424 relations: A. B. Masilamani, Aaron Lapapa, Abdul Hadi Palazzi, Abraham Benisch, Adolf Hitler, Affirmative action, Africa, African Americans, African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights, African Hebrew Israelites of Jerusalem, Agudat Yisrael, Ahad Ha'am, Ahmad Shukeiri, Al-Jama'a al-Islamiyya, Alan Dershowitz, Alexei Mikhailovich Vasiliev, Aliyah, Aliyah Bet, Allied-occupied Germany, American Council for Judaism, American Jewish Committee, American Jews, American Palestine Committee, Amin al-Husseini, Andrei Gromyko, Andrew Bonar, Anglo-American Committee of Inquiry, Anita Shapira, Anschluss, Antechamber, Anti-Defamation League, Anti-German sentiment, Anti-Jewish pogroms in the Russian Empire, Anti-Nazi boycott of 1933, Anti-Zionism, Antisemitism, Antisemitism in Europe, Apartheid, Arab Christians, Arabs, Argentina, Ari Shavit, Arjun Charan Sethi, Arthur Balfour, As'ad Shukeiri, Ashkenazi Jews, Austria-Hungary, Auto-Emancipation, Avi Shlaim, Aviel Roshwald, ..., Avigdor Miller, Avignon, Axis powers, Aytzim, Azure (magazine), Babylonian captivity, Balfour Declaration, Bank Leumi, Bar Kokhba revolt, Baruch Kimmerling, Basel, Benedetto Croce, Benjamin Beit-Hallahmi, Benny Morris, Berbers, Beth Shalom B'nai Zaken Ethiopian Hebrew Congregation, Bible, Biltmore Conference, Bilu, Black nationalism, Black Star Line, Bohdan Khmelnytsky, Brigitte Gabriel, Buffalo, New York, Canaan, Carlo Strenger, Catholic Church, Cave of the Patriarchs massacre, Central Europe, Chabad, Chaim Herzog, Chaim Weizmann, Charles Spurgeon, Cheryl Rubenberg, Chosen people, Christian Zionism, Christian Zionism in the United Kingdom, Christianity, Church of Christ (Latter Day Saints), City University of New York, Colonialism, Common Era, Conspiracy theory, Corpus separatum (Jerusalem), Criticism of the Israeli government, Cultural Zionism, Cyprus, Cyprus internment camps, Czechoslovakia, Daily Express, Daniel Patrick Moynihan, David Ben-Gurion, David Hazony, David Lloyd George, Deir Yassin massacre, Dennis Prager, Der Judenstaat, Derek Penslar, Diaspora politics, Discrimination, Dispensationalism, Dover Publications, Dreyfus affair, Dror Zeigerman, Durban, Dushinsky (Hasidic dynasty), East Jerusalem, Eastern Europe, EBSCO Industries, Edah HaChareidis, Edward Said, Edward VII, Efraim Karsh, Elazar Shach, Epic poetry, Ethnic cleansing, Ethnic nationalism, Europe, European History Online, European Union, Evangelicalism, Exceptionalism, Expulsions and exoduses of Jews, First Aliyah, First Jewish–Roman War, First Zionist Congress, France, Frankfurt, Franklin D. Roosevelt, French Revolution, Fridtjof Nansen, Gadi Taub, Gathering of Israel, Geneva Conventions, Gentile, Germany Must Perish!, Great Soviet Encyclopedia, Green Zionism, Gustavo Perednik, Haaretz, Haggadah, Halakha, Harlem, Hasidic Judaism, Haskalah, Hebrew calendar, Henry Dunant, Hindu nationalism, Hindutva, Hippolytus Lutostansky, Histadrut, History of Israel, History of Palestine, History of the Jews in Germany, History of the Jews in the Czech Republic, History of the Jews in the Soviet Union, Holocaust denial, Holy Land, Holy See, Homeland for the Jewish people, Horatius Bonar, Hovevei Zion, Hungary, Ian Lustick, Ibn Saud, Ilan Pappé, Imam khatib (Sunni Islam), Inbreeding, Indian independence movement, Indian National Congress, International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, Iron Wall (essay), Isaac Deutscher, Islam, Islam in India, Islam in Palestine, Israel, Israel Zangwill, Israel–South Africa relations, Israeli Declaration of Independence, Israeli Labor Party, Israeli legislative election, 1977, Israeli–Palestinian conflict, J. C. Ryle, Jan Smuts, Jerusalem, Jewish Agency for Israel, Jewish American Society for Historic Preservation, Jewish assimilation, Jewish Autonomous Oblast, Jewish culture, Jewish diaspora, Jewish exodus from Arab and Muslim countries, Jewish insurgency in Mandatory Palestine, Jewish lobby, Jewish National Fund, Jewish population by country, Jewish state, Jewish Territorialist Organization, Jewish Virtual Library, Jews, Jews as the chosen people, Joel Teitelbaum, John Adams, John Nelson Darby, John Rose (Trotskyist), Jordan River, Joseph Chamberlain, Joseph Goebbels, Joseph Nasi, Joseph Smith, Joseph Telushkin, Judah Touro, Judaism, Judea, Judea and Samaria Area, Judith Butler, Kadima, Kibbutz, Kingdom of Judah, Kuomintang, Kurds, La Civiltà Cattolica, Labor Zionism, Land of Israel, Latter Day Saint movement, Laurence Oliphant (author), League of Nations, Leibniz Institute of European History, Lenni Brenner, Leon Pinsker, Letter to an Anti-Zionist Friend, Liberal democracy, Liberation movement, Liberia, Likud, Lion, List of Zionists, Litvishe, London Review of Books, Maasai people, Madrid Conference of 1991, Magdi Allam, Mahatma Gandhi, Major-general (United Kingdom), Mandatory Palestine, Marcus Garvey, Martin Luther King Jr., Max Nordau, Mehmed IV, Menachem Ussishkin, Meretz, Michael Marder, Michael Prior (theologian), Mishkenot Sha'ananim, Mitchell Bard, Mordecai Manuel Noah, Moritz Steinschneider, Mortara case, Moses Montefiore, Mount Zion, Muslim world, Napoleon, Nathan Birnbaum, Nazism, Negation of the Diaspora, Negro World, Neo-Zionism, Neocolonialism, Neturei Karta, New antisemitism, New Historians, Noam Chomsky, Nonie Darwish, Norman Cohn, Norman Finkelstein, Northwestern University Press, Norway, Nur Masalha, Nuremberg Laws, One Million Plan, One-state solution, Orde Wingate, Orson Hyde, Orthodox Judaism, Ottoman Empire, Pale of Settlement, Palestine (region), Palestine Liberation Organization, Palestinian Christians, Palestinian nationalism, Palestinian refugees, Palestinian right of return, Palestinians, Partition of India, Passover, Peel Commission, Persecution of Hindus, Persecution of Jews, Peter Beinart, Philosophical movement, Pogrom, Politics of Israel, Pope John Paul II, Pope Pius X, Population transfer, Portuguese Colonial War, Post-Zionism, President of Israel, Propaganda in Nazi Germany, Protestantism, Puritans, Queen Victoria, Quran, Racism, Racism in Israel, Rafael Merry del Val, Rastafari, Rebbe, Religious Zionism, Representative democracy, Return to Zion, Revisionist Zionism, Robert Murray M'Cheyne, Roman Empire, Romantic nationalism, Russian Empire, Russian Orthodox Church, Russian Revolution, Sabbatai Zevi, Sabra and Shatila massacre, Saint Petersburg, Saleh Abd al-Jawad, Sangh Parivar, Satmar (Hasidic dynasty), Secularity, Semitic languages, Sh'erit ha-Pletah, Shabbat, Shas, Shlomo Avineri, Simon & Schuster, Sita Ram Goel, Six-Day War, Smyrna, Society of Jesus, Solomon's Temple, South Asia Analysis Group, Soviet Union, Spinka (Hasidic dynasty), SS Exodus, Sun Yat-sen, Swastika, Syracuse, New York, Tallit, Talmud, Tanakh, Tariq Ali, Tashbih Sayyed, Tawfik Hamid, Tefillin, Telugu language, The Holocaust, The Protocols of the Elders of Zion, Theodor Herzl, Theodore N. Kaufman, Three Oaths, Toldos Aharon (Hasidic dynasty), Toldos Avrohom Yitzchok (Hasidic dynasty), Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk, Torah, Twelve Tribes of Israel, Uganda Protectorate, Uganda Scheme, Ukraine, United Kingdom, United Kingdom–United States relations, United Nations, United Nations General Assembly, United Nations General Assembly Resolution 3379, United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine, United Nations Special Committee on Palestine, United States, United Torah Judaism, Valley of Rephaim, Vinayak Damodar Savarkar, Warder Cresson, Warrant for Genocide, Wars of national liberation, West Bank, White Paper of 1939, William Korey, Woodrow Wilson, World Conference against Racism 2001, World War II, World Zionist Congress, World Zionist Organization, Yakov Malik, Yehud Medinata, Yesh Atid, Yiddish, Yishuv, Yitzhak Lamdan, Ze'ev Jabotinsky, Zion, Zionist political violence, Zionist Socialist Workers Party, 1920 Nebi Musa riots, 1921 Jaffa riots, 1929 Palestine riots, 1936–1939 Arab revolt in Palestine, 1948 Arab–Israeli War, 1948 Palestinian exodus, 1948 Palestinian exodus from Lydda and Ramle. Expand index (374 more) » « Shrink index
Acharya A. B. Masilamani or Abel Boanerges Masilamani (1914–1990A. B. Masilamani, Nadipinchu Na Nava, PDF version of song sheet at Evangelical Church of Kurhessen Waldeck, Germany.) was a Golden Jubilee Baptist pastor and evangelist on whom parallels had been drawn comparing his ecclesiastical ministry with that of Saint Paul.
Aaron ben Isaac Lapapa (c. 1590–1674) was an Oriental rabbi and Talmudist.
Abdul Hadi Palazzi (شيخ عبد الهادي بالاتسي), legally named Massimo Palazzi (born 24/1/1961) is the secretary general of the Italian Muslim Assembly, and the Khalifah for Europe of the Qadiri Sufi Order.
Abraham Benisch (1811, Drosau, Bohemia-1878, London) was a Hebraist and journalist.
Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician, demagogue, and revolutionary, who was the leader of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.
Affirmative action, also known as reservation in India and Nepal, positive action in the UK, and employment equity (in a narrower context) in Canada and South Africa, is the policy of protecting members of groups that are known to have previously suffered from discrimination.
Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).
African Americans (also referred to as Black Americans or Afro-Americans) are an ethnic group of Americans with total or partial ancestry from any of the black racial groups of Africa.
The African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights (also known as the Banjul Charter) is an international human rights instrument that is intended to promote and protect human rights and basic freedoms in the African continent.
