256 relations: ?:, Ada (programming language), Adriaan van Wijngaarden, AIM-65, Alan Perlis, Algol (disambiguation), ALGOL 58, ALGOL 60, ALGOL 68, Argonne National Laboratory, Array data structure, Assembly language, Assignment (computer science), Atlas Autocode, Augmented assignment, Autocode, Automatic programming, Automatic variable, Backus–Naur form, Bendix G-15, Bendix G-20, BESM-6, Bird–Meertens formalism, BLISS, Block (programming), Bootstrapping (compilers), Brian Randell, Burroughs B1700, Burroughs Corporation, Burroughs large systems descriptors, Burroughs MCP, C (programming language), CDC 3000 series, CDC SCOPE, CGOL, Charles Simonyi, Closure (computer programming), CLU (programming language), COBOL, Communications of the ACM, Comparison of Pascal and C, Comparison of programming languages, Comparison of programming languages (syntax), Compatible Time-Sharing System, Compiled language, Compiler, Complex instruction set computer, Computer-aided design, Conditional (computer programming), Context-free grammar, ..., Control flow, Convergent Technologies Operating System, Coral 66, Dart (programming language), Dartmouth BASIC, Dartmouth Time Sharing System, DASK, Data type, David Gries, Decimal separator, Declaration (computer programming), Delft University of Technology, Digraphs and trigraphs, Dreamsong, Dylan (programming language), ECL programming language, Edinburgh IMP, Edsger W. Dijkstra, Egon Zakrajšek, Eiffel (programming language), EISPACK, Elbrus (computer), Electrologica X1, Electronic delay storage automatic calculator, Elliott 803, Equals sign, Ernst-Rüdiger Olderog, Exponentiation, FACIT EDB, First-class citizen, Floor and ceiling functions, For loop, Free-form language, Friedrich L. Bauer, GEC 4000 series, General-purpose programming language, Generational list of programming languages, Georg Nees, Gordon Eugene Martin, GOST, GOST 10859, Graphing calculator, Gunther Schmidt, Heinz Zemanek, High-level programming language, Hilary Kahn, History of compiler construction, History of computing in the Soviet Union, History of programming languages, History of the Scheme programming language, HP 3000, IBM 1130, IBM RPG, Icon (programming language), Iftran, ILLIAC IV, IMP (programming language), Imperative programming, Indentation style, Index of computing articles, Intel 8086, Intel iAPX 432, Intelligent tutoring system, International Reference Ionosphere, Interprocedural optimization, ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 22, ISWIM, Jacek Karpiński, Jørn Jensen, John Backus, John McCarthy (computer scientist), JOVIAL, Julia (programming language), Klaus Samelson, Konrad Zuse, Lambda lifting, Let expression, Lexical analysis, Library of Congress Classification:Class Q -- Science, Lisp (programming language), LISP 2, Lispkit Lisp, List of acronyms: A, List of BASIC dialects, List of binary codes, List of computer scientists, List of computing and IT abbreviations, List of DIN standards, List of Jewish atheists and agnostics, List of pioneers in computer science, List of programmers, List of programming language researchers, List of programming languages by type, List of the Delft University of Technology Alumni, List of vacuum tube computers, Local variable, Low-level programming language, M-expression, MAD (programming language), Mailüfterl, Man-Computer Symbiosis, Mary (programming language), Maxima (software), MCST, Mesa (programming language), Minsk family of computers, MLisp, Modula-2+, Modula-3, Modular programming, MOO (programming language), Multics, MUSIC/SP, Naming convention (programming), Nested function, Nobuo Yoneda, Oberon (programming language), Oberon-2, Object-oriented programming, Ole-Johan Dahl, Olivetti Elea, Operating system, Optimized Systems Software, OS4000, Pascal (programming language), PC-LISP, PDP-8, Peter Landin, Peter Naur, Pidgin code, PL/I, PL/M, PL360, Plankalkül, Post-detection policy, PowerBASIC, PRIMOS, Procedural programming, Programming language, Programming language generations, Programming paradigm, Pseudocode, Python syntax and semantics, Quicksort, Rapira, Rc, Rebol, Reduce (computer algebra system), Reflection (computer programming), Regnecentralen, Rekursiv, Relational operator, Reserved word, Rexx, Robert S. Barton, Roger Moore (computer scientist), Rostest, RSTS/E, RT-11, S-algol, Scheme (programming language), Scientific notation, Scientific programming language, Scope (computer science), Semantics, Service in Informatics and Analysis, Seymour Ginsburg, Shell script, Simula, SLIP (programming language), SMALL, SNOBOL, Software engineering, Stale pointer bug, Stropping (syntax), Structured programming, Subroutine, Symbol table, Syntactic sugar, System programming, Tandem Computers, THE multiprogramming system, The Mythical Man-Month, Third-generation programming language, Threaded code, TI-BASIC, Timeline of computing 1950–79, Tony Hoare, TOPS-10, Transaction Application Language, Tron (video game), TSS-8, Turing Award, Type conversion, Unisys DMSII, Unisys MCP programming languages, Unisys OS 2200 programming languages, UNIVAC 1100/2200 series, Variable shadowing, Vienna Development Method, W. Wallace McDowell Award, Work Flow Language, X3J13, XPL, XPL0, 1958 in science. 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In computer programming, ?: is a ternary operator that is part of the syntax for basic conditional expressions in several programming languages.
