145 relations: ABC ALGOL, Ada (programming language), Address programming language, ALCOR, ALGO, ALGOL, Algol (disambiguation), ALGOL 58, ALGOL 60, ALGOL 68, ALGOL Bulletin, ALGOL N, ALGOL W, ALGOL X, ALGOL Y, AMBIT, Array data type, Atlas (computer), Backus–Naur form, BASIC, Binary search algorithm, Block (programming), Boolean data type, Bounds checking, Brent's method, Brian Randell, Burroughs Corporation, Burroughs large systems, CAP Group, Caret, Centrum Wiskunde & Informatica, Charles Katz, Chomsky normal form, Christiane Floyd, CLU (programming language), Comparison of programming languages, Comparison of programming languages (syntax), Comparison of programming languages by type system, Compiled language, Compiler-compiler, Computer file, Computer program, Conditional (computer programming), Continuation, Control flow, Coral 66, CPL (programming language), Dangling else, Dartmouth ALGOL 30, Dartmouth Time Sharing System, ..., DG/L, DYNAMO (programming language), Edsger W. Dijkstra, Elliott ALGOL, Elliott Brothers (computer company), Essentials of Programming Languages, Euler (programming language), Evaluation strategy, Executive Systems Problem Oriented Language, First-class function, For loop, Friedrich L. Bauer, Generational list of programming languages, Heinz Rutishauser, High-level language computer architecture, High-level programming language, History of compiler construction, History of computing in the Soviet Union, History of general-purpose CPUs, History of operating systems, History of programming languages, History of Programming Languages, IBM Laboratory Vienna, ICT 1900 series, IFIP Working Group 2.1, International Federation for Information Processing, ISWIM, Jacques Cohen (computer scientist), Jensen's Device, Jochen Liedtke, John Backus, John McCarthy (computer scientist), Joseph Henry Wegstein, LEAP (programming language), LGP-30, Lisp (programming language), List of compilers, List of computer scientists, List of Danes, List of Dutch inventions and discoveries, List of IBM products, List of International Organization for Standardization standards, List of pioneers in computer science, List of programmers, List of programming languages, M series (computer), MAD (programming language), Man or boy test, META II, Mike Woodger, NAG Numerical Library, Negation, Nico Habermann, Numerical Algorithms Group, Object composition, Off-side rule, Pascal (programming language), Peter Landin, Peter Lucas (computer scientist), Peter Naur, PL/I, PLANC, POP-2, Procedural parameter, Programming language, Racket features, Record (computer science), Roger Moore (computer scientist), Royal Radar Establishment Automatic Computer, S-algol, SAIL (programming language), Saul Rosen, Scope (computer science), SDS 9 Series, Semicolon, Setjmp.h, SETL, Simula, SMIL (computer), Stack machine, Standard streams, Static variable, Steinhaus–Johnson–Trotter algorithm, Stropping (syntax), Structured programming, Subroutine, System programming language, THE multiprogramming system, Thunk, Timeline of programming languages, Trabb Pardo–Knuth algorithm, Van Wijngaarden grammar, Whetstone (benchmark), Z23 (computer), 1960 in science. Expand index (95 more) » « Shrink index
ABC ALGOL is an extension of the Algol 60 programming language with arbitrary data structures and user-defined operators, targeted for symbolic mathematics.
Ada is a structured, statically typed, imperative, and object-oriented high-level computer programming language, extended from Pascal and other languages.
The Address programming language (Адресный язык программирования Адресна мова програмування) is one of the world's first high-level programming languages.
ALCOR is an early computer language definition created by the ALCOR Group, a consortium of universities, research institutions and manufacturers in Europe and the United States which was founded in 1959 and which had 60 members in 1966.
ALGO is an algebraic programming language developed between 1959 and 1961 for the Bendix G-15 computer.
ALGOL (short for "Algorithmic Language") is a family of imperative computer programming languages, originally developed in the mid-1950s, which greatly influenced many other languages and was the standard method for algorithm description used by the ACM in textbooks and academic sources for more than thirty years.
Algol is a star system.
ALGOL 58, originally known as IAL, is one of the family of ALGOL computer programming languages.
ALGOL 60 (short for Algorithmic Language 1960) is a member of the ALGOL family of computer programming languages.
ALGOL 68 (short for Algorithmic Language 1968) is an imperative computer programming language that was conceived as a successor to the ALGOL 60 programming language, designed with the goal of a much wider scope of application and more rigorously defined syntax and semantics.