The African Hebrew Israelite Nation of Jerusalem (also known as The Black Hebrew Israelites of Jerusalem, the Black Hebrew Israelites, or simply the Black Hebrews or Black Israelites) is a small spiritual group whose members believe they are descended from the Twelve Tribes of Israel.
Agudat Yisrael (אֲגוּדָּת יִשְׂרָאֵל, lit. Union of Israel, also transliterated Agudath Israel, or, in Yiddish, Agudas Yisroel) is an ultra-Orthodox Jewish political party in Israel.
Asher Zvi Hirsch Ginsberg (18 August 1856 – 2 January 1927), primarily known by his Hebrew name and pen name, Ahad Ha'am (אחד העם, lit. one of the people, Genesis 26:10), was a Hebrew essayist, and one of the foremost pre-state Zionist thinkers.
Ahmad al-Shukeiri (January 1, 1908 – February 26, 1980) (أحمد الشقيري) also transcribed al-Shuqayri, Shuqairi, Shuqeiri, Shukeiry, etc.), was the first Chairman of the Palestine Liberation Organization, serving in 1964–67.
(الجماعة الإسلامية, "the Islamic Group"; also transliterated El Gama'a El Islamiyya; also called "Islamic Groups" and transliterated Gamaat Islamiya, al Jamaat al Islamiya) is an Egyptian Sunni Islamist movement, and is considered a terrorist organization by the United States, the United Kingdom and the European Union.
Alan Morton Dershowitz (born September 1, 1938) is an American lawyer and academic.
Alexei Mikhailovich Vasiliev (published also under the names Alexey Vasiliev and Alexei Vassiliev; Алексе́й Миха́йлович Васи́льев; born April 26, 1939, in Leningrad, Soviet Union) is a prominent Russian Arabist and Africanist.
Aliyah (עֲלִיָּה aliyah, "ascent") is the immigration of Jews from the diaspora to the Land of Israel (Eretz Israel in Hebrew).
Aliyah Bet (עלייה ב', "Aliyah 'B'" – bet being the second letter of the Hebrew alphabet) was the code name given to illegal immigration by Jews, most of whom were Holocaust survivors and refugees from Nazi Germany, to Mandatory Palestine between 1934-48, in violation of the restrictions laid out in the British White Paper of 1939.
Upon the defeat of Nazi Germany in World War II, the victorious Allies asserted their joint authority and sovereignty over 'Germany as a whole', defined as all territories of the former German Reich which lay west of the Oder–Neisse line, having declared the extinction of Nazi Germany at the death of Adolf Hitler (see 1945 Berlin Declaration).
The American Council for Judaism (ACJ) is an organization of American Jews committed to the proposition that Jews are not a national but a religious group, adhering to the original stated principles of Reform Judaism, as articulated in the 1885 Pittsburgh Platform.
American Jewish Committee (AJC) is a Jewish advocacy group established on November 11, 1906.
American Jews, or Jewish Americans, are Americans who are Jews, whether by religion, ethnicity or nationality.
The American Palestine Committee was political lobby group in the United States founded in 1932 to influence American policy towards the establishment of a Jewish national home in Palestine, an aim achieved in 1948 with U.S. support for the Partition of Palestine and subsequent recognition of the new state of Israel.
Mohammed Amin al-Husseini (محمد أمين الحسيني; 1897 – 4 July 1974) was a Palestinian Arab nationalist and Muslim leader in Mandatory Palestine.
Andrei Andreyevich Gromyko (Андре́й Андре́евич Громы́ко; Андрэ́й Андрэ́евіч Грамы́ка; – 2 July 1989) was a Soviet communist politician during the Cold War.
Andrew Alexander Bonar (29 May 1810 in Edinburgh – 30 December 1892 in Glasgow) was a minister of the Free Church of Scotland, a contemporary and acquaintance of Robert Murray M'cheyne and youngest brother of Horatius Bonar.
The Anglo-American Committee of Inquiry was a joint British and American committee assembled in Washington on 4 January 1946.
Anita Shapira (אניטה שפירא, born 1940) is an Israeli historian.
Anschluss ('joining') refers to the annexation of Austria into Nazi Germany on 12 March 1938.
An antechamber (also known as an anteroom or ante-room) is a smaller room or vestibule serving as an entryway into a larger one.
The Anti-Defamation League (ADL; formerly known as the Anti-Defamation League of B'nai B'rith) is an international Jewish non-governmental organization based in the United States.
Anti-German sentiment (or Germanophobia) is defined as an opposition to or fear of Germany, its inhabitants, its culture and the German language.
Anti-Jewish pogroms in the Russian Empire (Еврейские погромы в России; (הסופות בנגב ha-sufot ba-negev; lit. "the storms in the South") were large-scale, targeted, and repeated anti-Jewish rioting that first began in the 19th century. Pogroms began occurring after the Russian Empire, which previously had very few Jews, acquired territories with large Jewish populations from the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth during 1791–1835. These territories were designated "the Pale of Settlement" by the Imperial Russian government, within which Jews were reluctantly permitted to live, and it was within them that the pogroms largely took place. Most Jews were forbidden from moving to other parts of the Empire, unless they converted to the Russian Orthodox state religion.
The Anti-Nazi Boycott of 1933 was a boycott of German products by foreign critics of the Nazi Party in response to an organized campaign of violence and boycotting undertaken by Hitler's Nazi Party against the Jews of Germany following his appointment as Chancellor of Germany on January 30, 1933.
Anti-Zionism is opposition to Zionism.
Antisemitism (also spelled anti-Semitism or anti-semitism) is hostility to, prejudice, or discrimination against Jews.
Antisemitism (also spelled anti-Semitism) – prejudice, hatred of, or discrimination against Jews for reasons connected to their Jewish heritage – has experienced a long history of expression since the days of ancient civilizations, with most of it having originated in the Christian and pre-Christian civilizations of Europe.
Apartheid started in 1948 in theUnion of South Africa |year_start.
Arab Christians (مسيحيون عرب Masīḥiyyūn ʿArab) are Arabs of the Christian faith.
Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.
Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.
Ari Shavit (born November 26, 1957) is an Israeli reporter and writer.
Arjun Charan Sethi (born 18 September 1941) is an Indian politician and presently a member of the Biju Janata Dal (BJD) political party.
Arthur James Balfour, 1st Earl of Balfour, (25 July 184819 March 1930) was a British statesman of the Conservative Party who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1902 to 1905.
Sheikh As'ad Shukeiri (Arabic: أسعد الشقيري), also transcribed al-Shuqayri, Shuqeiri, Shukeiry), 1860-1940, was a Palestinian religious and political leader in Acre, and the Ottoman-appointed Qadi from 1914 to 1918. Kamil al-Husayni was the Hanafi Mufti at the time and considered to be pro-British. Shukeiri was pro-Ottoman, favoring that Palestine continue to be part of the Ottoman Empire and in 1908 and 1912, he was elected to the Ottoman parliament. From the latter year to 1914, he served as the deputy of the District of Acre. Afterwards, he held several posts in Palestine's religious judiciary, including librarian of the Imperial Library and member of the Sharia court in Istanbul. During World War I, he was appointed mufti of the Fourth Ottoman Army in Syria and Palestine. In 1930, he founded the Liberal Party in Palestine and became head of the Supreme Muslim Council during the era of British rule in Palestine. One of his children, Ahmad Shukeiri, later became the first leader of the Palestine Liberation Organization. Palestinian Academic Society for the Study of International Affairs. (PASSIA).
Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or simply Ashkenazim (אַשְׁכְּנַזִּים, Ashkenazi Hebrew pronunciation:, singular:, Modern Hebrew:; also), are a Jewish diaspora population who coalesced in the Holy Roman Empire around the end of the first millennium.
Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy in English-language sources, was a constitutional union of the Austrian Empire (the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council, or Cisleithania) and the Kingdom of Hungary (Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen or Transleithania) that existed from 1867 to 1918, when it collapsed as a result of defeat in World War I. The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867.
The book "Auto-Emancipation" by Pinsker, 1882 Auto-Emancipation (Selbstemanzipation) is an early Zionist pamphlet written in German by Russian-Polish Jewish doctor and activist Leo Pinsker in 1882.
Avraham "Avi" Shlaim FBA (born 31 October 1945) is an Israeli historian, Emeritus Professor of International Relations at the University of Oxford and fellow of the British Academy.
Aviel Roshwald is an American historian and Professor of history at Georgetown University.
Avigdor HaKohen Miller (August 28, 1908 – April 20, 2001) was an American Haredi rabbi, author, and lecturer.
Avignon (Avenio; Provençal: Avignoun, Avinhon) is a commune in south-eastern France in the department of Vaucluse on the left bank of the Rhône river.
The Axis powers (Achsenmächte; Potenze dell'Asse; 枢軸国 Sūjikukoku), also known as the Axis and the Rome–Berlin–Tokyo Axis, were the nations that fought in World War II against the Allied forces.
Aytzim (meaning "trees" in Hebrew), formerly Green Zionist Alliance (GZA), is a New York-based Jewish environmental organization that is a U.S.-registered 501(c)(3) tax-deductible nonprofit charity.
Azure: Ideas for the Jewish Nation (תכלת) (Tchelet) was a quarterly journal published by the Shalem Center in Jerusalem, Israel.
The Babylonian captivity or Babylonian exile is the period in Jewish history during which a number of people from the ancient Kingdom of Judah were captives in Babylonia.
The Balfour Declaration was a public statement issued by the British government during World War I announcing support for the establishment of a "national home for the Jewish people" in Palestine, then an Ottoman region with a minority Jewish population (around 3–5% of the total).
Bank Leumi (בנק לאומי, lit. National Bank) is an Israeli bank.
The Bar Kokhba revolt (מרד בר כוכבא; Mered Bar Kokhba) was a rebellion of the Jews of the Roman province of Judea, led by Simon bar Kokhba, against the Roman Empire.
Baruch Kimmerling (ברוך קימרלינג, 16 October 1939 – 20 May 2007) was an Israeli scholar and professor of sociology at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.
Basel (also Basle; Basel; Bâle; Basilea) is a city in northwestern Switzerland on the river Rhine.
Benedetto Croce (25 February 1866 – 20 November 1952) was an Italian idealist philosopher, historian and politician, who wrote on numerous topics, including philosophy, history, historiography and aesthetics.
Benjamin Beit-Hallahmi (בנימין בית-הלחמי) (born June 12, 1943) is an Israeli professor of psychology at the University of Haifa, Israel.
Benny Morris (בני מוריס; born 8 December 1948) is an Israeli historian.
Berbers or Amazighs (Berber: Imaziɣen, ⵉⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⴻⵏ; singular: Amaziɣ, ⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗ) are an ethnic group indigenous to North Africa, primarily inhabiting Algeria, northern Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, northern Niger, Tunisia, Libya, and a part of western Egypt.
Beth Shalom, formally Beth Shalom B’nai Zaken Ethiopian Hebrew Congregation, is a synagogue in Chicago, Illinois.
