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Action potential

Index Action potential

In physiology, an action potential occurs when the membrane potential of a specific axon location rapidly rises and falls: this depolarisation then causes adjacent locations to similarly depolarise. [1]

791 relations: Acamprosate, Accommodation index, Acetylcholine, Acetylcholine receptor, Acid-sensing ion channel, Actin, Action potential pulse, Activation function, Active site, Active zone, Acute motor axonal neuropathy, Afterdepolarization, Afterhyperpolarization, Aging brain, Aging movement control, AICA ribonucleotide, Ajmaline, Alan Lloyd Hodgkin, Alcoholic polyneuropathy, Aldrovanda, Alfaxalone, Algae, Alinidine, Alkali metal, All-or-none law, Allodynia, Alpha motor neuron, Amiodarone, Amobarbital, Amoeboid movement, Amphetamine, Anatomy of the cerebellum, Andrew Huxley, Angélique Arvanitaki, Animal consciousness, Animal echolocation, Anion-conducting channelrhodopsin, ANK2, ANK3, Ankyrin-G binding motif of KCNQ2-3, ANNINE-6plus, Anode break excitation, Antenna (biology), Anti-MAG peripheral neuropathy, Antiarrhythmic agent, Anticholinergic, Antidromic, AP, Apamin, APD, ..., Apical dendrite, Archaerhodopsin, Artificial neural network, Artificial neuron, ATP-sensitive potassium channel, Atrial action potential, Auditory system, Australian funnel-web spider, Axolemma, Axon, Axon hillock, Axon terminal, Axoplasm, Baroreceptor, Baroreflex, Basal electrical rhythm, Basket cell, Bathmotropic, Batrachotoxin, Beat (acoustics), Benign familial neonatal seizures, Benzocaine, Benzodiazepine, Benzofuranylpropylaminopentane, Bereitschaftspotential, Beta blocker, Beta-Methylamino-L-alanine, Binaural fusion, Binding neuron, Bioacoustics, Bioamplifier, Biochemical cascade, Bioelectromagnetics, Bioinorganic chemistry, Biological neuron model, Biomechatronics, Biomimetics, Bird vision, Björn Folkow, BK channel, BmKAEP, BmTx3, BotIT2, BotIT6, Brain, Brain connectivity estimators, Brain implant, Brain in a vat, BRAIN Initiative, Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, British Science Association, BRL-32872, Budiodarone, Bukatoxin, Bulk endocytosis, Bundle of His, Bursting, Caenorhabditis elegans, Cajal–Retzius cell, Calcium channel blocker, Calcium concentration microdomains, Calcium sparks, Calcium-activated potassium channel subunit alpha-1, Calcium-induced calcium release, Calyx of Held, Capsaicin, Capsule neural network, Cardiac aberrancy, Cardiac action potential, Cardiac cycle, Cardiac pacemaker, Cardiac physiology, Cardiology, Cardioplegia, Cardiovascular centre, Carlo Matteucci, Carnivorous plant, Carotid body, Cav1.1, CDH2, Celivarone, Cell growth, Cell signaling, Cell–cell interaction, Cellular neuroscience, Centronuclear myopathy, Cerebellum, Cerebrum, CgNa toxin, Chandelier cell, Channel blocker, Channelrhodopsin, Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease, Chemical synapse, Chemoreceptor, Chemoreceptor trigger zone, Chloride, Chromatophore, Chronaxie, Clinical uses of mesenchymal stem cells, Clive Wearing, Clonus, Cocaine, Cochlea, Cochlear nerve, Cochlear nucleus, Cognitive neuroscience of music, Coincidence detection in neurobiology, Compound muscle action potential, Computational neurogenetic modeling, Computational neuroscience, Concussion, Congenital insensitivity to pain, Connectionism, Connexon, Cortical stimulation mapping, Cox process, Cramp, Cryptochrome, Cultured neuronal network, Cuneate fasciculus, Curare, Cyclic nucleotide–gated ion channel, Cytosol, Daniel Choquet, David Nachmansohn, Deep brain stimulation, Deep hypothermic circulatory arrest, Degrees of freedom problem, Delta atracotoxin, Dendrite, Dendritic spike, Dendrotoxin, Depolarization, Depolarization-induced suppression of inhibition, Depolarizing prepulse, Diastolic depolarization, Didactic organisation, Digoxin, Diisopropyl fluorophosphate, Discrepin, Dissipative soliton, Distress tolerance, Dopamine, Dopamine receptor D5, Dopaminergic pathways, Dorsal column–medial lemniscus pathway, Dorsal respiratory group, Dorsal root ganglion, Douglas G. 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Calvin, Work loop, 1952 in science, 1954 in science, 4-Aminopyridine. Expand index (741 more) »

Acamprosate

Acamprosate, sold under the brand name Campral, is a medication used along with counselling to treat alcohol dependence.

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Accommodation index

The accommodation index is a metric used in the neurosciences for describing spike train data.

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Acetylcholine

Acetylcholine (ACh) is an organic chemical that functions in the brain and body of many types of animals, including humans, as a neurotransmitter—a chemical message released by nerve cells to send signals to other cells.

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Acetylcholine receptor

An acetylcholine receptor (abbreviated AChR) is an integral membrane protein that responds to the binding of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter.

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Acid-sensing ion channel

Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are neuronal voltage-insensitive sodium channels activated by extracellular protons permeable to Na+, however ASIC1 also shows low Ca2+ permeability.

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Actin

Actin is a family of globular multi-functional proteins that form microfilaments.

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Action potential pulse

An action potential pulse is a mathematically and experimentally correct Synchronized Oscillating Lipid Pulse coupled with an Action Potential. This is a continuation of Hodgkin Huxley's work in 1952 with the inclusion of accurately modelling ion channel proteins, including their dynamics and speed of activation.

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Activation function

In artificial neural networks, the activation function of a node defines the output of that node given an input or set of inputs.

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Active site

In biology, the active site is the region of an enzyme where substrate molecules bind and undergo a chemical reaction.

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Active zone

The active zone or synaptic active zone is a term first used by Couteaux and Pecot-Dechavassinein in 1970 to define the site of neurotransmitter release.

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Acute motor axonal neuropathy

Acute motor axonal neuropathy (AMAN) is a variant of Guillain–Barré syndrome.

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Afterdepolarization

Afterdepolarizations are abnormal depolarizations of cardiac myocytes that interrupt phase 2, phase 3, or phase 4 of the cardiac action potential in the electrical conduction system of the heart.

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Afterhyperpolarization

Afterhyperpolarization, or AHP, is the hyperpolarizing phase of a neuron's action potential where the cell's membrane potential falls below the normal resting potential.

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Aging brain

Aging is a major risk factor for most common neurodegenerative diseases, including mild cognitive impairment, dementias including Alzheimer's disease, cerebrovascular disease, Parkinson's disease and Lou Gehrig's disease.

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Aging movement control

Normal aging movement control in humans is about the changes in the muscles, motor neurons, nerves, sensory functions, gait, fatigue, visual and manual responses, in men and women as they get older but who do not have neurological, muscular (atrophy, dystrophy...) or neuromuscular disorder.

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AICA ribonucleotide

5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR) is an intermediate in the generation of inosine monophosphate.

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Ajmaline

Ajmaline (also known by trade names Gilurytmal, Ritmos, and Aritmina) is an alkaloid that is class Ia antiarrhythmic agent.

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Alan Lloyd Hodgkin

Sir Alan Lloyd Hodgkin (5 February 1914 – 20 December 1998) was an English physiologist and biophysicist, who shared the 1963 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Andrew Huxley and John Eccles.

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Alcoholic polyneuropathy

Alcoholic polyneuropathy (A.K.A alcohol leg) is a neurological disorder in which peripheral nerves throughout the body malfunction simultaneously.

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Aldrovanda

Aldrovanda is a genus of carnivorous plants encompassing one extant species (Aldrovanda vesiculosa, the waterwheel plant) and numerous extinct taxa.

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Alfaxalone

Alfaxalone, also known as alphaxalone or alphaxolone and sold under the brand name Alfaxan, is a neuroactive steroid and general anesthetic which is used in veterinary practice as an induction agent for anesthesia and as an injectable anesthetic.

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Algae

Algae (singular alga) is an informal term for a large, diverse group of photosynthetic organisms that are not necessarily closely related, and is thus polyphyletic.

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Alinidine

Alinidine (ST567) is a negative chronotrope that was developed in the 1970s and 1980s.

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Alkali metal

The alkali metals are a group (column) in the periodic table consisting of the chemical elements lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K),The symbols Na and K for sodium and potassium are derived from their Latin names, natrium and kalium; these are still the names for the elements in some languages, such as German and Russian.

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All-or-none law

The all-or-none law is the principle that the strength by which a nerve or muscle fibre responds to a stimulus is independent of the strength of the stimulus.

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Allodynia

Allodynia (Ancient Greek άλλος állos "other" and οδύνη odúnē "pain") refers to central pain sensitization (increased response of neurons) following normally non-painful, often repetitive, stimulation.

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Alpha motor neuron

Alpha (α) motor neurons (also called alpha motoneurons), are large, multipolar lower motor neurons of the brainstem and spinal cord.

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Amiodarone

Amiodarone is an antiarrhythmic medication used to treat and prevent a number of types of irregular heartbeats.

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Amobarbital

Amobarbital (formerly known as amylobarbitone or sodium amytal) is a drug that is a barbiturate derivative.

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Amoeboid movement

Amoeboid movement is the most common mode of locomotion in eukaryotic cells.

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Amphetamine

Amphetamine (contracted from) is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), narcolepsy, and obesity.

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Anatomy of the cerebellum

The anatomy of the cerebellum can be viewed at three levels.

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Andrew Huxley

Sir Andrew Fielding Huxley (22 November 191730 May 2012) was a Nobel Prize-winning English physiologist and biophysicist.

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Angélique Arvanitaki

Angélique Arvanitaki (11 July 1901 – 6 October 1983) was a French neurophysiologist who did research on the electrical activity of neurons using the large nerve fibres of several different molluscs.

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Animal consciousness

Animal consciousness, or animal awareness, is the quality or state of self-awareness within an animal, or of being aware of an external object or something within itself.

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Animal echolocation

Echolocation, also called bio sonar, is the biological sonar used by several kinds of animals.

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Anion-conducting channelrhodopsin

Anion-conducting channelrhodopsins are light-gated ion channels that open in response to light and let negatively charged ions (such as chloride) enter a cell.

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ANK2

Ankyrin-B, also known as Ankyrin-2, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the ANK2 gene.

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ANK3

Ankyrin-3 (ANK-3), also known as ankyrin-G, is a protein from ankyrin family that in humans is encoded by the ANK3 gene.

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Ankyrin-G binding motif of KCNQ2-3

In molecular biology, the ankyrin-G binding motif of KCNQ2-3 is a protein motif found in the potassium channels KCNQ2 and KCNQ3.

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ANNINE-6plus

ANNINE-6plus is a water soluble voltage sensitive dye (also called potentiometric dyes).

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Anode break excitation

Anode break excitation (ABE) is an electrophysiological phenomenon whereby a neuron fires action potentials in response to termination of a hyperpolarizing current.

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Antenna (biology)

Antennae (singular: antenna), sometimes referred to as "feelers," are paired appendages used for sensing in arthropods.

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Anti-MAG peripheral neuropathy

Anti-MAG Peripheral Neuropathy is a specific type of peripheral neuropathy in which the person’s own immune system attacks cells that are specific in maintaining a healthy nervous system.

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Antiarrhythmic agent

Antiarrhythmic agents, also known as cardiac dysrhythmia medications, are a group of pharmaceuticals that are used to suppress abnormal rhythms of the heart (cardiac arrhythmias), such as atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, ventricular tachycardia, and ventricular fibrillation.

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Anticholinergic

An anticholinergic agent is a substance that blocks the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the central and the peripheral nervous system.

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Antidromic

An antidromic impulse in an axon refers to conduction opposite of the normal (orthodromic) direction.

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AP

AP, A&P, A-p, Ap, A/P, or ap may refer to.

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Apamin

Apamin is an 18 amino acid peptide neurotoxin found in apitoxin (bee venom).

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APD

APD is an acronym that may refer to.

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Apical dendrite

An apical dendrite is a dendrite that emerges from the apex of a pyramidal cell.

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Archaerhodopsin

Archaerhodopsin (alternatively known as bacterio-opsin) is a family of receptor proteins that respond to light, found in Archaea.

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Artificial neural network

Artificial neural networks (ANNs) or connectionist systems are computing systems vaguely inspired by the biological neural networks that constitute animal brains.

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Artificial neuron

An artificial neuron is a mathematical function conceived as a model of biological neurons, a neural network.

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ATP-sensitive potassium channel

An ATP-sensitive potassium channel (or KATP channel) is a type of potassium channel that is gated by intracellular nucleotides, ATP and ADP.

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Atrial action potential

In electrocardiography, the atrial action potential are action potentials that occur in the heart atrium.

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Auditory system

The auditory system is the sensory system for the sense of hearing.

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Australian funnel-web spider

The Atracidae, commonly known as Australian funnel-web spiders, are a family of mygalomorph spiders.

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Axolemma

The axolemma is the cell membrane surrounding an axon.

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Axon

An axon (from Greek ἄξων áxōn, axis) or nerve fiber, is a long, slender projection of a nerve cell, or neuron, that typically conducts electrical impulses known as action potentials, away from the nerve cell body.

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Axon hillock

The axon hillock is a specialized part of the cell body (or soma) of a neuron that connects to the axon.

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Axon terminal

Axon terminals (also called synaptic boutons or terminal boutons) are distal terminations of the telodendria (branches) of an axon.

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Axoplasm

Axoplasm is the cytoplasm within the axon of a neuron (nerve cell).

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Baroreceptor

Baroreceptors (or archaically, pressoreceptors) are sensors located in the blood vessels of all vertebrate animals.

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Baroreflex

The baroreflex or baroreceptor reflex is one of the body's homeostatic mechanisms that helps to maintain blood pressure at nearly constant levels.

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Basal electrical rhythm

The basal or basic electrical rhythm (BER) or electrical control activity (ECA) is the spontaneous depolarization and repolarization of pacemaker cells in the smooth muscle of the stomach, small intestine, and large intestine.

