151 relations: Abrasive, Abundance of elements in Earth's crust, Actinium, Alkene, Alkoxide, Alkyne, Alloy, Anton Eduard van Arkel, Apollo program, Atomic number, Autoclave, Baddeleyite, Beta decay, Block (periodic table), BLU-97/B Combined Effects Bomb, Boiling point, Brittleness, Carbon, Catalysis, Ceramic, Ceramic knife, Chelation, Chemical element, Chemistry World, Chronic kidney disease, Control rod, Coordination complex, Crown (dentistry), Crystal bar process, Cubic zirconia, Deferoxamine, Deodorant, Dialysis, Diamond, Double beta decay, Ductility, Electron capture, Electronegativity, Exothermic process, Extractive distillation, Fluorine, Food and Drug Administration, Fractional crystallization (chemistry), Fractional distillation, Fracture toughness, Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster, Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, Gas turbine, Geoffrey Wilkinson, Getter, ..., Hafnium, Half-life, Hemoglobin, Humphry Davy, Hydrochloric acid, Hydrogen, Hydrolysis, Hyperkalemia, Ilmenite, Immediately dangerous to life or health, Inorganic chemistry, Ion, Isotope, Isotopes of zirconium, Jacinth, Jan Hendrik de Boer, Jargoon, Jöns Jacob Berzelius, Jet engine, Journal of Organometallic Chemistry, Journal of the American Chemical Society, Kroll process, Lanthanum, Lead zirconate titanate, Liquid–liquid extraction, Lustre (mineralogy), Magnesium, Magnetic separation, Magnetism, Martin Heinrich Klaproth, Melting point, Metallocene, Methyl isobutyl ketone, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Native metal, Neutron cross section, Nuclear fuel, Nuclear isomer, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, Opacifier, Organic synthesis, Organometallic chemistry, Organozirconium chemistry, Ossicone, Oxidation state, Oxygen, PDF, Periodic Videos, Permissible exposure limit, Persian language, Phosphorus, Polypropylene, Positron emission tomography, Potassium, Pressurized water reactor, Prosthesis, Pyrophoricity, Recommended exposure limit, Red blood cell, Refractory, Royal Society of Chemistry, Rutile, S-type star, Sandpaper, Schwartz's reagent, Seawater, Silicate minerals, Sintering, Sodium zirconium cyclosilicate, Sorbent, Spinach, Sulfuric acid, The Astrophysical Journal, Thiocyanate, Three Mile Island accident, Tin, Titanium, Tonne, Toxicodendron radicans, Transition metal, Urea, Vacuum tube, William Justin Kroll, Yttrium, Yttrium(III) oxide, Ziegler–Natta catalyst, Zinc, Zircon, Zirconia light, Zirconium alloy, Zirconium carbide, Zirconium dioxide, Zirconium nitride, Zirconium tetrafluoride, Zirconium tungstate, Zirconium(IV) bromide, Zirconium(IV) chloride, Zirconium(IV) iodide, Zirconocene dichloride, Zirconyl chloride, 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami. Expand index (101 more) » « Shrink index
An abrasive is a material, often a mineral, that is used to shape or finish a workpiece through rubbing which leads to part of the workpiece being worn away by friction.
The abundance of elements in Earth's crust is shown in tabulated form with the estimated crustal abundance for each chemical element shown as either percentage or parts per million (ppm) by mass (10,000 ppm.
Actinium is a chemical element with symbol Ac and atomic number 89.
In organic chemistry, an alkene is an unsaturated hydrocarbon that contains at least one carbon–carbon double bond.
An alkoxide is the conjugate base of an alcohol and therefore consists of an organic group bonded to a negatively charged oxygen atom.
In organic chemistry, an alkyne is an unsaturated hydrocarbon containing at least one carbon—carbon triple bond.
An alloy is a combination of metals or of a metal and another element.
Anton Eduard van Arkel, ('s-Gravenzande Netherlands, 19 November 1893 – Leiden, 14 March 1976) was a Dutch chemist.
The Apollo program, also known as Project Apollo, was the third United States human spaceflight program carried out by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), which accomplished landing the first humans on the Moon from 1969 to 1972.
The atomic number or proton number (symbol Z) of a chemical element is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom.