Ada is a structured, statically typed, imperative, and object-oriented high-level computer programming language, extended from Pascal and other languages.
Adriaan "Aad" van Wijngaarden (2 November 1916 – 7 February 1987) was a Dutch mathematician and computer scientist, who is considered by many to have been the founding father of informatica (computer science) in the Netherlands.
The Rockwell AIM-65 computer was a development computer introduced in 1978 based on the MOS Technology 6502 microprocessor.
Alan Jay Perlis (April 1, 1922 – February 7, 1990) was an American computer scientist and professor at Purdue University, Carnegie Mellon University and Yale University.
Algol is a star system.
ALGOL 58, originally known as IAL, is one of the family of ALGOL computer programming languages.
ALGOL 60 (short for Algorithmic Language 1960) is a member of the ALGOL family of computer programming languages.
ALGOL 68 (short for Algorithmic Language 1968) is an imperative computer programming language that was conceived as a successor to the ALGOL 60 programming language, designed with the goal of a much wider scope of application and more rigorously defined syntax and semantics.
Argonne National Laboratory is a science and engineering research national laboratory operated by the University of Chicago Argonne LLC for the United States Department of Energy located near Lemont, Illinois, outside Chicago.
In computer science, an array data structure, or simply an array, is a data structure consisting of a collection of elements (values or variables), each identified by at least one array index or key.
An assembly (or assembler) language, often abbreviated asm, is a low-level programming language, in which there is a very strong (but often not one-to-one) correspondence between the assembly program statements and the architecture's machine code instructions.
In computer programming, an assignment statement sets and/or re-sets the value stored in the storage location(s) denoted by a variable name; in other words, it copies a value into the variable.
Atlas Autocode (AA)R.A. Brooker and J.S. Rohl,, University of Manchester Computer Science Department, 1965.
Augmented assignment (or compound assignment) is the name given to certain assignment operators in certain programming languages (especially those derived from C).
Autocode is the name of a family of "simplified coding systems", later called programming languages, devised in the 1950s and 1960s for a series of digital computers at the Universities of Manchester, Cambridge and London.
In computer science, the term automatic programming identifies a type of computer programming in which some mechanism generates a computer program to allow human programmers to write the code at a higher abstraction level.
In computer programming, an automatic variable is a local variable which is allocated and deallocated automatically when program flow enters and leaves the variable's scope.
In computer science, Backus–Naur form or Backus normal form (BNF) is a notation technique for context-free grammars, often used to describe the syntax of languages used in computing, such as computer programming languages, document formats, instruction sets and communication protocols.
The Bendix G-15 computer was introduced in 1956 by the Bendix Corporation, Computer Division, Los Angeles, California.
The Bendix G-20 computer was introduced in 1961 by the Bendix Corporation, Computer Division, Los Angeles, California.
BESM-6 (БЭСМ-6) was a Soviet electronic computer of the BESM series.
The Bird–Meertens formalism (BMF) is a calculus for deriving programs from specifications (in a functional-programming setting) by a process of equational reasoning.
BLISS is a system programming language developed at Carnegie Mellon University by W. A. Wulf, D. B. Russell, and A. N. Habermann around 1970.
In computer programming, a block or code block is a lexical structure of source code which is grouped together.
In computer science, bootstrapping is the technique for producing a self-compiling compiler — that is, compiler (or assembler) written in the source programming language that it intends to compile.
Brian Randell (born 1936) is a British computer scientist, and Emeritus Professor at the School of Computing Science, Newcastle University, UK He specialises in research into software fault tolerance and dependability, and is a noted authority on the early pre-1950 history of computers.
The Burroughs B1000 Series was a series of mainframe computers, built by the Burroughs Corporation, and originally introduced in the 1970s with continued software development until 1987.
The Burroughs Corporation was a major American manufacturer of business equipment.
Descriptors are an architectural feature of Burroughs large systems, including the current (as of 2006) Unisys Clearpath/MCP systems.
The MCP (Master Control Program) is the proprietary operating system of the Burroughs small, medium and large systems, including the Unisys Clearpath/MCP systems.
C (as in the letter ''c'') is a general-purpose, imperative computer programming language, supporting structured programming, lexical variable scope and recursion, while a static type system prevents many unintended operations.
