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Zoroastrian calendar

Index Zoroastrian calendar

Adherents of Zoroastrianism use three distinct versions of traditional calendars for liturgical purposes, all derived from medieval Iranian calendars, ultimately based on the Babylonian calendar as used in the Achaemenid empire. [1]

85 relations: Aban, Achaemenid Empire, Ahura, Ahura Mazda, Alexander the Great, Ameretat, Amesha Spenta, Ammianus Marcellinus, Anatolia, Armenian calendar, Arshtat, Artaxerxes II of Persia, Asha, Ashi, Asman, Astrological age, Atar, Avesta, Babylonian calendar, Bahá'í calendar, Bundahishn, Burz, Calendar era, Calendar reform, Coptic calendar, Daena, Dahman, Denkard, Egyptian calendar, Fravashi, French Republican Calendar, Gahambars, Gavaevodata, Greenwich Mean Time, Gregorian calendar, Haab', Haoma, Haurvatat, Hormizd I, Hvare-khshaeta, Intercalation (timekeeping), Iranian calendars, Jalali calendar, Julian calendar, Julian day, Kharshedji Rustomji Cama, Khordad Sal, Lunisolar calendar, Mah, Malik-Shah I, ..., March equinox, Mary Boyce, Middle Persian, Mithra, Nowruz, Parsi, Parthia, Proleptic Julian calendar, Rashnu, Regnal year, Sasanian Empire, Seleucid Empire, Seleucid era, Seljuk Empire, Solar Hijri calendar, Spenta Armaiti, Sraosha, Surat, Tishtrya, United Kingdom, Vayu-Vata, Verethragna, Vohu Manah, Western astrology, Wikipedia, Yajna, Yasna, Yazata, Yazd, Yazdegerd III, Zam, Zoroaster, Zoroastrian festivals, Zoroastrian Trust Funds of Europe, Zoroastrianism. Expand index (35 more) »


Apas (āpas) is the Avestan language term for "the waters", which, in its innumerable aggregate states, is represented by the Apas, the hypostases of the waters.

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Achaemenid Empire

The Achaemenid Empire, also called the First Persian Empire, was an empire based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great.

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Ahura is an Avestan language designation for a particular class of Zoroastrian angelic divinities.

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Ahura Mazda

Ahura Mazda (also known as Ohrmazd, Ahuramazda, Hourmazd, Hormazd, Harzoo and Hurmuz) is the Avestan name for the creator and sole God of Zoroastrianism, the old Iranian religion that spread across the Middle East, before ultimately being relegated to small minorities after the Muslim conquest of Iran.

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Alexander the Great

Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Aléxandros ho Mégas), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty.

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Ameretat (Amərətāt) is the Avestan language name of the Zoroastrian divinity/divine concept of immortality.

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Amesha Spenta

Amesha Spenta (Aməša Spənta) is an Avestan language term for a class of divine entities in Zoroastrianism and literally means "Immortal (which is) holy."The noun is amesha "immortal" from the negative prefix a + *mer (ProtoIndoEuropean: "death"), and the adjective spenta "furthering, strengthening, bounteous, holy" is its qualifier.

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Ammianus Marcellinus

Ammianus Marcellinus (born, died 400) was a Roman soldier and historian who wrote the penultimate major historical account surviving from Antiquity (preceding Procopius).

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Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.

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Armenian calendar

The Armenian calendar is the calendar traditionally used in Armenia and still used by the Armenian Apostolic Church and the Armenian Catholic Church.

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Arshtat (arštāt) is the Avestan language name of a Zoroastrian principle and signifies either "justice".

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Artaxerxes II of Persia

Artaxerxes II Mnemon (𐎠𐎼𐎫𐎧𐏁𐏂, meaning "whose reign is through truth") was the Xšâyathiya Xšâyathiyânâm (King of Kings) of Persia from 404 BC until his death in 358 BC.

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Asha (also arta; Avestan: aša/arta) is a concept of cardinal importance.

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Ashi (aši) is the Avestan language word for the Zoroastrian concept of "that which is attained." As the hypostasis of "reward," "recompense," or "capricious luck," Ashi is also a divinity in the Zoroastrian hierarchy of ''yazata''s.

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Asman is the Avestan and Middle Persian name of the Zoroastrian divinity that is the hypostasis of the sky.

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Astrological age

An astrological age is a time period in astrologic theology which astrologers claim parallels major changes in the development of Earth's inhabitants, particularly relating to culture, society, and politics.

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Atar (Avestan ātar) is the Zoroastrian concept of holy fire, sometimes described in abstract terms as "burning and unburning fire" or "visible and invisible fire" (Mirza, 1987:389).