An autoclave is a pressure chamber used to carry out industrial processes requiring elevated temperature and pressure different from ambient air pressure.
Baddeleyite is a rare zirconium oxide mineral (ZrO2 or zirconia), occurring in a variety of monoclinic prismatic crystal forms.
In nuclear physics, beta decay (β-decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta ray (fast energetic electron or positron) and a neutrino are emitted from an atomic nucleus.
A block of the periodic table of elements is a set of adjacent groups.
The BLU-97/B Combined Effects Bomb is the submunition used in several cluster bomb type weapon systems.
The boiling point of a substance is the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid equals the pressure surrounding the liquid and the liquid changes into a vapor.
# A material is brittle if, when subjected to stress, it breaks without significant plastic deformation.
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalysthttp://goldbook.iupac.org/C00876.html, which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly.
A ceramic is a non-metallic solid material comprising an inorganic compound of metal, non-metal or metalloid atoms primarily held in ionic and covalent bonds.
A ceramic knife is a knife designed with a ceramic blade typically made from zirconium dioxide (ZrO2; also known as zirconia).
Chelation is a type of bonding of ions and molecules to metal ions.
A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).
Chemistry World is a monthly chemistry news magazine published by the Royal Society of Chemistry.
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a type of kidney disease in which there is gradual loss of kidney function over a period of months or years.
Control rods are used in nuclear reactors to control the fission rate of uranium and plutonium.
In chemistry, a coordination complex consists of a central atom or ion, which is usually metallic and is called the coordination centre, and a surrounding array of bound molecules or ions, that are in turn known as ligands or complexing agents.
A crown, sometimes known as dental cap, is a type of dental restoration which completely caps or encircles a tooth or dental implant.
The crystal bar process (also known as iodide process or the van Arkel–de Boer process) was developed by Anton Eduard van Arkel and Jan Hendrik de Boer in 1925.
Cubic zirconia (CZ) is the cubic crystalline form of zirconium dioxide (ZrO2).
Deferoxamine (DFOA), sold under the brand name Desferal, is a medication that binds iron and aluminium.
A deodorant is a substance applied to the body to prevent body odor caused by the bacterial breakdown of perspiration in armpits, feet, and other areas of the body.
In medicine, dialysis (from Greek διάλυσις, diàlysis, "dissolution"; from διά, dià, "through", and λύσις, lỳsis, "loosening or splitting") is the process of removing excess water, solutes and toxins from the blood in those whose native kidneys have lost the ability to perform these functions in a natural way.
Diamond is a solid form of carbon with a diamond cubic crystal structure.
In nuclear physics, double beta decay is a type of radioactive decay in which two protons are simultaneously transformed into two neutrons, or vice versa, inside an atomic nucleus.
Ductility is a measure of a material's ability to undergo significant plastic deformation before rupture, which may be expressed as percent elongation or percent area reduction from a tensile test.
Electron capture (K-electron capture, also K-capture, or L-electron capture, L-capture) is a process in which the proton-rich nucleus of an electrically neutral atom absorbs an inner atomic electron, usually from the K or L electron shell.
Electronegativity, symbol ''χ'', is a chemical property that describes the tendency of an atom to attract a shared pair of electrons (or electron density) towards itself.
In thermodynamics, the term exothermic process (exo-: "outside") describes a process or reaction that releases energy from the system to its surroundings, usually in the form of heat, but also in a form of light (e.g. a spark, flame, or flash), electricity (e.g. a battery), or sound (e.g. explosion heard when burning hydrogen).
Extractive distillation is defined as distillation in the presence of a miscible, high-boiling, relatively non-volatile component, the solvent, that forms no azeotrope with the other components in the mixture.
Fluorine is a chemical element with symbol F and atomic number 9.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.
In chemistry, fractional crystallization is a method of refining substances based on differences in solubility.
Fractional distillation is the separation of a mixture into its component parts, or fractions.
In materials science, fracture toughness is a property which describes the ability of a material to resist fracture, and is one of the most important properties of any material for many design applications.
The was an energy accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in Ōkuma, Fukushima Prefecture, initiated primarily by the tsunami following the Tōhoku earthquake on 11 March 2011.