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Basket cell

Basket cells are inhibitory GABAergic interneurons of the brain, found throughout different regions of the cortex and cerebellum.

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Bathmotropic

Bathmotropic often refers to modifying the degree of excitability specifically of the heart; in general, it refers to modification of the degree of excitability (threshold of excitation) of musculature in general, including the heart.

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Batrachotoxin

Batrachotoxin (BTX) is an extremely potent cardiotoxic and neurotoxic steroidal alkaloid found in certain species of frogs (poison dart frog), melyrid beetles, and birds (the pitohui, blue-capped ifrit, and little shrikethrush).

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Beat (acoustics)

In acoustics, a beat is an interference pattern between two sounds of slightly different frequencies, perceived as a periodic variation in volume whose rate is the difference of the two frequencies.

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Benign familial neonatal seizures

Benign familial neonatal seizures (BFNS), formerly called benign familial neonatal convulsions (BFNC), is a rare autosomal dominant inherited form of seizures.

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Benzocaine

Benzocaine, sold under the brand name Orajel among others, is an ester local anesthetic commonly used as a topical pain reliever or in cough drops.

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Benzodiazepine

Benzodiazepines (BZD, BZs), sometimes called "benzos", are a class of psychoactive drugs whose core chemical structure is the fusion of a benzene ring and a diazepine ring.

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Benzofuranylpropylaminopentane

(-)-1-(Benzofuran-2-yl)-2-propylaminopentane ((-)-BPAP), BFPAPn, or BFPAP is a drug with an unusual effects profile.

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Bereitschaftspotential

In neurology, the Bereitschaftspotential or BP (from German, "readiness potential"), also called the pre-motor potential or readiness potential (RP), is a measure of activity in the motor cortex and supplementary motor area of the brain leading up to voluntary muscle movement.

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Beta blocker

Beta blockers, also written β-blockers, are a class of medications that are particularly used to manage abnormal heart rhythms, and to protect the heart from a second heart attack (myocardial infarction) after a first heart attack (secondary prevention).

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Beta-Methylamino-L-alanine

β-Methylamino-L-alanine, or BMAA, is a non-proteinogenic amino acid produced by cyanobacteria.

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Binaural fusion

Binaural fusion or binaural integration is a cognitive process that involves the "fusion" of different auditory information presented binaurally, or to each ear.

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Binding neuron

A binding neuron (BN) is an abstract mathematical model of the electrical activity of a neuron, closely related to well-known integrate-and-fire model.

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Bioacoustics

Bioacoustics is a cross-disciplinary science that combines biology and acoustics.

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Bioamplifier

A Bioamplifier is an electrophysiological device, a variation of the instrumentation amplifier, used to gather and increase the signal integrity of physiologic electrical activity for output to various sources.

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Biochemical cascade

A biochemical cascade, also known as a signaling cascade or signaling pathway, is a series of chemical reactions which are initiated by a stimulus (first messenger) acting on a receptor that is transduced to the cell interior through second messengers (which amplify the initial signal) and ultimately to effector molecules, resulting in a cell response to the initial stimulus.

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Bioelectromagnetics

Bioelectromagnetics, also known as bioelectromagnetism, is the study of the interaction between electromagnetic fields and biological entities.

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Bioinorganic chemistry

Bioinorganic chemistry is a field that examines the role of metals in biology.

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Biological neuron model

A biological neuron model, also known as a spiking neuron model, is a mathematical description of the properties of certain cells in the nervous system that generate sharp electrical potentials across their cell membrane, roughly one millisecond in duration, as shown in Fig.

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Biomechatronics

Biomechatronics is an applied interdisciplinary science that aims to integrate biology, mechanics, and electronics.

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Biomimetics

Biomimetics or biomimicry is the imitation of the models, systems, and elements of nature for the purpose of solving complex human problems.

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Bird vision

Vision is the most important sense for birds, since good eyesight is essential for safe flight, and this group has a number of adaptations which give visual acuity superior to that of other vertebrate groups; a pigeon has been described as "two eyes with wings".

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Björn Folkow

Björn Folkow (October 13, 1921 - July 23. 2012) was a Swedish physiologist.

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BK channel

BK channels (Big Potassium), also known as Maxi-K, slo1, or Kcal.1, are voltage-gated potassium channels that conduct large amounts of potassium ions (K+) across the cell membrane, hence their name, Big Potassium.

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BmKAEP

BmKAEP (or anti-epilepsy peptide) is a neurotoxin from the venom of the Manchurian scorpion (Mesobuthus martensii).

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BmTx3

BmTx3 is a neurotoxin, which is a component of the venom of the scorpion Buthus Martensi Karsch.

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BotIT2

BotIT2 is a neurotoxin from the scorpion Buthus occitanus tunetanus, which modifies activation and slows down the deactivation of voltage gated sodium channels.

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BotIT6

BotIT6 is a toxin that binds to insect voltage gated sodium channels.

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Brain

The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.

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Brain connectivity estimators

Brain connectivity estimators represent patterns of links in the brain.

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Brain implant

Brain implants, often referred to as neural implants, are technological devices that connect directly to a biological subject's brain – usually placed on the surface of the brain, or attached to the brain's cortex.

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Brain in a vat

In philosophy, the brain in a vat (alternately known as brain in a jar) is a scenario used in a variety of thought experiments intended to draw out certain features of human conceptions of knowledge, reality, truth, mind, consciousness and meaning.

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BRAIN Initiative

The White House BRAIN Initiative (Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies), is a collaborative, public-private research initiative announced by the Obama administration on April 2, 2013, with the goal of supporting the development and application of innovative technologies that can create a dynamic understanding of brain function.

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Brain-derived neurotrophic factor

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, also known as BDNF, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the BDNF gene.

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British Science Association

The British Science Association (BSA) is a charity and learned society founded in 1831 to aid in the promotion and development of science.

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BRL-32872

BRL-32872 is an experimental drug candidate that provides a novel approach to the treatment of cardiac arrhythmia.

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Budiodarone

Budiodarone (ATI-2042) is an antiarrhythmic agent and chemical analog of amiodarone that is currently being studied in clinical trials.

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Bukatoxin

Bukatoxin is an α-scorpion toxin found in the venom of the Chinese scorpion Buthus martensi Karsch.

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Bulk endocytosis

Bulk endocytosis refers to a form of endocytosis of synaptic vesicles at nerve terminals.

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Bundle of His

The bundle of His or His bundle is a collection of heart muscle cells specialized for electrical conduction.

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Bursting

Bursting, or burst firing, is an extremely diverse general phenomenon of the activation patterns of neurons in the central nervous system and spinal cord where periods of rapid action potential spiking are followed by G0 phase quiescent periods.

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Caenorhabditis elegans

Caenorhabditis elegans is a free-living (not parasitic), transparent nematode (roundworm), about 1 mm in length, that lives in temperate soil environments.

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Cajal–Retzius cell

Cajal–Retzius cells (CR cells) (also known as Horizontal cells of Cajal) are a heterogeneous population of morphologically and molecularly distinct reelin-producing cell types in the marginal zone/layer I of the developmental cerebral cortex and in the immature hippocampus of different species and at different times during embryogenesis and postnatal life.

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Calcium channel blocker

Calcium channel blockers (CCB), calcium channel antagonists or calcium antagonists are several medications that disrupt the movement of calcium through calcium channels.

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Calcium concentration microdomains

Calcium concentration microdomains (CCMs) are sites in a cell's cytoplasm with a localised high calcium ion (Ca2+) concentration.

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Calcium sparks

A calcium spark is the microscopic release of calcium (Ca2+) from a store known as the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), located within muscle cells.

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Calcium-activated potassium channel subunit alpha-1

Calcium-activated potassium channel subunit alpha-1 also known as large conductance calcium-activated potassium channel, subfamily M, alpha member 1 (KCa1.1), or BK for short, is a voltage gated potassium channel encoded by the KCNMA1 gene and characterized by their large conductance of potassium ions (K+) through cell membranes.

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Calcium-induced calcium release

Calcium-induced calcium release (CICR) describes a biological process whereby calcium is able to activate calcium release from intracellular Ca2+ stores (e.g., endoplasmic reticulum or sarcoplasmic reticulum).

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Calyx of Held

The Calyx of Held is a particularly large synapse in the mammalian auditory central nervous system, so named by Hans Held in his 1893 article Die centrale GehörleitungHeld, H. "Die centrale Gehörleitung" Arch.

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Capsaicin

Capsaicin ((INN); 8-methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide) is an active component of chili peppers, which are plants belonging to the genus Capsicum.

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Capsule neural network

A Capsule Neural Network (CapsNet) is a machine learning system that is a type of artificial neural network (ANN) that can be used to better model hierarchical relationships.

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Cardiac aberrancy

Cardiac aberrancy is a type of aberration of the electrical conduction system of the heart.

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Cardiac action potential

The cardiac action potential is a brief change in voltage (membrane potential) across the cell membrane of heart cells.

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Cardiac cycle

The cardiac cycle is the performance of the human heart from the beginning of one heartbeat to the beginning of the next.

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Cardiac pacemaker

Image showing the cardiac pacemaker or SA node, the normal pacemaker within the electrical conduction system of the heart. The contraction of cardiac muscle (heart muscle) in all animals is initiated by electrical impulses known as action potentials.

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Cardiac physiology

Cardiac physiology or heart function is the study of healthy, unimpaired function of the heart: involving blood flow; myocardium structure; the electrical conduction system of the heart; the cardiac cycle and cardiac output and how these interact and depend on one another.

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Cardiology

Cardiology (from Greek καρδίᾱ kardiā, "heart" and -λογία -logia, "study") is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the heart as well as parts of the circulatory system.

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Cardioplegia

Cardioplegia is intentional and temporary cessation of cardiac activity, primarily for cardiac surgery.

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Cardiovascular centre

The cardiovascular centre is a part of the human brain responsible for the regulation of the rate at which the heart beats through the nervous and endocrine systems.

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Carlo Matteucci

Carlo Matteucci (21 June 1811 – 25 June 1868) was an Italian physicist and neurophysiologist who was a pioneer in the study of bioelectricity.

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Carnivorous plant

Carnivorous plants are plants that derive some or most of their nutrients (but not energy) from trapping and consuming animals or protozoans, typically insects and other arthropods.

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Carotid body

The carotid body (carotid glomus or glomus caroticum) is a small cluster of chemoreceptors and supporting cells located near the fork (bifurcation) of the carotid artery (which runs along both sides of the throat).

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Cav1.1

Cav1.1 also known as the calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1S subunit, (CACNA1S), is a protein which in humans is encoded by the CACNA1S gene.

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CDH2

N-cadherin, also known as Cadherin-2 (CDH2) or neural cadherin (NCAD) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CDH2 gene.

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Celivarone

Celivarone is an experimental drug being tested for use in pharmacological antiarrhythmic therapy.

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Cell growth

The term cell growth is used in the contexts of biological cell development and cell division (reproduction).

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Cell signaling

Cell signaling (cell signalling in British English) is part of any communication process that governs basic activities of cells and coordinates all cell actions.

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Cell–cell interaction

Cell–cell interaction refers to the direct interactions between cell surfaces that play a crucial role in the development and function of multicellular organisms.

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Cellular neuroscience

Cellular neuroscience is the study of neurons at a cellular level.

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Centronuclear myopathy

Centronuclear myopathies (CNM) are a group of congenital myopathies where cell nuclei are abnormally located in skeletal muscle cells.

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Cerebellum

The cerebellum (Latin for "little brain") is a major feature of the hindbrain of all vertebrates.

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Cerebrum

The cerebrum is a large part of the brain containing the cerebral cortex (of the two cerebral hemispheres), as well as several subcortical structures, including the hippocampus, basal ganglia, and olfactory bulb.

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CgNa toxin

CgNa is a peptide toxin isolated from the sea anemone Condylactis gigantea.

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Chandelier cell

Chandelier neurons or chandelier cells are a subset of GABA-ergic cortical interneurons.

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Channel blocker

A channel blocker is the biological mechanism in which a particular molecule is used to prevent the opening of ion channels in order to produce a physiological response in a cell.

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Channelrhodopsin

Channelrhodopsins are a subfamily of retinylidene proteins (rhodopsins) that function as light-gated ion channels.

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Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease

Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease (CMT) is one of the hereditary motor and sensory neuropathies, a group of varied inherited disorders of the peripheral nervous system characterized by progressive loss of muscle tissue and touch sensation across various parts of the body.

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Chemical synapse

Chemical synapses are biological junctions through which neurons' signals can be exchanged to each other and to non-neuronal cells such as those in muscles or glands.

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Chemoreceptor

A chemoreceptor, also known as chemosensor, is a specialized sensory receptor cell which transduces (responds to) a chemical substance (endogenous or induced) and generates a biological signal.

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Chemoreceptor trigger zone

The chemoreceptor trigger zone (CTZ) is an area of the medulla oblongata that receives inputs from blood-borne drugs or hormones, and communicates with other structures in the vomiting center to initiate vomiting.

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Chloride

The chloride ion is the anion (negatively charged ion) Cl−.

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Chromatophore

Chromatophores are pigment-containing and light-reflecting cells, or groups of cells, found in a wide range of animals including amphibians, fish, reptiles, crustaceans and cephalopods.

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Chronaxie

Chronaxie is the minimum time required for an electric current double the strength of the rheobase to stimulate a muscle or a neuron.

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Clinical uses of mesenchymal stem cells

Adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are being used by researchers in the fields of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering, to artificially reconstruct human tissue which has been previously damaged.

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Clive Wearing

Clive Wearing (born 11 May 1938) is a British musicologist, conductor, tenor and keyboardist who has chronic anterograde and retrograde amnesia.

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Clonus

Clonus (from the Greek for "violent, confused motion") is a series of involuntary, rhythmic, muscular contractions and relaxations.

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Cocaine

Cocaine, also known as coke, is a strong stimulant mostly used as a recreational drug.

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Cochlea

The cochlea is the part of the inner ear involved in hearing.

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Cochlear nerve

The cochlear nerve (also auditory or acoustic neuron) is one of two parts of the vestibulocochlear nerve, a cranial nerve present in amniotes, the other part being the vestibular nerve.