The ALGOL Bulletin was a periodical regarding the ALGOL 60 and ALGOL 68 programming languages.
ALGOL N is the name of a successor to ALGOL 60 designed in Japan with the aim of being as powerful as ALGOL 68 but as simple as ALGOL 60.
ALGOL W is a programming language.
ALGOL X was the code name given to the programming language which the Working Group 2.1 on ALGOL of the International Federation for Information Processing was to develop as a successor to ALGOL 60.
ALGOL Y was the name given to a speculated successor for the ALGOL 60 programming language that incorporated some radical features that were rejected for ALGOL 68 and ALGOL X. ALGOL Y was intended to be a "radical reconstruction" of ALGOL.
AMBIT is a historical programming language that was introduced by Carlos Christensen of Massachusetts Computer Associates in 1964 for symbolic computation.
Language support for array types may include certain built-in array data types, some syntactic constructions (array type constructors) that the programmer may use to define such types and declare array variables, and special notation for indexing array elements.
The Atlas Computer was a joint development between the University of Manchester, Ferranti, and Plessey.
In computer science, Backus–Naur form or Backus normal form (BNF) is a notation technique for context-free grammars, often used to describe the syntax of languages used in computing, such as computer programming languages, document formats, instruction sets and communication protocols.
BASIC (an acronym for Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) is a family of general-purpose, high-level programming languages whose design philosophy emphasizes ease of use.
In computer science, binary search, also known as half-interval search,logarithmic search, or binary chop, is a search algorithm that finds the position of a target value within a sorted array.
In computer programming, a block or code block is a lexical structure of source code which is grouped together.
In computer science, the Boolean data type is a data type that has one of two possible values (usually denoted true and false), intended to represent the two truth values of logic and Boolean algebra.
In computer programming, bounds checking is any method of detecting whether a variable is within some bounds before it is used.
In numerical analysis, Brent's method is a root-finding algorithm combining the bisection method, the secant method and inverse quadratic interpolation.
Brian Randell (born 1936) is a British computer scientist, and Emeritus Professor at the School of Computing Science, Newcastle University, UK He specialises in research into software fault tolerance and dependability, and is a noted authority on the early pre-1950 history of computers.
The Burroughs Corporation was a major American manufacturer of business equipment.
In the 1970s, Burroughs Corporation was organized into three divisions with very different product line architectures for high-end, mid-range, and entry-level business computer systems.
CAP Group was a British software house.
The caret is an inverted V-shaped grapheme.
The Centrum Wiskunde & Informatica (abbr. CWI; English: "National Research Institute for Mathematics and Computer Science") is a research center in the field of mathematics and theoretical computer science.
Charles Katz (born in 1927) is an American computer scientist known for his contributions to early compiler development in the 1950s.
In formal language theory, a context-free grammar G is said to be in Chomsky normal form (first described by Noam Chomsky) if all of its production rules are of the form: where A, B, and C are nonterminal symbols, a is a terminal symbol (a symbol that represents a constant value), S is the start symbol, and ε denotes the empty string.
Christiane Floyd (born 26 April 1943) is an Austrian computer scientist.
CLU is a programming language created at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) by Barbara Liskov and her students between 1974 and 1975.
Programming languages are used for controlling the behavior of a machine (often a computer).
This comparison of programming languages compares the features of language syntax (format) for over 50 computer programming languages.
This comparison of programming languages (type system) compares the features of type systems or their type checking for multiple programming languages.
A compiled language is a programming language whose implementations are typically compilers (translators that generate machine code from source code), and not interpreters (step-by-step executors of source code, where no pre-runtime translation takes place).
In computer science, a compiler-compiler or compiler generator is a programming tool that creates a parser, interpreter, or compiler from some form of formal description of a language and machine.
A computer file is a computer resource for recording data discretely in a computer storage device.
A computer program is a collection of instructions for performing a specific task that is designed to solve a specific class of problems.
In computer science, conditional statements, conditional expressions and conditional constructs are features of a programming language, which perform different computations or actions depending on whether a programmer-specified boolean condition evaluates to true or false.
In computer science and computer programming, a continuation is an abstract representation of the control state of a computer program.
In computer science, control flow (or flow of control) is the order in which individual statements, instructions or function calls of an imperative program are executed or evaluated.