The is a disabled nuclear power plant located on a site in the towns of Ōkuma and Futaba in the Fukushima Prefecture, Japan.
A gas turbine, also called a combustion turbine, is a type of continuous combustion, internal combustion engine.
Sir Geoffrey Wilkinson FRS (14 July 1921 – 26 September 1996) was a Nobel laureate English chemist who pioneered inorganic chemistry and homogeneous transition metal catalysis.
A getter is a deposit of reactive material that is placed inside a vacuum system, for the purpose of completing and maintaining the vacuum.
Hafnium is a chemical element with symbol Hf and atomic number 72.
Half-life (symbol t1⁄2) is the time required for a quantity to reduce to half its initial value.
Hemoglobin (American) or haemoglobin (British); abbreviated Hb or Hgb, is the iron-containing oxygen-transport metalloprotein in the red blood cells of all vertebrates (with the exception of the fish family Channichthyidae) as well as the tissues of some invertebrates.
Sir Humphry Davy, 1st Baronet (17 December 177829 May 1829) was a Cornish chemist and inventor, who is best remembered today for isolating, using electricity, a series of elements for the first time: potassium and sodium in 1807 and calcium, strontium, barium, magnesium and boron the following year, as well as discovering the elemental nature of chlorine and iodine.
Hydrochloric acid is a colorless inorganic chemical system with the formula.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
Hydrolysis is a term used for both an electro-chemical process and a biological one.
Hyperkalemia, also spelled hyperkalaemia, is an elevated level of potassium (K+) in the blood serum.
Ilmenite, also known as Manaccanite, is a titanium-iron oxide mineral with the idealized formula.
The term immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH) is defined by the US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) as exposure to airborne contaminants that is "likely to cause death or immediate or delayed permanent adverse health effects or prevent escape from such an environment." Examples include smoke or other poisonous gases at sufficiently high concentrations.
Inorganic chemistry deals with the synthesis and behavior of inorganic and organometallic compounds.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
Isotopes are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number.
Naturally occurring zirconium (40Zr) is composed of four stable isotopes (of which one may in the future be found radioactive), and one very long-lived radioisotope (96Zr), a primordial nuclide that decays via double beta decay with an observed half-life of 2.0×1019 years; it can also undergo single beta decay, which is not yet observed, but the theoretically predicted value of t1/2 is 2.4×1020 years.
Jacinth is an orange-red transparent variety of zircon used as a gemstone.
Jan Hendrik de Boer (19 March 1899 – 25 April 1971) was a Dutch physicist and chemist.
Jargoon or jargon (occasionally in old writings jargounce and jacounce) is a name applied by gemologists to those zircons which are fine enough to be cut as gemstones, but are not of the red color which characterizes the hyacinth or jacinth.
Baron Jöns Jacob Berzelius (20 August 1779 – 7 August 1848), named by himself and contemporary society as Jacob Berzelius, was a Swedish chemist.
A jet engine is a type of reaction engine discharging a fast-moving jet that generates thrust by jet propulsion.
The Journal of Organometallic Chemistry is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Elsevier, covering research on organometallic chemistry.
The Journal of the American Chemical Society (also known as JACS) is a weekly peer-reviewed scientific journal that was established in 1879 by the American Chemical Society.
The Kroll process is a pyrometallurgical industrial process used to produce metallic titanium.
Lanthanum is a chemical element with symbol La and atomic number 57.
Lead zirconate titanate is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula Pb (0≤x≤1).
Liquid–liquid extraction (LLE), also known as solvent extraction and partitioning, is a method to separate compounds or metal complexes, based on their relative solubilities in two different immiscible liquids, usually water (polar) and an organic solvent (non-polar).
Lustre or luster is the way light interacts with the surface of a crystal, rock, or mineral.
Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12.
Magnetic separation is a process in which magnetically susceptible material is extracted from a mixture using a magnetic force.
Magnetism is a class of physical phenomena that are mediated by magnetic fields.
Martin Heinrich Klaproth (1 December 1743 – 1 January 1817) was a German chemist who discovered uranium (1789), zirconium (1789), and cerium (1803), and named titanium (1795) and tellurium (1798).
The melting point (or, rarely, liquefaction point) of a substance is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid at atmospheric pressure.
