138 relations: Albertus Magnus, Alexander von Humboldt, Alfred Russel Wallace, Anatomy, Ancient Greek, Ancient history, Andreas Vesalius, Animal, Animal migration, Animal science, Ankara University, Archaea, Aristotle's biology, Astrobiology, Bacteria, Behavior, Behavioral ecology, Behaviorism, Binomial nomenclature, Biogeography, Biological anthropology, Biological dispersal, Biology, Branches of science, Carl Linnaeus, Cell (biology), Cell biology, Cell theory, Charles Darwin, Circulatory system, Cladistics, Class (biology), Climate change, Common descent, Comparative anatomy, Developmental biology, DNA profiling, Domain (biology), Earth, Ecology, Embryology, Empiricism, Endocrine system, Entomology, Essentialism, Ethology, Eukaryote, Evolution, Evolutionary biology, Evolutionary developmental biology, ..., Extinction, Family (biology), Fossil, Fungus, Galen, Genealogy, Genetic variability, Genetics, Genus, Georges Cuvier, Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon, Germ theory of disease, Greco-Roman world, Gregor Mendel, Habitat, Heredity, Herpetology, Histology, History of evolutionary thought, Homo sapiens, Human, Human body, Immune system, International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, Invertebrate zoology, Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, John Hunter (surgeon), Kingdom (biology), Laboratory, Linnaean taxonomy, List of authors of names published under the ICZN, Mammalogy, Mechanical philosophy, Medicine in the medieval Islamic world, Mendelian inheritance, Microscope, Microscopy, Modern synthesis (20th century), Modernity, Molecular biology, Molecular phylogenetics, Molecule, Morphology (biology), Natural environment, Natural history, Natural selection, Natural theology, Nervous system, Nucleic acid sequence, Online Etymology Dictionary, Order (biology), Organ (anatomy), Organism, Ornithology, Outline of zoology, Paleontology, Phylogenetics, Phylogeography, Phylum, Physiology, Plant, Plant physiology, Plate tectonics, Population genetics, Project Gutenberg, Protist, Renaissance, Reproduction, Respiratory system, Scientific method, Soil zoology, Species, Spontaneous generation, Systematics, Taxonomy (biology), Teleological argument, Teratology, The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals, Thomas Henry Huxley, Three-domain system, Timeline of zoology, Type (biology), Vertebrate zoology, William Harvey, Yeast, Zoogeography, Zoology, 1859. Expand index (88 more) » « Shrink index
Albertus Magnus, O.P. (c. 1200 – November 15, 1280), also known as Saint Albert the Great and Albert of Cologne, was a German Catholic Dominican friar and bishop.
Friedrich Wilhelm Heinrich Alexander von Humboldt (14 September 17696 May 1859) was a Prussian polymath, geographer, naturalist, explorer, and influential proponent of Romantic philosophy and science.
Alfred Russel Wallace (8 January 18237 November 1913) was an English naturalist, explorer, geographer, anthropologist, and biologist.
Anatomy (Greek anatomē, “dissection”) is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organisms and their parts.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
Ancient history is the aggregate of past events, "History" from the beginning of recorded human history and extending as far as the Early Middle Ages or the post-classical history.
Andreas Vesalius (31 December 1514 – 15 October 1564) was a 16th-century Flemish anatomist, physician, and author of one of the most influential books on human anatomy, De humani corporis fabrica (On the Fabric of the Human Body).
Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia.
Animal migration is the relatively long-distance movement of individual animals, usually on a seasonal basis.
Animal Science (also Animal Bioscience) is described as "studying the biology of animals that are under the control of humankind." It can also be described as the production and management of farm animals.
Ankara University (Ankara Üniversitesi) is a public university in Ankara, the capital city of Turkey.
Archaea (or or) constitute a domain of single-celled microorganisms.
Aristotle's biology is the theory of biology, grounded in systematic observation and collection of data, mainly zoological, embodied in Aristotle's books on the science.