The CDC 3000 series computers from Control Data Corporation were mid-1960s follow-ons to the CDC 1604 and CDC 924 systems.
SCOPE, an acronym for Supervisory Control Of Program Execution, was the name used by the Control Data Corporation for a number of operating system projects in the 1960s.
CGOL (pronounced "see goll") is an alternative syntax featuring an extensible algebraic notation for the Lisp programming language.
Charles Simonyi (Simonyi Károly,; born September 10, 1948), son of Károly Simonyi, is a Hungarian-born American computer businessman.
In programming languages, a closure (also lexical closure or function closure) is a technique for implementing lexically scoped name binding in a language with first-class functions.
CLU is a programming language created at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) by Barbara Liskov and her students between 1974 and 1975.
COBOL (an acronym for "common business-oriented language") is a compiled English-like computer programming language designed for business use.
Communications of the ACM is the monthly journal of the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM).
The computer programming languages C and Pascal have similar times of origin, influences, and purposes.
Programming languages are used for controlling the behavior of a machine (often a computer).
This comparison of programming languages compares the features of language syntax (format) for over 50 computer programming languages.
The Compatible Time-Sharing System (CTSS), was one of the first time-sharing operating systems; it was developed at the MIT Computation Center.
A compiled language is a programming language whose implementations are typically compilers (translators that generate machine code from source code), and not interpreters (step-by-step executors of source code, where no pre-runtime translation takes place).
A compiler is computer software that transforms computer code written in one programming language (the source language) into another programming language (the target language).
A complex instruction set computer (CISC) is a computer in which single instructions can execute several low-level operations (such as a load from memory, an arithmetic operation, and a memory store) or are capable of multi-step operations or addressing modes within single instructions.
Computer-aided design (CAD) is the use of computer systems to aid in the creation, modification, analysis, or optimization of a design.
In computer science, conditional statements, conditional expressions and conditional constructs are features of a programming language, which perform different computations or actions depending on whether a programmer-specified boolean condition evaluates to true or false.
In formal language theory, a context-free grammar (CFG) is a certain type of formal grammar: a set of production rules that describe all possible strings in a given formal language.
In computer science, control flow (or flow of control) is the order in which individual statements, instructions or function calls of an imperative program are executed or evaluated.
The Convergent Technologies Operating System, also known variously as CTOS, BTOS and STARSYS, was a modular, message-passing, multiprocess-based operating system.
CORAL (Computer On-line Real-time Applications Language) is a programming language originally developed in 1964 at the Royal Radar Establishment (RRE), Malvern, UK, as a subset of JOVIAL.
Dart is a general-purpose programming language originally developed by Google and later approved as a standard by Ecma (ECMA-408).
Dartmouth BASIC is the original version of the BASIC programming language.
The Dartmouth Time-Sharing System, or DTSS for short, is an operating system first developed at Dartmouth College between 1963 and 1964.
The DASK was the first computer in Denmark.
In computer science and computer programming, a data type or simply type is a classification of data which tells the compiler or interpreter how the programmer intends to use the data.
David Gries (born 26 April 1939 in Flushing, Queens, New York) is an American computer scientist at Cornell University, United States primarily known for his books, The Science of Programming (1981) and A Logical Approach to Discrete Math (1993, with Fred B. Schneider).
A decimal separator is a symbol used to separate the integer part from the fractional part of a number written in decimal form.
In computer programming, a declaration is a language construct that specifies properties of an identifier: it declares what a word (identifier) "means".
Delft University of Technology (Technische Universiteit Delft) also known as TU Delft, is the largest and oldest Dutch public technological university, located in Delft, Netherlands.
In computer programming, digraphs and trigraphs are sequences of two and three characters, respectively, that appear in source code and, according to a programming language's specification, should be treated as if they were single characters.
"Dreamsong" is a 1978 recording created by American computer music musician and composer Michael McNabb at the Center for Computer Research in Music and Acoustics in Stanford University.
Dylan is a multi-paradigm programming language that includes support for functional and object-oriented programming, and is dynamic and reflective while providing a programming model designed to support efficient machine code generation, including fine-grained control over dynamic and static behaviors.
The ECL programming language and system were an extensible high-level programming language and development environment developed at Harvard University in the 1970s.
Edinburgh IMP is a development of ATLAS Autocode, initially developed around 1966-1969 at Edinburgh University, Scotland.
Edsger Wybe Dijkstra (11 May 1930 – 6 August 2002) was a Dutch systems scientist, programmer, software engineer, science essayist, and early pioneer in computing science.
Egon Zakrajšek (July 7, 1941 – September 2002) was a Slovene mathematician and computer scientist.
Eiffel is an object-oriented programming language designed by Bertrand Meyer (an object-orientation proponent and author of Object-Oriented Software Construction) and Eiffel Software.
