161 relations: ?:, ABC (programming language), Action! (programming language), Ada (programming language), Adriaan van Wijngaarden, Affix grammar, ALGOL, Algol (disambiguation), ALGOL 60, ALGOL 68-R, ALGOL 68C, ALGOL 68RS, ALGOL 68S, ALGOL Bulletin, ALGOL N, ALGOL Y, Andrey Terekhov, Anonymous function, Array slicing, At sign, Backslash, Backus–Naur form, Barry J. Mailloux, BESM, Bit numbering, Block (programming), Boolean data type, Bourne shell, Brian Randell, C (programming language), C shell, C++, C.mmp, Callback (computer programming), Centrum Wiskunde & Informatica, Charles H. Lindsey, Common Lisp, Comparison of open-source programming language licensing, Comparison of Pascal and C, Comparison of programming languages, Comparison of programming languages (array), Comparison of programming languages (basic instructions), Comparison of programming languages (string functions), Comparison of programming languages (strings), Comparison of programming languages (syntax), Comparison of programming languages by type system, Compiled language, Computer Pioneer Award, Conditional (computer programming), Constant (computer programming), ..., Control flow, Conway's Game of Life, Cornelis H. A. Koster, Dangling else, DAP FORTRAN, Dhrystone, Dick Grune, Directive (programming), Dollar sign, Draco (programming language), Egon Zakrajšek, ELAN (programming language), EPSILON (programming language), Expression-oriented programming language, File system, First-class function, FLACC, For loop, Format, General Comprehensive Operating System, Generational list of programming languages, Gomma, GOST, Hexadecimal, High-level programming language, History of programming languages, History of Programming Languages, History of software, IBM 1130, IBM 2741, ICL VME, ICT 1900 series, Identifier, IFIP Working Group 2.1, Input/output, Integer, Interactive ALGOL 68, International Computers Limited, John E. L. Peck, John F. Sowa, Lambert Meertens, List of computer scientists, List of Dutch inventions and discoveries, List of operating systems, List of pioneers in computer science, List of programming languages, List of Russian IT developers, Literate programming, Liverpool Software Gazette, Lutz Michael Wegner, M series (computer), Mary (programming language), Michael Guy, Michel Sintzoff, Michigan Terminal System, Modular programming, Modulo operation, NAG Numerical Library, Nested function, Non-English-based programming languages, Object composition, Odra (computer), Off-side rule, Operational semantics, Operator (computer programming), Operator overloading, Oregano (disambiguation), Orthogonality, Outline of C++, Pascal (programming language), PERQ, Philip Woodward, Printf format string, Programming language specification, Protel, Python (programming language), Python for S60, Record (computer science), Relational operator, Reserved word, Rostest, Royal Signals and Radar Establishment, RTL/2, S-algol, S3 (programming language), Scanf format string, Scientific notation, Scope (computer science), Seed7, Semantics, Semaphore (programming), Sheila Greibach, Short-circuit evaluation, Standard streams, Statement (computer science), Steelman language requirements, Stephen R. Bourne, Stropping (syntax), Struct (C programming language), Structured programming, Sublanguage, Tagged union, Timeline of operating systems, Timeline of programming languages, Two-level grammar, Type conversion, Union type, Unix shell, Van Wijngaarden grammar, Variable-length array, Willem van der Poel. Expand index (111 more) » « Shrink index
In computer programming, ?: is a ternary operator that is part of the syntax for basic conditional expressions in several programming languages.
ABC is an imperative general-purpose programming language and programming environment developed at CWI, Netherlands by Leo Geurts, Lambert Meertens, and Steven Pemberton.
Action! is a procedural programming language similar to ALGOL 68 that is intended to produce high-performance programs for the Atari 8-bit family.
Ada is a structured, statically typed, imperative, and object-oriented high-level computer programming language, extended from Pascal and other languages.
Adriaan "Aad" van Wijngaarden (2 November 1916 – 7 February 1987) was a Dutch mathematician and computer scientist, who is considered by many to have been the founding father of informatica (computer science) in the Netherlands.