Astrobiology is a branch of biology concerned with the origins, early evolution, distribution, and future of life in the universe.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
Behavior (American English) or behaviour (Commonwealth English) is the range of actions and mannerisms made by individuals, organisms, systems, or artificial entities in conjunction with themselves or their environment, which includes the other systems or organisms around as well as the (inanimate) physical environment.
Behavioral ecology, also spelled behavioural ecology, is the study of the evolutionary basis for animal behavior due to ecological pressures.
Behaviorism (or behaviourism) is a systematic approach to understanding the behavior of humans and other animals.
Binomial nomenclature ("two-term naming system") also called nomenclature ("two-name naming system") or binary nomenclature, is a formal system of naming species of living things by giving each a name composed of two parts, both of which use Latin grammatical forms, although they can be based on words from other languages.
Biogeography is the study of the distribution of species and ecosystems in geographic space and through geological time.
Biological anthropology, also known as physical anthropology, is a scientific discipline concerned with the biological and behavioral aspects of human beings, their related non-human primates and their extinct hominin ancestors.
Biological dispersal refers to both the movement of individuals (animals, plants, fungi, bacteria, etc.) from their birth site to their breeding site ('natal dispersal'), as well as the movement from one breeding site to another ('breeding dispersal').
Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.
The branches of science, also referred to as sciences, "scientific fields", or "scientific disciplines" are commonly divided into three major groups.
Carl Linnaeus (23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his ennoblement as Carl von LinnéBlunt (2004), p. 171.
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
Cell biology (also called cytology, from the Greek κυτος, kytos, "vessel") is a branch of biology that studies the structure and function of the cell, the basic unit of life.
In biology, cell theory is the historic scientific theory, now universally accepted, that living organisms are made up of cells, that they are the basic structural/organizational unit of all organisms, and that all cells come from pre-existing cells.
Charles Robert Darwin, (12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an English naturalist, geologist and biologist, best known for his contributions to the science of evolution.
The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.
Cladistics (from Greek κλάδος, cládos, i.e., "branch") is an approach to biological classification in which organisms are categorized in groups ("clades") based on the most recent common ancestor.
In biological classification, class (classis) is a taxonomic rank, as well as a taxonomic unit, a taxon, in that rank.
Climate change is a change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns when that change lasts for an extended period of time (i.e., decades to millions of years).
Common descent describes how, in evolutionary biology, a group of organisms share a most recent common ancestor.
Comparative anatomy is the study of similarities and differences in the anatomy of different species.
Developmental biology is the study of the process by which animals and plants grow and develop.
DNA profiling (also called DNA fingerprinting, DNA testing, or DNA typing) is the process of determining an individual's DNA characteristics, which are as unique as fingerprints.
In biological taxonomy, a domain (Latin: regio), also superkingdom or empire, is the highest taxonomic rank of organisms in the three-domain system of taxonomy designed by Carl Woese, an American microbiologist and biophysicist.
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.
Ecology (from οἶκος, "house", or "environment"; -λογία, "study of") is the branch of biology which studies the interactions among organisms and their environment.
Embryology (from Greek ἔμβρυον, embryon, "the unborn, embryo"; and -λογία, -logia) is the branch of biology that studies the prenatal development of gametes (sex cells), fertilization, and development of embryos and fetuses.
In philosophy, empiricism is a theory that states that knowledge comes only or primarily from sensory experience.
The endocrine system is a chemical messenger system consisting of hormones, the group of glands of an organism that carry those hormones directly into the circulatory system to be carried towards distant target organs, and the feedback loops of homeostasis that the hormones drive.
Entomology is the scientific study of insects, a branch of zoology.
Essentialism is the view that every entity has a set of attributes that are necessary to its identity and function.
Ethology is the scientific and objective study of animal behaviour, usually with a focus on behaviour under natural conditions, and viewing behaviour as an evolutionarily adaptive trait.
Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike Prokaryotes (Bacteria and other Archaea).
Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.