EISPACK is a software library for numerical computation of eigenvalues and eigenvectors of matrices, written in FORTRAN.
The Elbrus (Эльбрус) is a line of Soviet and Russian computer systems developed by Lebedev Institute of Precision Mechanics and Computer Engineering.
The Electrologica X1 was a digital computer designed and manufactured in the Netherlands from 1958 to 1965.
The electronic delay storage automatic calculator (EDSAC) was an early British computer.
The Elliott 803 is a small, medium-speed transistor digital computer which was manufactured by the British company Elliott Brothers in the 1960s.
The equals sign or equality sign is a mathematical symbol used to indicate equality.
Ernst-Rüdiger Olderog (born 4 June 1955) is a German computer scientist.
Exponentiation is a mathematical operation, written as, involving two numbers, the base and the exponent.
FACIT EDB was a vacuum tube based computer that was manufactured by Åtvidabergs Industrier AB after the designs for BESK, that had been developed by the Swedish Board for Computing Machinery (Matematikmaskinnämnden).
In programming language design, a first-class citizen (also type, object, entity, or value) in a given programming language is an entity which supports all the operations generally available to other entities.
In mathematics and computer science, the floor function is the function that takes as input a real number x and gives as output the greatest integer less than or equal to x, denoted \operatorname(x).
In computer science, a for-loop (or simply for loop) is a control flow statement for specifying iteration, which allows code to be executed repeatedly.
In computer programming, a free-form language is a programming language in which the positioning of characters on the page in program text is insignificant.
Friedrich Ludwig "Fritz" Bauer (10 June 1924 – 26 March 2015) was a German computer scientist and professor at the Technical University of Munich.
The GEC 4000 was a series of 16/32-bit minicomputers produced by GEC Computers Ltd.
In computer software, a general-purpose programming language is a programming language designed to be used for writing software in the widest variety of application domains (a general-purpose language).
This is a "genealogy" of programming languages.
Georg Nees (23 June 1926 – 3 January 2016) was a German academic who was a pioneer of computer art and generative graphics.
Gordon Eugene Martin is a physicist and author in the field of piezoelectric materials for underwater sound transducers.
GOST (Russian: ГОСТ) refers to a set of technical standards maintained by the Euro-Asian Council for Standardization, Metrology and Certification (EASC), a regional standards organization operating under the auspices of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS).
GOST 10859 (1964) is a standard of the Soviet Union which defined how to encode data on punched cards.
A graphing calculator (also graphics / graphic display calculator) is a handheld computer that is capable of plotting graphs, solving simultaneous equations, and performing other tasks with variables.
Gunther Schmidt (born 1939, Rüdersdorf) is a German mathematician who works also in informatics.
Heinz Zemanek (1 January 1920 – 16 July 2014) was an Austrian computer pioneer who led the development, from 1954 to 1958, of one of the first complete transistorised computers on the European continent.
In computer science, a high-level programming language is a programming language with strong abstraction from the details of the computer.
Hilary J. Kahn (1943–2007) was a British computer scientist who spent most of her career as a professor at the University of Manchester, where she worked on computer-aided design and information modelling.
In computing, a compiler is a computer program that transforms source code written in a programming language or computer language (the source language), into another computer language (the target language, often having a binary form known as object code or machine code).
The history of computing in the Soviet Union began during the late 1940s, when the country began to develop MESM at the Kiev Institute of Electrotechnology in Feofaniya.
The first high-level programming language was Plankalkül, created by Konrad Zuse between 1942 and 1945.
The history of the Scheme programming language begins with the development of earlier members of the Lisp family of languages during the second half of the twentieth century, the process of design and development during which language designers Guy L. Steele and Gerald Jay Sussman released an influential series of MIT AI Memos known as the Lambda Papers (1975–1980), the growth in popularity of the language, and the era of standardization (1990 onwards).
The HP 3000 series is a family of minicomputers released by Hewlett-Packard in 1972.
The IBM 1130 Computing System, introduced in 1965, was IBM's least expensive computer at that time.
RPG is a high-level programming language (HLL) for business applications.
Icon is a very high-level programming language featuring goal-directed execution and many facilities for managing strings and textual patterns.
IFTRAN (née Iftran) was created in 1972 by E. F. Miller at General Research Corporation, Santa Barbara, California as a mechanism to support structured programming concepts in a FORTRAN-based environment.
The ILLIAC IV was the first massively parallel computer.
IMP is an early systems programming language that was developed by Edgar T. Irons in the late 1960s through early 1970s.
In computer science, imperative programming is a programming paradigm that uses statements that change a program's state.
In computer programming, an indentation style is a convention governing the indentation of blocks of code to convey program structure.
Originally, the word computing was synonymous with counting and calculating, and the science and technology of mathematical calculations.