A metallocene is a compound typically consisting of two cyclopentadienyl anions (abbreviated Cp) bound to a metal center (M) in the oxidation state II, with the resulting general formula (C5H5)2M.
Methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) is the organic compound with the formula (CH3)2CHCH2C(O)CH3.
The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is the United States federal agency responsible for conducting research and making recommendations for the prevention of work-related injury and illness.
A native metal is any metal that is found in its metallic form, either pure in nature.
In nuclear and particle physics, the concept of a neutron cross section is used to express the likelihood of interaction between an incident neutron and a target nucleus.
Nuclear fuel is a substance that is used in nuclear power stations to produce heat to power turbines.
A nuclear isomer is a metastable state of an atomic nucleus caused by the excitation of one or more of its nucleons (protons or neutrons).
The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is an agency of the United States Department of Labor.
An opacifier is a substance added to a material in order to make the ensuing system opaque.
Organic synthesis is a special branch of chemical synthesis and is concerned with the intentional construction of organic compounds.
Organometallic chemistry is the study of organometallic compounds, chemical compounds containing at least one chemical bond between a carbon atom of an organic molecule and a metal, including alkaline, alkaline earth, and transition metals, and sometimes broadened to include metalloids like boron, silicon, and tin, as well.
Organozirconium compounds are organometallic compounds containing a carbon to zirconium chemical bond.
Ossicones are horn-like (or antler-like) protuberances on the heads of giraffes, male okapis, and their extinct relatives, such as Sivatherium, and the climacoceratids, such as Climacoceras.
The oxidation state, sometimes referred to as oxidation number, describes degree of oxidation (loss of electrons) of an atom in a chemical compound.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
The Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format developed in the 1990s to present documents, including text formatting and images, in a manner independent of application software, hardware, and operating systems.
The Periodic Table of Videos (usually shortened to Periodic Videos) is a series of videos about chemical elements and the periodic table.
The permissible exposure limit (PEL or OSHA PEL) is a legal limit in the United States for exposure of an employee to a chemical substance or physical agent such as loud noise.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
Phosphorus is a chemical element with symbol P and atomic number 15.
Polypropylene (PP), also known as polypropene, is a thermoplastic polymer used in a wide variety of applications.
Positron-emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear medicine functional imaging technique that is used to observe metabolic processes in the body as an aid to the diagnosis of disease.
Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19.
Pressurized water reactors (PWRs) constitute the large majority of the world's nuclear power plants (notable exceptions being the United Kingdom, Japan, and Canada) and are one of three types of light water reactor (LWR), the other types being boiling water reactors (BWRs) and supercritical water reactors (SCWRs).
In medicine, a prosthesis (plural: prostheses; from Ancient Greek prosthesis, "addition, application, attachment") is an artificial device that replaces a missing body part, which may be lost through trauma, disease, or congenital conditions.
A pyrophoric substance (from Greek πυροφόρος, pyrophoros, "fire-bearing") ignites spontaneously in air at or below 55 °C (130 °F).
A recommended exposure limit (REL) is an occupational exposure limit that has been recommended by the United States National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) for adoption as a permissible exposure limit.
Red blood cells-- also known as RBCs, red cells, red blood corpuscles, haematids, erythroid cells or erythrocytes (from Greek erythros for "red" and kytos for "hollow vessel", with -cyte translated as "cell" in modern usage), are the most common type of blood cell and the vertebrate's principal means of delivering oxygen (O2) to the body tissues—via blood flow through the circulatory system.
A refractory mineral is a mineral that is resistant to decomposition by heat, pressure, or chemical attack.
The Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) is a learned society (professional association) in the United Kingdom with the goal of "advancing the chemical sciences".
Rutile is a mineral composed primarily of titanium dioxide (TiO2).
An S-type star (or just S star) is a cool giant with approximately equal quantities of carbon and oxygen in its atmosphere.
Sandpaper and glasspaper are names used for a type of coated abrasive that consists of sheets of paper or cloth with abrasive material glued to one face.
Schwartz's reagent is the common name for the chemical compound with the formula (C5H5)2ZrHCl, sometimes called zirconocene hydrochloride or zirconocene chloride hydride, and is named after Jeffrey Schwartz, a chemistry professor at Princeton University.