Evolutionary biology is the subfield of biology that studies the evolutionary processes that produced the diversity of life on Earth, starting from a single common ancestor.
Evolutionary developmental biology (informally, evo-devo) is a field of biological research that compares the developmental processes of different organisms to infer the ancestral relationships between them and how developmental processes evolved.
In biology, extinction is the termination of an organism or of a group of organisms (taxon), normally a species.
In biological classification, family (familia, plural familiae) is one of the eight major taxonomic ranks; it is classified between order and genus.
A fossil (from Classical Latin fossilis; literally, "obtained by digging") is any preserved remains, impression, or trace of any once-living thing from a past geological age.
A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.
Aelius Galenus or Claudius Galenus (Κλαύδιος Γαληνός; September 129 AD – /), often Anglicized as Galen and better known as Galen of Pergamon, was a Greek physician, surgeon and philosopher in the Roman Empire.
Genealogy (from γενεαλογία from γενεά, "generation" and λόγος, "knowledge"), also known as family history, is the study of families and the tracing of their lineages and history.
Genetic variability is either the presence of, or the generation of, genetic differences.
Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms.
A genus (genera) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, as well as viruses, in biology.
Jean Léopold Nicolas Frédéric, Baron Cuvier (23 August 1769 – 13 May 1832), known as Georges Cuvier, was a French naturalist and zoologist, sometimes referred to as the "founding father of paleontology".
Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon (7 September 1707 – 16 April 1788) was a French naturalist, mathematician, cosmologist, and encyclopédiste.
The germ theory of disease is the currently accepted scientific theory of disease.
The Greco-Roman world, Greco-Roman culture, or the term Greco-Roman; spelled Graeco-Roman in the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth), when used as an adjective, as understood by modern scholars and writers, refers to those geographical regions and countries that culturally (and so historically) were directly, long-term, and intimately influenced by the language, culture, government and religion of the ancient Greeks and Romans. It is also better known as the Classical Civilisation. In exact terms the area refers to the "Mediterranean world", the extensive tracts of land centered on the Mediterranean and Black Sea basins, the "swimming-pool and spa" of the Greeks and Romans, i.e. one wherein the cultural perceptions, ideas and sensitivities of these peoples were dominant. This process was aided by the universal adoption of Greek as the language of intellectual culture and commerce in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea, and of Latin as the tongue for public management and forensic advocacy, especially in the Western Mediterranean. Though the Greek and the Latin never became the native idioms of the rural peasants who composed the great majority of the empire's population, they were the languages of the urbanites and cosmopolitan elites, and the lingua franca, even if only as corrupt or multifarious dialects to those who lived within the large territories and populations outside the Macedonian settlements and the Roman colonies. All Roman citizens of note and accomplishment regardless of their ethnic extractions, spoke and wrote in Greek and/or Latin, such as the Roman jurist and Imperial chancellor Ulpian who was of Phoenician origin, the mathematician and geographer Claudius Ptolemy who was of Greco-Egyptian origin and the famous post-Constantinian thinkers John Chrysostom and Augustine who were of Syrian and Berber origins, respectively, and the historian Josephus Flavius who was of Jewish origin and spoke and wrote in Greek.
Gregor Johann Mendel (Řehoř Jan Mendel; 20 July 1822 – 6 January 1884) was a scientist, Augustinian friar and abbot of St. Thomas' Abbey in Brno, Margraviate of Moravia.
In ecology, a habitat is the type of natural environment in which a particular species of organism lives.
Heredity is the passing on of traits from parents to their offspring, either through asexual reproduction or sexual reproduction, the offspring cells or organisms acquire the genetic information of their parents.
Herpetology (from Greek "herpein" meaning "to creep") is the branch of zoology concerned with the study of amphibians (including frogs, toads, salamanders, newts, and caecilians (gymnophiona)) and reptiles (including snakes, lizards, amphisbaenids, turtles, terrapins, tortoises, crocodilians, and the tuataras).
Histology, also microanatomy, is the study of the anatomy of cells and tissues of plants and animals using microscopy.
