatra, and Malaysia, though some species are naturalized elsewhere.
Endemism is the ecological state of a species being unique to a defined geographic location, such as an island, nation, country or other defined zone, or habitat type; organisms that are indigenous to a place are not endemic to it if they are also found elsewhere.
One of the prime systems of plant taxonomy, the Engler system was devised by Adolf Engler (1844–1930), and is featured in two major taxonomic texts he authored or coauthored.
Etlingera elatior (also known as torch ginger, ginger flower, red ginger lily, torch lily, wild ginger, combrang, bunga kantan, Philippine wax flower, 火炬姜, Indonesian tall ginger, boca de dragón, rose de porcelaine, and porcelain rose) is a species of herbaceous perennial plant.
Johannes Eugenius Bülow Warming (3 November 1841 – 2 April 1924), known as Eugen Warming, was a Danish botanist and a main founding figure of the scientific discipline of ecology.
Evolution, the International Journal of Organic Evolution, is a monthly scientific journal that publishes significant new results of empirical or theoretical investigations concerning facts, processes, mechanics, or concepts of evolutionary phenomena and events.
An evolutionary radiation is an increase in taxonomic diversity or morphological disparity, due to adaptive change or the opening of ecospace.
Floral formula is a means to represent the structure of a flower using numbers, letters and various symbols, presenting substantial information about the flower in a compact form.
Floral symmetry describes whether, and how, a flower, in particular its perianth, can be divided into two or more identical or mirror-image parts.
A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproductive structure found in flowering plants (plants of the division Magnoliophyta, also called angiosperms).
The flowering plants, also known as angiosperms, Angiospermae or Magnoliophyta, are the most diverse group of land plants, with 416 families, approximately 13,164 known genera and c. 295,383 known species.
A fossil (from Classical Latin fossilis; literally, "obtained by digging") is any preserved remains, impression, or trace of any once-living thing from a past geological age.
Count Friedrich Carl Eugen Vsemir von Berchtold, baron von Ungarschitz (Bedřich Karel Eugen Všemír Berchtold hrabě z Uherčic) (25 October 1781 – 3 April 1876), was a German-speaking Bohemian physician and botanist from Austrian descent.
In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants (also known as angiosperms) formed from the ovary after flowering.
Galangal (pronunciation /ˈɡal(ə)ŋɡal/, U.S. /) is a common name for several tropical rhizomatous spices.
A genus (genera) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, as well as viruses, in biology.
Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is a flowering plant whose rhizome, ginger root or simply ginger, is widely used as a spice or a folk medicine.
The ginger-familiesKress, W.J. & Specht, C.D. 2005.
The following is a defined list of terms which are used to describe leaf morphology in the description and taxonomy of plants.
Gondwana, or Gondwanaland, was a supercontinent that existed from the Neoproterozoic (about 550 million years ago) until the Carboniferous (about 320 million years ago).
Gynoecium (from Ancient Greek γυνή, gyne, meaning woman, and οἶκος, oikos, meaning house) is most commonly used as a collective term for the parts of a flower that produce ovules and ultimately develop into the fruit and seeds.
Heliconia, derived from the Greek word Ἑλικώνιος, is a genus of flowering plants in the family Heliconiaceae.
Heliconia latispatha (expanded lobsterclaw) is a plant species native to southern Mexico (Tabasco, Oaxaca, Chiapas, Campeche), Central America and northern South America (Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador and Peru) and naturalized in Florida and Jamaica.
Henry Nicholas Ridley CMG (1911), MA (Oxon), FRS, FLS, F.R.H.S. (10 December 1855 – 24 October 1956) was an English botanist, geologist and naturalist who lived much of life in Singapore.
Herbaceous plants (in botanical use frequently simply herbs) are plants that have no persistent woody stem above ground.
In biology, homology is the existence of shared ancestry between a pair of structures, or genes, in different taxa.
Horticulture is the science and art of growing plants (fruits, vegetables, flowers, and any other cultivar).
A system of plant taxonomy by John Hutchinson, the Hutchinson system, was published as The families of flowering plants, arranged according to a new system based on their probable phylogeny (two volumes) in three editions; 1st edition 1926–1934; 2nd edition 1959; 3rd edition, 1973.
In angiosperms, a hypanthium or floral cup is a structure where basal portions of the calyx, the corolla, and the stamens form a cup-shaped tube.
An inflorescence is a group or cluster of flowers arranged on a stem that is composed of a main branch or a complicated arrangement of branches.
Insects or Insecta (from Latin insectum) are hexapod invertebrates and the largest group within the arthropod phylum.
Ivan Ivanovich Martinov (the last name also spelled Martynov, Иван Иванович Мартынов) (1771–1833 Saint Peterburg) was Russian botanist and philologist.
James Lauritz Reveal (March 29, 1941 – January 9, 2015) was a U.S. botanist best known for his contributions to the genus Eriogonum and for his work on suprageneric names.
Jan Svatopluk Presl (4 September 1791 – 6 April 1849) was a Bohemian natural scientist.