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Cochlear nucleus

The cochlear nuclear (CN) complex comprises two cranial nerve nuclei in the human brainstem, the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN) and the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN).

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Cognitive neuroscience of music

The cognitive neuroscience of music is the scientific study of brain-based mechanisms involved in the cognitive processes underlying music.

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Coincidence detection in neurobiology

Coincidence detection in the context of neurobiology is a process by which a neuron or a neural circuit can encode information by detecting the occurrence of temporally close but spatially distributed input signals.

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Compound muscle action potential

The compound muscle action potential (CMAP) or compound motor action potential is an electromyography investigation (electrical study of muscle function).

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Computational neurogenetic modeling

Computational neurogenetic modeling (CNGM) is concerned with the study and development of dynamic neuronal models for modeling brain functions with respect to genes and dynamic interactions between genes.

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Computational neuroscience

Computational neuroscience (also known as theoretical neuroscience or mathematical neuroscience) is a branch of neuroscience which employs mathematical models, theoretical analysis and abstractions of the brain to understand the principles that govern the development, structure, physiology and cognitive abilities of the nervous system.

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Concussion

Concussion, also known as mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is typically defined as a head injury that temporarily affects brain functioning.

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Congenital insensitivity to pain

Congenital insensitivity to pain (CIP), also known as congenital analgesia, is one or more rare conditions in which a person cannot feel (and has never felt) physical pain.

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Connectionism

Connectionism is an approach in the fields of cognitive science, that hopes to represent mental phenomena using artificial neural networks.

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Connexon

In biology, a connexon, also known as a connexin hemichannel, is an assembly of six proteins called connexins that form the pore for a gap junction between the cytoplasm of two adjacent cells.

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Cortical stimulation mapping

Cortical stimulation mapping (CSM) is a type of electrocorticography that involves a physically invasive procedure and aims to localize the function of specific brain regions through direct electrical stimulation of the cerebral cortex.

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Cox process

In probability theory, a Cox process, also known as a doubly stochastic Poisson process is a point process which is a generalization of a Poisson process where the time-dependent intensity λ(t) is itself a stochastic process.

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Cramp

A cramp is a sudden, involuntary muscle contraction or over-shortening; while generally temporary and non-damaging, they can cause significant pain, and a paralysis-like immobility of the affected muscle.

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Cryptochrome

Cryptochromes (from the Greek κρυπτός χρώμα, "hidden colour") are a class of flavoproteins that are sensitive to blue light.

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Cultured neuronal network

A cultured neuronal network is a cell culture of neurons that is used as a model to study the central nervous system, especially the brain.

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Cuneate fasciculus

The cuneate fasciculus, fasciculus cuneatus, cuneate tract, (tract of Burdach, named for Karl Friedrich Burdach) is a tract of nerves in the dorsal column of the spinal cord that primarily transmits information from the upper part of the body (the neck, trunk, and arms).

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Curare

Curare or is a common name for various plant extract alkaloid arrow poisons originating from Central and South America.

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Cyclic nucleotide–gated ion channel

Cyclic nucleotide–gated ion channels or CNG channels are ion channels that function in response to the binding of cyclic nucleotides.

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Cytosol

The cytosol, also known as intracellular fluid (ICF) or cytoplasmic matrix, is the liquid found inside cells.

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Daniel Choquet

Daniel Choquet (born 1962) is a French neuroscientist.

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David Nachmansohn

David Nachmansohn (17 March 1899 – 2 November 1983) was a German-Jewish biochemist responsible for elucidating the role of phosphocreatine in energy production in the muscles, and the role of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in nerve stimulation.

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Deep brain stimulation

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a neurosurgical procedure involving the implantation of a medical device called a neurostimulator (sometimes referred to as a 'brain pacemaker'), which sends electrical impulses, through implanted electrodes, to specific targets in the brain (brain nuclei) for the treatment of movement and neuropsychiatric disorders.

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Deep hypothermic circulatory arrest

Deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA) is a surgical technique that involves cooling the body to temperatures below 20°C (68°F), and stopping blood circulation and brain function for up to one hour.

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Degrees of freedom problem

The degrees of freedom problem or motor equivalence problem in motor control states that there are multiple ways for humans or animals to perform a movement in order to achieve the same goal.

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Delta atracotoxin

Delta atracotoxin (δ-ACTX-Ar1, robustoxin, or robustotoxin) is a low-molecular-weight neurotoxic polypeptide found in the venom of the Sydney funnel-web spider (Atrax robustus).

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Dendrite

Dendrites (from Greek δένδρον déndron, "tree"), also dendrons, are branched protoplasmic extensions of a nerve cell that propagate the electrochemical stimulation received from other neural cells to the cell body, or soma, of the neuron from which the dendrites project.

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Dendritic spike

In neurophysiology, a dendritic spike refers to an action potential generated in the dendrite of a neuron.

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Dendrotoxin

Dendrotoxins are a class of presynaptic neurotoxins produced by mamba snakes (Dendroaspis) that block particular subtypes of voltage-gated potassium channels in neurons, thereby enhancing the release of acetylcholine at neuromuscular junctions.

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Depolarization

In biology, depolarization is a change within a cell, during which the cell undergoes a shift in electric charge distribution, resulting in less negative charge inside the cell.

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Depolarization-induced suppression of inhibition

Depolarization Induced Suppression Of Inhibition is the classical and original electrophysiological example of endocannabinoid function in the central nervous system.

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Depolarizing prepulse

A depolarizing prepulse (DPP) is an electrical stimulus that causes the potential difference measured across a neuronal membrane to become more positive or less negative, and precedes another electrical stimulus.

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Diastolic depolarization

In mammals, cardiac electrical activity originates from specialized myocytes of the sinoatrial node (SAN) which generate spontaneous and rhythmic action potentials (AP).

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Didactic organisation

Didactic organisation is the ability of neurons within a network to impart their pattern of synaptic connectivity and/or response properties to other neurons.

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Digoxin

Digoxin, sold under the brand name Lanoxin among others, is a medication used to treat various heart conditions.

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Diisopropyl fluorophosphate

Diisopropyl fluorophosphate is an oily, colorless liquid with the chemical formula C6H14FO3P.

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Discrepin

Discrepin (α-KTx15.6) is a peptide from the venom of the Venezuelan scorpion Tityus discrepans.

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Dissipative soliton

Dissipative solitons (DSs) are stable solitary localized structures that arise in nonlinear spatially extended dissipative systems due to mechanisms of self-organization.

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Distress tolerance

Distress tolerance is an emerging construct in psychology that has been conceptualized in several different ways.

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Dopamine

Dopamine (DA, a contraction of 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) is an organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families that plays several important roles in the brain and body.

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Dopamine receptor D5

Dopamine receptor D5, also known as D1BR, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DRD5 gene.

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Dopaminergic pathways

Dopaminergic pathways, sometimes called dopaminergic projections, are the sets of projection neurons in the brain that synthesize and release the neurotransmitter dopamine.

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Dorsal column–medial lemniscus pathway

The dorsal column–medial lemniscus pathway (DCML) (also known as the posterior column-medial lemniscus pathway (PCML)) is a sensory pathway of the central nervous system that conveys sensations of fine touch, vibration, two-point discrimination, and proprioception (position) from the skin and joints.

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Dorsal respiratory group

The dorsal respiratory group (DRG) is one of the respiratory groups in the respiratory centre in the brainstem.

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Dorsal root ganglion

A dorsal root ganglion (or spinal ganglion) (also known as a posterior root ganglion), is a cluster of neurons (a ganglion) in a dorsal root of a spinal nerve.

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Douglas G. McMahon

Douglas G. McMahon is a professor of Biological Sciences and Pharmacology at Vanderbilt University.

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Duty cycle

A duty cycle is the fraction of one period in which a signal or system is active.

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Dynamical neuroscience

The dynamical systems approach to neuroscience is a branch of mathematical biology that utilizes nonlinear dynamics to understand and model the nervous system and its functions.

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Dysosmia

Dysosmia is a disorder described as any qualitative alteration or distortion of the perception of smell.

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Ear

The ear is the organ of hearing and, in mammals, balance.

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Eber Landau

Eber Landau (November 8, 1878 – October 30, 1959) was a Baltic German-Swiss anatomist and histologist, born in Rēzekne, Latvia.

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Effects of alcohol on memory

Ethanol is the type of alcohol found in alcoholic beverages.

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Efferent nerve fiber

In the peripheral nervous system, an efferent nerve fiber is the axon of a motor neuron.

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Efficient coding hypothesis

The efficient coding hypothesis was proposed by Horace Barlow in 1961 as a theoretical model of sensory coding in the brain.

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Electrical conduction system of the heart

The electrical conduction system of the heart transmits signals generated usually by the sinoatrial node to cause contraction of the heart muscle.

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Electrical impedance tomography

Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is a noninvasive type of medical imaging in which the electrical conductivity, permittivity, and impedance of a part of the body is inferred from surface electrode measurements and used to form a tomographic image of that part.

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Electrical muscle stimulation

Electrical muscle stimulation (EMS), also known as neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) or electromyostimulation, is the elicitation of muscle contraction using electric impulses.

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Electrical synapse

An electrical synapse is a mechanical and electrically conductive link between two neighboring neurons that is formed at a narrow gap between the pre- and postsynaptic neurons known as a gap junction.

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Electricity

Electricity is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and motion of electric charge.

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Electroanalgesia

Electroanalgesia is a form of analgesia, or pain relief, that uses electricity to ease pain.

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Electrochemical gradient

An electrochemical gradient is a gradient of electrochemical potential, usually for an ion that can move across a membrane.

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Electrochemistry

Electrochemistry is the branch of physical chemistry that studies the relationship between electricity, as a measurable and quantitative phenomenon, and identifiable chemical change, with either electricity considered an outcome of a particular chemical change or vice versa.

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Electrocochleography

Electrocochleography (abbreviated ECochG or ECOG) is a technique of recording electrical potentials generated in the inner ear and auditory nerve in response to sound stimulation, using an electrode placed in the ear canal or tympanic membrane.

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Electrocorticography

Electrocorticography (ECoG), or intracranial electroencephalography (iEEG), is a type of electrophysiological monitoring that uses electrodes placed directly on the exposed surface of the brain to record electrical activity from the cerebral cortex.

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Electroencephalography

Electroencephalography (EEG) is an electrophysiological monitoring method to record electrical activity of the brain.

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Electrogastrogram

An electrogastrogram (EGG) is a graphic produced by an electrogastrograph, which records the electrical signals that travel through the stomach muscles and control the muscles' contractions.

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Electromagnetic theories of consciousness

The electromagnetic theories of consciousness propose that consciousness can be understood as an electromagnetic phenomenon.

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Electromyography

Electromyography (EMG) is an electrodiagnostic medicine technique for evaluating and recording the electrical activity produced by skeletal muscles.

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Electromyoneurography

Electromyoneurography (EMNG) is the combined use of electromyography and electroneurography This technique allows for the measurement of a peripheral nerve’s conduction velocity upon stimulation (electroneurography) alongside electrical recording of muscular activity (electromyography).

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Electroneurogram

An electroneurogram is a method used to visualize directly recorded electrical activity of neurons in the central nervous system (brain, spinal cord) or the peripheral nervous system (nerves, ganglions).

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Electroneuronography

Electroneuronography or electroneurography (ENoG) is a neurological non-invasive test used to study the facial nerve in cases of muscle weakness in one side of the face (Bell's palsy).

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Electrophysiology

Electrophysiology (from Greek ἥλεκτρον, ēlektron, "amber"; φύσις, physis, "nature, origin"; and -λογία, -logia) is the study of the electrical properties of biological cells and tissues.

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Electrotonic potential

In physiology, electrotonus refers to the passive spread of charge inside a neuron.

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Eliminative materialism

Eliminative materialism (also called eliminativism) is the claim that people's common-sense understanding of the mind (or folk psychology) is false and that certain classes of mental states that most people believe in do not exist.

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Elwin Marg

Elwin Marg (23 March 1918 – 15 July 2010) was an American optometrist and neuroscientist at the University of California at Berkeley.

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Emil du Bois-Reymond

Prof.

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End-plate potential

End plate potentials (EPPs) are the depolarizations of skeletal muscle fibers caused by neurotransmitters binding to the postsynaptic membrane in the neuromuscular junction.

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Endergonic reaction

In chemical thermodynamics, an endergonic reaction (also called a heat absorb nonspontaneous reaction or an unfavorable reaction) is a chemical reaction in which the standard change in free energy is positive, and energy is absorbed.

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Endomorphin

Endomorphins are natural opioid neurotransmitters central to pain relief.

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Ephaptic coupling

Ephaptic coupling is a form of communication within the nervous system and is distinct from direct communication systems like electrical synapses and chemical synapses.

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Epley maneuver

The Epley maneuver or repositioning maneuver is a maneuver used to treat benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) of the posterior or anterior canals.

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Eric Kandel

Eric Richard Kandel (born November 7, 1929) is an Austrian-American neuroscientist and a University Professor of biochemistry and biophysics at the College of Physicians and Surgeons at Columbia University.

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Ernst von Fleischl-Marxow

Ernst von Fleischl-Marxow, also Ernst Fleischl von Marxow (5 August 1846, Vienna – 22 October 1891, Vienna), son of Karl Fleischl Edlem von Marxow and his wife Ida (née Marx) was an Austrian physiologist and physician who became known for his important investigations on the electrical activity of nerves and the brain.

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Erythromelalgia

Erythromelalgia, formerly known as Mitchell's disease (after Silas Weir Mitchell), is a rare vascular peripheral pain disorder in which blood vessels, usually in the lower extremities or hands, are episodically blocked (frequently on and off daily), then become hyperemic and inflamed.

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Ethion

Ethion (C9H22O4P2S4) is an organophosphate insecticide.

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Evolution of nervous systems

The evolution of nervous systems dates back to the first development of nervous systems in animals (or metazoans).

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Excitatory postsynaptic potential

In neuroscience, an excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) is a postsynaptic potential that makes the postsynaptic neuron more likely to fire an action potential.

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Excitatory synapse

An excitatory synapse is a synapse in which an action potential in a presynaptic neuron increases the probability of an action potential occurring in a postsynaptic cell.

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Exercise physiology

Exercise physiology is the physiology of physical exercise.