The 8086 (also called iAPX 86) is a 16-bit microprocessor chip designed by Intel between early 1976 and mid-1978, when it was released.
The iAPX 432 (Intel Advanced Performance ArchitectureSometimes intel Advanced Processor architecture) was a computer architecture introduced in 1981.
An intelligent tutoring system (ITS) is a computer system that aims to provide immediate and customized instruction or feedback to learners, usually without requiring intervention from a human teacher.
International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) is a common permanent scientific project of the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) and the International Union of Radio Science (URSI) started 1968/69.
Interprocedural optimization (IPO) is a collection of compiler techniques used in computer programming to improve performance in programs containing many frequently used functions of small or medium length.
ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 22 Programming languages, their environments and system software interfaces is a standardization subcommittee of the Joint Technical Committee ISO/IEC JTC 1 of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) that develops and facilitates standards within the fields of programming languages, their environments and system software interfaces.
ISWIM is an abstract computer programming language (or a family of programming languages) devised by Peter J. Landin and first described in his article The Next 700 Programming Languages, published in the Communications of the ACM in 1966.
Jacek Karpiński (9 April 1927 – 21 February 2010) was a Polish pioneer in computer engineering and computer science.
Jørn Jensen (1925–2007), one of the earliest Danish programmers.
John Warner Backus (December 3, 1924 – March 17, 2007) was an American computer scientist.
John McCarthy (September 4, 1927 – October 24, 2011) was an American computer scientist and cognitive scientist.
JOVIAL is a high-level computer programming language similar to ALGOL, specialized for the development of embedded systems (specialized computer systems designed to perform one or a few dedicated functions, usually embedded as part of a complete device including mechanical parts).
Julia is a high-level dynamic programming language designed to address the needs of high-performance numerical analysis and computational science, without the typical need of separate compilation to be fast, while also being effective for general-purpose programming, web use or as a specification language.
Klaus Samelson (December 21, 1918 – May 25, 1980) was a German mathematician, physicist, and computer pioneer in the area of programming language translation and push-pop stack algorithms for sequential formula translation on computers.
Konrad Zuse (22 June 1910 – 18 December 1995) was a German civil engineer, inventor and computer pioneer.
Lambda lifting is a meta-process that restructures a computer program so that functions are defined independently of each other in a global scope.
In computer science, a "let" expression associates a function definition with a restricted scope.
In computer science, lexical analysis, lexing or tokenization is the process of converting a sequence of characters (such as in a computer program or web page) into a sequence of tokens (strings with an assigned and thus identified meaning).
Class Q: Science is a classification used by the Library of Congress Classification system.
Lisp (historically, LISP) is a family of computer programming languages with a long history and a distinctive, fully parenthesized prefix notation.
LISP 2 was a programming language proposed in the 1960s as the successor to Lisp.
Lispkit Lisp is a lexically scoped, purely functional subset of Lisp ("Pure Lisp") developed as a testbed for functional programming concepts.
(Main list of acronyms).
This is an alphabetical list of BASIC dialectsinterpreted and compiled variants of the BASIC programming language.
This is a list of some binary codes that are (or have been) used to represent text as a sequence of binary digits "0" and "1".
This is a list of computer scientists, people who do work in computer science, in particular researchers and authors.
This is a list of computing and IT acronyms and abbreviations.
This is an incomplete list of DIN standards.
Based on Jewish law's emphasis on matrilineal descent, even religiously conservative Orthodox Jewish authorities would accept an atheist born to a Jewish mother as fully Jewish.
This article presents a list of individuals who made transformative breakthroughs in the creation, development and imagining of what computers and electronics could do.
This is a list of programmers notable for their contributions to software, either as original author or architect, or for later additions.
The following is list of researchers of programming language theory, design, implementation, and related areas.
This is a list of notable programming languages, grouped by type.
This is an incomplete list of TU Delft graduates.
Vacuum tube computers, now termed first generation computers, are programmable digital computers using vacuum tube logic circuitry.
In computer science, a local variable is a variable that is given local scope.
A low-level programming language is a programming language that provides little or no abstraction from a computer's instruction set architecture—commands or functions in the language map closely to processor instructions.
In computer programming, M-expressions (or meta-expressions) were an early proposed syntax for the Lisp programming language, inspired by contemporary languages such as Fortran and ALGOL.
MAD (Michigan Algorithm Decoder) is a programming language and compiler for the IBM 704 and later the IBM 709, IBM 7090, IBM 7040, UNIVAC 1107, UNIVAC 1108, Philco 210-211, and eventually the IBM S/370 mainframe computers.
Mailüfterl is a nickname for the Austrian Binär dezimaler Volltransistor-Rechenautomat (binary-decimal fully transistorized computing automaton), an early transistorized computer.
"Man-Computer Symbiosis" is the title of a work by J.C.R. Licklider, which was published during the year 1960.