CORAL (Computer On-line Real-time Applications Language) is a programming language originally developed in 1964 at the Royal Radar Establishment (RRE), Malvern, UK, as a subset of JOVIAL.
CPL (Combined Programming Language) is a multi-paradigm programming language, that was developed in the early 1960s.
The dangling else is a problem in computer programming in which an optional else clause in an if–then(–else) statement results in nested conditionals being ambiguous.
Dartmouth ALGOL 30 was an 1960s-era implementation, firstly of the ALGOL 58 programming language, then of ALGOL 60 for the LGP-30 at Dartmouth College, hence the name.
The Dartmouth Time-Sharing System, or DTSS for short, is an operating system first developed at Dartmouth College between 1963 and 1964.
DG/L was a programming language developed by Data General Corp for the Nova, Eclipse and Eclipse/MV families of minicomputers in the 1970s and early 1980s.
DYNAMO (DYNAmic MOdels) was a simulation language and accompanying graphical notation developed within the system dynamics analytical framework.
Edsger Wybe Dijkstra (11 May 1930 – 6 August 2002) was a Dutch systems scientist, programmer, software engineer, science essayist, and early pioneer in computing science.
Elliott ALGOL was an ALGOL 60 compiler for the Elliott 803 computer.
Elliott Brothers (London) Ltd was an early computer company of the 1950s–60s in the United Kingdom.
Essentials of Programming Languages (EOPL) is a textbook on programming languages by Daniel P. Friedman, Mitchell Wand, and Christopher T. Haynes.
Euler is a programming language created by Niklaus Wirth and Helmut Weber, conceived as an extension and generalization of ALGOL 60.
Evaluation strategies are used by programming languages to determine when to evaluate the argument(s) of a function call (for function, also read: operation, method, or relation) and what kind of value to pass to the function.
ESPOL (short for Executive Systems Problem Oriented Language) was a superset of ALGOL 60 that provided capabilities of what would later be known as Mohols, machine oriented high order languages, such as interrupting a processor on a multiprocessor system (the Burroughs large systems were multiprocessor processor systems).
In computer science, a programming language is said to have first-class functions if it treats functions as first-class citizens.
In computer science, a for-loop (or simply for loop) is a control flow statement for specifying iteration, which allows code to be executed repeatedly.
Friedrich Ludwig "Fritz" Bauer (10 June 1924 – 26 March 2015) was a German computer scientist and professor at the Technical University of Munich.
This is a "genealogy" of programming languages.
Heinz Rutishauser (30 January 1918 – 10 November 1970) was a Swiss mathematician and a pioneer of modern numerical mathematics and computer science.
A high-level language computer architecture (HLLCA) is a computer architecture designed to be targeted by a specific high-level language, rather than the architecture being dictated by hardware considerations.
In computer science, a high-level programming language is a programming language with strong abstraction from the details of the computer.
In computing, a compiler is a computer program that transforms source code written in a programming language or computer language (the source language), into another computer language (the target language, often having a binary form known as object code or machine code).
The history of computing in the Soviet Union began during the late 1940s, when the country began to develop MESM at the Kiev Institute of Electrotechnology in Feofaniya.
The history of general-purpose CPUs is a continuation of the earlier history of computing hardware.
Computer operating systems (OSes) provide a set of functions needed and used by most application programs on a computer, and the links needed to control and synchronize computer hardware.
The first high-level programming language was Plankalkül, created by Konrad Zuse between 1942 and 1945.
History of Programming Languages (HOPL) is an infrequent ACM SIGPLAN conference.
IBM Laboratory Vienna was an IBM research laboratory based in Vienna, Austria.
ICT 1900 was the name given to a series of mainframe computers released by International Computers and Tabulators (ICT) and later International Computers Limited (ICL) during the 1960s and '70s.
IFIP Working Group 2.1 on Algorithmic Languages and Calculi is a working group of the International Federation for Information Processing (IFIP).
The International Federation for Information Processing (IFIP) is a global organisation for researchers and professionals working in the field of information and communication technologies (ICT) to conduct research, develop standards and promote information sharing.
ISWIM is an abstract computer programming language (or a family of programming languages) devised by Peter J. Landin and first described in his article The Next 700 Programming Languages, published in the Communications of the ACM in 1966.
Jacques Cohen is a Professor Emeritus of Computer Science and of the Volen National Center for Complex Systems at Brandeis University.