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The Avesta is the primary collection of religious texts of Zoroastrianism, composed in the otherwise unrecorded Avestan language.

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Babylonian calendar

The Babylonian calendar was a lunisolar calendar with years consisting of 12 lunar months, each beginning when a new crescent moon was first sighted low on the western horizon at sunset, plus an intercalary month inserted as needed by decree.

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Bahá'í calendar

The Bahá'í calendar, also called the Badíʿ calendar (Badíʿ means wondrous or unique), is a solar calendar with years composed of 19 months of 19 days each (361 days) plus an extra period of "Intercalary Days".

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Bundahishn, meaning "Primal Creation", is the name traditionally given to an encyclopediaic collection of Zoroastrian cosmogony and cosmology written in Book Pahlavi.

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Burz is the middle Persian name for the Indo-Iranian divinity of waters.

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Calendar era

A calendar era is the year numbering system used by a calendar.

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Calendar reform

Calendar reform, properly calendrical reform, is any significant revision of a calendar system.

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Coptic calendar

The Coptic calendar, also called the Alexandrian calendar, is a liturgical calendar that was used by the Coptic Orthodox Church and is still used in Egypt.

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Daena is a Zoroastrian concept representing insight and revelation, hence "conscience" or "religion." Alternately, Daena is considered to be a divinity, counted among the ''yazata''s.

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Dahman or Dahman Afrin is the Avestan language name of a Zoroastrian concept, later considered to be the embodiment of prayer, and ultimately (also) as a divinity, one of the ''yazata''s.

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The Dēnkard (Middle Persian pronunciation) or Dēnkart (Middle Persian: "Acts of Religion") is a 10th-century compendium of the Mazdaen Zoroastrian beliefs and customs.

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Egyptian calendar

The ancient Egyptian calendar was a solar calendar with a 365-day year.

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Fravashi (fravaši) is the Avestan language term for the Zoroastrian concept of a personal spirit of an individual, whether dead, living, and yet-unborn.

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French Republican Calendar

The French Republican Calendar (calendrier républicain français), also commonly called the French Revolutionary Calendar (calendrier révolutionnaire français), was a calendar created and implemented during the French Revolution, and used by the French government for about 12 years from late 1793 to 1805, and for 18 days by the Paris Commune in 1871.

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The seasonal festivals, called gahambars (meaning "proper season"), occur six times a year.

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Gavaevodata is the Avestan language name of the primordial bovine of Zoroastrian cosmogony and cosmology, one of Ahura Mazda's six primordial material creations and the mythological progenitor of all beneficent animal life.

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Greenwich Mean Time

Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) is the mean solar time at the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, London.

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Gregorian calendar

The Gregorian calendar is the most widely used civil calendar in the world.

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The Haab' is part of the Maya calendric system.

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Haoma is a divine plant in Zoroastrianism and in later Persian culture and mythology.

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Haurvatat (haurvatāt) is the Avestan language word for the Zoroastrian concept of "wholeness" or "perfection." In post-Gathic Zoroastrianism, Haurvatat was the Amesha Spenta associated with water (cf. apo), prosperity, and health.

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Hormizd I

Hormizd-Ardashir, better known by his dynastic name of Hormizd I (هرمز یکم.), was the third shahanshah (king of kings) of the Sasanian Empire from May 270 to June 271.

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Hvare.khshaeta(Hvarə.xšaēta, Huuarə.xšaēta) is the Avestan language name of the Zoroastrian divinity of the "Radiant Sun." Avestan Hvare khshaeta is a compound in which hvar "Sun" has khshaeta "radiant" as a stock epithet.

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Intercalation (timekeeping)

Intercalation or embolism in timekeeping is the insertion of a leap day, week, or month into some calendar years to make the calendar follow the seasons or moon phases.

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Iranian calendars

The Iranian calendars (گاه‌شماری ایرانی Gâhshomâriye Irâni) are a succession of calendars invented or used for over two millennia in Iran (Persia).

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Jalali calendar

The Jalali calendar is a solar calendar that was used in Iran (Persia), variants of which today are still in use in Iran as well as Afghanistan.

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Julian calendar

The Julian calendar, proposed by Julius Caesar in 46 BC (708 AUC), was a reform of the Roman calendar.

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Julian day

Julian day is the continuous count of days since the beginning of the Julian Period and is used primarily by astronomers.

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Kharshedji Rustomji Cama

Kharshedji Rustomji Cama (1831–1909), often known as K. R. Cama, was a Parsi scholar and reformer from Bombay.