An affix grammar is a kind of formal grammar; it is used to describe the syntax of languages, mainly computer languages, using an approach based on how natural language is typically described.
ALGOL (short for "Algorithmic Language") is a family of imperative computer programming languages, originally developed in the mid-1950s, which greatly influenced many other languages and was the standard method for algorithm description used by the ACM in textbooks and academic sources for more than thirty years.
Algol is a star system.
ALGOL 60 (short for Algorithmic Language 1960) is a member of the ALGOL family of computer programming languages.
ALGOL 68-R was the first implementation of the Algorithmic language ALGOL 68.
The language was originally called Z70 and was subsequently morphed into ALGOL 68.
ALGOL 68RS is the second ALGOL 68 compiler written by I.F. Currie and J.D. Morrison at the Royal Signals and Radar Establishment.
ALGOL 68SA Sublanguage of ALGOL 68, P.G. Hibbard, SIGPLAN Notices 12(5), May 1977 was designed as a subset of ALGOL 68 in order to permit single-pass compilation.
The ALGOL Bulletin was a periodical regarding the ALGOL 60 and ALGOL 68 programming languages.
ALGOL N is the name of a successor to ALGOL 60 designed in Japan with the aim of being as powerful as ALGOL 68 but as simple as ALGOL 60.
ALGOL Y was the name given to a speculated successor for the ALGOL 60 programming language that incorporated some radical features that were rejected for ALGOL 68 and ALGOL X. ALGOL Y was intended to be a "radical reconstruction" of ALGOL.
Andrey Nikolaevich Terekhov (Андрей Николаевич Терехов; 3 September 1949) is a Russian IT developer who created the Algol 68 LGU Telecommunication systems.
In computer programming, an anonymous function (function literal, lambda abstraction, or lambda expression) is a function definition that is not bound to an identifier.
In computer programming, array slicing is an operation that extracts a subset of elements from an array and packages them as another array, possibly in a different dimension from the original.
The at sign, @, is normally read aloud as "at"; it is also commonly called the at symbol or commercial at.
The backslash (\) is a typographical mark (glyph) used mainly in computing and is the mirror image of the common slash (/).
In computer science, Backus–Naur form or Backus normal form (BNF) is a notation technique for context-free grammars, often used to describe the syntax of languages used in computing, such as computer programming languages, document formats, instruction sets and communication protocols.
Barry James Mailloux (died May 26, 1982) obtained his M.Sc in Numerical Analysis in 1963.
BESM (БЭСМ) is the name of a series of Soviet mainframe computers built in 1950–60s.
In computing, bit numbering (or sometimes bit endianness) is the convention used to identify the bit positions in a binary number or a container for such a value.
In computer programming, a block or code block is a lexical structure of source code which is grouped together.
In computer science, the Boolean data type is a data type that has one of two possible values (usually denoted true and false), intended to represent the two truth values of logic and Boolean algebra.
The Bourne shell (sh) is a shell, or command-line interpreter, for computer operating systems.
Brian Randell (born 1936) is a British computer scientist, and Emeritus Professor at the School of Computing Science, Newcastle University, UK He specialises in research into software fault tolerance and dependability, and is a noted authority on the early pre-1950 history of computers.
C (as in the letter ''c'') is a general-purpose, imperative computer programming language, supporting structured programming, lexical variable scope and recursion, while a static type system prevents many unintended operations.
The C shell (csh or the improved version, tcsh) is a Unix shell created by Bill Joy while he was a graduate student at University of California, Berkeley in the late 1970s.
C++ ("see plus plus") is a general-purpose programming language.
The C.mmp was an early MIMD multiprocessor system developed at Carnegie Mellon University by William Wulf (1971).
In computer programming, a callback, also known as a "call-after" function, is any executable code that is passed as an argument to other code, which is expected to call back (execute) the argument at a given time.
The Centrum Wiskunde & Informatica (abbr. CWI; English: "National Research Institute for Mathematics and Computer Science") is a research center in the field of mathematics and theoretical computer science.