The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books") is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans.
The Biltmore Conference, also known by its resolution as the Biltmore Program, was a fundamental departure from traditional Zionist policyAmerican Jewish Year Book Vol.
Bilu (ביל"ו); also Palestine Pioneers), was a movement whose goal was the agricultural settlement of the Land of Israel. Its members were known as Bilu'im.
Black nationalism is a type of nationalism which espouses the belief that black people are a nation and seeks to develop and maintain a black identity.
The Black Star Line (1919−1922) was a shipping line incorporated by Marcus Garvey, the organizer of the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA), and other members of the UNIA.
Zynoviy Bohdan Khmelnytsky (Ruthenian language: Ѕѣнові Богдан Хмелнiцкiи; modern Bohdan Zynoviy Mykhailovych Khmelnytsky; Bohdan Zenobi Chmielnicki; 6 August 1657) was a Polish–Lithuanian-born Hetman of the Zaporozhian Host of the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (now part of Ukraine).
Brigitte Gabriel (بريجيت غابرييل; born Hanan Qahwaji, 21 October 1964) is a Lebanese-American conservative journalist, author, anti-Islam activist, and founder of the non-profit political organizations American Congress For Truth and ACT! for America.
Buffalo is the second largest city in the state of New York and the 81st most populous city in the United States.
Canaan (Northwest Semitic:; Phoenician: 𐤊𐤍𐤏𐤍 Kenā‘an; Hebrew) was a Semitic-speaking region in the Ancient Near East during the late 2nd millennium BC.
Carlo Strenger (קרלו שטרנגר; born July 16, 1958) is a Swiss and Israeli psychologist, philosopher, existential psychoanalyst and public intellectual who serves as professor of psychology and philosophy at Tel Aviv University (at its Cohn Institute for the History and Philosophy of Science and Ideas and School of Psychological Sciences).
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
The Cave of the Patriarchs massacre, also known as the Ibrahimi Mosque massacre or Hebron massacre, was a shooting massacre carried out by American-Israeli Baruch Goldstein, also a member of the far-right Israeli Kach movement.
Central Europe is the region comprising the central part of Europe.
Chabad, also known as Lubavitch, Habad and Chabad-Lubavitch, is an Orthodox Jewish, Hasidic movement.
Major-General Chaim Herzog (חיים הרצוג; 17 September 1918 – 17 April 1997) was an Israeli politician, general, lawyer and author who served as the sixth President of Israel between 1983 and 1993.
Chaim Azriel Weizmann (חיים עזריאל ויצמן, Хаим Вейцман Khaim Veytsman; 27 November 1874 – 9 November 1952) was a Zionist leader and Israeli statesman who served as President of the Zionist Organization and later as the first President of Israel.
Charles Haddon Spurgeon (19 June 1834 – 31 January 1892) was an English Particular Baptist preacher.
Cheryl A. Rubenberg (born January 3, 1946) is a writer and researcher specializing in the Middle East, formerly an associate professor in the Department of Political Science at Florida International University.
Throughout history, various groups of people have considered themselves to be chosen people by a deity for a purpose, such as to act as the deity's agent on earth.
Christian Zionism is a belief among some Christians that the return of the Jews to the Holy Land and the establishment of the state of Israel in 1948 were in accordance with Bible prophecy.
Christian Zionism in the United Kingdom is a Christian ideology that sees the return of the Jews to Israel as a fulfilment of scriptural prophecy.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
The Church of Christ was the original name of the Latter Day Saint church founded by Joseph Smith.
The City University of New York (CUNY) is the public university system of New York City, and the largest urban university system in the United States.
Colonialism is the policy of a polity seeking to extend or retain its authority over other people or territories, generally with the aim of developing or exploiting them to the benefit of the colonizing country and of helping the colonies modernize in terms defined by the colonizers, especially in economics, religion and health.
Common Era or Current Era (CE) is one of the notation systems for the world's most widely used calendar era – an alternative to the Dionysian AD and BC system.
A conspiracy theory is an explanation of an event or situation that invokes an unwarranted conspiracy, generally one involving an illegal or harmful act carried out by government or other powerful actors.
Corpus separatum (Latin for "separated body") is a term used to describe the Jerusalem area in the 1947 United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine.
Criticism of the Israeli government, often referred to simply as criticism of Israel, is an ongoing subject of journalistic and scholarly commentary and research within the scope of International relations theory, expressed in terms of political science.
Cultural Zionism (צִיּוֹנוּת רוּחָנִית, translit. Tsiyonut ruchanit) is a strain of the concept of Zionism that values creating a Jewish state with its own secular Jewish culture and history, including language and historical roots, rather than other Zionist ideas such as political Zionism.
Cyprus (Κύπρος; Kıbrıs), officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία; Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti), is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean.
Cyprus internment camps were camps run by the British government for internment of Jews who had immigrated or attempted to immigrate to Mandatory Palestine in violation of British policy.
Czechoslovakia, or Czecho-Slovakia (Czech and Československo, Česko-Slovensko), was a sovereign state in Central Europe that existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until its peaceful dissolution into the:Czech Republic and:Slovakia on 1 January 1993.
The Daily Express is a daily national middle market tabloid newspaper in the United Kingdom.
Daniel Patrick "Pat" Moynihan (March 16, 1927 – March 26, 2003) was an American politician, sociologist, and diplomat.
David Ben-Gurion (דָּוִד בֶּן-גּוּרִיּוֹן;, born David Grün; 16 October 1886 – 1 December 1973) was the primary national founder of the State of Israel and the first Prime Minister of Israel.
David Hazony (born 1969) is an American-born Israeli writer, translator, and editor.
David Lloyd George, 1st Earl Lloyd-George of Dwyfor, (17 January 1863 – 26 March 1945) was a British statesman of the Liberal Party and the final Liberal to serve as Prime Minister.
The Deir Yassin massacre took place on April 9, 1948, when around 120 fighters from the Zionist paramilitary groups Irgun and Lehi attacked Deir Yassin, a Palestinian Arab village of roughly 600 people near Jerusalem.
Dennis Mark Prager (born 1948) is an American nationally syndicated conservative radio talk show host and writer.
Der Judenstaat (German, literally The Jews' State, commonly rendered as The Jewish State) is a pamphlet written by Theodor Herzl and published in February 1896 in Leipzig and Vienna by M. Breitenstein's Verlags-Buchhandlung.
Derek Jonathan Penslar, (born 1958) is a comparative historian with interests in the relationship between modern Israel and diaspora Jewish societies, global nationalist movements, European colonialism, and post-colonial states.
Diaspora politics is the political behavior of transnational ethnic diasporas, their relationship with their ethnic homelands and their host states, and their prominent role in ethnic conflicts.
In human social affairs, discrimination is treatment or consideration of, or making a distinction in favor of or against, a person based on the group, class, or category to which the person is perceived to belong.
Dispensationalism is a religious interpretive system for the Bible.
Dover Publications, also known as Dover Books, is an American book publisher founded in 1941 by Hayward Cirker and his wife, Blanche.
The Dreyfus Affair (l'affaire Dreyfus) was a political scandal that divided the Third French Republic from 1894 until its resolution in 1906.
Dror Zeigerman (born 15 May 1948) is an Israeli former politician and diplomat who served as a member of the Knesset for Likud between 1981 and 1984, and as ambassador to the United Kingdom from 1998 until 2000.
Durban (eThekwini, from itheku meaning "bay/lagoon") is the largest city in the South African province of KwaZulu-Natal and the third most populous in South Africa after Johannesburg and Cape Town.
Dushinsky is one of the few Hasidic dynasties not named after the place where it originated; instead, it is named after the surname of the Rebbe.
East Jerusalem or Eastern Jerusalem is the sector of Jerusalem that was occupied by Jordan in 1948 and had remained out of the Israeli-held West Jerusalem at the end of the 1948–49 Arab–Israeli War and has been occupied by Israel since the 1967 Arab-Israeli War.
Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent.
EBSCO Industries is an American company headquartered in Birmingham, Alabama.
The Orthodox Council of Jerusalem (OJC) (העדה החרדית, ha-Edah ha-Charedit, Ashkenazi pronunciation: ha-Aideh Charaidis or ha-Eido ha-Chareidis; "Congregation of God-Fearers") is a large Ultra-Orthodox Jewish communal organization based in Jerusalem, with several thousands affiliated households.
Edward Wadie Said (إدوارد وديع سعيد,; 1 November 1935 – 25 September 2003) was a professor of literature at Columbia University, a public intellectual, and a founder of the academic field of postcolonial studies.
Edward VII (Albert Edward; 9 November 1841 – 6 May 1910) was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and Emperor of India from 22 January 1901 until his death in 1910.
Efraim Karsh (אפרים קארש; born 1953) is an Israeli–British historian, the founding director and emeritus professor of Middle East and Mediterranean Studies at King's College London.
Elazar Menachem Man Shach (אלעזר מנחם מן שך) Elazar Shach (January 1, 1899 O.S. – November 2, 2001) was a leading Lithuanian-Jewish Haredi rabbi in Bnei Brak, Israel.
An epic poem, epic, epos, or epopee is a lengthy narrative poem, ordinarily involving a time beyond living memory in which occurred the extraordinary doings of the extraordinary men and women who, in dealings with the gods or other superhuman forces, gave shape to the moral universe that their descendants, the poet and his audience, must understand to understand themselves as a people or nation.
Ethnic cleansing is the systematic forced removal of ethnic or racial groups from a given territory by a more powerful ethnic group, often with the intent of making it ethnically homogeneous.
Ethnic nationalism, also known as ethno-nationalism, is a form of nationalism wherein the nation is defined in terms of ethnicity.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
European History Online (Europäische Geschichte Online, EGO) is an academic website that publishes articles on the history of Europe between the period of 1450 and 1950 according to the principle of open access.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
Evangelicalism, evangelical Christianity, or evangelical Protestantism, is a worldwide, crossdenominational movement within Protestant Christianity which maintains the belief that the essence of the Gospel consists of the doctrine of salvation by grace through faith in Jesus Christ's atonement.
Exceptionalism is the perception that a species, country, society, institution, movement, individual, or time period is "exceptional" (i.e., unusual or extraordinary) in some way.
In Jewish history, Jews have experienced numerous mass expulsions or ostracism by various local authorities and have sought refuge in other countries.
The First Aliyah (Hebrew: העלייה הראשונה, HaAliyah HaRishona), also known as the agriculture Aliyah, is a term used to describe a major wave of Zionist immigration (aliyah) to Palestine between 1882 and 1903.
The First Jewish–Roman War (66–73 AD), sometimes called the Great Revolt (המרד הגדול), was the first of three major rebellions by the Jews against the Roman Empire, fought in the Eastern Mediterranean.