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Khordad Sal

Khordad Sal is the birth anniversary (or birthdate) of Zoroaster.

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Lunisolar calendar

A lunisolar calendar is a calendar in many cultures whose date indicates both the moon phase and the time of the solar year.

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Mångha (måŋha) is the Avestan for "Moon, month", equivalent to Persian Māh (Old Persian māha).

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Malik-Shah I

Jalāl al-Dawla Mu'izz al-Dunyā Wa'l-Din Abu'l-Fatḥ ibn Alp Arslān (8 August 1053 – 19 November 1092, full name: معزالدنیا و الدین ملکشاه بن محمد الب ارسلان قسیم امیرالمومنین), better known by his regnal name of Malik-Shah I (ملکشاه) (Melikşah), was Sultan of the Seljuq Empire from 1072 to 1092.

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March equinox

The March equinox or Northward equinox is the equinox on the Earth when the subsolar point appears to leave the southern hemisphere and cross the celestial equator, heading northward as seen from Earth.

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Mary Boyce

Nora Elisabeth Mary Boyce (2 August 1920 – 4 April 2006) was a British scholar of Iranian languages, and an authority on Zoroastrianism.

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Middle Persian

Middle Persian is the Middle Iranian language or ethnolect of southwestern Iran that during the Sasanian Empire (224–654) became a prestige dialect and so came to be spoken in other regions of the empire as well.

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Mithra (𐬀𐬭𐬚𐬌𐬨 Miθra, 𐎷𐎰𐎼 Miça, New Persian: Mehr) is the Zoroastrian angelic divinity (yazata) of Covenant, Light, and Oath.

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Nowruz (نوروز,; literally "new day") is the name of the Iranian New Year, also known as the Persian New Year, which is celebrated worldwide by various ethno-linguistic groups as the beginning of the New Year.

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A Parsi (or Parsee) means "Persian" in the "Persian Language", which today mainly refers to a member of a Zoroastrian community, one of two (the other being Iranis) mainly located in India, with a few in Pakistan.

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Parthia (𐎱𐎼𐎰𐎺 Parθava; 𐭐𐭓𐭕𐭅 Parθaw; 𐭯𐭫𐭮𐭥𐭡𐭥 Pahlaw) is a historical region located in north-eastern Iran.

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Proleptic Julian calendar

The proleptic Julian calendar is produced by extending the Julian calendar backwards to dates preceding AD 4 when the quadrennial leap year stabilized.

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Rashnu is the Avestan language name of the Zoroastrian yazata of justice.

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Regnal year

A regnal year is a year of the reign of a sovereign, from the Latin regnum meaning kingdom, rule.

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Sasanian Empire

The Sasanian Empire, also known as the Sassanian, Sasanid, Sassanid or Neo-Persian Empire (known to its inhabitants as Ērānshahr in Middle Persian), was the last period of the Persian Empire (Iran) before the rise of Islam, named after the House of Sasan, which ruled from 224 to 651 AD. The Sasanian Empire, which succeeded the Parthian Empire, was recognised as one of the leading world powers alongside its neighbouring arch-rival the Roman-Byzantine Empire, for a period of more than 400 years.Norman A. Stillman The Jews of Arab Lands pp 22 Jewish Publication Society, 1979 International Congress of Byzantine Studies Proceedings of the 21st International Congress of Byzantine Studies, London, 21–26 August 2006, Volumes 1-3 pp 29. Ashgate Pub Co, 30 sep. 2006 The Sasanian Empire was founded by Ardashir I, after the fall of the Parthian Empire and the defeat of the last Arsacid king, Artabanus V. At its greatest extent, the Sasanian Empire encompassed all of today's Iran, Iraq, Eastern Arabia (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatif, Qatar, UAE), the Levant (Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan), the Caucasus (Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Dagestan), Egypt, large parts of Turkey, much of Central Asia (Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan), Yemen and Pakistan. According to a legend, the vexilloid of the Sasanian Empire was the Derafsh Kaviani.Khaleghi-Motlagh, The Sasanian Empire during Late Antiquity is considered to have been one of Iran's most important and influential historical periods and constituted the last great Iranian empire before the Muslim conquest and the adoption of Islam. In many ways, the Sasanian period witnessed the peak of ancient Iranian civilisation. The Sasanians' cultural influence extended far beyond the empire's territorial borders, reaching as far as Western Europe, Africa, China and India. It played a prominent role in the formation of both European and Asian medieval art. Much of what later became known as Islamic culture in art, architecture, music and other subject matter was transferred from the Sasanians throughout the Muslim world.