Charles Hodgson Lindsey is a British computer scientist, most known for his involvement with the programming language Algol 68.
Common Lisp (CL) is a dialect of the Lisp programming language, published in ANSI standard document ANSI INCITS 226-1994 (R2004) (formerly X3.226-1994 (R1999)).
This is a comparison of open-source programming language licensing and related legal issues, covering all language implementations.
The computer programming languages C and Pascal have similar times of origin, influences, and purposes.
Programming languages are used for controlling the behavior of a machine (often a computer).
This comparison of programming languages (array) compares the features of array data structures or matrix processing for over 48 various computer programming languages.
Comparison of programming languages is a common topic of discussion among software engineers.
String functions are used in computer programming languages to manipulate a string or query information about a string (some do both).
This comparison of programming languages (strings) compares the features of string data structures or text-string processing for over 52 various computer programming languages.
This comparison of programming languages compares the features of language syntax (format) for over 50 computer programming languages.
This comparison of programming languages (type system) compares the features of type systems or their type checking for multiple programming languages.
A compiled language is a programming language whose implementations are typically compilers (translators that generate machine code from source code), and not interpreters (step-by-step executors of source code, where no pre-runtime translation takes place).
The Computer Pioneer Award was established in 1981 by the Board of Governors of the IEEE Computer Society to recognize and honor the vision of those people whose efforts resulted in the creation and continued vitality of the computer industry.
In computer science, conditional statements, conditional expressions and conditional constructs are features of a programming language, which perform different computations or actions depending on whether a programmer-specified boolean condition evaluates to true or false.
In computer programming, a constant is a value that cannot be altered by the program during normal execution, i.e., the value is constant.
In computer science, control flow (or flow of control) is the order in which individual statements, instructions or function calls of an imperative program are executed or evaluated.
The Game of Life, also known simply as Life, is a cellular automaton devised by the British mathematician John Horton Conway in 1970.
Cornelis Hermanus Antonius "Kees" Koster (born 13 July 1943 - 21 March 2013) was a Dutch computer scientist who was a professor in the Department of Informatics at the Radboud University Nijmegen in the Netherlands.
The dangling else is a problem in computer programming in which an optional else clause in an if–then(–else) statement results in nested conditionals being ambiguous.
DAP FORTRAN was an extension of the non IO parts of FORTRAN with constructs that supported parallel computing for the ICL Distributed Array Processor (DAP).
Dhrystone is a synthetic computing benchmark program developed in 1984 by Reinhold P. Weicker intended to be representative of system (integer) programming.
Dick Grune (born December 7, 1939, Enschede) is a Dutch computer scientist and university lecturer best known for inventing and developing the first version of CVS, the Concurrent Versions System.
In computer programming, a directive or pragma (from "pragmatic") is a language construct that specifies how a compiler (or other translator) should process its input.
The dollar sign ($ or) is a symbol primarily used to indicate the various units of currency around the world.
Draco was a shareware programming language created by Chris Gray.
Egon Zakrajšek (July 7, 1941 – September 2002) was a Slovene mathematician and computer scientist.
ELAN is an educational programming language for learning and teaching systematic programming.
EPSILON is a macro language with high level features including strings and lists, developed by A.P. Ershov at Novosibirsk in 1967.
An expression-oriented programming language is a programming language where every (or nearly every) construction is an expression and thus yields a value.
In computing, a file system or filesystem controls how data is stored and retrieved.
In computer science, a programming language is said to have first-class functions if it treats functions as first-class citizens.
FLACC is an implementation of the ALGOL 68 programming language.
In computer science, a for-loop (or simply for loop) is a control flow statement for specifying iteration, which allows code to be executed repeatedly.
Format may refer to.
General Comprehensive Operating System (GCOS,; originally GECOS, General Electric Comprehensive Operating Supervisor) is a family of operating systems oriented toward mainframe computers.
This is a "genealogy" of programming languages.
Gomma may refer to.