First Zionist Congress (הקונגרס הציוני הראשון) was the inaugural congress of the Zionist Organization (ZO) (to become the World Zionist Organization (WZO) in 1960) held in Basel (Basle), Switzerland, from August 29 to August 31, 1897.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Frankfurt, officially the City of Frankfurt am Main ("Frankfurt on the Main"), is a metropolis and the largest city in the German state of Hesse and the fifth-largest city in Germany.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt Sr. (January 30, 1882 – April 12, 1945), often referred to by his initials FDR, was an American statesman and political leader who served as the 32nd President of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945.
The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.
Fridtjof Nansen (10 October 1861 – 13 May 1930) was a Norwegian explorer, scientist, diplomat, humanitarian, and Nobel Peace Prize laureate.
Gadi Taub (גדי טאוב; born April 19, 1965 in Jerusalem) is an Israeli historian, author, screenwriter, and political commentator.
The Gathering of Israel (קיבוץ גלויות, Kibbutz Galuyot (Biblical: Qibbuṣ Galuyoth), lit. Ingathering of the Exiles, also known as Ingathering of the Jewish diaspora) is the biblical promise of given by Moses to the people of Israel prior to their entrance into the Land of Israel (Eretz Yisrael).
Original document as PDF in single pages, 1864 The Geneva Conventions comprise four treaties, and three additional protocols, that establish the standards of international law for humanitarian treatment in war.
Gentile (from Latin gentilis, by the French gentil, feminine: gentille, meaning of or belonging to a clan or a tribe) is an ethnonym that commonly means non-Jew.
Germany Must Perish! is a 104-page book written by Theodore Newman Kaufman, which he self-published in 1941 in the United States.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (GSE; Большая советская энциклопедия, БСЭ, Bolshaya sovetskaya entsiklopediya) is one of the largest Russian-language encyclopedias, published by the Soviet state from 1926 to 1990, and again since 2002 by Russia (under the name Bolshaya Rossiyskaya entsiklopediya or Great Russian Encyclopedia).
Green Zionism is a branch of Zionism that is primarily concerned with the environment of Israel.
Gustavo Daniel Perednik (גוסטבו דניאל פרדניק; born 1956) is an Argentinian-born Israeli author and educator.
Haaretz (הארץ) (lit. "The Land ", originally Ḥadashot Ha'aretz – חדשות הארץ, – "News of the Land ") is an Israeli newspaper.
The Haggadah (הַגָּדָה, "telling"; plural: Haggadot) is a Jewish text that sets forth the order of the Passover Seder.
Halakha (הֲלָכָה,; also transliterated as halacha, halakhah, halachah or halocho) is the collective body of Jewish religious laws derived from the Written and Oral Torah.
Harlem is a large neighborhood in the northern section of the New York City borough of Manhattan.
Hasidism, sometimes Hasidic Judaism (hasidut,; originally, "piety"), is a Jewish religious group.
The Haskalah, often termed Jewish Enlightenment (השכלה; literally, "wisdom", "erudition", Yiddish pronunciation Heskole) was an intellectual movement among the Jews of Central and Eastern Europe, with certain influence on those in Western Europe and the Muslim world.
The Hebrew or Jewish calendar (Ha-Luah ha-Ivri) is a lunisolar calendar used today predominantly for Jewish religious observances.
Henry Dunant (born Jean-Henri Dunant; 8 May 1828 – 30 October 1910), also known as Henri Dunant, was a Swiss businessman and social activist, the founder of the Red Cross, and the first recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize.
Hindu nationalism has been collectively referred to as the expressions of social and political thought, based on the native spiritual and cultural traditions of the Indian subcontinent.
Hindutva ("Hinduness"), a term popularised by Vinayak Damodar Savarkar in 1923, is the predominant form of Hindu nationalism in India.
Hippolytus Lutostansky (1835–1915), also transliterated as Lutostanski, Liutostanskii, J. J. Ljutostanski, Ippolit Iosifovich Lutostanskiĭ; Polish: Hipolit Lutostański, was a former Catholic priest of Polish extraction in the Russian Empire, convert to the Russian Orthodox Church and an antisemite.
Histadrut or the General Organization of Workers in Israel originally (ההסתדרות הכללית של העובדים בארץ ישראל, HaHistadrut HaKlalit shel HaOvdim B'Eretz Yisrael) is Israel's national trade union centre, representing the majority of trade unionists in the State of Israel.
Modern Israel is roughly located on the site of the ancient kingdoms of Israel and Judah.
The history of Palestine is the study of the past in the region of Palestine, generally defined as a geographic region in the Southern Levant between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River (where Israel and Palestine are today), and various adjoining lands.
Jewish settlers founded the Ashkenazi Jewish community in the Early (5th to 10th centuries CE) and High Middle Ages (circa 1000–1299 CE).
Jews in Bohemia (also known as Bohemian Jews/Czech Jews or, in some cases, Austro-Hungarian Jews), today's Czech Republic, arnise predominantly Ashkenazic Jews, and the current Jewish population is only a fraction of the pre-WWII Czechoslovakia's Jewish population.
The history of the Jews in the Soviet Union is inextricably linked to much earlier expansionist policies of the Tsarist Russia conquering and ruling the eastern half of the European continent already before the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917.
Holocaust denial is the act of denying the genocide of Jews in the Holocaust during World War II.
The Holy Land (Hebrew: אֶרֶץ הַקּוֹדֶשׁ, Terra Sancta; Arabic: الأرض المقدسة) is an area roughly located between the Jordan River and the Mediterranean Sea that also includes the Eastern Bank of the Jordan River.
The Holy See (Santa Sede; Sancta Sedes), also called the See of Rome, is the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the Catholic Church in Rome, the episcopal see of the Pope, and an independent sovereign entity.
A homeland for the Jewish people is an idea rooted in Jewish culture and religion.
Horatius Bonar (19 December 180831 July 1889), a contemporary and acquaintance of Robert Murray M'cheyne was a Scottish churchman and poet.
Hovevei Zion (חובבי ציון, lit. Lovers of Zion), also known as Hibbat Zion (חיבת ציון), refers to a variety of organizations which began in 1881 in response to the Anti-Jewish pogroms in the Russian Empire and were officially constituted as a group at a conference led by Leon Pinsker in 1884.
Hungary (Magyarország) is a country in Central Europe that covers an area of in the Carpathian Basin, bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, and Slovenia to the west.
Ian Steven Lustick (born 1949) is an American political scientist and specialist on the modern history and politics of the Middle East.
Abdulaziz ibn Abdul Rahman ibn Faisal ibn Turki ibn Abdullah ibn Muhammad Al Saud (عبد العزيز بن عبد الرحمن آل سعود,; 15 January 1875 – 9 November 1953), usually known within the Arab world as Abdulaziz and in the West as Ibn Saud, was the first monarch and founder of Saudi Arabia, the "third Saudi state".
Ilan Pappé (אילן פפה; born 1954) is an expatriate Israeli historian and socialist activist.
In Sunni Islam, an imam khatib (or just imam إمام plural أئمة A'immah, امام) is a leader, often the leader of prayers in the masjid, and the Muslim community.
Inbreeding is the production of offspring from the mating or breeding of individuals or organisms that are closely related genetically.
The Indian independence movement encompassed activities and ideas aiming to end the East India Company rule (1757–1857) and the British Indian Empire (1857–1947) in the Indian subcontinent.
The Indian National Congress (INC, often called Congress Party) is a broadly based political party in India.
The International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement is an international humanitarian movement with approximately 17 million volunteers, members and staff worldwide which was founded to protect human life and health, to ensure respect for all human beings, and to prevent and alleviate human suffering.
The Iron Wall (We and the Arabs) is an essay written by Ze'ev Jabotinsky in 1923.
Isaac Deutscher (3 April 1907 – 19 August 1967) was a Polish writer, journalist and political activist who moved to the United Kingdom at the outbreak of World War II.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Islam is the second largest religion in India, with 14.2% of the country's population or roughly 172 million people identifying as adherents of Islam (2011 census) as an ethnoreligious group.
Islam is a major religion in Palestine, being the religion of the majority of the Palestinian population.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
Israel Zangwill (21 January 18641 August 1926) was a British author at the forefront of cultural Zionism during the 19th century, and was a close associate of Theodor Herzl.
Israel–South Africa relations refer to the current and historic relationship between the Republic of South Africa and the State of Israel.
The Israeli Declaration of Independence,Hebrew: הכרזת העצמאות, Hakhrazat HaAtzma'ut/מגילת העצמאות Megilat HaAtzma'utArabic: وثيقة إعلان قيام دولة إسرائيل, Wathiqat 'iielan qiam dawlat 'iisrayiyl formally the Declaration of the Establishment of the State of Israel (הכרזה על הקמת מדינת ישראל), was proclaimed on 14 May 1948 (5 Iyar 5708) by David Ben-Gurion, the Executive Head of the World Zionist OrganizationThen known as the Zionist Organization.
The Israeli Labor Party (מִפְלֶגֶת הָעֲבוֹדָה הַיִּשְׂרְאֵלִית, translit.), commonly known as HaAvoda (הָעֲבוֹדָה), is a social democratic and Zionist political party in Israel.
The Elections for the ninth Knesset were held on 17 May 1977.
The Israeli–Palestinian conflict (Ha'Sikhsukh Ha'Yisraeli-Falestini; al-Niza'a al-Filastini-al-Israili) is the ongoing struggle between Israelis and Palestinians that began in the mid-20th century.
John Charles Ryle (10 May 1816 – 10 June 1900) was an English Evangelical Anglican bishop.
Field Marshal Jan Christiaan Smuts (24 May 1870 11 September 1950) was a prominent South African and British Commonwealth statesman, military leader and philosopher.
Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם; القُدس) is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea.
The Jewish Agency for Israel (הסוכנות היהודית לארץ ישראל, HaSochnut HaYehudit L'Eretz Yisra'el) is the largest Jewish nonprofit organization in the world.
The Jewish American Society for Historic Preservation (JASHP) is an American non-profit 501(c)(3) volunteer historical society.
Jewish assimilation (התבוללות, Hitbolelut) refers to the gradual cultural assimilation and social integration of Jews in their surrounding culture as well as the ideological program promoting conformity as a potential solution to historic Jewish marginalization in the age of emancipation.
The Jewish Autonomous Oblast (Евре́йская автоно́мная о́бласть, Yevreyskaya avtonomnaya oblast; ייִדישע אװטאָנאָמע געגנט, yidishe avtonome GegntIn standard Yiddish: ייִדישע אױטאָנאָמע געגנט, Yidishe Oytonome Gegnt) is a federal subject of Russia in the Russian Far East, bordering Khabarovsk Krai and Amur Oblast in Russia and Heilongjiang province in China.
Jewish culture is the culture of the Jewish people from the formation of the Jewish nation in biblical times through life in the diaspora and the modern state of Israel.
The Jewish diaspora (Hebrew: Tfutza, תְּפוּצָה) or exile (Hebrew: Galut, גָּלוּת; Yiddish: Golus) is the dispersion of Israelites, Judahites and later Jews out of their ancestral homeland (the Land of Israel) and their subsequent settlement in other parts of the globe.