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Seleucid Empire

The Seleucid Empire (Βασιλεία τῶν Σελευκιδῶν, Basileía tōn Seleukidōn) was a Hellenistic state ruled by the Seleucid dynasty, which existed from 312 BC to 63 BC; Seleucus I Nicator founded it following the division of the Macedonian empire vastly expanded by Alexander the Great.

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Seleucid era

The Seleucid era or Anno Graecorum (literally "year of the Greeks" or "Greek year"), sometimes denoted "AG", was a system of numbering years in use by the Seleucid Empire and other countries among the ancient Hellenistic civilizations.

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Seljuk Empire

The Seljuk Empire (also spelled Seljuq) (آل سلجوق) was a medieval Turko-Persian Sunni Muslim empire, originating from the Qiniq branch of Oghuz Turks.

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Solar Hijri calendar

The Solar Hijri calendar (gāh-shomāri-ye hejri-ye khorshidi; لمريز لېږدیز کلیز), also called the Solar Hejri calendar or Shamsi Hijri calendar, and abbreviated as SH, is the official calendar of Iran and Afghanistan.

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Spenta Armaiti

In Zoroastrianism, Spənta Ārmaiti (Avestan for "creative Harmony" and later "holy devotion") is one of the Amesha Spentas, the six creative or divine manifestations of Wisdom and Ahura Mazda.

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Sraosha is the Avestan name of the Zoroastrian yazata of "Conscience" and "Observance", which is also the literal meaning of his name.

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Surat is a city in the Indian state of Gujarat.

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Tishtrya (Tištrya) or Roozahang is the Avestan language name of a Zoroastrian benevolent divinity associated with life-bringing rainfall and fertility.

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United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.

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Vāyu-Vāta or Vāta-Vāyu (IPA) is the Avestan language name of a dual-natured Zoroastrian divinity of the wind (Vayu) and of the atmosphere (Vata).

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Verethragna (vərəθraγna) is an Avestan language neuter noun literally meaning "smiting of resistance" Representing this concept is the divinity Verethragna, who is the hypostasis of "victory", and "as a giver of victory Verethragna plainly enjoyed the greatest popularity of old" The neuter noun verethragna is related to Avestan verethra, 'obstacle' and verethragnan, 'victorious'.

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Vohu Manah

Vohu Manah (vōhu-mánāh) is the Avestan language term for a Zoroastrian concept, generally translated as "Good Purpose", "Good Mind", or "Good Thought", referring to the good moral state of mind that enables an individual to accomplish his duties.

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Western astrology

Western astrology is the system of astrology most popular in Western countries.

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Wikipedia is a multilingual, web-based, free encyclopedia that is based on a model of openly editable content.

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Yajna (IAST) literally means "sacrifice, devotion, worship, offering", and refers in Hinduism to any ritual done in front of a sacred fire, often with mantras.

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Yasna (𐬫𐬀𐬯𐬥𐬀) is the Avestan name of Zoroastrianism's principal act of worship.

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Yazata is the Avestan language word for a Zoroastrian concept with a wide range of meanings but generally signifying (or used as an epithet of) a divinity.

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Yazd (یزد), formerly also known as Yezd, is the capital of Yazd Province, Iran.

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Yazdegerd III

Yazdegerd III or Yazdgerd III (literally meaning "made by God"; New Persian: یزدگرد; Izdegerdes in classical sources), was the thirty-eighth and last king of the Sasanian Empire of Iran from 632 to 651.

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Zam (Zām) is the Avestan language term for the Zoroastrian concept of "earth", in both the sense of land and soil and in the sense of the world.

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Zoroaster (from Greek Ζωροάστρης Zōroastrēs), also known as Zarathustra (𐬰𐬀𐬭𐬀𐬚𐬎𐬱𐬙𐬭𐬀 Zaraθuštra), Zarathushtra Spitama or Ashu Zarathushtra, was an ancient Iranian-speaking prophet whose teachings and innovations on the religious traditions of ancient Iranian-speaking peoples developed into the religion of Zoroastrianism.

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Zoroastrian festivals

Zoroastrianism has numerous festivals and holy days, all of which are bound to the Zoroastrian calendar.

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Zoroastrian Trust Funds of Europe

The Zoroastrian Trust Funds of Europe (ZTFE) is a religious, cultural and social organisation for Zoroastrians residing in the United Kingdom and Europe.

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Zoroastrianism, or more natively Mazdayasna, is one of the world's oldest extant religions, which is monotheistic in having a single creator god, has dualistic cosmology in its concept of good and evil, and has an eschatology which predicts the ultimate destruction of evil.

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Redirects here:

Fasli, Zoroastrian month names.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zoroastrian_calendar

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