GOST (Russian: ГОСТ) refers to a set of technical standards maintained by the Euro-Asian Council for Standardization, Metrology and Certification (EASC), a regional standards organization operating under the auspices of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS).
In mathematics and computing, hexadecimal (also base, or hex) is a positional numeral system with a radix, or base, of 16.
In computer science, a high-level programming language is a programming language with strong abstraction from the details of the computer.
The first high-level programming language was Plankalkül, created by Konrad Zuse between 1942 and 1945.
History of Programming Languages (HOPL) is an infrequent ACM SIGPLAN conference.
Software can be defined as programmed instructions stored in the memory of stored-program digital computers for execution by the processor.
The IBM 1130 Computing System, introduced in 1965, was IBM's least expensive computer at that time.
The IBM 2741 is a printing computer terminal that was introduced in 1965.
VME (Virtual Machine Environment) is a mainframe operating system developed by the UK company International Computers Limited (ICL, now part of the Fujitsu group).
ICT 1900 was the name given to a series of mainframe computers released by International Computers and Tabulators (ICT) and later International Computers Limited (ICL) during the 1960s and '70s.
An identifier is a name that identifies (that is, labels the identity of) either a unique object or a unique class of objects, where the "object" or class may be an idea, physical object (or class thereof), or physical substance (or class thereof).
IFIP Working Group 2.1 on Algorithmic Languages and Calculi is a working group of the International Federation for Information Processing (IFIP).
In computing, input/output or I/O (or, informally, io or IO) is the communication between an information processing system, such as a computer, and the outside world, possibly a human or another information processing system.
An integer (from the Latin ''integer'' meaning "whole")Integer 's first literal meaning in Latin is "untouched", from in ("not") plus tangere ("to touch").
The Interactive ALGOL 68 compiler for ALGOL 68 was made available by Peter Craven of Algol Applications from 1984.
International Computers Limited (ICL) was a large British computer hardware, computer software and computer services company that operated from 1968 until 2002.
John Edward Lancelot Peck (August 14, 1918 – November 6, 2013) was the first permanent Head of Department of Computer Science at the University of British Columbia.
John Florian Sowa (born 1940) is an American computer scientist, an expert in artificial intelligence and computer design, and the inventor of conceptual graphs.
Lambert Guillaume Louis Théodore Meertens or L.G.L.T. Meertens (born 10 May 1944, Amsterdam) is a Dutch computer scientist and professor.
This is a list of computer scientists, people who do work in computer science, in particular researchers and authors.
The Netherlands had a considerable part in the making of modern society.
This is a list of operating systems.
This article presents a list of individuals who made transformative breakthroughs in the creation, development and imagining of what computers and electronics could do.
The aim of this list of programming languages is to include all notable programming languages in existence, both those in current use and historical ones, in alphabetical order, except for dialects of BASIC, esoteric programming languages, and markup languages.
This list of Russian IT developers includes the hardware engineers, computer scientists and programmers from the Russian Empire, the Soviet Union and the Russian Federation.
Literate programming is a programming paradigm introduced by Donald Knuth in which a program is given as an explanation of the program logic in a natural language, such as English, interspersed with snippets of macros and traditional source code, from which a compilable source code can be generated.
Liverpool Software Gazette was a short-lived computer magazine published by Microdigital, a company who were based in Liverpool, England and run by Bruce Everiss.
Lutz Michael Wegner (born October 11, 1949) is a German computer scientist.
M-20, M-220 and M222 were a range of general-purpose computers designed and manufactured in the USSR.
Mary was a programming language designed and implemented by RUNIT at Trondheim, Norway in the 1970s.
Michael J. T. Guy (born c.1942) is a British computer scientist and mathematician.
Michel Sintzoff (12 Aug 1938 - Nov 28, 2010) was a Belgian mathematician and computer scientist.
The Michigan Terminal System (MTS) is one of the first time-sharing computer operating systems.
Modular programming is a software design technique that emphasizes separating the functionality of a programme into independent, interchangeable modules, such that each contains everything necessary to execute only one aspect of the desired functionality.