The Jewish exodus from Arab and Muslim countries, or Jewish exodus from Arab countries, was the departure, flight, expulsion, evacuation and migration of 850,000 Jews, primarily of Sephardi and Mizrahi background, from Arab and Muslim countries, mainly from 1948 to the early 1970s.
The Jewish insurgency in Mandatory Palestine involved paramilitary actions carried out by Jewish underground groups against the British forces and officials in Mandatory Palestine.
The term Jewish lobby is used to describe organized lobbying attributed to Jews on domestic and foreign policy decisions, as a political participant of representative government, conducted predominantly in the Jewish diaspora in a number of Western countries.
The Jewish National Fund (קרן קיימת לישראל, Keren Kayemet LeYisrael previously הפונד הלאומי, Ha Fund HaLeumi) was founded in 1901 to buy and develop land in Ottoman Palestine (later the British Mandate for Palestine, and subsequently Israel and the Palestinian territories) for Jewish settlement.
The world's core Jewish population was estimated at 14,511,000 in April 2018, up from 14.41 million in 2016.
The "Jewish state" is a political term used to describe the nation state of Israel.
The Jewish Territorial Organisation, known as the ITO, was a Jewish political movement which first arose in 1903 in response to the British Uganda Offer, but which was institutionalized in 1905.
The Jewish Virtual Library ("JVL", formerly known as JSOURCE) is an online encyclopedia published by the American–Israeli Cooperative Enterprise (AICE).
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
In Judaism, "chosenness" is the belief that the Jews, via descent from the ancient Israelites, are the chosen people, i.e. chosen to be in a covenant with God.
Rabbi Joel Teitelbaum (יואל טייטלבוים, Ashkenazi pronunciation:; 13 January 1887 – 19 August 1979) was the founder and first Grand Rebbe of the Satmar dynasty.
John Adams (October 30 [O.S. October 19] 1735 – July 4, 1826) was an American statesman and Founding Father who served as the first Vice President (1789–1797) and second President of the United States (1797–1801).
John Nelson Darby (18 November 1800 – 29 April 1882) was an Anglo-Irish Bible teacher, one of the influential figures among the original Plymouth Brethren and the founder of the Exclusive Brethren.
John Rose is a British Trotskyist politician and a leading member of the Socialist Workers Party.
The Jordan River (also River Jordan; נְהַר הַיַּרְדֵּן Nahar ha-Yarden, ܢܗܪܐ ܕܝܘܪܕܢܢ, نَهْر الْأُرْدُنّ Nahr al-Urdunn, Ancient Greek: Ιορδάνης, Iordànes) is a -long river in the Middle East that flows roughly north to south through the Sea of Galilee (Hebrew: כנרת Kinneret, Arabic: Bohayrat Tabaraya, meaning Lake of Tiberias) and on to the Dead Sea.
Joseph Chamberlain (8 July 1836 – 2 July 1914) was a British statesman who was first a radical Liberal, then, after opposing home rule for Ireland, a Liberal Unionist, and eventually served as a leading imperialist in coalition with the Conservatives.
Paul Joseph Goebbels (29 October 1897 – 1 May 1945) was a German Nazi politician and Reich Minister of Propaganda of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945.
Dom Joseph Nasi (or Nassi; also known as João Miques/Micas and Dom João Migas Mendes in a Portuguese variant, Giuseppe Nasi in Italian, and as Yasef Nassi in Ottoman Turkish; 1524, Portugal – 1579, Constantinople) was a Portuguese-Jewish diplomat and administrator, member of the House of Mendes/Benveniste, nephew of Dona Gracia Mendes Nasi, and an influential figure in the Ottoman Empire during the rules of both Sultan Suleiman I and his son Selim II.
Joseph Smith Jr. (December 23, 1805 – June 27, 1844) was an American religious leader and founder of Mormonism and the Latter Day Saint movement.
Joseph Telushkin (born 1948) is an American rabbi, lecturer, and bestselling author of more than 15 books, including volumes about Jewish ethics, Jewish literacy, and "Rebbe", a New York Times bestseller released in June 2014.
Judah Touro (June 16, 1775 – January 18, 1854) was an American businessman and philanthropist.
Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.
Judea or Judæa (from יהודה, Standard Yəhuda, Tiberian Yəhûḏāh, Ἰουδαία,; Iūdaea, يهودا, Yahudia) is the ancient Hebrew and Israelite biblical, the exonymic Roman/English, and the modern-day name of the mountainous southern part of Canaan-Israel.
Judea and Samaria Area (אֵזוֹר יְהוּדָה וְשׁוֹמְרוֹן, Ezor Yehuda VeShomron, also an acronym יו"ש Yosh or ש"י Shai; يهودا والسامرة, Yahuda was-Sāmerah) is the Israeli government term for the administrative division encompassing Israeli-controlled Jewish-majority civilian areas of Area C of the West Bank, excluding East Jerusalem.
Judith Butler FBA (born February 24, 1956) is an American philosopher and gender theorist whose work has influenced political philosophy, ethics and the fields of third-wave feminist, queer and literary theory.
Kadima (lit) was a centrist and liberal political party in Israel.
A kibbutz (קִבּוּץ /, lit. "gathering, clustering"; regular plural kibbutzim /) is a collective community in Israel that was traditionally based on agriculture.
The Kingdom of Judah (מַמְלֶכֶת יְהוּדָה, Mamlekhet Yehudāh) was an Iron Age kingdom of the Southern Levant.
The Kuomintang of China (KMT; often translated as the Nationalist Party of China) is a major political party in the Republic of China on Taiwan, based in Taipei and is currently the opposition political party in the Legislative Yuan.
The Kurds (rtl, Kurd) or the Kurdish people (rtl, Gelî kurd), are an ethnic group in the Middle East, mostly inhabiting a contiguous area spanning adjacent parts of southeastern Turkey (Northern Kurdistan), northwestern Iran (Eastern Kurdistan), northern Iraq (Southern Kurdistan), and northern Syria (Western Kurdistan).
La Civiltà Cattolica (Italian for Catholic Civilization) is a periodical published by the Jesuits in Rome, Italy.
Labor Zionism or Socialist Zionism (צִיּוֹנוּת סוֹצְיָאלִיסְטִית, translit. tziyonut sotzyalistit) is the left-wing of the Zionist movement.
The Land of Israel is the traditional Jewish name for an area of indefinite geographical extension in the Southern Levant.
The Latter Day Saint movement (also called the LDS movement, LDS restorationist movement, or Smith–Rigdon movement) is the collection of independent church groups that trace their origins to a Christian primitivist movement founded by Joseph Smith in the late 1820s.
Laurence Oliphant (3 August 1829 – 23 December 1888) was a South African-born British author, traveller, diplomat and Christian mystic.
The League of Nations (abbreviated as LN in English, La Société des Nations abbreviated as SDN or SdN in French) was an intergovernmental organisation founded on 10 January 1920 as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War.
The Leibniz Institute of European History (IEG) in Mainz, Germany, is an independent, public research institute that carries out and promotes historical research on the foundations of Europe in the early and late Modern period.
Lenni Brenner (born 1937) is an American Trotskyist writer.
Leon Pinsker (לעאָן פינסקער, Yehudah Leib Pinsker, Лев (Леон) Семёнович or Йехуда Лейб Пинскер, Lev Semyonovich Pinsker; 1821, Tomaszów Lubelski, Kingdom of Poland, Russian Empire – 1891, Odessa, Russian Empire) was a physician, a Zionist pioneer and activist, and the founder and leader of the Hovevei Zion, also known as Hibbat Zion (חיבת ציון, Lovers of Zion) movement.
"Letter to an Anti-Zionist Friend" is an open letter falsely attributed to Martin Luther King Jr. that expressed support for Zionism and declared that "anti-Zionist is inherently anti-Semitic, and ever will be so."The original text of the document is available on a number of different websites; see and for examples.
Liberal democracy is a liberal political ideology and a form of government in which representative democracy operates under the principles of classical liberalism.
A liberation movement is an organization or political movement leading a rebellion, or a non-violent social movement, against a colonial power or national government, often seeking independence based on a nationalist identity and an anti-imperialist outlook.
Liberia, officially the Republic of Liberia, is a country on the West African coast.
Likud (הַלִּיכּוּד, translit. HaLikud, lit., The Consolidation), officially, the Likud-National Liberal Movement, is a centre-right to right-wing political party in Israel.
The lion (Panthera leo) is a species in the cat family (Felidae).
People who played important roles in the definition, historical development and growth of the modern Zionist movement.
Litvishe is a Yiddish word, that refers to Haredi Jews, who are not Hasidim (and not Hardalim or Sephardic Haredim).
The London Review of Books (LRB) is a British journal of literary essays.
Maasai are a Nilotic ethnic group inhabiting central and southern Kenya and northern Tanzania.
The Madrid Conference of 1991 was a peace conference, held from 30 October to 1 November 1991 in Madrid, hosted by Spain and co-sponsored by the United States and the Soviet Union.
Magdi Cristiano Allam (مجدي علام Majdī ʿAllām; born 22 April 1952), is an Egyptian-born Italian journalist and politician, noted for his criticism of Islamic extremism and his articles on the relations between Western culture and the Islamic world.
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (2 October 1869 – 30 January 1948) was an Indian activist who was the leader of the Indian independence movement against British rule.
Major general (Maj Gen), is a "two-star" rank in the British Army and Royal Marines.
Mandatory Palestine (فلسطين; פָּלֶשְׂתִּינָה (א"י), where "EY" indicates "Eretz Yisrael", Land of Israel) was a geopolitical entity under British administration, carved out of Ottoman Syria after World War I. British civil administration in Palestine operated from 1920 until 1948.
Marcus Mosiah Garvey Jr. ONH (17 August 188710 June 1940) was a proponent of Black nationalism in the United States and most importantly Jamaica.
Martin Luther King Jr. (January 15, 1929 – April 4, 1968) was an American Baptist minister and activist who became the most visible spokesperson and leader in the civil rights movement from 1954 until his death in 1968.
Max Simon Nordau (born Simon Maximilian Südfeld; July 29, 1849 – January 23, 1923), was a Zionist leader, physician, author, and social critic.
Mehmed IV (Ottoman Turkish: محمد رابع Meḥmed-i rābiʿ; Modern Turkish: IV. Mehmet; also known as Avcı Mehmet, Mehmed the Hunter; 2 January 1642 – 6 January 1693) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1648 to 1687.
Menachem Ussishkin (Авраам Менахем Мендл Усышкин Avraham Menachem Mendel Ussishkin, מנחם אוסישקין) (August 14, 1863 – October 2, 1941) was a Russian-born Zionist leader and head of the Jewish National Fund.
Meretz (מֶרֶצ, lit. "Vigour") is a left-wing, social-democraticMeretz is commonly described as social-democratic political party.