Jensen's Device is a computer programming technique that exploits call by name.
Jochen Liedtke (26 May 1953 – 10 June 2001) was a German computer scientist, noted for his work on microkernels, especially the creation of the L4 microkernel family.
John Warner Backus (December 3, 1924 – March 17, 2007) was an American computer scientist.
John McCarthy (September 4, 1927 – October 24, 2011) was an American computer scientist and cognitive scientist.
Joseph Henry Wegstein (b.April 7, 1922 in Washburn, Illinois) is an American computer scientist.
LEAP is an extension to the ALGOL 60 programming language which provides an associative memory of triples.
The LGP-30, standing for Librascope General Purpose and then Librascope General Precision, was an early off-the-shelf computer.
Lisp (historically, LISP) is a family of computer programming languages with a long history and a distinctive, fully parenthesized prefix notation.
This page is intended to list all current compilers, compiler generators, interpreters, translators, tool foundations, assemblers, automatable command line interfaces (shells), etc.
This is a list of computer scientists, people who do work in computer science, in particular researchers and authors.
This is a list of notable Danish people.
The Netherlands had a considerable part in the making of modern society.
The following is a partial list of products, services, and subsidiaries of International Business Machines (IBM) Corporation and its predecessor corporations, beginning in the 1890s.
This is a list of publishedThis list generally excludes draft versions.
This article presents a list of individuals who made transformative breakthroughs in the creation, development and imagining of what computers and electronics could do.
This is a list of programmers notable for their contributions to software, either as original author or architect, or for later additions.
The aim of this list of programming languages is to include all notable programming languages in existence, both those in current use and historical ones, in alphabetical order, except for dialects of BASIC, esoteric programming languages, and markup languages.
M-20, M-220 and M222 were a range of general-purpose computers designed and manufactured in the USSR.
MAD (Michigan Algorithm Decoder) is a programming language and compiler for the IBM 704 and later the IBM 709, IBM 7090, IBM 7040, UNIVAC 1107, UNIVAC 1108, Philco 210-211, and eventually the IBM S/370 mainframe computers.
The man or boy test was proposed by computer scientist Donald Knuth as a means of evaluating implementations of the ALGOL 60 programming language.
META II is a domain-specific programming language for writing compilers.
Michael ("Mike") Woodger (born 28 March 1923) is a pioneering English computer scientist.
The NAG Numerical Library is a software product developed and sold by The Numerical Algorithms Group.
In logic, negation, also called the logical complement, is an operation that takes a proposition P to another proposition "not P", written \neg P (¬P), which is interpreted intuitively as being true when P is false, and false when P is true.
Arie Nicolaas Habermann (26 June 1932 – 8 August 1993), often known as Nico Habermann, was a noted Dutch computer scientist.
The Numerical Algorithms Group (NAG) is a software company which provides methods for the solution of mathematical and statistical problems, and offers services to users of High performance computing (HPC) systems.
In computer science, object composition (not to be confused with function composition) is a way to combine simple objects or data types into more complex ones.
A computer programming language is said to adhere to the off-side rule if blocks in that language are expressed by their indentation.
Pascal is an imperative and procedural programming language, which Niklaus Wirth designed in 1968–69 and published in 1970, as a small, efficient language intended to encourage good programming practices using structured programming and data structuring. It is named in honor of the French mathematician, philosopher and physicist Blaise Pascal. Pascal was developed on the pattern of the ALGOL 60 language. Wirth had already developed several improvements to this language as part of the ALGOL X proposals, but these were not accepted and Pascal was developed separately and released in 1970. A derivative known as Object Pascal designed for object-oriented programming was developed in 1985; this was used by Apple Computer and Borland in the late 1980s and later developed into Delphi on the Microsoft Windows platform. Extensions to the Pascal concepts led to the Pascal-like languages Modula-2 and Oberon.
Peter John Landin (5 June 1930, Sheffield – 3 June 2009) was a British computer scientist.
Peter Lucas (born 13 January 1935 in Vienna, Austria – 2 February 2015 in California, United States) was an Austrian computer scientist and university professor.
Peter Naur (25 October 1928 – 3 January 2016) was a Danish computer science pioneer and Turing award winner.
PL/I (Programming Language One, pronounced) is a procedural, imperative computer programming language designed for scientific, engineering, business and system programming uses.
PLANC (pronounced as "plank") is a high level computer programming language.