Evolutionary thought, the conception that species change over time, has roots in antiquity – in the ideas of the ancient Greeks, Romans, and Chinese as well as in medieval Islamic science.
Homo sapiens is the systematic name used in taxonomy (also known as binomial nomenclature) for the only extant human species.
Humans (taxonomically Homo sapiens) are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina.
The human body is the entire structure of a human being.
The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.
The International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN) is a widely accepted convention in zoology that rules the formal scientific naming of organisms treated as animals.
Invertebrate zoology is the subsystem of zoology that consists of the study of invertebrates, animals without a backbone (a structure which is found only in fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals.) Invertebrates are a vast and very diverse group of animals that includes sponges, echinoderms, tunicates, numerous different phyla of worms, molluscs, arthropods and many additional phyla.
Jean-Baptiste Pierre Antoine de Monet, Chevalier de Lamarck (1 August 1744 – 18 December 1829), often known simply as Lamarck, was a French naturalist.
John Hunter (13 February 1728 – 16 October 1793) was a Scottish surgeon, one of the most distinguished scientists and surgeons of his day.
In biology, kingdom (Latin: regnum, plural regna) is the second highest taxonomic rank, just below domain.
A laboratory (informally, lab) is a facility that provides controlled conditions in which scientific or technological research, experiments, and measurement may be performed.
Linnaean taxonomy can mean either of two related concepts.
This is a list of authors of names published under the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature.
In zoology, mammalogy is the study of mammals – a class of vertebrates with characteristics such as homeothermic metabolism, fur, four-chambered hearts, and complex nervous systems.
The mechanical philosophy is a natural philosophy describing the universe as similar to a large-scale mechanism.
In the history of medicine, Islamic medicine is the science of medicine developed in the Islamic Golden Age, and written in Arabic, the lingua franca of Islamic civilization.
Mendelian inheritance is a type of biological inheritance that follows the laws originally proposed by Gregor Mendel in 1865 and 1866 and re-discovered in 1900.
A microscope (from the μικρός, mikrós, "small" and σκοπεῖν, skopeîn, "to look" or "see") is an instrument used to see objects that are too small to be seen by the naked eye.
Microscopy is the technical field of using microscopes to view objects and areas of objects that cannot be seen with the naked eye (objects that are not within the resolution range of the normal eye).
The modern synthesis was the early 20th-century synthesis reconciling Charles Darwin's theory of evolution and Gregor Mendel's ideas on heredity in a joint mathematical framework.
Modernity, a topic in the humanities and social sciences, is both a historical period (the modern era), as well as the ensemble of particular socio-cultural norms, attitudes and practices that arose in the wake of Renaissance, in the "Age of Reason" of 17th-century thought and the 18th-century "Enlightenment".
Molecular biology is a branch of biology which concerns the molecular basis of biological activity between biomolecules in the various systems of a cell, including the interactions between DNA, RNA, proteins and their biosynthesis, as well as the regulation of these interactions.
Molecular phylogenetics is the branch of phylogeny that analyzes genetic, hereditary molecular differences, predominately in DNA sequences, to gain information on an organism's evolutionary relationships.
A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.
Morphology is a branch of biology dealing with the study of the form and structure of organisms and their specific structural features.
The natural environment encompasses all living and non-living things occurring naturally, meaning in this case not artificial.
Natural history is a domain of inquiry involving organisms including animals, fungi and plants in their environment; leaning more towards observational than experimental methods of study.
Natural selection is the differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype.
Natural theology, once also termed physico-theology, is a type of theology that provides arguments for the existence of God based on reason and ordinary experience of nature.
The nervous system is the part of an animal that coordinates its actions by transmitting signals to and from different parts of its body.
A nucleic acid sequence is a succession of letters that indicate the order of nucleotides forming alleles within a DNA (using GACT) or RNA (GACU) molecule.
The Online Etymology Dictionary is a free online dictionary written and compiled by Douglas Harper that describes the origins of English-language words.