John Hutchinson, OBE, FRS (7 April 1884 Blindburn, Northumberland – 2 September 1972 London) was a renowned English botanist, taxonomist and author.
John Lindley FRS (5 February 1799 – 1 November 1865) was an English botanist, gardener and orchidologist.
The Late Cretaceous (100.5–66 Ma) is the younger of two epochs into which the Cretaceous period is divided in the geologic timescale.
A leaf is an organ of a vascular plant and is the principal lateral appendage of the stem.
Lemurs are a clade of strepsirrhine primates endemic to the island of Madagascar.
Lilianae (also known as Liliiflorae) is a botanical name, for a superorder (that is, a rank higher than that of order) of flowering plants.
Liliopsida Batsch (synonym: Liliatae) is a botanical name for the class containing the family Liliaceae (or Lily Family).
This list of systems of plant taxonomy presents "taxonomic systems" used in plant classification.
Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.
Maranta is a genus of flowering plants in the family Marantaceae, native to tropical Central and South America and the West Indies.
Maranta leuconeura (prayer plant) is a species of flowering plant in the family Marantaceae, native to the Brazilian tropical forests.
The Marantaceae are a family, the arrowroot family, of flowering plants known for its large starchy rhizomes.
Merosity is the number of component parts in each whorl of a plant structure.
The Missouri Botanical Garden is a botanical garden located at 4344 Shaw Boulevard in St. Louis, Missouri.
Molecular phylogenetics is the branch of phylogeny that analyzes genetic, hereditary molecular differences, predominately in DNA sequences, to gain information on an organism's evolutionary relationships.
Monocotyledons, commonly referred to as monocots, (Lilianae sensu Chase & Reveal) are flowering plants (angiosperms) whose seeds typically contain only one embryonic leaf, or cotyledon.
In cladistics, a monophyletic group, or clade, is a group of organisms that consists of all the descendants of a common ancestor.
Monsoon is traditionally defined as a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation, but is now used to describe seasonal changes in atmospheric circulation and precipitation associated with the asymmetric heating of land and sea.
Moths comprise a group of insects related to butterflies, belonging to the order Lepidoptera.
Musa is one of two or three genera in the family Musaceae; it includes bananas and plantains.
Musa rosea is a species of wild banana (genus Musa).
Musaceae is a family of flowering plants composed of three genera with ca 91 known species, placed in the order Zingiberales.
Myoga, myoga ginger or Japanese ginger is the species Zingiber mioga in the Zingiberaceae family.
Nectar is a sugar-rich liquid produced by plants in glands called nectaries, either within the flowers with which it attracts pollinating animals, or by extrafloral nectaries, which provide a nutrient source to animal mutualists, which in turn provide antiherbivore protection.
The Neotropical realm is one of the eight biogeographic realms constituting the Earth's land surface.
New Phytologist is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published on behalf of the New Phytologist Trust by Wiley-Blackwell.
Ontogeny (also ontogenesis or morphogenesis) is the origination and development of an organism, usually from the time of fertilization of the egg to the organism's mature form—although the term can be used to refer to the study of the entirety of an organism's lifespan.
Orchidantha is a genus of flowering plants.
In biological classification, the order (ordo) is.
Ornamental plants are plants that are grown for decorative purposes in gardens and landscape design projects, as houseplants, for cut flowers and specimen display.
In the flowering plants, an ovary is a part of the female reproductive organ of the flower or gynoecium.
A pantropical ("all tropics") distribution is one which covers tropical regions of both hemispheres.
In taxonomy, a group is paraphyletic if it consists of the group's last common ancestor and all descendants of that ancestor excluding a few—typically only one or two—monophyletic subgroups.
PeerJ is an open access peer-reviewed scientific mega journal covering research in the biological and medical sciences.
The perianth (perigonium, perigon or perigone) is the non-reproductive part of the flower, and structure that forms an envelope surrounding the sexual organs, consisting of the calyx (sepals) and the corolla (petals).
Petals are modified leaves that surround the reproductive parts of flowers.
In botany, the petiole is the stalk that attaches the leaf blade to the stem.
Philip Miller FRS (1691 – 18 December 1771) was an English botanist of Scottish descent.
In botany, phyllotaxis or phyllotaxy is the arrangement of leaves on a plant stem (from Ancient Greek phýllon "leaf" and táxis "arrangement").
A phylogenetic tree or evolutionary tree is a branching diagram or "tree" showing the evolutionary relationships among various biological species or other entities—their phylogeny—based upon similarities and differences in their physical or genetic characteristics.
In biology, phylogenetics (Greek: φυλή, φῦλον – phylé, phylon.
Phytochemistry is the study of phytochemicals, which are chemicals derived from plants.
Phytoliths (from Greek, "plant stone") are rigid, microscopic structures made of silica, found in some plant tissues and persisting after the decay of the plant.
Phytotaxa is a peer-reviewed scientific journal for rapid publication on any aspect of systematic botany.