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Exponential integrate-and-fire

The exponential integrate-and-fire model (EIF) is a biological neuron model, a simple modification of the classical integrate-and-fire model describing how neurons produce action potentials.

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Extracellular fluid

Extracellular fluid (ECF) denotes all body fluid outside the cells.

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Extrafusal muscle fiber

Extrafusal muscle fibers are the skeletal standard muscle fibers that are innervated by alpha motor neurons and generate tension by contracting, thereby allowing for skeletal movement.

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Familial hemiplegic migraine

Familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM) is an autosomal dominant type of hemiplegic migraine that typically includes weakness of half the body which can last for hours, days or weeks.

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Fatigue

Fatigue is a subjective feeling of tiredness that has a gradual onset.

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Fight Club

Fight Club is a 1999 film based on the 1996 novel of the same name by Chuck Palahniuk.

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Firing (disambiguation)

Firing most commonly refers to the involuntary termination of employment.

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Flash (Barry Allen)

The Flash (Bartholomew Henry Allen) is a superhero who appears in comics published by DC Comics.

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Francis Gotch

Francis Gotch (13 July 1853 – 15 July 1913) was a British neurophysiologist who was professor of physiology at University College Liverpool and Oxford University.

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Friedreich's ataxia

Friedreich's ataxia is an autosomal recessive inherited disease that causes progressive damage to the nervous system.

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Fugu

The fugu (河豚; 鰒; フグ) in Japanese or bogeo (복어) or bok (복) in Korean is a pufferfish, normally of the genus Takifugu, Lagocephalus, or Sphoeroides, or a porcupinefish of the genus Diodon, or a dish prepared from these fish.

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Functional electrical stimulation

Functional electrical stimulation (FES) is a technique that uses low energy electrical pulses to artificially generate body movements in individuals who have been paralyzed due to injury to the central nervous system.

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GABA receptor

The GABA receptors are a class of receptors that respond to the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the chief inhibitory compound in the mature vertebrate central nervous system.

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GABA receptor agonist

A GABA receptor agonist is a drug that is an agonist for one or more of the GABA receptors, producing typically sedative effects, and may also cause other effects such as anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, and muscle relaxant effects.

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GABAA receptor

The GABAA receptor (GABAAR) is an ionotropic receptor and ligand-gated ion channel.

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GABAA receptor positive allosteric modulator

In pharmacology, GABAA receptor positive allosteric modulators are positive allosteric modulator (PAM) molecules that increase the activity of the GABAA receptor protein in the vertebrate central nervous system.

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GABAB receptor

GABAB receptors (GABABR) are metabotropic transmembrane receptors for gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) that are linked via G-proteins to potassium channels.

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Gain-field encoding

Gain field encoding is a hypothesis about the internal storage and processing of limb motion in the brain.

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Galanin

Galanin is a neuropeptide encoded by the GAL gene, that is widely expressed in the brain, spinal cord, and gut of humans as well as other mammals.

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Gambierol

Gambierol is a marine polycyclic ether toxin which is produced by the dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus toxicus.

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Gamma motor neuron

A gamma motor neuron (γ motor neuron), also called gamma motoneuron, is a type of lower motor neuron that takes part in the process of muscle contraction, and represents about 30% of (Aγ) fibers going to the muscle.

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Ganaxolone

Ganaxolone is an experimental CNS-selective GABAA modulator that is under development by Marinus Pharmaceuticals as an anxiolytic and anticonvulsant agent.

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Gastrointestinal physiology

Gastrointestinal physiology is the branch of human physiology that addresses the physical function of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract.

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Gating (electrophysiology)

In electrophysiology, the term gating refers to the opening (activation) or closing (by deactivation or inactivation) of ion channels.

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Gene D. Block

Gene D. Block (born August 17, 1948) is an American biologist, academic, inventor, and chancellor of the University of California, Los Angeles.

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Gerald Fischbach

Gerald D. Fischbach (born November 15, 1938) is an American neuroscientist.

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GHK flux equation

The Goldman–Hodgkin–Katz flux equation (or GHK flux equation or GHK current density equation) describes the ionic flux across a cell membrane as a function of the transmembrane potential and the concentrations of the ion inside and outside of the cell.

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Gilbert Ling

Gilbert Ning Ling (born December 26, 1919) is a cell physiologist, biochemist and scientific investigator.

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GJA1

Gap junction alpha-1 protein (GJA1), also known as connexin 43 (Cx43), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GJA1 gene on chromosome 6.

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GJB1

Gap junction beta-1 protein (GJB1), also known as connexin 32 (Cx32) is a transmembrane protein that in humans is encoded by the GJB1 gene.

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Glia limitans

The glia limitans, or the glial limiting membrane, is a thin barrier of astrocyte foot processes associated with the parenchymal basal lamina surrounding the brain and spinal cord.

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Glomerulus (olfaction)

The glomerulus (plural glomeruli) is a spherical structure located in the olfactory bulb of the brain where synapses form between the terminals of the olfactory nerve and the dendrites of mitral, periglomerular and tufted cells.

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Glossary of biology

Most of the terms listed in Wikipedia glossaries are already defined and explained within Wikipedia itself.

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Glutamate transporter

Glutamate transporters are a family of neurotransmitter transporter proteins that move glutamate – the principal excitatory neurotransmitter – across a membrane.

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Glutamic acid

Glutamic acid (symbol Glu or E) is an α-amino acid with formula.

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Golgi tendon organ

The Golgi tendon organ (GTO) (also called Golgi organ, tendon organ, neurotendinous organ or neurotendinous spindle) is a proprioceptive sensory receptor organ that senses changes in muscle tension.

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Golgi tendon reflex

The Golgi tendon reflex is a normal component of the reflex arc of the peripheral nervous system.

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Goniopora toxin

Goniopora toxin (GPT) is a polypeptide toxin from the marine Goniopora species coral.

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Gonyautoxin

Gonyautoxins (GTX) are a few similar toxic molecules that are naturally produced by algae.

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Graded potential

Graded potentials are changes in membrane potential that vary in size, as opposed to being all-or-none.

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Granger causality

The Granger causality test is a statistical hypothesis test for determining whether one time series is useful in forecasting another, first proposed in 1969.

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Grayanotoxin

Grayanotoxins are a group of closely related neurotoxins named after Leucothoe grayana, a plant native to Japan originally named for 19th century American botanist Asa Gray.

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Green algae

The green algae (singular: green alga) are a large, informal grouping of algae consisting of the Chlorophyta and Charophyta/Streptophyta, which are now placed in separate divisions, as well as the more basal Mesostigmatophyceae, Chlorokybophyceae and Spirotaenia.

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Grid cell

A grid cell is a type of neuron in the brains of many species that allows them to understand their position in space.

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Group C nerve fiber

Group C nerve fibers are one of three classes of nerve fiber in the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system.

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Guangxitoxin

Guangxitoxin, also known as GxTX, is a peptide toxin found in the venom of the tarantula Plesiophrictus guangxiensis.

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Guillain–Barré syndrome

Guillain–Barré syndrome (GBS) is a rapid-onset muscle weakness caused by the immune system damaging the peripheral nervous system.

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Gyrification

Gyrification is the process of forming the characteristic folds of the cerebral cortex.

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H1 neuron

The H1 neuron is located in the visual cortex of true flies of the order Diptera and mediates motor responses to visual stimuli.

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Habenular nuclei

The habenular nuclei (habenula is Latin for "little rein") acts as a regulator of key central nervous system neurotransmitters, connecting the forebrain and midbrain within the epithalamus.

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Hair cell

Hair cells are the sensory receptors of both the auditory system and the vestibular system in the ears of all vertebrates.

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Halorhodopsin

Halorhodopsin is a light-gated ion pump, specific for chloride ions, found in archaea, known as halobacteria.

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Halteres

In dipterous insects, halteres (singular halter or haltere) are minute dumbbell-shaped organs which have been modified from hindwings to provide a means of encoding body rotations during flight.

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HAPLN2

Hyaluronan and proteoglycan link protein 2 (HAPLN2) also known as brain link protein 1 (BRAL1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HAPLN2 gene.

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Hearing

Hearing, or auditory perception, is the ability to perceive sounds by detecting vibrations, changes in the pressure of the surrounding medium through time, through an organ such as the ear.

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Heart

The heart is a muscular organ in most animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system.

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Heart arrhythmia

Heart arrhythmia (also known as arrhythmia, dysrhythmia, or irregular heartbeat) is a group of conditions in which the heartbeat is irregular, too fast, or too slow.

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Heat equation

The heat equation is a parabolic partial differential equation that describes the distribution of heat (or variation in temperature) in a given region over time.

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Herbert Spencer Gasser

Herbert Spencer Gasser (July 5, 1888 – May 11, 1963) was an American physiologist, and recipient of the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1944 for his work with action potentials in nerve fibers while on the faculty of Washington University in St. Louis, awarded jointly with Joseph Erlanger.

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Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type I

Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type I (HSAN I) or hereditary sensory neuropathy type I (HSN I) is a group of autosomal dominant inherited neurological diseases that affect the peripheral nervous system particularly on the sensory and autonomic functions.

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Hering–Breuer reflex

The Hering–Breuer inflation reflex, named for Josef Breuer and Ewald Hering, is a reflex triggered to prevent over-inflation of the lung.

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Hindmarsh–Rose model

The Hindmarsh–Rose model of neuronal activity is aimed to study the spiking-bursting behavior of the membrane potential observed in experiments made with a single neuron.

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Hippocampus

The hippocampus (named after its resemblance to the seahorse, from the Greek ἱππόκαμπος, "seahorse" from ἵππος hippos, "horse" and κάμπος kampos, "sea monster") is a major component of the brains of humans and other vertebrates.

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Histamine

Histamine is an organic nitrogenous compound involved in local immune responses, as well as regulating physiological function in the gut and acting as a neurotransmitter for the brain, spinal cord, and uterus.

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Hitoshi Okamura

Hitoshi Okamura (born December 2, 1952) is a Japanese scientist who specializes in chronobiology.

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Hodgkin–Huxley model

The Hodgkin–Huxley model, or conductance-based model, is a mathematical model that describes how action potentials in neurons are initiated and propagated.

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Holonomic brain theory

The holonomic brain theory, developed by neuroscientist Karl Pribram initially in collaboration with physicist David Bohm, is a model of human cognition that describes the brain as a holographic storage network.

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Human body

The human body is the entire structure of a human being.

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Human brain

The human brain is the central organ of the human nervous system, and with the spinal cord makes up the central nervous system.

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Human musculoskeletal system

The human musculoskeletal system (also known as the locomotor system, and previously the activity system) is an organ system that gives humans the ability to move using their muscular and skeletal systems.

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Huxley family

The Huxley family is a British family of which several members have excelled in science, medicine, arts, and literature.

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HVCN1

Voltage-gated hydrogen channel 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HVCN1 gene.

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Hyperkalemia

Hyperkalemia, also spelled hyperkalaemia, is an elevated level of potassium (K+) in the blood serum.

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Hyperkalemic periodic paralysis

Hyperkalemic periodic paralysis (HYPP, HyperKPP) is a genetic disorder.

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Hyperpolarization (biology)

Hyperpolarization is a change in a cell's membrane potential that makes it more negative.

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Hypertryptophanemia

Hypertryptophanemia, also called familial hypertryptophanemia, is a rare autosomal recessive metabolic disorder that results in a massive buildup of the amino acid tryptophan in the blood, with associated symptoms and tryptophanuria (-uria denotes "in the urine").

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Hypokalemia

Hypokalemia, also spelled hypokalaemia, is a low level of potassium (K+) in the blood serum.

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Hypokalemic periodic paralysis

Hypokalemic periodic paralysis (hypoKPP) is a rare, autosomal dominant channelopathy characterized by muscle weakness or paralysis when there is a fall in potassium levels in the blood.

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Hypoparathyroidism

Hypoparathyroidism is decreased function of the parathyroid glands with underproduction of parathyroid hormone.

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Ibutilide

Ibutilide is a Class III antiarrhythmic agent that is indicated for acute cardioconversion of atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter of a recent onset to sinus rhythm.

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Index of biochemistry articles

Biochemistry is the study of the chemical processes in living organisms.

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Index of biology articles

Biology is the study of life and its processes.

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Information metabolism

Information metabolism, sometimes referred to as informational metabolism or energetic-informational metabolism, is a psychological theory of interaction between biological organisms and their environment, developed by Polish psychiatrist Antoni Kępiński.

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Inhibitory postsynaptic potential

An inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP) is a kind of synaptic potential that makes a postsynaptic neuron less likely to generate an action potential.

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Inotrope

An inotrope is an agent that alters the force or energy of muscular contractions.

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Insane in the Brain

"Insane in the Brain" is a 1993 single by the American hip hop group Cypress Hill.

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Insect euthanasia

Insect euthanasia is the process of killing insects "in a way that minimizes or eliminates pain and distress." It may apply to animals in the laboratory, schools, as pets, as food, or otherwise.

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Insect olfaction

Insect olfaction refers to the function of chemical receptors that enable insects to detect and identify volatile compounds for foraging, predator avoidance, finding mating partners (via pheromones) and locating oviposition habitats.

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Insect physiology

Insect physiology includes the physiology and biochemistry of insect organ systems.

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Intercalated disc

Intercalated discs are microscopic identifying features of cardiac muscle.

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Interoception

Interoception is contemporarily defined as the sense of the internal state of the body.

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Inward-rectifier potassium channel

Inward-rectifier potassium channels (Kir, IRK) are a specific subset of potassium channels.

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Ion channel

Ion channels are pore-forming membrane proteins that allow ions to pass through the channel pore.

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Ion channel hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease

The ion channel hypothesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), also known as the channel hypothesis or the amyloid beta ion channel hypothesis, is a more recent variant of the amyloid hypothesis of AD, which identifies amyloid beta (Aβ) as the underlying cause of neurotoxicity seen in AD.

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Ischemic cascade

The ischemic (ischaemic) cascade is a series of biochemical reactions that are initiated in the brain and other aerobic tissues after seconds to minutes of ischemia (inadequate blood supply).

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Ising model

The Ising model, named after the physicist Ernst Ising, is a mathematical model of ferromagnetism in statistical mechanics.

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ITPR3

Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor, type 3, also known as ITPR3, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the ITPR3 gene.