Michael Marder is Ikerbasque Research Professor of Philosophy at the University of the Basque Country, Vitoria-Gasteiz.
Michael Prior (March 15, 1942 – July 21, 2004) was a priest of the Vincentian Congregation, professor of biblical theology at Saint Mary's College, University of Surrey, and a liberation theologian.
Mishkenot Sha’ananim (משכנות שאננים, lit. Peaceful Habitation) was the first Jewish neighborhood built outside the walls of the Old City of Jerusalem, on a hill directly across from Mount Zion.
Mitchell Geoffrey Bard is an American foreign policy analyst, editor and author who specializes in U.S.–Middle East policy.
Mordecai Manuel Noah (July 14, 1785, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania – May 22, 1851, New York) was an American playwright, diplomat, journalist, and utopian.
Moritz Steinschneider (30 March 1816, Prostějov, Moravia, Austria – 24 January 1907, Berlin) was a Bohemian bibliographer and Orientalist.
The Mortara case (caso Mortara) was an Italian cause célèbre that captured the attention of much of Europe and North America in the 1850s and 1860s.
Sir Moses Haim Montefiore, 1st Baronet, FRS (24 October 1784 – 28 July 1885) was a British financier and banker, activist, philanthropist and Sheriff of London.
Mount Zion (הַר צִיּוֹן, Har Tsiyyon; جبل صهيون, Jabal Sahyoun) is a hill in Jerusalem just outside the walls of the Old City.
The terms Muslim world and Islamic world commonly refer to the unified Islamic community (Ummah), consisting of all those who adhere to the religion of Islam, or to societies where Islam is practiced.
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
---- Nathan Birnbaum (נתן בירנבוים; pseudonyms: "Mathias Acher", "Dr. N. Birner", "Mathias Palme", "Anton Skart", "Theodor Schwarz", and "Pantarhei"; 16 May 1864 – 2 April 1937) was an Austrian writer and journalist, Jewish thinker and nationalist.
National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus), more commonly known as Nazism, is the ideology and practices associated with the Nazi Party – officially the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) – in Nazi Germany, and of other far-right groups with similar aims.
The negation of the Diaspora (שלילת הגלות, shlilat ha'galut, or שלילת הגולה, shlilat ha'golah) is a central assumption in many currents of Zionism.
Negro World was a weekly newspaper, established in 1918 in New York City, that served as the voice of the Universal Negro Improvement Association and African Communities League (UNIA), an organization founded by Marcus Garvey and Amy Ashwood in 1914.
Neo-Zionism is a right-wing, nationalistic and religious ideology that appeared in Israel following the Six-Day War in 1967 and the capture of the West Bank and Gaza Strip.
Neocolonialism, neo-colonialism or neo-imperialism is the practice of using capitalism, globalization and cultural imperialism to influence a developing country in lieu of direct military control (imperialism) or indirect political control (hegemony).
Neturei Karta (Jewish Babylonian Aramaic: נָטוֹרֵי קַרְתָּא, literally "Guardians of the City") is a religious group of Haredi Jews, formally created in Jerusalem, British Mandate of Palestine, in 1938, splitting off from Agudas Yisrael.
New antisemitism is the concept that a new form of antisemitism has developed in the late 20th and early 21st centuries, emanating simultaneously from the far left, Islamism, and the far right, and that it tends to manifest itself as opposition to Zionism and the State of Israel.
The New Historians (ההיסטוריונים החדשים, HaHistoryonim HaChadashim) are a loosely defined group of Israeli historians who have challenged traditional versions of Israeli history, including Israel's role in the Palestinian Exodus in 1948 and Arab willingness to discuss peace.
Avram Noam Chomsky (born December 7, 1928) is an American linguist, philosopher, cognitive scientist, historian, social critic and political activist.
Nonie Darwish (نوني درويش; born Nahid Darwish, 1949) is an Egyptian-American human rights activist and critic of Islam, and founder of Arabs for Israel, and is Director of Former Muslims United.
Norman Rufus Colin Cohn FBA (12 January 1915 – 31 July 2007) was a British academic, historian and writer who spent 14 years as a professorial fellow and as Astor-Wolfson Professor at the University of Sussex.
Norman Gary Finkelstein (born December 8, 1953) is an American political scientist, activist, professor, and author.
Northwestern University Press is affiliated with Northwestern University in Evanston, IL.
Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk); Norga), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a unitary sovereign state whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus the remote island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard.
Nur-eldeen (Nur) Masalha (نور مصالحة; born 4 January 1957 in Galilee, Israel) is a Palestinian writer and academic.
The Nuremberg Laws (Nürnberger Gesetze) were antisemitic and racial laws in Nazi Germany.
The One Million Plan was a plan for immigration and absorption of one million Jews from Europe, the Middle East, and North Africa into Mandatory Palestine, within a timeframe of 18 months, in order to establish a state in the territory.
The one-state solution and the similar binational solution are proposed approaches to resolving the Israeli–Palestinian conflict.
Orde Charles Wingate & Two Bars (26 February 1903 – 24 March 1944) was a senior British Army officer, known for his creation of the Chindit deep-penetration missions in Japanese-held territory during the Burma Campaign of World War II.
Orson Hyde (January 8, 1805 – November 28, 1878) was a leader in the early Latter Day Saint movement and an original member of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles.
Orthodox Judaism is a collective term for the traditionalist branches of Judaism, which seek to maximally maintain the received Jewish beliefs and observances and which coalesced in opposition to the various challenges of modernity and secularization.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
The Pale of Settlement (Черта́ осе́длости,, דער תּחום-המושבֿ,, תְּחוּם הַמּוֹשָב) was a western region of Imperial Russia with varying borders that existed from 1791 to 1917, in which permanent residency by Jews was allowed and beyond which Jewish permanent or temporary residency was mostly forbidden.
Palestine (فلسطين,,; Παλαιστίνη, Palaistinē; Palaestina; פלשתינה. Palestina) is a geographic region in Western Asia.
The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO; منظمة التحرير الفلسطينية) is an organization founded in 1964 with the purpose of the "liberation of Palestine" through armed struggle, with much of its violence aimed at Israeli civilians.
Palestinian Christians (مسيحيون فلسطينيون) are Christian citizens of the State of Palestine.
Palestinian nationalism is the national movement of the Palestinian people for self-determination in and sovereignty over Palestine.
The term "Palestine refugees" originally referred to both Arabs and Jews whose normal place of residence had been in Mandatory Palestine but were displaced and lost their livelihoods as a result of the 1948 Palestine war.
The Palestinian right of return (حق العودة, Ḥaqq al-ʿawda; זכות השיבה, zkhut hashivah) is the political position or principle that Palestinian refugees, both first-generation refugees (c. 30,000 to 50,000 people still alive as of 2012)"According to the United Nations Relief and Works Agency – the main body tasked with providing assistance to Palestinian refugees – there are more than 5 million refugees at present.
The Palestinian people (الشعب الفلسطيني, ash-sha‘b al-Filasṭīnī), also referred to as Palestinians (الفلسطينيون, al-Filasṭīniyyūn, פָלַסְטִינִים) or Palestinian Arabs (العربي الفلسطيني, al-'arabi il-filastini), are an ethnonational group comprising the modern descendants of the peoples who have lived in Palestine over the centuries, including Jews and Samaritans, and who today are largely culturally and linguistically Arab.
The Partition of India was the division of British India in 1947 which accompanied the creation of two independent dominions, India and Pakistan.
Passover or Pesach (from Hebrew Pesah, Pesakh) is a major, biblically derived Jewish holiday.
The Peel Commission, formally known as the Palestine Royal Commission, was a British Royal Commission of Inquiry, headed by Lord Peel, appointed in 1936 to investigate the causes of unrest in Mandatory Palestine, which was administered by Britain, following the six-month-long Arab general strike in Mandatory Palestine.
Hindus have experienced religious persecution in the form of forceful conversions, documented massacres, demolition and desecrations of temples, as well as the destruction of universities and schools.
Persecution of Jewish people has been a major part of Jewish history, prompting shifting waves of refugees throughout the Diaspora communities.
Peter Alexander Beinart (born 1971) is an American columnist, journalist, and liberal political commentator.
A philosophical movement is either the appearance or increased popularity of a specific school of philosophy, or a fairly broad but identifiable sea-change in philosophical thought on a particular subject.
The term pogrom has multiple meanings, ascribed most often to the deliberate persecution of an ethnic or religious group either approved or condoned by the local authorities.
Politics in Israel is dominated by Zionist parties.
Pope John Paul II (Ioannes Paulus II; Giovanni Paolo II; Jan Paweł II; born Karol Józef Wojtyła;; 18 May 1920 – 2 April 2005) served as Pope and sovereign of the Vatican City State from 1978 to 2005.
Pope Saint Pius X (Pio), born Giuseppe Melchiorre Sarto, (2 June 1835 – 20 August 1914) was head of the Catholic Church from August 1903 to his death in 1914.
Population transfer or resettlement is the movement of a large group of people from one region to another, often a form of forced migration imposed by state policy or international authority and most frequently on the basis of ethnicity or religion but also due to economic development.
The Portuguese Colonial War (Guerra Colonial Portuguesa), also known in Portugal as the Overseas War (Guerra do Ultramar) or in the former colonies as the War of Liberation (Guerra de Libertação), was fought between Portugal's military and the emerging nationalist movements in Portugal's African colonies between 1961 and 1974.
Post-Zionism refers to the opinions of some Israelis, diaspora Jews and others, particularly in academia, that Zionism has fulfilled its ideological mission with the creation of the modern State of Israel in 1948, and that Zionist ideology should therefore be considered at an end.
The President of the State of Israel (נְשִׂיא מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל, Nesi Medinat Yisra'el, or נְשִׂיא הַמְדִינָה, Nesi HaMedina, literally President of the State) is the head of state of Israel.
The propaganda used by the German Nazi Party in the years leading up to and during Adolf Hitler's leadership of Germany (1933–1945) was a crucial instrument for acquiring and maintaining power, and for the implementation of Nazi policies.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
The Puritans were English Reformed Protestants in the 16th and 17th centuries who sought to "purify" the Church of England from its "Catholic" practices, maintaining that the Church of England was only partially reformed.
Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death.
The Quran (القرآن, literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized Qur'an or Koran) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (Allah).
Racism is the belief in the superiority of one race over another, which often results in discrimination and prejudice towards people based on their race or ethnicity.
Racism in Israel refers to all forms and manifestations of racism experienced in Israel, irrespective of the colour or creed of the perpetrator and victim, or their citizenship, residency, or visitor status.
Rafael Merry del Val y de Zulueta (10 October 1865 – 26 February 1930), was a British-born Spanish Roman Catholic cardinal.
Rastafari, sometimes termed Rastafarianism, is an Abrahamic religion that developed in Jamaica during the 1930s.