Plant morphology or phytomorphology is the study of the physical form and external structure of plants.
A stem is one of two main structural axes of a vascular plant, the other being the root.
The Poales are a large order of flowering plants in the monocotyledons, and includes families of plants such as the grasses, bromeliads, and sedges.
Pollen is a fine to coarse powdery substance comprising pollen grains which are male microgametophytes of seed plants, which produce male gametes (sperm cells).
Pollination is the transfer of pollen from a male part of a plant to a female part of a plant, enabling later fertilisation and the production of seeds, most often by an animal or by wind.
A pollinator is an animal that moves pollen from the male anther of a flower to the female stigma of a flower.
Raphides are needle-shaped crystals of calcium oxalate as the monohydrate or calcium carbonate as aragonite, found in more than 200 families of plants.
Ravenala is a genus of flowering plants with a single species, Ravenala madagascariensis, commonly known as traveller's tree or traveller's palm, from Madagascar.
In botany and dendrology, a rhizome (from script "mass of roots", from rhizóō "cause to strike root") is a modified subterranean stem of a plant that sends out roots and shoots from its nodes.
Robert Brown FRSE FRS FLS MWS (21 December 1773 – 10 June 1858) was a Scottish botanist and palaeobotanist who made important contributions to botany largely through his pioneering use of the microscope.
Rolf Martin Theodor Dahlgren (7 July 1932 – 14 February 1987) was a Swedish-Danish botanist, professor at the University of Copenhagen from 1973 to his death.
The Santonian is an age in the geologic timescale or a chronostratigraphic stage.
Scitamineae is a descriptive botanical name.
A seed is an embryonic plant enclosed in a protective outer covering.
Silicon dioxide, also known as silica (from the Latin silex), is an oxide of silicon with the chemical formula, most commonly found in nature as quartz and in various living organisms.
A sister group or sister taxon is a phylogenetic term denoting the closest relatives of another given unit in an evolutionary tree.
Speciation is the evolutionary process by which populations evolve to become distinct species.
In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition.
A spice is a seed, fruit, root, bark, or other plant substance primarily used for flavoring, coloring or preserving food.
Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.
The stamen (plural stamina or stamens) is the pollen-producing reproductive organ of a flower.
In botany, a staminode is an often rudimentary, sterile or abortive stamen, which means that it does not produce pollen.
Strelitzia is a genus of five species of perennial plants, native to South Africa.
Strelitzia reginae is a monocotyledonous flowering plant indigenous to South Africa (the Cape Provinces and KwaZulu-Natal).
The Strelitziaceae comprise a family of monocotyledonous flowering plants, very similar in appearance and growth habit to members of the related families Heliconiaceae and Musaceae (banana family).
The term sulcus (pl. sulci) is a general descriptive term for a furrow or fissure.
Sydney Howard Vines FRS (31 December 1849 – 4 April 1934) was a British botanist and academic.
In phylogenetics, apomorphy and synapomorphy refer to derived characters of a clade – characters or traits that are derived from ancestral characters over evolutionary history.
Systematic Biology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Systematic Biologists.
was a Japanese botanist.
A system of plant taxonomy, the Takhtajan system of plant classification was published by Armen Takhtajan, in several versions from the 1950s onwards.
Tapeinochilos ananassae is an herb in the Costaceae described as a species in 1866.
A tepal is one of the outer parts of a flower (collectively the perianth) when these parts cannot easily be divided into two kinds, sepals and petals.
Tertiary is the former term for the geologic period from 65 million to 2.58 million years ago, a timespan that occurs between the superseded Secondary period and the Quaternary.
A theca (plural thecae) refers to a sheath or a covering.
A thyrse is a type of inflorescence in which the main axis grows indeterminately, and the subaxes (branches) have determinate growth.
Traditional medicine (also known as indigenous or folk medicine) comprises medical aspects of traditional knowledge that developed over generations within various societies before the era of modern medicine.
In biology, a tribe is a taxonomic rank above genus, but below family and subfamily.
Tubers are enlarged structures in some plant species used as storage organs for nutrients.
Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is a rhizomatous herbaceous perennial flowering plant of the ginger family, Zingiberaceae.
In forestry and ecology, understory (or understorey, underbrush, undergrowth) comprises plant life growing beneath the forest canopy without penetrating it to any great extent, but above the forest floor.
A system of plant taxonomy, the Wettstein system recognised the following main groups, according to Richard Wettstein's Handbuch der Systematischen Botanik (1901–1924).
In botany, a whorl or verticil is an arrangement of sepals, petals, leaves, stipules or branches that radiate from a single point and surround or wrap around the stem.
The genus Zingiber is native to Southeast Asia, China, the Indian Subcontinent, and New Guinea.
Zingiberaceae or the ginger family is a family of flowering plants made up of about 50 genera with a total of about 1600 known species of aromatic perennial herbs with creeping horizontal or tuberous rhizomes distributed throughout tropical Africa, Asia, and the Americas.
Zingiberidae is a botanical name at the rank of subclass.