In computing, the modulo operation finds the remainder after division of one number by another (sometimes called modulus).
The NAG Numerical Library is a software product developed and sold by The Numerical Algorithms Group.
In computer programming, a nested function (or nested procedure or subroutine) is a function which is defined within another function, the enclosing function.
Non-English-based programming languages are computer programming languages that, unlike better-known programming languages, do not use keywords taken from, or inspired by, the English vocabulary.
In computer science, object composition (not to be confused with function composition) is a way to combine simple objects or data types into more complex ones.
Odra was a line of computers manufactured in Wrocław, Poland.
A computer programming language is said to adhere to the off-side rule if blocks in that language are expressed by their indentation.
Operational semantics is a category of formal programming language semantics in which certain desired properties of a program, such as correctness, safety or security, are verified by constructing proofs from logical statements about its execution and procedures, rather than by attaching mathematical meanings to its terms (denotational semantics).
Programming languages typically support a set of operators: constructs which behave generally like functions, but which differ syntactically or semantically from usual functions.
In programming, operator overloading, sometimes termed operator ad hoc polymorphism, is a specific case of polymorphism, where different operators have different implementations depending on their arguments.
*Oregano, Origanum vulgare, is a herb commonly used in cooking.
In mathematics, orthogonality is the generalization of the notion of perpendicularity to the linear algebra of bilinear forms.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to C++: C++ is a statically typed, free-form, multi-paradigm, compiled, general-purpose programming language.
Pascal is an imperative and procedural programming language, which Niklaus Wirth designed in 1968–69 and published in 1970, as a small, efficient language intended to encourage good programming practices using structured programming and data structuring. It is named in honor of the French mathematician, philosopher and physicist Blaise Pascal. Pascal was developed on the pattern of the ALGOL 60 language. Wirth had already developed several improvements to this language as part of the ALGOL X proposals, but these were not accepted and Pascal was developed separately and released in 1970. A derivative known as Object Pascal designed for object-oriented programming was developed in 1985; this was used by Apple Computer and Borland in the late 1980s and later developed into Delphi on the Microsoft Windows platform. Extensions to the Pascal concepts led to the Pascal-like languages Modula-2 and Oberon.
The PERQ, also referred to as the Three Rivers PERQ or ICL PERQ, was a pioneering workstation computer produced in the late 1970s through the early 1980s.
Philip Mayne Woodward (6 September 1919 – 30 January 2018) was a British mathematician, radar engineer and horologist.
Printf format string refers to a control parameter used by a class of functions in the input/output libraries of C and many other programming languages.
In computing, a programming language specification (or standard or definition) is a documentation artifact that defines a programming language so that users and implementors can agree on what programs in that language mean.
Protel stands for "Procedure Oriented Type Enforcing Language".
Python is an interpreted high-level programming language for general-purpose programming.
The Python for S60 also called PyS60 (Unix name), was Nokia’s port of the general Python programming language to its S60 software platform, originally based on Python 2.2.2 from 2002.
In computer science, a record (also called a structure, struct, or compound data) is a basic data structure.
In computer science, a relational operator is a programming language construct or operator that tests or defines some kind of relation between two entities.
In a computer language, a reserved word (also known as a reserved identifier) is a word that cannot be used as an identifier, such as the name of a variable, function, or label – it is "reserved from use".
Rostest is the largest organization of practical metrology and certification on the territory of the Russian Federation.
The Royal Signals and Radar Establishment (RSRE) was a scientific research establishment within the Ministry of Defence (MoD) of the United Kingdom.
RTL/2 was a high-level programming language developed at Imperial Chemical Industries Ltd by J.G.P. Barnes.
S-algol (St Andrews Algol) is a computer programming language derivative of ALGOL 60 developed at the University of St Andrews in 1979 by Ron Morrison and Tony Davie.
S3 is a structured, imperative high-level computer programming language.
Scanf format string (which stands for "scan formatted") refers to a control parameter used by a class of functions in the string-processing libraries of various programming languages.