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John Eccles (neurophysiologist)

Sir John Carew Eccles (27 January 1903 – 2 May 1997) was an Australian neurophysiologist and philosopher who won the 1963 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his work on the synapse.

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John Hopfield

John Joseph Hopfield (born July 15, 1933) is an American scientist most widely known for his invention of an associative neural network in 1982.

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John O'Keefe (neuroscientist)

John O'Keefe, (born November 18, 1939) is an American-British neuroscientist and a professor at the Sainsbury Wellcome Centre for Neural Circuits and Behaviour and the Research Department of Cell and Developmental Biology at University College London.

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John Wilson Moore

John Wilson Moore (born 1920) is an internationally known biophysicist who pioneered the emergent power of computers, beginning in the 1950s, to reveal how signals are generated, integrated, and then travel in neurons.

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John Woodland Hastings

John Woodland "Woody" Hastings, (March 24, 1927 – August 6, 2014) was a leader in the field of photobiology, especially bioluminescence, and was one of the founders of the field of circadian biology (the study of circadian rhythms, or the sleep-wake cycle).

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Joseph Erlanger

Joseph Erlanger (January 5, 1874 – December 5, 1965) was an American physiologist who is best known for his contributions to the field of neuroscience.

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Joseph Erlanger House

The Joseph Erlanger House is a historic house at 5127 Waterman Boulevard in St. Louis, Missouri.

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Julio Moizeszowicz

Julio Moizeszowicz is an Argentine psychiatrist.

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Julius Bernstein

Julius Bernstein (18 December 1839 – 6 February 1917) was a German physiologist born in Berlin.

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Kalicludine

Kalicludine (AsKC) is a blocker of the voltage-dependent potassium channel Kv1.2 found in the snakeslocks anemone Anemonia viridis (Anemonia sulcata), which it uses to paralyse prey.

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Kaliseptine

Kaliseptine (AsKS) is a neurotoxin which can be found in the snakelocks anemone ''Anemonia viridis''.

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Katsu ika odori-don

Katsu ika odori-don (活いか踊り丼, dancing squid rice bowl) is a Japanese dish consisting of a fresh squid atop either rice or noodles.

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KCNB1

Potassium voltage-gated channel, Shab-related subfamily, member 1, also known as KCNB1 or Kv2.1, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the KCNB1 gene.

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KCNC1

Potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily C member 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the KCNC1 gene.

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KCND3

Potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily D member 3 also known as Kv4.3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the KCND3 gene.

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KCNK4

Potassium channel subfamily K member 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the KCNK4 gene.

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KCNN2

Potassium intermediate/small conductance calcium-activated channel, subfamily N, member 2, also known as KCNN2, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the KCNN2 gene.

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Ketogenic diet

The ketogenic diet is a high-fat, adequate-protein, low-carbohydrate diet that in medicine is used primarily to treat difficult-to-control (refractory) epilepsy in children.

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Klaus Schmiegel

Klaus Schmiegel (born June 28, 1939) is most famous for his work in organic chemistry, which led to the invention of Prozac, a widely used antidepressant.

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Krogh's principle

Krogh's principle states that "for such a large number of problems there will be some animal of choice, or a few such animals, on which it can be most conveniently studied." This concept is central to those disciplines of biology that rely on the comparative method, such as neuroethology, comparative physiology, and more recently functional genomics.

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KvLQT1

Kv7.1 (KvLQT1) is a potassium channel protein whose primary subunit in humans is encoded by the KCNQ1 gene.

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Labetalol

Labetalol is a medication used to treat high blood pressure.

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Lacosamide

Lacosamide (INN, formerly known as erlosamide, harkeroside, SPM 927, or ADD 234037), is a medication for the adjunctive treatment of partial-onset seizures and diabetic neuropathic pain.

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Lambert–Eaton myasthenic syndrome

Lambert–Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS) is a rare autoimmune disorder characterized by muscle weakness of the limbs.

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Lamellar corpuscle

Lamellar corpuscles, or Pacinian corpuscles, are one of the four major types of mechanoreceptor cell in glabrous (hairless) mammalian skin.

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Lateral horn of insect brain

The lateral horn (lateral protocerebrum) is one of the two areas of the insect brain where projection neurons of the antennal lobe send their axons.

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Lateral inhibition

In neurobiology, lateral inhibition is the capacity of an excited neuron to reduce the activity of its neighbors.

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Latrotoxin

A latrotoxin is a high-molecular mass neurotoxin found in the venom of spiders of the genus Latrodectus (widow spiders).

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Latrunculin

The latrunculins are a family of natural products and toxins produced by certain sponges, including genus Latrunculia and Negombata, whence the name is derived.

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Law of specific nerve energies

The law of specific nerve energies, first proposed by Johannes Peter Müller in 1835, is that the nature of perception is defined by the pathway over which the sensory information is carried.

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Leukodystrophy

Leukodystrophy is one of a group of disorders characterized by degeneration of the white matter in the brain.

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Lidocaine

Lidocaine, also known as xylocaine and lignocaine, is a medication used to numb tissue in a specific area.

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Ligand-gated ion channel

Ligand-gated ion channels (LICs, LGIC), also commonly referred as ionotropic receptors, are a group of transmembrane ion-channel proteins which open to allow ions such as Na+, K+, Ca2+, and/or Cl− to pass through the membrane in response to the binding of a chemical messenger (i.e. a ligand), such as a neurotransmitter.

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Light-gated ion channel

Light-gated ion channels are a family of ion channels regulated by electromagnetic radiation.

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Lightning strike

A lightning strike or lightning bolt is an electric discharge between the atmosphere and an Earth-bound object.

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Lipid bilayer

The lipid bilayer (or phospholipid bilayer) is a thin polar membrane made of two layers of lipid molecules.

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Lipid bilayer characterization

Lipid bilayer characterization is the use of various optical, chemical and physical probing methods to study the properties of lipid bilayers.

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List of biophysicists

This is a list of persons known for their research in biophysics.

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List of cocaine analogues

This is a list of cocaine analogues.

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List of fictional diseases

This article is a list of fictional diseases, disorders, infections, and pathogens which appear in fiction where they have a major plot or thematic importance.

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List of human hormones

The following is a list of hormones found in Homo sapiens.

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List of medical abbreviations: N

Category:Lists of medical abbreviations.

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List of MeSH codes (G07)

The following is a list of the "G" codes for MeSH.

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List of MeSH codes (G11)

The following is a list of the "G" codes for MeSH.

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List of poisonous plants

Poisonous plants are those plants that produce toxins that deter herbivores from consuming them.

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LmαTX3

LmαTX3 is an α-scorpion toxin from Lychas mucronatus.

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Local anesthetic

A local anesthetic (LA) is a medication that causes reversible absence of pain sensation, although other senses are often affected, as well.

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Local field potential

A local field potential (LFP) is an electrophysiological signal generated by the summed electric current flowing from multiple nearby neurons within a small volume of nervous tissue.

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Long-term depression

Long-term depression (LTD), in neurophysiology, is an activity-dependent reduction in the efficacy of neuronal synapses lasting hours or longer following a long patterned stimulus.

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Long-term video-EEG monitoring

Long-term or "continuous" video-electroencephalography (EEG) monitoring is a diagnostic technique commonly used in patients with epilepsy.

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Lorcainide

Lorcainide (Lorcainide hydrochloride) is a Class 1c antiarrhythmic agent that is used to help restore normal heart rhythm and conduction in patients with premature ventricular contractions, ventricular tachycardiac and Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome.

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Lordosis behavior

Lordosis behavior, also known as mammalian lordosis (Greek lordōsis, from lordos "bent backward") or presenting, is the naturally occurring body posture for sexual receptivity to copulation present in most mammals including rodents, elephants, and felines.

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Low-threshold spikes

Low-threshold spikes (LTS) refer to membrane depolarizations by the T-type calcium channel.

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Luciferase

Luciferase is a generic term for the class of oxidative enzymes that produce bioluminescence, and is usually distinguished from a photoprotein.

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M current

M current is a type of noninactivating potassium current first discovered in bullfrog sympathetic ganglion cells The M-channel is a voltage-gated K+ channel that is named after the receptor it is influenced by.

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Magnetoencephalography

Magnetoencephalography (MEG) is a functional neuroimaging technique for mapping brain activity by recording magnetic fields produced by electrical currents occurring naturally in the brain, using very sensitive magnetometers.

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Magnocellular neurosecretory cell

Magnocellular neurosecretory cells are large neuroendocrine cells within the supraoptic nucleus and paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus.

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Mammalian eye

Mammals normally have a pair of eyes.

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Marcelle Lapicque

Marcelle de Heredia Lapicque (1873 – c. 1962) was a French neurophysiologist known for her research on nerve impulses (chronaxie) and the effects of poisons, especially strychnine, on chronaxie.

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Margatoxin

Margatoxin (MgTX) is a peptide that selectively inhibits Kv1.3 voltage-dependent potassium channels.

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Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom

The Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom (MBA) is a learned society with a scientific laboratory that undertakes research in marine biology.

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Masonic Medical Research Laboratory

Masonic Medical Research Laboratory is a research organization founded by the Grand Lodge of New York.

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Mauthner cell

The Mauthner cells are a pair of big and easily identifiable neurons (one for each half of the body) located in the rhombomere 4 of the hindbrain in fish and amphibians that are responsible for a very fast escape reflex (in the majority of animals – a so-called C-start response).

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Max Bennett (scientist)

Maxwell Richard Bennett (born February 19, 1939) is an Australian neuroscientist specializing in the function of synapses.

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Maximally informative dimensions

Maximally informative dimensions is a dimensionality reduction technique used in the statistical analyses of neural responses.

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Mechanism of anoxic depolarization in the brain

Anoxic depolarization is a progressive and uncontrollable depolarization of neurons during stroke or brain ischemia in which there is an inadequate supply of blood to the brain.

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Mechanoreceptor

A mechanoreceptor is a sensory receptor that responds to mechanical pressure or distortion.

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Mechanosensation

Mechanosensation is a response mechanism to mechanical stimuli.

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Mechanosensitive channels

Mechanosensitive channels, mechanosensitive ion channels or stretch-gated ion channels.

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Medical University of Vienna

The Medical University of Vienna (German: Medizinische Universität Wien) is a public university located in Vienna, Austria.

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Medium spiny neuron

Medium spiny neurons (MSNs), also known as spiny projection neurons, are a special type of GABAergic inhibitory cell representing 95% of neurons within the human striatum, a basal ganglia structure.

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Melanopsin

Melanopsin is a type of photopigment belonging to a larger family of light-sensitive retinal proteins called opsins and encoded by the gene Opn4.

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Membrane potential

The term "membrane potential" may refer to one of three kinds of membrane potential.

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Membrane stabilizing effect

Membrane stabilizing effects involve the inhibition or total abolishing of action potentials from being propagated across the membrane.

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Memory

Memory is the faculty of the mind by which information is encoded, stored, and retrieved.

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Merkel nerve ending

Merkel nerve endings are mechanoreceptors, a type of sensory receptor, that are found in the basal epidermis and hair follicles.

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Metabolism

Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.

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Metabotropic receptor

A metabotropic receptor is a type of membrane receptor of eukaryotic cells that acts through a second messenger.

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Methamphetamine

Methamphetamine (contracted from) is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is mainly used as a recreational drug and less commonly as a second-line treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and obesity.

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Michale Fee

Michale Sean Fee (born November 6, 1964, Pasadena CA) is a neuroscientist who works on the neural mechanisms of sequence generation and learning.

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Microelectrode

This article about application of microelectrodes in electrophysiology.

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Mimosa pudica

Mimosa pudica (from pudica "shy, bashful or shrinking"; also called sensitive plant, sleepy plant, action plant, Dormilones, touch-me-not, shameplant, or shy plant) is a creeping annual or perennial flowering plant of the pea/legume family Fabaceae and Magnoliopsida taxon, often grown for its curiosity value: the compound leaves fold inward and droop when touched or shaken, defending themselves from harm, and re-open a few minutes later.

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Mind uploading

Whole brain emulation (WBE), mind upload or brain upload (sometimes called "mind copying" or "mind transfer") is the hypothetical futuristic process of scanning the mental state (including long-term memory and "self") of a particular brain substrate and copying it to a computer.

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Mirror neuron

A mirror neuron is a neuron that fires both when an animal acts and when the animal observes the same action performed by another.

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Models of neural computation

Models of neural computation are attempts to elucidate, in an abstract and mathematical fashion, the core principles that underlie information processing in biological nervous systems, or functional components thereof.

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Mold health issues

Mold health issues are potentially harmful effects of molds.

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Molecular neuroscience

Molecular neuroscience is a branch of neuroscience that observes concepts in molecular biology applied to the nervous systems of animals.

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Motor nerve

A motor nerve is a nerve located in the central nervous system (CNS), usually the spinal cord, that sends motor signals from the CNS to the muscles of the body.This is different from the motor neuron, which includes a cell body and branching of dendrites, while the nerve is made up of a bundle of axons.

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Motor neuron

A motor neuron (or motoneuron) is a neuron whose cell body is located in the motor cortex, brainstem or the spinal cord, and whose axon (fiber) projects to the spinal cord or outside of the spinal cord to directly or indirectly control effector organs, mainly muscles and glands.

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Motor pool (neuroscience)

A motor pool consists of all individual motor neurons that innervate a single muscle.

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Motor unit

A motor unit is made up of a motor neuron and the skeletal muscle fibers innervated by that motor neuron's axonal terminals.

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MUA

Mua may refer to.

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Multielectrode array

| --> Multielectrode arrays (MEAs) or microelectrode arrays are devices that contain multiple plates or shanks through which neural signals are obtained or delivered, essentially serving as neural interfaces that connect neurons to electronic circuitry.

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Multilayer perceptron

A multilayer perceptron (MLP) is a class of feedforward artificial neural network.

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Multiple sclerosis

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease in which the insulating covers of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord are damaged.

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Multivesicular release

Multivesicular release (MVR) is the phenomenon by which individual chemical synapses, forming the junction between neurons, is mediated by multiple releasable vesicles of neurotransmitter.

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Muscle

Muscle is a soft tissue found in most animals.