Seawater, or salt water, is water from a sea or ocean.
Silicate minerals are rock-forming minerals with predominantly silicate anions.
Clinker nodules produced by sintering Sintering is the process of compacting and forming a solid mass of material by heat or pressure without melting it to the point of liquefaction.
Sodium zirconium cyclosilicate (ZS-9) is a selective oral sorbent that traps potassium ions throughout the gastrointestinal tract.
A sorbent is a material used to absorb or adsorb liquids or gases.
Spinach (Spinacia oleracea) is an edible flowering plant in the family Amaranthaceae native to central and western Asia.
Sulfuric acid (alternative spelling sulphuric acid) is a mineral acid with molecular formula H2SO4.
The Astrophysical Journal, often abbreviated ApJ (pronounced "ap jay") in references and speech, is a peer-reviewed scientific journal of astrophysics and astronomy, established in 1895 by American astronomers George Ellery Hale and James Edward Keeler.
Thiocyanate (also known as rhodanide) is the anion −. It is the conjugate base of thiocyanic acid.
The Three Mile Island accident occurred on March 28, 1979, in reactor number 2 of Three Mile Island Nuclear Generating Station (TMI-2) in Dauphin County, Pennsylvania, near Harrisburg.
Tin is a chemical element with the symbol Sn (from stannum) and atomic number 50.
Titanium is a chemical element with symbol Ti and atomic number 22.
The tonne (Non-SI unit, symbol: t), commonly referred to as the metric ton in the United States, is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms;.
Toxicodendron radicans, commonly known as eastern poison ivy or poison ivy, is a poisonous Asian and Eastern North American flowering plant that is well-known for causing urushiol-induced contact dermatitis, an itchy, irritating, and sometimes painful rash, in most people who touch it.
In chemistry, the term transition metal (or transition element) has three possible meanings.
Urea, also known as carbamide, is an organic compound with chemical formula CO(NH2)2.
In electronics, a vacuum tube, an electron tube, or just a tube (North America), or valve (Britain and some other regions) is a device that controls electric current between electrodes in an evacuated container.
William Justin Kroll (born Guillaume Justin Kroll; November 24, 1889 – March 30, 1973) was a Luxembourgish metallurgist.
Yttrium is a chemical element with symbol Y and atomic number 39.
Yttrium oxide, also known as yttria, is Y2O3.
A Ziegler–Natta catalyst, named after Karl Ziegler and Giulio Natta, is a catalyst used in the synthesis of polymers of 1-alkenes (alpha-olefins).
Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.
Zircon is a mineral belonging to the group of nesosilicates.
A zirconia light is an intensely brilliant chemical light produced by incandescent zirconia.
Zirconium alloys are solid solutions of zirconium or other metals, a common subgroup having the trade mark Zircaloy.
Zirconium carbide (ZrC) is an extremely hard refractory ceramic material, commercially used in tool bits for cutting tools.
Zirconium dioxide, sometimes known as zirconia (not to be confused with zircon), is a white crystalline oxide of zirconium.
Zirconium nitride is an inorganic compound used in a variety of ways due to its properties.
Zirconium(IV) fluoride (ZrF4) is an inorganic chemical compound.
Zirconium tungstate (()2) is a metal oxide with unusual properties.
Zirconium(IV) bromide is the inorganic compound with the formula ZrBr4.
Zirconium(IV) chloride, also known as zirconium tetrachloride, is an inorganic compound frequently used as a precursor to other compounds of zirconium.
Zirconium(IV) iodide is the chemical compound with the formula ZrI4.
Zirconocene dichloride is an organozirconium compound composed of a zirconium central atom, with two cyclopentadienyl and two chloro ligands.
Zirconyl chloride is the inorganic compound with the formula of Cl8(H2O)12, more commonly written ZrOCl2*8H2O, and referred to at zirconyl chloride octahydrate.
The was a magnitude 9.0–9.1 (Mw) undersea megathrust earthquake off the coast of Japan that occurred at 14:46 JST (05:46 UTC) on Friday 11 March 2011, with the epicentre approximately east of the Oshika Peninsula of Tōhoku and the hypocenter at an underwater depth of approximately.