In biological classification, the order (ordo) is.
Organs are collections of tissues with similar functions.
In biology, an organism (from Greek: ὀργανισμός, organismos) is any individual entity that exhibits the properties of life.
Ornithology is a branch of zoology that concerns the study of birds.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to zoology: Zoology – study of animals.
Paleontology or palaeontology is the scientific study of life that existed prior to, and sometimes including, the start of the Holocene Epoch (roughly 11,700 years before present).
In biology, phylogenetics (Greek: φυλή, φῦλον – phylé, phylon.
Phylogeography is the study of the historical processes that may be responsible for the contemporary geographic distributions of individuals.
In biology, a phylum (plural: phyla) is a level of classification or taxonomic rank below Kingdom and above Class.
Physiology is the scientific study of normal mechanisms, and their interactions, which work within a living system.
Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae.
Plant physiology is a subdiscipline of botany concerned with the functioning, or physiology, of plants.
Plate tectonics (from the Late Latin tectonicus, from the τεκτονικός "pertaining to building") is a scientific theory describing the large-scale motion of seven large plates and the movements of a larger number of smaller plates of the Earth's lithosphere, since tectonic processes began on Earth between 3 and 3.5 billion years ago.
Population genetics is a subfield of genetics that deals with genetic differences within and between populations, and is a part of evolutionary biology.
Project Gutenberg (PG) is a volunteer effort to digitize and archive cultural works, to "encourage the creation and distribution of eBooks".
A protist is any eukaryotic organism that has cells with nuclei and is not an animal, plant or fungus.
The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.
Reproduction (or procreation or breeding) is the biological process by which new individual organisms – "offspring" – are produced from their "parents".
The respiratory system (also respiratory apparatus, ventilatory system) is a biological system consisting of specific organs and structures used for gas exchange in animals and plants.
Scientific method is an empirical method of knowledge acquisition, which has characterized the development of natural science since at least the 17th century, involving careful observation, which includes rigorous skepticism about what one observes, given that cognitive assumptions about how the world works influence how one interprets a percept; formulating hypotheses, via induction, based on such observations; experimental testing and measurement of deductions drawn from the hypotheses; and refinement (or elimination) of the hypotheses based on the experimental findings.
Soil zoology is the study of animals living fully or partially in the soil (soil fauna).
In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition.
Spontaneous generation refers to an obsolete body of thought on the ordinary formation of living organisms without descent from similar organisms.
Biological systematics is the study of the diversification of living forms, both past and present, and the relationships among living things through time.
Taxonomy is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics.
The teleological or physico-theological argument, also known as the argument from design, or intelligent design argument is an argument for the existence of God or, more generally, for an intelligent creator based on perceived evidence of deliberate design in the natural world.
Teratology is the study of abnormalities of physiological development.
The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals is Charles Darwin's third major work of evolutionary theory, following On The Origin of Species (1859) and The Descent of Man (1871).
Thomas Henry Huxley (4 May 1825 – 29 June 1895) was an English biologist specialising in comparative anatomy.
The three-domain system is a biological classification introduced by Carl Woese et al. in 1977 that divides cellular life forms into archaea, bacteria, and eukaryote domains.
A timeline of the history of zoology.
In biology, a type is a particular specimen (or in some cases a group of specimens) of an organism to which the scientific name of that organism is formally attached.
Vertebrate zoology is the biological discipline that consists of the study of Vertebrate animals, i.e., animals with a backbone, such as fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals.
William Harvey (1 April 1578 – 3 June 1657) was an English physician who made seminal contributions in anatomy and physiology.
Yeasts are eukaryotic, single-celled microorganisms classified as members of the fungus kingdom.
Zoogeography is the branch of the science of biogeography that is concerned with the geographic distribution (present and past) of animal species.
Zoology or animal biology is the branch of biology that studies the animal kingdom, including the structure, embryology, evolution, classification, habits, and distribution of all animals, both living and extinct, and how they interact with their ecosystems.