Mary was a programming language designed and implemented by RUNIT at Trondheim, Norway in the 1970s.
Maxima is a computer algebra system (CAS) based on a 1982 version of Macsyma.
MCST (МЦСТ, acronym for Moscow Center of SPARC Technologies) is a microprocessor company that was set up in 1992.
Mesa is a programming language developed in the late 1970s at the Xerox Palo Alto Research Center in Palo Alto, California, United States.
Minsk family of mainframe computers was developed and produced in the Byelorussian SSR from 1959 to 1975.
MLISP is a variant of Lisp with an Algol-like syntax based on M-Expressions, which were the function syntax in the original description of Lisp by John McCarthy.
Modula-2+ is a programming language descended from the Modula-2 language.
Modula-3 is a programming language conceived as a successor to an upgraded version of Modula-2 known as Modula-2+.
Modular programming is a software design technique that emphasizes separating the functionality of a programme into independent, interchangeable modules, such that each contains everything necessary to execute only one aspect of the desired functionality.
The MOO programming language is a relatively simple programming language used to support the MOO Server.
Multics (Multiplexed Information and Computing Service) is an influential early time-sharing operating system, based around the concept of a single-level memory.
MUSIC/SP (Multi-User System for Interactive Computing/System Product; originally "McGill University System for Interactive Computing") was developed at McGill University in the 1970s from an early IBM time-sharing system called RAX (Remote Access Computing System).
In computer programming, a naming convention is a set of rules for choosing the character sequence to be used for identifiers which denote variables, types, functions, and other entities in source code and documentation.
In computer programming, a nested function (or nested procedure or subroutine) is a function which is defined within another function, the enclosing function.
was a Japanese mathematician and computer scientist.
Oberon is a general-purpose programming language created in 1986 by Niklaus Wirth and the latest member of the Wirthian family of ALGOL-like languages (Euler, Algol-W, Pascal, Modula, and Modula-2).
Oberon-2 is an extension of the original Oberon programming language that adds limited reflection and object-oriented programming facilities, open arrays as pointer base types, read-only field export and reintroduces the FOR loop from Modula-2.
Object-oriented programming (OOP) is a programming paradigm based on the concept of "objects", which may contain data, in the form of fields, often known as attributes; and code, in the form of procedures, often known as methods. A feature of objects is that an object's procedures can access and often modify the data fields of the object with which they are associated (objects have a notion of "this" or "self").
Ole-Johan Dahl (12 October 1931 – 29 June 2002) was a Norwegian computer scientist.
The Elea 9003 is one of a series of mainframe computers Olivetti developed starting in the late 1950s.
An operating system (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs.
Optimized Systems Software (OSS) was a small company that produced disk operating systems and programming languages for primarily the Atari 8-bit computers.
OS4000 is a proprietary operating system introduced by GEC Computers Limited in 1977 as the successor to GEC DOS, for its range of GEC 4000 series 16-bit, and later 32-bit, minicomputers.
Pascal is an imperative and procedural programming language, which Niklaus Wirth designed in 1968–69 and published in 1970, as a small, efficient language intended to encourage good programming practices using structured programming and data structuring. It is named in honor of the French mathematician, philosopher and physicist Blaise Pascal. Pascal was developed on the pattern of the ALGOL 60 language. Wirth had already developed several improvements to this language as part of the ALGOL X proposals, but these were not accepted and Pascal was developed separately and released in 1970. A derivative known as Object Pascal designed for object-oriented programming was developed in 1985; this was used by Apple Computer and Borland in the late 1980s and later developed into Delphi on the Microsoft Windows platform. Extensions to the Pascal concepts led to the Pascal-like languages Modula-2 and Oberon.
PC-LISP is an implementation of the Franz Lisp dialect by Peter Ashwood-Smith.
The PDP-8 was a 12-bit minicomputer produced by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC).
Peter John Landin (5 June 1930, Sheffield – 3 June 2009) was a British computer scientist.
Peter Naur (25 October 1928 – 3 January 2016) was a Danish computer science pioneer and Turing award winner.
In computer programming, pidgin code is a mixture of several programming languages in the same program, or pseudocode that is a mixture of a programming language with natural language descriptions.
PL/I (Programming Language One, pronounced) is a procedural, imperative computer programming language designed for scientific, engineering, business and system programming uses.
The PL/M programming language (an acronym of Programming Language for Microcomputers) is a high-level language conceived and developed by Gary Kildall in 1973 for Hank Smith at Intel for its microprocessors.
PL360 (or PL/360) is a programming language designed by Niklaus Wirth and written by Niklaus Wirth, Joseph W. Wells, Jr., and Edwin Satterthwaite, Jr.
Plankalkül ("Plan Calculus") is a programming language designed for engineering purposes by Konrad Zuse between 1942 and 1945.