POP-2, often referred to as POP2 is a discontinued programming language developed around 1970 from the earlier language POP-1 (developed by Robin Popplestone in 1968, originally named COWSEL) by Robin Popplestone and Rod Burstall at the University of Edinburgh.
In computing, a procedural parameter is a parameter of a procedure that is itself a procedure.
A programming language is a formal language that specifies a set of instructions that can be used to produce various kinds of output.
Racket has been under active development as a vehicle for programming language research since the mid-1990s, and has accumulated many features over the years.
In computer science, a record (also called a structure, struct, or compound data) is a basic data structure.
Roger D. Moore (born November 16, 1939) was the 1973 recipient (with Larry Breed and Richard Lathwell) of the Grace Murray Hopper Award from the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM).
The Royal Radar Establishment Automatic Computer, or the RREAC, was an early solid-state computer in 1962.
S-algol (St Andrews Algol) is a computer programming language derivative of ALGOL 60 developed at the University of St Andrews in 1979 by Ron Morrison and Tony Davie.
SAIL, the Stanford Artificial Intelligence Language, was developed by Dan Swinehart and Bob Sproull of the Stanford AI Lab in 1970.
Saul Rosen (February 8, 1922 – June 9, 1991) was an American computer science pioneer.
In computer programming, the scope of a name binding – an association of a name to an entity, such as a variable – is the region of a computer program where the binding is valid: where the name can be used to refer to the entity.
The SDS 9 Series computers are a backward compatible line of transistorized computers produced by Scientific Data Systems in the 1960s and 1970s.
The semicolon or semi colon is a punctuation mark that separates major sentence elements.
setjmp.h is a header defined in the C standard library to provide "non-local jumps": control flow that deviates from the usual subroutine call and return sequence.
SETL (SET Language) is a very high-level programming language based on the mathematical theory of sets.
Simula is the name of two simulation programming languages, Simula I and Simula 67, developed in the 1960s at the Norwegian Computing Center in Oslo, by Ole-Johan Dahl and Kristen Nygaard.
SMIL (Siffermaskinen i Lund, "The Number Machine in Lund") was a first-generation computer built at Lund University in Lund, Sweden.
In computer science, computer engineering and programming language implementations, a stack machine is a type of computer.
In computer programming, standard streams are preconnected input and output communication channels between a computer program and its environment when it begins execution.
In computer programming, a static variable is a variable that has been allocated "statically", meaning that its lifetime (or "extent") is the entire run of the program.
The Steinhaus–Johnson–Trotter algorithm or Johnson–Trotter algorithm, also called plain changes, is an algorithm named after Hugo Steinhaus, Selmer M. Johnson and Hale F. Trotter that generates all of the permutations of n elements.
In computer language design, stropping is a method of explicitly marking letter sequences as having a special property, such as being a keyword, or a certain type of variable or storage location, and thus inhabiting a different namespace from ordinary names ("identifiers"), in order to avoid clashes.
Structured programming is a programming paradigm aimed at improving the clarity, quality, and development time of a computer program by making extensive use of the structured control flow constructs of selection (if/then/else) and repetition (while and for), block structures, and subroutines in contrast to using simple tests and jumps such as the go to statement, which can lead to "spaghetti code" that is potentially difficult to follow and maintain.
In computer programming, a subroutine is a sequence of program instructions that performs a specific task, packaged as a unit.
A system programming language usually refers to a programming language used for system programming; such languages are designed for writing system software, which usually requires different development approaches when compared with application software.
The THE multiprogramming system or THE OS was a computer operating system designed by a team led by Edsger W. Dijkstra, described in monographs in 1965-66 (Jun 14, 1965) and published in 1968.
In computer programming, a thunk is a subroutine used to inject an additional calculation into another subroutine.
This is a record of historically important programming languages, by decade.
Knuth algorithm is a program introduced by Donald Knuth and Luis Trabb Pardo to illustrate the evolution of computer programming languages.
In computer science, a Van Wijngaarden grammar (also vW-grammar or W-grammar) is a two-level grammar which provides a technique to define potentially infinite context-free grammars in a finite number of rules.
The Whetstone benchmark is a synthetic benchmark for evaluating the performance of computers.
The Zuse Z23 was a transistorized computer first delivered in 1961, designed by the Zuse KG company.
The year 1960 in science and technology involved some significant events, listed below.