Rebbe (רבי: or Oxford Dictionary of English, Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary) is a Yiddish word derived from the Hebrew word rabbi, which means 'master', 'teacher', or 'mentor'.
Religious Zionism (צִיּוֹנוּת דָּתִית, translit. Tziyonut Datit, or Dati Leumi "National Religious", or Kippah seruga, literally, "knitted skullcap") is an ideology that combines Zionism and Orthodox Judaism.
Representative democracy (also indirect democracy, representative republic or psephocracy) is a type of democracy founded on the principle of elected officials representing a group of people, as opposed to direct democracy.
The return to Zion (שִׁיבָת צִיּוֹן, Shivat Tzion, or, Shavei Tzion, lit. Zion returnees) refers to the event in the biblical books of Ezra-Nehemiah in which the Jews returned to the Land of Israel from the Babylonian exile following the decree by the emperor Cyrus the Great, the conqueror of the Neo-Babylonian Empire in 539 BCE, also known as Cyrus's edict.
Revisionist Zionism is a faction within the Zionist movement.
Robert Murray M'Cheyne (pronounced "Mak-shayn", occasionally spelled as "McCheyne"; 21 May 1813 – 25 March 1843) was a minister in the Church of Scotland from 1835 to 1843.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
Romantic nationalism (also national romanticism, organic nationalism, identity nationalism) is the form of nationalism in which the state derives its political legitimacy as an organic consequence of the unity of those it governs.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
The Russian Orthodox Church (ROC; Rússkaya pravoslávnaya tsérkov), alternatively legally known as the Moscow Patriarchate (Moskóvskiy patriarkhát), is one of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox churches, in full communion with other Eastern Orthodox patriarchates.
The Russian Revolution was a pair of revolutions in Russia in 1917 which dismantled the Tsarist autocracy and led to the rise of the Soviet Union.
Sabbatai Zevi (other spellings include Shabbetai Ẓevi, Shabbeṯāy Ṣeḇī, Shabsai Tzvi, and Sabetay Sevi in Turkish) (August 1, 1626 – c. September 17, 1676) was a Sephardic ordained Rabbi, though of Romaniote origin and a kabbalist, active throughout the Ottoman Empire, who claimed to be the long-awaited Jewish Messiah.
The Sabra and Shatila massacre was the killing of between 762 and 3,500 civilians, mostly Palestinians and Lebanese Shiites, by a militia close to the Kataeb Party, also called Phalange, a predominantly Christian Lebanese right-wing party in the Sabra neighborhood and the adjacent Shatila refugee camp in Beirut, Lebanon.
Saint Petersburg (p) is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, with 5 million inhabitants in 2012, part of the Saint Petersburg agglomeration with a population of 6.2 million (2015).
Saleh Abd al-Jawad (صالح عبد الجواد, born 1952) is a Palestinian historian.
The Sangh Parivar (Family of Organisations) refers to the family of Hindu nationalist organisations which have been started by members of the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) or drew inspiration from its ideology.
Satmar (סאטמאר or) is a Hasidic group originating from the city of Szatmárnémeti, Hungary (now Satu Mare, Romania), where it was founded in 1905 by Rabbi Joel Teitelbaum.
Secularity (adjective form secular, from Latin saeculum meaning "worldly", "of a generation", "temporal", or a span of about 100 years) is the state of being separate from religion, or of not being exclusively allied with or against any particular religion.
The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East.
Sh'erit ha-Pletah (lit) is a biblical (Ezra 9:14 and 1 Chronicles 4:43) term used by Jewish refugees who survived the Holocaust to refer to themselves and the communities they formed in postwar Europe following the liberation in the spring of 1945.
Shabbat (שַׁבָּת, "rest" or "cessation") or Shabbos (Ashkenazi Hebrew and שבת), or the Sabbath is Judaism's day of rest and seventh day of the week, on which religious Jews, Samaritans and certain Christians (such as Seventh-day Adventists, the 7th Day movement and Seventh Day Baptists) remember the Biblical creation of the heavens and the earth in six days and the Exodus of the Hebrews, and look forward to a future Messianic Age.
Shas (ש״ס, an acronym for Shomrei Sfarad, lit., "(Religious) Guardians of the Sephardim") is an ultra-Orthodox religious political party in Israel.
Shlomo Avineri (Hebrew: שלמה אבינרי) (born 1933 in Bielsko, then an ethnic German town, Poland) is an Israeli political scientist.
Simon & Schuster, Inc., a subsidiary of CBS Corporation, is an American publishing company founded in New York City in 1924 by Richard Simon and Max Schuster.
Sita Ram Goel (16 October 1921 – 3 December 2003) was an Indian religious and political activist, writer, and publisher in the late twentieth century.
The Six-Day War (Hebrew: מלחמת ששת הימים, Milhemet Sheshet Ha Yamim; Arabic: النكسة, an-Naksah, "The Setback" or حرب ۱۹٦۷, Ḥarb 1967, "War of 1967"), also known as the June War, 1967 Arab–Israeli War, or Third Arab–Israeli War, was fought between 5 and 10 June 1967 by Israel and the neighboring states of Egypt (known at the time as the United Arab Republic), Jordan, and Syria.
Smyrna (Ancient Greek: Σμύρνη, Smýrni or Σμύρνα, Smýrna) was a Greek city dating back to antiquity located at a central and strategic point on the Aegean coast of Anatolia.
The Society of Jesus (SJ – from Societas Iesu) is a scholarly religious congregation of the Catholic Church which originated in sixteenth-century Spain.
According to the Hebrew Bible, Solomon's Temple, also known as the First Temple, was the Holy Temple (בֵּית־הַמִּקְדָּשׁ: Beit HaMikdash) in ancient Jerusalem before its destruction by Nebuchadnezzar II after the Siege of Jerusalem of 587 BCE and its subsequent replacement with the Second Temple in the 6th century BCE.
South Asia Analysis Group (SAAG) is a non-profit think tank based in India which conducts public interest and advocacy work.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Spinka is the name of a Hasidic group within Orthodox Judaism.
Exodus 1947 was a ship that carried 4,500 Jewish immigrants from France to British Mandatory Palestine on July 11, 1947.
Sun Yat-sen (12 November 1866 – 12 March 1925)Singtao daily.
The swastika (as a character 卐 or 卍) is a geometrical figure and an ancient religious icon from the cultures of Eurasia, where it has been and remains a symbol of divinity and spirituality in Indian religions, Chinese religions, Mongolian and Siberian shamanisms.
Syracuse is a city in and the county seat of Onondaga County, New York, in the United States.
A tallit (טַלִּית talit in Modern Hebrew; tālēt in Sephardic Hebrew and Ladino; tallis in Ashkenazic Hebrew and Yiddish) (pl. tallitot, talleisim, tallism in Ashkenazic Hebrew and Yiddish; ṭālēth/ṭelāyōth in Tiberian Hebrew) is a fringed garment traditionally worn by religious Jews.
The Talmud (Hebrew: תַּלְמוּד talmūd "instruction, learning", from a root LMD "teach, study") is the central text of Rabbinic Judaism and the primary source of Jewish religious law and theology.
The Tanakh (or; also Tenakh, Tenak, Tanach), also called the Mikra or Hebrew Bible, is the canonical collection of Jewish texts, which is also a textual source for the Christian Old Testament.
Tariq Ali (Punjabi, طارق علی; born 21 October 1943) is a British Pakistani writer, journalist, historian, filmmaker, political activist, and public intellectual.
Tashbih Sayyed (1941–2007) was a Pakistani-American scholar, journalist, and author and was the Editor in Chief of Our Times, Pakistan Today, and In Review.
Tawfik Hamid (born 1961) is an author from Egypt.
Tefillin (Askhenazic:; Israeli Hebrew:, תפילין), also called phylacteries, are a set of small black leather boxes containing scrolls of parchment inscribed with verses from the Torah.
Telugu (తెలుగు) is a South-central Dravidian language native to India.
The Holocaust, also referred to as the Shoah, was a genocide during World War II in which Nazi Germany, aided by its collaborators, systematically murdered approximately 6 million European Jews, around two-thirds of the Jewish population of Europe, between 1941 and 1945.
The Protocols of the Elders of Zion (Протоколы сионских мудрецов) or The Protocols of the Meetings of the Learned Elders of Zion is an antisemitic fabricated text purporting to describe a Jewish plan for global domination.
Theodor Herzl (תאודור הֶרְצֵל Te'odor Hertsel, Herzl Tivadar; 2 May 1860 – 3 July 1904), Hebrew name given at his brit milah Binyamin Ze'ev (בִּנְיָמִין זְאֵב), also known in Hebrew as, Chozeh HaMedinah (lit. "Visionary of the State") was an Austro-Hungarian journalist, playwright, political activist, and writer who was the father of modern political Zionism.
Theodore Newman Kaufman (February 22, 1910 – April 1, 1986), sometimes given incorrectly as Theodore Nathan Kaufmann, was an American Jewish businessman and writer known for his eliminationist views on Germans.
The Three Oaths is the popular name for a Midrash found in the Talmud,Babylonian Talmud, Ketubot 111a which relates that God adjured three oaths upon the world.
Toldos Aharon is a strongly anti-Zionist Hasidic movement, headquartered in Jerusalem's Meah Shearim neighborhood.
Toldos Avrohom Yitzchok is a Hasidic movement located in Jerusalem's Meah Shearim neighborhood.
Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk, sometimes anglicised to Thomas Masaryk (7 March 1850 – 14 September 1937), was a Czech politician, statesman, sociologist and philosopher.
Torah (תּוֹרָה, "Instruction", "Teaching" or "Law") has a range of meanings.
According to the Hebrew Bible, the Twelve Tribes of Israel or Tribes of Israel (שבטי ישראל) were said to have descended from the 12 sons of the patriarch Jacob (who was later named Israel) by two wives, Leah and Rachel, and two concubines, Zilpah and Bilhah.
The British Protectorate of Uganda was a protectorate of the British Empire from 1894 to 1962.
The Uganda Scheme was a plan in the early 1900s to give a portion of British East Africa to the Jewish people as a homeland.
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
British–American relations, also referred to as Anglo-American relations, encompass many complex relations ranging from two early wars to competition for world markets.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA or GA; Assemblée Générale AG) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations (UN), the only one in which all member nations have equal representation, and the main deliberative, policy-making and representative organ of the UN.
United Nations General Assembly Resolution 3379, adopted on 10 November 1975 by a vote of 72 to 35 (with 32 abstentions), "determine that Zionism is a form of racism and racial discrimination".