A post-detection policy (PDP), also known as a post-detection protocol, is a set of structured rules, standards, guidelines, or actions that governmental or other organizational entities plan to follow for the "detection, analysis, verification, announcement, and response to" confirmed signals from extraterrestrial civilizations.
PowerBASIC, formerly Turbo Basic, is the brand of several commercial compilers by PowerBASIC Inc.
PRIMOS was an operating system developed during the 1970s by Prime Computer for its minicomputer systems.
Procedural programming is a programming paradigm, derived from structured programming, based upon the concept of the procedure call.
A programming language is a formal language that specifies a set of instructions that can be used to produce various kinds of output.
Programming languages have been classified into several programming language generations.
Programming paradigms are a way to classify programming languages based on their features.
Pseudocode is an informal high-level description of the operating principle of a computer program or other algorithm.
The syntax of the Python programming language is the set of rules that defines how a Python program will be written and interpreted (by both the runtime system and by human readers).
Quicksort (sometimes called partition-exchange sort) is an efficient sorting algorithm, serving as a systematic method for placing the elements of an array in order.
Rapira (Рапира, rapier) is an educational procedural programming language developed in the Soviet Union and implemented on Agat computer, PDP-11 clones (Electronika, DVK, BK series) and Intel-8080/Z80 clones (Korvet).
rc (for "run commands") is the command line interpreter for Version 10 Unix and Plan 9 from Bell Labs operating systems.
Rebol (historically REBOL) is a cross-platform data exchange language and a multi-paradigm dynamic programming language designed by Carl Sassenrath for network communications and distributed computing.
Reduce is a general-purpose computer algebra system geared towards applications in physics.
In computer science, reflection is the ability of a computer program to examine, introspect, and modify its own structure and behavior at runtime.
Regnecentralen, or RC for short, was the first Danish computer company, founded on October 12, 1955.
Rekursiv was a computer processor designed by David M. Harland in the mid-1980s for Linn Smart Computing in Glasgow, Scotland.
In computer science, a relational operator is a programming language construct or operator that tests or defines some kind of relation between two entities.
In a computer language, a reserved word (also known as a reserved identifier) is a word that cannot be used as an identifier, such as the name of a variable, function, or label – it is "reserved from use".
Rexx (Restructured Extended Executor) is an interpreted programming language developed at IBM by Mike Cowlishaw.
Robert Stanley "Bob" Barton (February 13, 1925 – January 28, 2009) was recognized as the chief architect of the Burroughs B5000 and other computers such as the B1700, and a co-inventor of dataflow.
Roger D. Moore (born November 16, 1939) was the 1973 recipient (with Larry Breed and Richard Lathwell) of the Grace Murray Hopper Award from the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM).
Rostest is the largest organization of practical metrology and certification on the territory of the Russian Federation.
RSTS is a multi-user time-sharing operating system, initially developed by Evans, Griffiths, & Hart of Boston, and acquired by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC, now part of Hewlett Packard) for the PDP-11 series of 16-bit minicomputers.
RT-11 ("RT" for real-time) is a discontinued small, single-user real-time operating system for the Digital Equipment Corporation PDP-11 family of 16-bit computers.
S-algol (St Andrews Algol) is a computer programming language derivative of ALGOL 60 developed at the University of St Andrews in 1979 by Ron Morrison and Tony Davie.
Scheme is a programming language that supports multiple paradigms, including functional programming and imperative programming, and is one of the two main dialects of Lisp.
Scientific notation (also referred to as scientific form or standard index form, or standard form in the UK) is a way of expressing numbers that are too big or too small to be conveniently written in decimal form.
In computer programming, a scientific language is a programming language optimized for the use of mathematical formulas and matrices.
In computer programming, the scope of a name binding – an association of a name to an entity, such as a variable – is the region of a computer program where the binding is valid: where the name can be used to refer to the entity.
Semantics (from σημαντικός sēmantikós, "significant") is the linguistic and philosophical study of meaning, in language, programming languages, formal logics, and semiotics.
Service in Informatics and Analysis (SIA Ltd.) was one of the pioneering time-sharing service bureau companies in the late 1960s, later known as SIA Computer Services.
Seymour Ginsburg (December 12, 1927 – December 5, 2004) was an American pioneer of automata theory, formal language theory, and database theory, in particular; and computer science, in general.
A shell script is a computer program designed to be run by the Unix shell, a command-line interpreter.
Simula is the name of two simulation programming languages, Simula I and Simula 67, developed in the 1960s at the Norwegian Computing Center in Oslo, by Ole-Johan Dahl and Kristen Nygaard.
SLIP is a list processing computer programming language, invented by Joseph Weizenbaum in the 1960s.
SMALL, Small Machine Algol Like Language, is a programming language developed by Dr.