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Muscle coactivation

Muscle coactivation occurs when agonist and antagonist (or synergist) muscles surrounding a joint contract simultaneously to provide joint stability.

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Muscle contraction

Muscle contraction is the activation of tension-generating sites within muscle fibers.

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Muscle fatigue

Muscle fatigue is the decline in ability of a muscle to generate force.

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Muscle relaxant

A muscle relaxant is a drug that affects skeletal muscle function and decreases the muscle tone.

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Muscle spindle

Muscle spindles are stretch receptors within the body of a muscle that primarily detect changes in the length of the muscle.

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Muscle tissue

Muscle tissue is a soft tissue that composes muscles in animal bodies, and gives rise to muscles' ability to contract.

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Muscle weakness

Muscle weakness or myasthenia (my- from Greek μυο meaning "muscle" + -asthenia ἀσθένεια meaning "weakness") is a lack of muscle strength.

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Muscular system

The muscular system is an organ system consisting of skeletal, smooth and cardiac muscles.

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Myasthenia gravis

Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a long-term neuromuscular disease that leads to varying degrees of skeletal muscle weakness.

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Myelin

Myelin is a lipid-rich substance that surrounds the axon of some nerve cells, forming an electrically insulating layer.

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Myelin basic protein

Myelin basic protein (MBP) is a protein believed to be important in the process of myelination of nerves in the nervous system.

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Myocyte

A myocyte (also known as a muscle cell) is the type of cell found in muscle tissue.

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Myogenic response

Myogenic response refers to a contraction initiated by the myocyte cell itself instead of an outside occurrence or stimulus such as nerve innervation.

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Myotonia

Myotonia (Myo from Greek; muscle, and Tonus from Latin; tension) is a symptom of a small handful of certain neuromuscular disorders characterized by delayed relaxation (prolonged contraction) of the skeletal muscles after voluntary contraction or electrical stimulation.

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Myotonia congenita

Congenital myotonia, also called myotonia congenita, is a congenital neuromuscular channelopathy that affects skeletal muscles (muscles used for movement).

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N-(p-amylcinnamoyl)anthranilic acid

N-(p-amylcinnamoyl)anthranilic acid (ACA) is a modulator of various ion channels in the heart.

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N-type calcium channel

N-type calcium channels are voltage gated calcium channels that are distributed throughout the entire body.

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Nav1.1

Nav1.1, also known as the sodium channel, voltage-gated, type I, alpha subunit (SCN1A), is a protein which in humans is encoded by the SCN1A gene.

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Nav1.2

Navα1.2, also known as the sodium channel, voltage-gated, type II, alpha subunit is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SCN2A gene.

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Nav1.5

NaV1.5 is an integral membrane protein and tetrodotoxin-resistant voltage-gated sodium channel subunit.

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Nav1.7

Nav1.7 is a sodium ion channel that in humans is encoded by the SCN9A gene.

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Nav1.8

Nav1.8 is a sodium ion channel subtype that in humans is encoded by the SCN10A gene.

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Nav1.9

Sodium channel, voltage-gated, type XI, alpha subunit also known as SCN11A or Nav1.9 is a voltage-gated sodium ion channel protein which is encoded by the SCN11A gene on chromosome 3 in humans.

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Nerve

A nerve is an enclosed, cable-like bundle of axons (nerve fibers, the long and slender projections of neurons) in the peripheral nervous system.

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Nerve compression syndrome

Nerve compression syndrome or compression neuropathy, also known as entrapment neuropathy, is a medical condition caused by direct pressure on a nerve.

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Nerve conduction study

A nerve conduction study (NCS) is a medical diagnostic test commonly used to evaluate the function, especially the ability of electrical conduction, of the motor and sensory nerves of the human body.

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Nervous system

The nervous system is the part of an animal that coordinates its actions by transmitting signals to and from different parts of its body.

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Nervous system of gastropods

The nervous system of gastropods consists of a series of paired ganglia connected by major nerve cords, and a number of smaller branching nerves.

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Nervous tissue

Nervous tissue or nerve tissue is the main tissue component of the two parts of the nervous system; the brain and spinal cord of the central nervous system (CNS), and the branching peripheral nerves of the peripheral nervous system (PNS), which regulates and controls bodily functions and activity.

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NEST (software)

NEST is a simulation software for spiking neural network models, including large-scale neuronal networks.

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Neural accommodation

Neural accommodation or neuronal accommodation occurs when a neuron or muscle cell is depolarised by slowly rising current (ramp depolarisation) in vitro.

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Neural backpropagation

Neural backpropagation is the phenomenon in which the action potential of a neuron creates a voltage spike both at the end of the axon (normal propagation) and back through to the dendritic arbor or dendrites, from which much of the original input current originated.

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Neural coding

Neural coding is a neuroscience field concerned with characterising the hypothetical relationship between the stimulus and the individual or ensemble neuronal responses and the relationship among the electrical activity of the neurons in the ensemble.

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Neural computation

Neural computation is the hypothetical information processing performed by networks of neurons.

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Neural decoding

Neural decoding is a neuroscience field concerned with the hypothetical reconstruction of sensory and other stimuli from information that has already been encoded and represented in the brain by networks of neurons.

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Neural dust

Neural dust, or neural dust mote is a term used to refer to millimeter-sized devices operated as wirelessly powered nerve sensors.

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Neural engineering

Neural engineering (also known as neuroengineering) is a discipline within biomedical engineering that uses engineering techniques to understand, repair, replace, enhance, or otherwise exploit the properties of neural systems.

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Neural facilitation

Neural facilitation, also known as paired pulse facilitation (PPF), is a phenomenon in neuroscience in which postsynaptic potentials (PSPs) (EPPs, EPSPs or IPSPs) evoked by an impulse are increased when that impulse closely follows a prior impulse.

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Neural oscillation

Neural oscillations, or brainwaves, are rhythmic or repetitive patterns of neural activity in the central nervous system.

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Neural tissue engineering

Neural tissue engineering is a specific sub-field of tissue engineering.

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Neurapraxia

Neurapraxia is a disorder of the peripheral nervous system in which there is a temporary loss of motor and sensory function due to blockage of nerve conduction, usually lasting an average of six to eight weeks before full recovery.

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Neurochemical

A neurochemical is a small organic molecule or peptide that participates in neural activity.

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Neurochip

A neurochip is a chip (integrated circuit/microprocessor) that is designed for the interaction with neuronal cells.

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Neuroeffector junction

A neuroeffector junction is a site where a motor neuron releases a neurotransmitter to affect a target—non-neuronal—cell.

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Neuroglia

Neuroglia, also called glial cells or simply glia, are non-neuronal cells in the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) and the peripheral nervous system.

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Neuroimmune system

The neuroimmune system is a system of structures and processes involving the biochemical and electrophysiological interactions between the nervous system and immune system which protect neurons from pathogens.

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Neuroinformatics

Neuroinformatics is a research field concerned with the organization of neuroscience data by the application of computational models and analytical tools.

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Neuromodulation (medicine)

Neuromodulation is "the alteration of nerve activity through targeted delivery of a stimulus, such as electrical stimulation or chemical agents, to specific neurological sites in the body".

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Neuromuscular junction

A neuromuscular junction (or myoneural junction) is a chemical synapse formed by the contact between a motor neuron and a muscle fiber.

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Neuron

A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.

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Neuron (software)

Neuron is a simulation environment for modeling individual and networks of neurons.

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Neuronal encoding of sound

The neuronal encoding of sound is the representation of auditory sensation and perception in the nervous system.

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Neuronal noise

Neuronal noise or neural noise refers to the random intrinsic electrical fluctuations within neuronal networks.

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Neuropharmacology

Neuropharmacology is the study of how drugs affect cellular function in the nervous system, and the neural mechanisms through which they influence behavior.

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Neurophysics

Neurophysics (or neurobiophysics) is the branch of biophysics dealing with the development and use of physical techniques to gain information about the nervous system on a molecular level.

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Neuroplasticity

Neuroplasticity, also known as brain plasticity and neural plasticity, is the ability of the brain to change throughout an individual's life, e.g., brain activity associated with a given function can be transferred to a different location, the proportion of grey matter can change, and synapses may strengthen or weaken over time.

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Neuropsychopharmacology

Neuropsychopharmacology, an interdisciplinary science related to psychopharmacology (how drugs affect the mind) and fundamental neuroscience, is the study of the neural mechanisms that drugs act upon to influence behavior.

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Neuroscience

Neuroscience (or neurobiology) is the scientific study of the nervous system.

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Neuroscience of rhythm

The neuroscience of rhythm refers to the various forms of rhythm generated by the central nervous system (CNS).

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Neuroscientist

A neuroscientist (or neurobiologist) is a scientist who has specialised knowledge in the field of neuroscience, the branch of biology that deals with the physiology, biochemistry, anatomy and molecular biology of neurons and neural circuits and especially their association with behaviour and learning.

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Neurostimulation

Neurostimulation is the purposeful modulation of the nervous system's activity using invasive (e.g. microelectrodes) or non-invasive means (e.g. transcranial magnetic stimulation or transcranial electric stimulation, tES, such as tDCS or transcranial alternating current stimulation, tACS).

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Neurotoxin

Neurotoxins are toxins that are poisonous or destructive to nerve tissue (causing neurotoxicity).

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Neurotransmission

Neurotransmission (Latin: transmissio "passage, crossing" from transmittere "send, let through"), also called synaptic transmission, is the process by which signaling molecules called neurotransmitters are released by the axon terminal of a neuron (the presynaptic neuron), and bind to and activate the receptors on the dendrites of another neuron (the postsynaptic neuron).

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Neurotransmitter

Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.

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Neurotransmitter receptor

A neurotransmitter receptor (also known as a neuroreceptor) is a membrane receptor protein that is activated by a neurotransmitter.

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Neurotransmitter transporter

Neurotransmitter transporters are a class of membrane transport proteins that span the cellular membranes of neurons.

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Nociceptor

A nociceptor is a sensory neuron that responds to damaging or potentially damaging stimuli by sending “possible threat” signals to the spinal cord and the brain.

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Node of Ranvier

Nodes of Ranvier, also known as myelin-sheath gaps, occur along a myelinated axon where the axolemma is exposed to the extracellular space.

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Non-spiking neuron

Non-spiking neurons are neurons that are located in the central and peripheral nervous systems and function as intermediary relays for sensory-motor neurons.

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Nonsynaptic plasticity

Nonsynaptic plasticity is a form of neuroplasticity that involves modification of ion channel function in the axon, dendrites, and cell body that results in specific changes in the integration of excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) and inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs).

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Norepinephrine

Norepinephrine (NE), also called noradrenaline (NA) or noradrenalin, is an organic chemical in the catecholamine family that functions in the brain and body as a hormone and neurotransmitter.

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Nutrient

A nutrient is a substance used by an organism to survive, grow, and reproduce.

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Observational learning

Observational learning is learning that occurs through observing the behavior of others.

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Octopus

The octopus (or ~) is a soft-bodied, eight-armed mollusc of the order Octopoda.

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Ocular myasthenia

Ocular myasthenia gravis (MG) is a disease of the neuromuscular junction resulting in hallmark variability in muscle weakness and fatigability.

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Olfaction

Olfaction is a chemoreception that forms the sense of smell.

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Olfactory nerve

The olfactory nerve is typically considered the first cranial nerve, or simply CN I, that contains sensory nerve fibers relating to smell.

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Olfactory receptor

Olfactory receptors (ORs), also known as odorant receptors, are expressed in the cell membranes of olfactory receptor neurons and are responsible for the detection of odorants (i.e., compounds that have an odor) which give rise to the sense of smell.

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Olfactory receptor neuron

An olfactory receptor neuron (ORN), also called an olfactory sensory neuron (OSN), is a transduction cell within the olfactory system.

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Oligodendrocyte

Oligodendrocytes, or oligodendroglia,.

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Oligodendrocyte progenitor cell

Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs), also known as oligodendrocyte precursor cells, NG2-glia or polydendrocytes, are a subtype of glial cells in the central nervous system.

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Onchocerciasis

Onchocerciasis, also known as river blindness, is a disease caused by infection with the parasitic worm Onchocerca volvulus.

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Optics and vision

Visual perception is the ability to interpret information and surroundings from visible light reaching the eye.

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Optogenetics

Optogenetics is a biological technique which involves the use of light to control cells in living tissue, typically neurons, that have been genetically modified to express light-sensitive ion channels.

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Orchestrated objective reduction

Orchestrated objective reduction (Orch-OR) is a hypothesis that consciousness in the brain originates from processes inside neurons, rather than from connections between neurons (the conventional view).

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Orders of magnitude (speed)

To help compare different orders of magnitude, the following list describes various speed levels between approximately 2.2 m/s and 3.0 m/s.

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Organ of Corti

The organ of Corti, or spiral organ, is the receptor organ for hearing and is located in the mammalian cochlea.

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Orthodromic

An orthodromic impulse runs along an axon in its anterograde direction, away from the soma.

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Osmoreceptor

An osmoreceptor is a sensory receptor primarily found in the hypothalamus of most homeothermic organisms that detects changes in osmotic pressure.

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Otto Loewi

Otto Loewi (3 June 1873 – 25 December 1961) was a German-born pharmacologist and psychobiologist who discovered the role of acetylcholine as an endogenous neurotransmitter. For his discovery he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1936, which he shared with Sir Henry Dale, who was a lifelong friend who helped to inspire the neurotransmitter experiment. Loewi met Dale in 1902 when spending some months in Ernest Starling's laboratory at University College, London.

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Outline of biology

Biology – The natural science that involves the study of life and living organisms, including their structure, function, growth, origin, evolution, distribution, and taxonomy.

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Outline of neuroscience

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to neuroscience: Neuroscience is the scientific study of the nervous system.

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Outline of the human nervous system

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to the human nervous system: Human nervous system – the part of the human body that coordinates a person's voluntary and involuntary actions and transmits signals between different parts of the body.

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Oxytocin

Oxytocin (Oxt) is a peptide hormone and neuropeptide.

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P-type ATPase

The P-type ATPases, also known as E1-E2 ATPases, are a large group of evolutionarily related ion and lipid pumps that are found in bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes.

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P-type calcium channel

The P-type calcium channel is a type of voltage-dependent calcium channel.

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Pacemaker action potential

A pacemaker action potential is the kind of action potential that provides a reference rhythm for the network.