The United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine was a proposal by the United Nations, which recommended a partition of Mandatory Palestine at the end of the British Mandate. On 29 November 1947, the UN General Assembly adopted the Plan as Resolution 181 (II). The resolution recommended the creation of independent Arab and Jewish States and a Special International Regime for the city of Jerusalem. The Partition Plan, a four-part document attached to the resolution, provided for the termination of the Mandate, the progressive withdrawal of British armed forces and the delineation of boundaries between the two States and Jerusalem. Part I of the Plan stipulated that the Mandate would be terminated as soon as possible and the United Kingdom would withdraw no later than 1 August 1948. The new states would come into existence two months after the withdrawal, but no later than 1 October 1948. The Plan sought to address the conflicting objectives and claims of two competing movements, Palestinian nationalism and Jewish nationalism, or Zionism. Molinaro, Enrico The Holy Places of Jerusalem in Middle East Peace Agreements Page 78 The Plan also called for Economic Union between the proposed states, and for the protection of religious and minority rights. The Plan was accepted by the Jewish Agency for Palestine, despite its perceived limitations. Arab leaders and governments rejected it and indicated an unwillingness to accept any form of territorial division, arguing that it violated the principles of national self-determination in the UN Charter which granted people the right to decide their own destiny.Sami Hadawi, Olive Branch Press, (1989)1991 p.76. Immediately after adoption of the Resolution by the General Assembly, a civil war broke out and the plan was not implemented.
The United Nations Special Committee on Palestine (UNSCOP) was created on 15 May 1947 in response to a United Kingdom government request that the General Assembly "make recommendations under article 10 of the Charter, concerning the future government of Palestine".
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
United Torah Judaism (יַהֲדוּת הַתּוֹרָה הַמְאוּחֶדֶת, Transliterated: Yahadut HaTora HaMeuhedet; UTJ) is an alliance of Degel HaTorah and Agudat Israel, two small Israeli Haredi (ultra-Orthodox) political parties in the Knesset.
Valley of Rephaim (עמק רפאים, Emeq Rephaim)- (R.V.). A valley descending southwest from Jerusalem to the Valley of Elah below, it is an ancient route from the coastal plain to the Judean Hills, probably named after the legendary race of giants.
Vinayak Damodar Savarkar (28 May 1883 – 26 February 1966) was an Indian pro-Hindutva activist, lawyer, politician, poet, writer and playwright.
Warder Cresson (July 13, 1798 – November 6, 1860) was the first U.S. Consul to Jerusalem.
Warrant for Genocide, by Norman Cohn, is a critical work about The Protocols of the Elders of Zion.
Wars of national liberation or national liberation revolutions are conflicts fought by nations to gain independence.
The West Bank (الضفة الغربية; הגדה המערבית, HaGadah HaMa'aravit) is a landlocked territory near the Mediterranean coast of Western Asia, the bulk of it now under Israeli control, or else under joint Israeli-Palestinian Authority control.
The White Paper of 1939Occasionally also known as the MacDonald White Paper (e.g. Caplan, 2015, p.117) after Malcolm MacDonald, the British Colonial Secretary who presided over its creation.
William Korey (16 June 1922 – 26 August 2009) was a lobbyist on international issues for B’nai B’rith.
Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856 – February 3, 1924) was an American statesman and academic who served as the 28th President of the United States from 1913 to 1921.
The 2001 World Conference against Racism (WCAR), also known as Durban I, was held at the Durban International Convention Centre in Durban, South Africa, under UN auspices, from 31 August to 8 September 2001.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
The Zionist Congress was established in 1897 by Theodor Herzl as the supreme organ of the Zionist Organization (ZO) and its legislative authority.
The World Zionist Organization (הַהִסְתַּדְּרוּת הַצִּיּוֹנִית הָעוֹלָמִית; HaHistadrut HaTzionit Ha'Olamit), or WZO, was founded as the Zionist Organization (ZO; 1897–1960) at the initiative of Theodor Herzl at the First World Zionist Congress, which took place in August 1897 in Basel, Switzerland.
Yakov Alexandrovich Malik (Яков Александрович Малик) (11 February 1980) was a Soviet diplomat.
Yehud Medinata (Aramaic for "the province of Judah"), or simply Yehud, was an autonomous province of the Persian Achaemenid Empire, roughly equivalent to the older kingdom of Judah but covering a smaller area, within the satrapy of Eber-Nari.
Yesh Atid (יֵשׁ עָתִיד, lit. There is a Future) is a political party founded by former journalist Yair Lapid in 2012 that seeks to represent what it considers the centre of Israeli society: the secular middle class.
Yiddish (ייִדיש, יידיש or אידיש, yidish/idish, "Jewish",; in older sources ייִדיש-טײַטש Yidish-Taitsh, Judaeo-German) is the historical language of the Ashkenazi Jews.
The Yishuv (ישוב, literally "settlement") or Ha-Yishuv (the Yishuv, הישוב) or Ha-Yishuv Ha-Ivri (the Hebrew Yishuv, הישוב העברי) is the term referring to the body of Jewish residents in the land of Israel (corresponding to Ottoman Syria until 1917, OETA South 1917–1920 and later Mandatory Palestine 1920–1948) prior to the establishment of the State of Israel.
Yitzhak Lamdan (Hebrew: יצחק למדן; ‎ 7 November 1899 – 17 November 1954) was an Israeli Hebrew-language poet, translator, editor and columnist.
Ze'ev Jabotinsky, MBE (זאב ז'בוטינסקי, Ze'ev Zhabotinski; זאב זשאבאטינסקי; born Vladimir Yevgenyevich Zhabotinsky, Влади́мир Евге́ньевич Жаботи́нский; 5 (17) October 1880, Odessa – 4 August 1940, Hunter, New York), was a Russian Jewish Revisionist Zionist leader, author, poet, orator, soldier and founder of the Jewish Self-Defense Organization in Odessa.
Zion (צִיּוֹן Ṣîyōn, modern Tsiyyon; also transliterated Sion, Sayon, Syon, Tzion, Tsion) is a placename often used as a synonym for Jerusalem as well as for the biblical Land of Israel as a whole.
Zionist political violence or refers to acts of violence or terror committed by Zionists.
Zionist-Socialist Workers Party (Сионистско-социалистическая рабочая партия), often referred to simply as Zionist-Socialists or S.S. by their Russian initials, was a Jewish socialist territorialist political party in the Russian Empire and Poland, that emerged from the Vozrozhdenie (Renaissance) group in 1904.
The 1920 Nebi Musa riots or 1920 Jerusalem riots took place in British-controlled part of Occupied Enemy Territory Administration (which would shortly become Mandatory Palestine) between Sunday, 4 and Wednesday, 7 April 1920 in and around the Old City of Jerusalem.
The Jaffa riots (commonly known in Me'oraot Tarpa) was a series of violent riots in Mandatory Palestine on May 1–7, 1921, which began as a fight between two Jewish groups but developed into an attack by Arabs on Jews during which many were killed.
The 1929 Arab riots in Palestine, or the Buraq Uprising (ثورة البراق), also known as the 1929 Massacres, (מאורעות תרפ"ט,, lit. Events of 5689 Anno Mundi) refers to a series of demonstrations and riots in late August 1929 when a long-running dispute between Muslims and Jews over access to the Western Wall in Jerusalem escalated into violence.
The 1936–1939 Arab revolt in Palestine, later came to be known as "The Great Revolt", was a nationalist uprising by Palestinian Arabs in Mandatory Palestine against the British administration of the Palestine Mandate, demanding Arab independence and the end of the policy of open-ended Jewish immigration and land purchases with the stated goal of establishing a "Jewish National Home". The dissent was directly influenced by the Qassamite rebellion, following the killing of Sheikh Izz ad-Din al-Qassam in 1935, as well as the declaration by Hajj Amin al-Husseini of 16 May 1936 as 'Palestine Day' and calling for a General Strike. The revolt was branded by many in the Jewish Yishuv as "immoral and terroristic", often comparing it to fascism and nazism. Ben Gurion however described Arab causes as fear of growing Jewish economic power, opposition to mass Jewish immigration and fear of the English identification with Zionism.Morris, 1999, p. 136. The general strike lasted from April to October 1936, initiating the violent revolt. The revolt consisted of two distinct phases.Norris, 2008, pp. 25, 45. The first phase was directed primarily by the urban and elitist Higher Arab Committee (HAC) and was focused mainly on strikes and other forms of political protest. By October 1936, this phase had been defeated by the British civil administration using a combination of political concessions, international diplomacy (involving the rulers of Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Transjordan and Yemen) and the threat of martial law. The second phase, which began late in 1937, was a violent and peasant-led resistance movement provoked by British repression in 1936 that increasingly targeted British forces. During this phase, the rebellion was brutally suppressed by the British Army and the Palestine Police Force using repressive measures that were intended to intimidate the Arab population and undermine popular support for the revolt. During this phase, a more dominant role on the Arab side was taken by the Nashashibi clan, whose NDP party quickly withdrew from the rebel Arab Higher Committee, led by the radical faction of Amin al-Husseini, and instead sided with the British – dispatching "Fasail al-Salam" (the "Peace Bands") in coordination with the British Army against nationalist and Jihadist Arab "Fasail" units (literally "bands"). According to official British figures covering the whole revolt, the army and police killed more than 2,000 Arabs in combat, 108 were hanged, and 961 died because of what they described as "gang and terrorist activities". In an analysis of the British statistics, Walid Khalidi estimates 19,792 casualties for the Arabs, with 5,032 dead: 3,832 killed by the British and 1,200 dead because of "terrorism", and 14,760 wounded. Over ten percent of the adult male Palestinian Arab population between 20 and 60 was killed, wounded, imprisoned or exiled. Estimates of the number of Palestinian Jews killed range from 91 to several hundred.Morris, 1999, p. 160. The Arab revolt in Mandatory Palestine was unsuccessful, and its consequences affected the outcome of the 1948 Palestine war.Morris, 1999, p. 159. It caused the British Mandate to give crucial support to pre-state Zionist militias like the Haganah, whereas on the Palestinian Arab side, the revolt forced the flight into exile of the main Palestinian Arab leader of the period, the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem – Haj Amin al-Husseini.
The 1948 Arab–Israeli War, or the First Arab–Israeli War, was fought between the State of Israel and a military coalition of Arab states over the control of Palestine, forming the second stage of the 1948 Palestine war.
The 1948 Palestinian exodus, also known as the Nakba (النكبة, al-Nakbah, literally "disaster", "catastrophe", or "cataclysm"), occurred when more than 700,000 Palestinian Arabs fled or were expelled from their homes, during the 1948 Palestine war.
The 1948 Palestinian exodus from Lydda and Ramle, also known as the Lydda Death March, was the expulsion of 50,000–70,000 Palestinian Arabs when Israeli troops captured the towns in July that year.
Abstract Zionism, History of anti-Zionism, Israeli nationalism, Israeli nationalist, Jewish Nationalist Movement, Jewish nationalism, Jewish nationalist, Judaism and Zionism, Political Judaism, Political Zionist, Sionism, Sionist, Sionists, The Z-Word, ZIONISTS, Zion movement, Zionest Movement, Zionist, Zionist Movement, Zionist movement, Zionistic, Zionists.