SNOBOL (StriNg Oriented and symBOlic Language) is a series of computer programming languages developed between 1962 and 1967 at AT&T Bell Laboratories by David J. Farber, Ralph E. Griswold and Ivan P. Polonsky, culminating in SNOBOL4.
Software engineering is the application of engineering to the development of software in a systematic method.
A stale pointer bug, otherwise known as an aliasing bug, is a class of subtle programming errors that can arise in code that does dynamic memory allocation, especially via the malloc function or equivalent.
In computer language design, stropping is a method of explicitly marking letter sequences as having a special property, such as being a keyword, or a certain type of variable or storage location, and thus inhabiting a different namespace from ordinary names ("identifiers"), in order to avoid clashes.
Structured programming is a programming paradigm aimed at improving the clarity, quality, and development time of a computer program by making extensive use of the structured control flow constructs of selection (if/then/else) and repetition (while and for), block structures, and subroutines in contrast to using simple tests and jumps such as the go to statement, which can lead to "spaghetti code" that is potentially difficult to follow and maintain.
In computer programming, a subroutine is a sequence of program instructions that performs a specific task, packaged as a unit.
In computer science, a symbol table is a data structure used by a language translator such as a compiler or interpreter, where each identifier (a.k.a. symbol) in a program's source code is associated with information relating to its declaration or appearance in the source.
In computer science, syntactic sugar is syntax within a programming language that is designed to make things easier to read or to express.
System programming (or systems programming) is the activity of programming computer system software.
Tandem Computers, Inc. was the dominant manufacturer of fault-tolerant computer systems for ATM networks, banks, stock exchanges, telephone switching centers, and other similar commercial transaction processing applications requiring maximum uptime and zero data loss.
The THE multiprogramming system or THE OS was a computer operating system designed by a team led by Edsger W. Dijkstra, described in monographs in 1965-66 (Jun 14, 1965) and published in 1968.
The Mythical Man-Month: Essays on Software Engineering is a book on software engineering and project management by Fred Brooks first published in 1975, with subsequent editions in 1982 and 1995.
A third-generation programming language (3GL) is a generational way to categorize high-level computer programming languages.
In computer science, the term threaded code refers to a programming technique where the code has a form that essentially consists entirely of calls to subroutines.
TI-BASIC is the official name of a BASIC-like language built into Texas Instruments (TI)'s graphing calculators, including the TI-83 series, TI-84 Plus series, TI-89 series, TI-92 series (including Voyage 200), TI-73, and TI-Nspire.
Sir Charles Antony Richard Hoare (born 11 January 1934), is a British computer scientist.
The TOPS-10 System (Timesharing / Total Operating System-10) was a computer operating system from Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) for the PDP-10 (or DECsystem-10) mainframe computer launched in 1967.
Transaction Application Language or TAL (originally "Tandem Application Language") is a block-structured, procedural language optimized for use on Tandem hardware.
Tron is a coin-operated arcade video game manufactured and distributed by Bally Midway in 1982.
TSS-8 is a discontinued time-sharing operating system co-written by Don Witcraft and John Everett at Digital Equipment Corporation in 1967.
The ACM A.M. Turing Award is an annual prize given by the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) to an individual selected for contributions "of lasting and major technical importance to the computer field".
In computer science, type conversion, type casting, and type coercion are different ways of changing an entity of one data type into another.
The Unisys Data Management System II (DMSII) is a database system originally created by the Burroughs Corporation in 1972.
Unisys MCP has had several generations of compilers in its history supporting a wide variety of programming languages.
OS 2200 has had several generations of compilers and linkers in its history supporting a wide variety of programming languages.
The UNIVAC 1100/2200 series is a series of compatible 36-bit computer systems, beginning with the UNIVAC 1107 in 1962, initially made by Sperry Rand.
In computer programming, variable shadowing occurs when a variable declared within a certain scope (decision block, method, or inner class) has the same name as a variable declared in an outer scope.
The Vienna Development Method (VDM) is one of the longest-established formal methods for the development of computer-based systems.
The W. Wallace McDowell Award is awarded by the IEEE Computer Society for outstanding recent theoretical, design, educational, practical, or other similar innovative contributions that fall within the scope of Computer Society interest.
Work Flow Language, or WFL ("wiffle") is the process control language for the Burroughs large systems, including the Unisys ClearPath/MCP series, and their operating system Master Control Program.
X3J13 is the name of a technical committee which was part of INCITS (known at the time as X3).
XPL is a programming language based on PL/I, a portable one-pass compiler written in its own language, and a parser generator tool for easily implementing similar compilers for other languages.
XPL0 is a computer programming language that is essentially a cross between Pascal and C. It was created in 1976 by Peter J. R. Boyle who wanted a high-level language for his microcomputer and wanted something more sophisticated than BASIC, which was the dominant language for personal computers at the time.
The year 1958 in science and technology involved some significant events, listed below.
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