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Pacemaker potential

In the pacemaking cells of the heart (e.g., the sinoatrial node), the pacemaker potential (also called the pacemaker current) is the slow, positive increase in voltage across the cell's membrane (the membrane potential) that occurs between the end of one action potential and the beginning of the next action potential.

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Pain

Pain is a distressing feeling often caused by intense or damaging stimuli.

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Pain management in children

Pain management in children is the assessment and treatment of pain in infants and children.

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Pallesthesia

Pallesthesia (\ˌpal-es-ˈthē-zh(ē-)ə\), or vibratory sensation, is the ability to perceive vibration.

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Paralysis

Paralysis is a loss of muscle function for one or more muscles.

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Paralytic (gene)

Paralytic is a gene in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, which encodes a voltage gated sodium channel within D. melanogaster neurons.

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Paroxysmal depolarizing shift

A paroxysmal depolarizing shift (PDS) or depolarizing shift is a hallmark of cellular manifestation of epilepsy.

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Paroxysmal extreme pain disorder

Paroxysmal extreme pain disorder (PEPD), originally named familial rectal pain syndrome, is a rare disorder whose most notable features are pain in the mandibular, ocular and rectal areas as well as flushing.

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Pars reticulata

The pars reticulata is a portion of the substantia nigra.

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Parvalbumin

Parvalbumin is a calcium-binding albumin protein with low molecular weight (typically 9-11 kDa).

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Patch clamp

The patch clamp technique is a laboratory technique in electrophysiology used to study ionic currents in individual isolated living cells, tissue sections, or patches of cell membrane.

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Pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease

The pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease is death of dopaminergic neurons as a result of changes in biological activity in the brain with respect to Parkinson's disease (PD).

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Paul Hoffmann (neurophysiologist)

Paul Hoffmann (July 1, 1884 – March 9, 1962) was a German neurophysiologist, chiefly known for describing Hoffmann's sign.

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PDZ domain

The PDZ domain is a common structural domain of 80-90 amino-acids found in the signaling proteins of bacteria, yeast, plants, viruses and animals.

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Perineuronal net

Perineuronal nets (PNNs) are specialized extracellular matrix structures responsible for synaptic stabilization in the adult brain.

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Peripheral nerve interface

A peripheral nerve interface is the bridge between the peripheral nervous system and a computer interface which serves as a bi‐directional information transducer recording and sending signals between the human body and a machine processor.

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Peripherin

Peripherin is a type III Intermediate filament (IF) protein expressed mainly in neurons of the peripheral nervous system (PNS).

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Pesticide degradation

Pesticide degradation is the process by which a pesticide is transformed into a benign substance that is environmentally compatible with the site to which it was applied.

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Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology

Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal in the field of physiology.

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Phantasmidine

Phantasmidine is a toxic substance derived from the Ecuadorian poisonous frog Anthony's poison arrow frog (Epipeptobates Anthonyi), more commonly known as the “phantasmal poison frog”.

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Phantom pain

Phantom pain sensations are described as perceptions that an individual experiences relating to a limb or an organ that is not physically part of the body.

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Phase precession

Phase precession is a neurophysiological process in which the firing of action potentials by individual neurons is timed in relation to the phase of neural oscillations in the surrounding cells.

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Phenylpropylaminopentane

(-)-1-Phenyl-2-propylaminopentane (also known as (-)-PPAP and N,α-dipropylphenethylamine) is a stimulant of the substituted phenethylamine class and a derivative of Selegiline.

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Phenytoin

Phenytoin (PHT), sold under the brand name Dilantin among others, is an anti-seizure medication.

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Phospholamban

Phospholamban, also known as PLN or PLB, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PLN gene.

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Photoreceptor cell

A photoreceptor cell is a specialized type of neuroepithelial cell found in the retina that is capable of visual phototransduction.

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Photostimulation

Photostimulation is the use of light to artificially activate biological compounds, cells, tissues, or even whole organisms.

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Pitch (music)

Pitch is a perceptual property of sounds that allows their ordering on a frequency-related scale, or more commonly, pitch is the quality that makes it possible to judge sounds as "higher" and "lower" in the sense associated with musical melodies.

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Place theory (hearing)

Place theory is a theory of hearing which states that our perception of sound depends on where each component frequency produces vibrations along the basilar membrane.

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Plakophilin-2

Plakophilin-2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PKP2 gene.

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Plant cognition

Plant cognition is the study of the mental capacities of plants.

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Plant perception (physiology)

Plant perception is the ability of plants to sense and respond to the environment to adjust their morphology, physiology, and phenotype accordingly.

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Plasma membrane Ca2+ ATPase

The plasma membrane Ca2+ ATPase (PMCA) is a transport protein in the plasma membrane of cells and functions to remove calcium (Ca2+) from the cell.

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Plateau potentials

Plateau potentials, caused by persistent inward currents (PICs), are a type of electrical behavior seen in neurons.

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Polydendrocytes

Polydendrocytes (also known as NG2 cells, NG2 glia, or oligodendrocyte progenitor cells) are process-bearing glial cells (neuroglia) in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS) that are identified by the expression of the NG2 chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG4) and the alpha receptor for platelet-derived growth factor (PDGFRA).

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Polyneuropathy

Polyneuropathy (poly- + neuro- + -pathy) is damage or disease affecting peripheral nerves (peripheral neuropathy) in roughly the same areas on both sides of the body, featuring weakness, numbness, and burning pain.

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Poneratoxin

Poneratoxin is a paralyzing neurotoxic peptide made by the bullet ant Paraponera clavata.

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Population spike

In neuroscience, a population spike (PS) is the shift in electrical potential as a consequence of the movement of ions involved in the generation and propagation of action potentials.

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Positive feedback

Positive feedback is a process that occurs in a feedback loop in which the effects of a small disturbance on a system include an increase in the magnitude of the perturbation.

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Post-traumatic epilepsy

Post-traumatic epilepsy (PTE) is a form of epilepsy that results from brain damage caused by physical trauma to the brain (traumatic brain injury, abbreviated TBI).

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Postictal state

The postictal state is the altered state of consciousness after an epileptic seizure.

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Postsynaptic potential

Postsynaptic potentials are changes in the membrane potential of the postsynaptic terminal of a chemical synapse.

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Potassium channel

Potassium channels are the most widely distributed type of ion channel and are found in virtually all living organisms.

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Potassium in biology

Potassium is an essential mineral micronutrient and is the main intracellular ion for all types of cells.

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Potassium spatial buffering

Potassium spatial buffering is a mechanism for the regulation of extracellular potassium concentration by astrocytes.

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Potential (disambiguation)

Potential may also refer to.

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Pre-Bötzinger complex

The pre-Bötzinger complex (preBötC) is a cluster of interneurons in the ventral respiratory centre of the medulla of the brainstem.

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Primary and secondary brain injury

Primary and secondary brain injury are ways to classify the injury processes that occur in brain injury.

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Principal component analysis

Principal component analysis (PCA) is a statistical procedure that uses an orthogonal transformation to convert a set of observations of possibly correlated variables into a set of values of linearly uncorrelated variables called principal components.

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Protriptyline

Protriptyline, sold under the brand name Vivactil among others, is a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA), specifically a secondary amine, indicated for the treatment of depression and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

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Psychoacoustics

Psychoacoustics is the scientific study of sound perception and audiology.

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Purkinje fibers

The Purkinje fibers (Purkinje tissue or subendocardial branches) are located in the inner ventricular walls of the heart, just beneath the endocardium in a space called the subendocardium.

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Putamen

The putamen is a round structure located at the base of the forebrain (telencephalon).

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Pyramidal cell

Pyramidal cells, or (pyramidal neurons), are a type of multipolar neuron found in areas of the brain including the cerebral cortex, the hippocampus, and the amygdala.

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Pyramidal tracts

The pyramidal tracts include both the corticobulbar tract and the corticospinal tract.

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Pyrethroid

A pyrethroid is an organic compound similar to the natural pyrethrins produced by the flowers of pyrethrums (Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium and C. coccineum).

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Pyridostigmine

Pyridostigmine is medication used to treat myasthenia gravis.

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Quadratic integrate and fire

The quadratic integrate and fire (QIF) model is a biological neuron model and a type of integrate-and-fire neuron which describes action potentials in neurons.

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Quantal neurotransmitter release

Neurotransmitters are released into a synapse in packaged vesicles called quanta.

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Quantitative models of the action potential

In neurophysiology, several mathematical models of the action potential have been developed, which fall into two basic types.

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Quicksilver (comics)

Quicksilver (Pietro Maximoff) is a fictional superhero appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics.

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Quinidine

Quinidine is a pharmaceutical agent that acts as a class I antiarrhythmic agent (Ia) in the heart.

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Racine stages

Racine stages are a categorization of epileptic seizures proposed by Ronald J. Racine in 1972.

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Radial nerve dysfunction

Radial nerve dysfunction is also known as radial neuropathy or radial mononeuropathy.

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Random neural network

The random neural network (RNN) is a mathematical representation of an interconnected network of neurons or cells which exchange spiking signals.

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Range fractionation

Range fractionation is a term used in biology.

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Ranolazine

Ranolazine, sold under the trade name Ranexa by Gilead Sciences, is a drug to treat angina that was first approved in 2006.

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Reaction–diffusion system

Reaction–diffusion systems are mathematical models which correspond to several physical phenomena: the most common is the change in space and time of the concentration of one or more chemical substances: local chemical reactions in which the substances are transformed into each other, and diffusion which causes the substances to spread out over a surface in space.

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Receptor potential

A receptor potential, also known as a generator potential, a type of graded potential, is the transmembrane potential difference produced by activation of a sensory receptor.

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Recurrent neural network

A recurrent neural network (RNN) is a class of artificial neural network where connections between nodes form a directed graph along a sequence.

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Reentry (neural circuitry)

Reentry is a neural structuring of the brain, specifically in humans, which is characterized by the ongoing bidirectional exchange of signals along reciprocal axonal fibers linking two or more brain areas.

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Reflex arc

A reflex arc is a neural pathway that controls a reflex.

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Refractory period (physiology)

Refractoriness is the fundamental property of any object of autowave nature (especially excitable medium) not to respond on stimuli, if the object stays in the specific refractory state.

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Remote control animal

Remote control animals are animals that are controlled remotely by humans.

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Renshaw cell

Renshaw cells are inhibitory interneurons found in the gray matter of the spinal cord, and are associated in two ways with an alpha motor neuron.

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Repolarization

In neuroscience, repolarization refers to the change in membrane potential that returns it to a negative value just after the depolarization phase of an action potential has changed the membrane potential to a positive value.

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Respiratory center

The respiratory center is located in the medulla oblongata and pons, in the brainstem.

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Resting potential

The relatively static membrane potential of quiescent cells is called the resting membrane potential (or resting voltage), as opposed to the specific dynamic electrochemical phenomena called action potential and graded membrane potential.

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Reticular theory

Reticular theory is an obsolete scientific theory in neurobiology that stated that everything in the nervous system, such as brain, is a single continuous network.

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Retina

The retina is the innermost, light-sensitive "coat", or layer, of shell tissue of the eye of most vertebrates and some molluscs.

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Retina bipolar cell

As a part of the retina, bipolar cells exist between photoreceptors (rod cells and cone cells) and ganglion cells.

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Retinal ganglion cell

A retinal ganglion cell (RGC) is a type of neuron located near the inner surface (the ganglion cell layer) of the retina of the eye.

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Retinal waves

Retinal waves are spontaneous bursts of action potentials that propagate in a wave-like fashion across the developing retina.

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Reuptake

Reuptake is the reabsorption of a neurotransmitter by a neurotransmitter transporter located along the plasma membrane of an axon terminal (i.e., the pre-synaptic neuron at a synapse) or glial cell after it has performed its function of transmitting a neural impulse.

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Reversal potential

In a biological membrane, the reversal potential (also known as the Nernst potential) of an ion is the membrane potential at which there is no net (overall) flow of that particular ion from one side of the membrane to the other.

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Rheobase

Rheobase is a measure of membrane potential.

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RHOT1

Mitochondrial Rho GTPase 1 (MIRO1) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the RHOT1 gene on chromosome 17.

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RHOT2

Mitochondrial Rho GTPase 2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the RHOT2 gene.

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Ribbon synapse

The ribbon synapse is a type of neuronal synapse characterized by the presence of an electron-dense structure, the synaptic ribbon, that holds vesicles close to the active zone.

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Robert James Moon

Robert James Moon (February 14, 1911November 1, 1989) was an American physicist, chemist and engineer.

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Robert Plonsey

Robert Plonsey (July 17, 1924 – March 14, 2015) was the Pfizer-Pratt University Professor Emeritus of Biomedical Engineering at Duke University.

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Saltatory conduction

Saltatory conduction (from the Latin saltare, to hop or leap) is the propagation of action potentials along myelinated axons from one node of Ranvier to the next node, increasing the conduction velocity of action potentials.

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Sarcolemma

The sarcolemma (sarco (from sarx) from Greek; flesh, and lemma from Greek; sheath) also called the myolemma, is the cell membrane of a striated muscle fiber cell.

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Sarcomere

A sarcomere (Greek sarx "flesh", meros "part") is the basic unit of striated muscle tissue.

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Sarcoplasmic reticulum

The sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) is a membrane-bound structure found within muscle cells that is similar to the endoplasmic reticulum in other cells.

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Saxitoxin

Saxitoxin (STX) is a potent neurotoxin and the best-known paralytic shellfish toxin (PST).

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Schaffer collateral

Schaffer collaterals are axon collaterals given off by CA3 pyramidal cells in the hippocampus.

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Schwann cell

Schwann cells (named after physiologist Theodor Schwann) or neurolemmocytes are the principal glia of the peripheral nervous system (PNS).

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Schwannomatosis

Schwannomatosis is one form of a genetic disorder called neurofibromatosis (NF) that has only recently been recognized.

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SCN3B

Sodium channel subunit beta-3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SCN3B gene.

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Scyllatoxin

Scyllatoxin (also leiurotoxin I) is a toxin, from the scorpion Leiurus quinquestriatus hebraeus, which blocks small-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels.

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Seismic communication

Seismic or vibrational communication is a process of conveying information through mechanical (seismic) vibrations of the substrate.