Scientific notation (also referred to as scientific form or standard index form, or standard form in the UK) is a way of expressing numbers that are too big or too small to be conveniently written in decimal form.
In computer programming, the scope of a name binding – an association of a name to an entity, such as a variable – is the region of a computer program where the binding is valid: where the name can be used to refer to the entity.
Seed7 is an extensible general-purpose programming language designed by Thomas Mertes.
Semantics (from σημαντικός sēmantikós, "significant") is the linguistic and philosophical study of meaning, in language, programming languages, formal logics, and semiotics.
In computer science, a semaphore is a variable or abstract data type used to control access to a common resource by multiple processes in a concurrent system such as a multitasking operating system.
Sheila Adele Greibach (born 6 October 1939 in New York City) is a researcher in formal languages in computing, automata, compiler theory (in particular), and computer science.
Short-circuit evaluation, minimal evaluation, or McCarthy evaluation (after John McCarthy) is the semantics of some Boolean operators in some programming languages in which the second argument is executed or evaluated only if the first argument does not suffice to determine the value of the expression: when the first argument of the AND function evaluates to false, the overall value must be false; and when the first argument of the OR function evaluates to true, the overall value must be true.
In computer programming, standard streams are preconnected input and output communication channels between a computer program and its environment when it begins execution.
In computer programming, a statement is a syntactic unit of an imperative programming language that expresses some action to be carried out.
The Steelman language requirements were a set of requirements which a high-level general-purpose programming language should meet, created by the United States Department of Defense in The Department of Defense Common High Order Language program in 1978.
Stephen Richard "Steve" Bourne (born 7 January 1944) is a computer scientist, originally from the United Kingdom and based in the United States for most of his career.
In computer language design, stropping is a method of explicitly marking letter sequences as having a special property, such as being a keyword, or a certain type of variable or storage location, and thus inhabiting a different namespace from ordinary names ("identifiers"), in order to avoid clashes.
A struct in the C programming language (and many derivatives) is a composite data type (or record) declaration that defines a physically grouped list of variables to be placed under one name in a block of memory, allowing the different variables to be accessed via a single pointer, or the struct declared name which returns the same address.
Structured programming is a programming paradigm aimed at improving the clarity, quality, and development time of a computer program by making extensive use of the structured control flow constructs of selection (if/then/else) and repetition (while and for), block structures, and subroutines in contrast to using simple tests and jumps such as the go to statement, which can lead to "spaghetti code" that is potentially difficult to follow and maintain.
A sublanguage is a subset of a language.
In computer science, a tagged union, also called a variant, variant record, choice type, discriminated union, disjoint union, or sum type, is a data structure used to hold a value that could take on several different, but fixed, types.
This article presents a timeline of events in the history of computer operating systems from 1951 to the current day.
This is a record of historically important programming languages, by decade.
A two-level grammar is a formal grammar that is used to generate another formal grammar, such as one with an infinite rule set.
In computer science, type conversion, type casting, and type coercion are different ways of changing an entity of one data type into another.
In computer science, a union is a value that may have any of several representations or formats within the same position in memory; or it is a data structure that consists of a variable that may hold such a value.
A Unix shell is a command-line interpreter or shell that provides a traditional Unix-like command line user interface.
In computer science, a Van Wijngaarden grammar (also vW-grammar or W-grammar) is a two-level grammar which provides a technique to define potentially infinite context-free grammars in a finite number of rules.
In computer programming, a variable-length array (VLA), also called variable-sized, runtime-sized, is an array data structure whose length is determined at run time (instead of at compile time).
Willem Louis van der Poel (2 December 1926, The Hague) is a pioneering Dutch computer scientist, who is known for designing the ZEBRA computer.
AL-76 programming language, ALGOL 68 (programming language), ALGOL 68 programming language, ALGOL-68, ALGOrithmic Language 1968, Algol 68, Algol-68, Algol68, Algorithmic Language 1968, Format (Algol68), GOST 27974-88, GOST 27975-88, Struct (Algol 68), UЭль-76.