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Seletracetam

Seletracetam (UCB 44212) is a pyrrolidone-derived drug of the racetam family that is structurally related to levetiracetam (trade name Keppra).

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Sensation (psychology)

Sensation is the body's detection of external or internal stimulation (e.g., eyes detecting light waves, ears detecting sound waves).

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Sense

A sense is a physiological capacity of organisms that provides data for perception.

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Sense of balance

The sense of balance or equilibrioception is one of the physiological senses related to balance.

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Sensorineural hearing loss

Sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) is a type of hearing loss, or deafness, in which the root cause lies in the inner ear or sensory organ (cochlea and associated structures) or the vestibulocochlear nerve (cranial nerve VIII).

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Sensory nerve

A sensory nerve, also called an afferent nerve, is a nerve that carries sensory information toward the central nervous system (CNS).

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Sensory nervous system

The sensory nervous system is a part of the nervous system responsible for processing sensory information.

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Sensory neuron

Sensory neurons also known as afferent neurons are neurons that convert a specific type of stimulus, via their receptors, into action potentials or graded potentials.

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Sensory neuroscience

Sensory neuroscience is a subfield of neuroscience which explores the anatomy and physiology of neurons that are part of sensory systems such as vision, hearing, and olfaction.

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Sensory-motor coupling

Sensory-motor coupling is the coupling or integration of the sensory system and motor system.

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Sezer Şener Komsuoğlu

Sezer Şener Komsuoğlu (born 1949) is a Turkish neurologist.

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Shaker gene

The shaker (Sh) gene, when mutated, causes a variety of atypical behaviors in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster.

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SIGLEC

Siglecs (Sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-type lectins) are cell surface proteins that bind sialic acid.

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Sigma-2 receptor

The sigma-2 receptor (σ2R) is a sigma receptor subtype that has been found highly expressed in malignant cancer cells, and is currently under investigation for its potential diagnostic and therapeutic uses.

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Signal transduction

Signal transduction is the process by which a chemical or physical signal is transmitted through a cell as a series of molecular events, most commonly protein phosphorylation catalyzed by protein kinases, which ultimately results in a cellular response.

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Single-unit recording

In neuroscience, single-unit recordings provide a method of measuring the electro-physiological responses of single neurons using a microelectrode system.

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Single-unit smooth muscle

Single-unit smooth muscle, or visceral smooth muscle is a type of smooth muscle found in the uterus, gastro-intestinal tract, and the bladder.

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Sinoatrial node

The sinoatrial node (SA node), also known as sinus node, is a group of cells located in the wall of the right atrium of the heart.

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SK channel

SK channels (small conductance calcium-activated potassium channels) are a subfamily of Ca2+-activated K+ channels.

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Sliding filament theory

The sliding filament theory explains the mechanism of muscle contraction based on muscle proteins that slide past each other to generate movement.

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Slow afterhyperpolarization

Slow afterhyperpolarisation (sAHP) refers to prolonged periods of hyperpolarisation in a neuron or cardiomyocyte following an action potential or other depolarising event.

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Smith–Lemli–Opitz syndrome

Smith–Lemli–Opitz syndrome (also SLOS, or 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase deficiency) is an inborn error of cholesterol synthesis.

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SNARE (protein)

SNARE proteins (an acronym derived from "SNAP (Soluble NSF(N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor) Attachment Protein) REceptor)" are a large protein complex consisting of at least 24 members in yeasts and more than 60 members in mammalian cells.

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Society for Mathematical Biology

The Society for Mathematical Biology (SMB) is an international association co-founded in 1972 in USA by Drs.

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Sodium

Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.

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Sodium channel

Sodium channels are integral membrane proteins that form ion channels, conducting sodium ions (Na+) through a cell's plasma membrane.

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Sodium channel blocker

Sodium channel blockers are drugs which impair the conduction of sodium ions (Na+) through sodium channels.

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Sodium in biology

Sodium ions are necessary in small amounts for some types of plants, but sodium as a nutrient is more generally needed in larger amounts by animals, due to their use of it for generation of nerve impulses and for maintenance of electrolyte balance and fluid balance.

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Sodium-calcium exchanger

The sodium-calcium exchanger (often denoted Na+/Ca2+ exchanger, NCX, or exchange protein) is an antiporter membrane protein that removes calcium from cells.

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Soliton model in neuroscience

The soliton hypothesis in neuroscience is a model that claims to explain how action potentials are initiated and conducted along axons based on a thermodynamic theory of nerve pulse propagation.

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Somatic nervous system

The somatic nervous system (SNS or voluntary nervous system) is the part of the peripheral nervous system associated with the voluntary control of body movements via skeletal muscles.

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Somatosensory system

The somatosensory system is a part of the sensory nervous system.

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Soricidin

Soricidin is a paralytic oligopeptide found in the venomous saliva of the northern short-tailed shrew (Blarina brevicauda); at UniProt; version 15; published October 31, 2012; retrieved December 13, 2013 in the wild, shrews use it to paralyze their prey (typically insects).

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Spasticity

Spasticity is a feature of altered skeletal muscle performance with a combination of paralysis, increased tendon reflex activity, and hypertonia.

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Special senses

In medicine and anatomy, the special senses are the senses that have specialized organs devoted to them.

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Spike directivity

Spike directivity is a vector that quantifies changes in transient charge density during action potential propagation.

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Spike potential

Spike potentials are one of the action potentials, which occur in electrical activity of smooth muscle contraction in animals.

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Spike sorting

Spike sorting is a class of techniques used in the analysis of electrophysiological data.

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Spike-and-wave

Spike-and-wave is a pattern of the electroencephalogram (EEG) typically observed during epileptic seizures.

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Spike-timing-dependent plasticity

Spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) is a biological process that adjusts the strength of connections between neurons in the brain.

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Spike-triggered average

The spike-triggered average (STA) is a tool for characterizing the response properties of a neuron using the spikes emitted in response to a time-varying stimulus.

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Spiking neural network

Spiking neural networks (SNNs) fall into the third generation of artificial neural network models, increasing the level of realism in a neural simulation.

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Spinal cord

The spinal cord is a long, thin, tubular bundle of nervous tissue and support cells that extends from the medulla oblongata in the brainstem to the lumbar region of the vertebral column.

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Spinal interneuron

A spinal interneuron, found in the spinal cord, relays signals between (afferent) sensory neurons, and (efferent) motor neurons.

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Spinocerebellar ataxia type-13

Spinocerebellar ataxia type 13 (SCA13) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder, which, like other types of SCA, is characterized by dysarthria, nystagmus, and ataxia of gait, stance and the limbs due to cerebellar dysfunction.

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Spinocerebellar tract

The spinocerebellar tract is a nerve tract originating in the spinal cord and terminating in the same side (ipsilateral) of the cerebellum.

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Squid giant axon

The squid giant axon is the very large (up to 1 mm in diameter; typically around 0.5 mm) axon that controls part of the water jet propulsion system in squid.

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Stanford R. Ovshinsky

Stanford Robert Ovshinsky (November 24, 1922 – October 17, 2012) was an American inventor and scientist who over a span of fifty years was granted well over 400 patents, mostly in the areas of energy and information.

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Star-nosed mole

The star-nosed mole (Condylura cristata) is a small mole found in wet low areas in the northern parts of North America.

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Stimulation

Stimulation is the encouragement of development or the cause of activity generally.

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Stimulus (physiology)

In physiology, a stimulus (plural stimuli) is a detectable change in the internal or external environment.

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Stimulus modality

Stimulus modality, also called sensory modality, is one aspect of a stimulus or what we perceive after a stimulus.

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Strength training

Strength training is a type of physical exercise specializing in the use of resistance to induce muscular contraction which builds the strength, anaerobic endurance, and size of skeletal muscles.

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Striatum

The striatum, or corpus striatum (also called the neostriatum and the striate nucleus) is a nucleus (a cluster of neurons) in the subcortical basal ganglia of the forebrain.

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Strychnine

Strychnine (also or) is a highly toxic, colorless, bitter, crystalline alkaloid used as a pesticide, particularly for killing small vertebrates such as birds and rodents.

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Stylidium

Stylidium (also known as triggerplants or trigger plants) is a genus of dicotyledonous plants that belong to the family Stylidiaceae.

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Subiculum

The subiculum (Latin for "support") is the most inferior component of the hippocampal formation.

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Substantia nigra

The substantia nigra (SN) is a basal ganglia structure located in the midbrain that plays an important role in reward and movement.

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Subthalamic nucleus

The subthalamic nucleus is a small lens-shaped nucleus in the brain where it is, from a functional point of view, part of the basal ganglia system.

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Subthreshold membrane potential oscillations

Subthreshold membrane potential oscillations are rhythmic fluctuations of the voltage difference between the interior and exterior of a neuron, in the nervous system.

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Sucrose gap

The sucrose gap technique is used to create a conduction block in nerve or muscle fibers.

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Sulfoxaflor

Sulfoxaflor is a systemic insecticide which acts as an insect neurotoxin and is a member a class of chemicals called sulfoximines which act on the central nervous system of insects.

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Summation (neurophysiology)

Summation, which includes both spatial and temporal summation, is the process that determines whether or not an action potential will be triggered by the combined effects of excitatory and inhibitory signals, both from multiple simultaneous inputs (spatial summation), and from repeated inputs (temporal summation).

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Superior cervical ganglion

The superior cervical ganglion (SCG) is part of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) responsible for maintaining homeostasis of the body.

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Suprachiasmatic nucleus

The suprachiasmatic nucleus or nuclei (SCN) is a tiny region of the brain in the hypothalamus, situated directly above the optic chiasm.

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Supraoptic nucleus

The supraoptic nucleus (SON) is a nucleus of magnocellular neurosecretory cells in the hypothalamus of the mammalian brain.

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Synapse

In the nervous system, a synapse is a structure that permits a neuron (or nerve cell) to pass an electrical or chemical signal to another neuron or to the target efferent cell.

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Synapsin

The synapsins are a family of proteins that have long been implicated in the regulation of neurotransmitter release at synapses.

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Synaptic fatigue

Synaptic fatigue, or short-term synaptic depression, is an activity-dependent form of short term synaptic plasticity that results in the temporary inability of neurons to fire and therefore transmit an input signal.

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Synaptic gating

Synaptic gating is the ability of neural circuits to gate inputs by either suppressing or facilitating specific synaptic activity.

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Synaptic noise

Synaptic noise refers to the constant bombardment of synaptic activity in neurons.

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Synaptic potential

Synaptic potential refers to the difference in voltage between the inside and outside of a postsynaptic neuron.

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Synaptic scaling

In neuroscience, synaptic scaling (or homeostatic scaling) is a form of homeostatic plasticity, in which the brain responds to chronically elevated activity in a neural circuit with negative feedback, allowing individual neurons to reduce their overall action potential firing rate.

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Synaptic vesicle

In a neuron, synaptic vesicles (or neurotransmitter vesicles) store various neurotransmitters that are released at the synapse.

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Synaptic weight

In neuroscience and computer science, synaptic weight refers to the strength or amplitude of a connection between two nodes, corresponding in biology to the amount of influence the firing of one neuron has on another.

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Synaptotropic hypothesis

The synaptotropic hypothesis, also called the synaptotrophic hypothesis, is a neurobiological hypothesis of neuronal growth and synapse formation.

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Syncytium

A syncytium or symplasm (plural syncytia; from Greek: σύν (syn).

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Synfire chain

A synfire chain (synchronous firing chain) is a feed-forward network of neurons with multiple layers or pools.

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Systems biology

Systems biology is the computational and mathematical modeling of complex biological systems.

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T wave

In electrocardiography, the T wave represents the repolarization, or recovery, of the ventricles.

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T-tubule

Transverse tubules (T-tubules) are extensions of the cell membrane that penetrate into the centre of skeletal and cardiac muscle cells.

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TAAR1

Trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1) is a trace amine-associated receptor (TAAR) protein that in humans is encoded by the TAAR1 gene.

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Tactile corpuscle

Tactile corpuscles (or Meissner's corpuscles; discovered by anatomist Georg Meissner (1829–1905) and Rudolf Wagner) are a type of mechanoreceptor.

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Tactile induced analgesia

Tactile induced analgesia is the phenomenon where concurrent touch and pain on the skin reduces the intensity of pain that is felt.

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Taicatoxin

Taicatoxin (TCX) is a snake toxin that blocks voltage-dependent L-type calcium channels and small conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels.

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Taste

Taste, gustatory perception, or gustation is one of the five traditional senses that belongs to the gustatory system.

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Tedisamil

Tedisamil (3,7-dicyclopropylmethyl-9,9-tetramethylene-3,7-diazabicyclo-3,3,1-nonane) is an experimental class III antiarrhythmic agent currently being investigated for the treatment of atrial fibrillation.

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Temporal envelope and fine structure

Temporal envelope (ENV) and temporal fine structure (TFS) are changes in the amplitude and frequency of sound perceived by humans over time.

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Tempotron

The Tempotron is a supervised synaptic learning algorithm which is applied when the information is encoded in spatiotemporal spiking patterns.

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Terry Sejnowski

Terrence (Terry) Joseph Sejnowski (born 13 August 1947) is the Francis Crick Professor at The Salk Institute for Biological Studies where he directs the Computational Neurobiology Laboratory and is the Director of the Crick-Jacobs Center for Theoretical and Computational Biology.

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Tetanic stimulation

In neurobiology, a tetanic stimulation consists of a high-frequency sequence of individual stimulations of a neuron.

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Tetany

Tetany or tetany seizure is a medical sign consisting of the involuntary contraction of muscles, which may be caused by disease or other conditions that increase the action potential frequency of muscle cells or the nerves that innervate them.

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Tetracaine

Tetracaine, also known as amethocaine, is a local anesthetic used to numb the eyes, nose, or throat.

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Tetrode (biology)

A tetrode is a type of electrode used in neuroscience for electrophysiological recordings.

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Tetrodotoxin

Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is a potent neurotoxin.

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Theodore Holmes Bullock

Theodore Holmes Bullock (16 May 1915 – 20 December 2005) is one of the founding fathers of neuroethology.

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Theta model

The theta model, or Ermentrout–Kopell canonical model, is a biological neuron model originally developed to model neurons in the animal Aplysia, and later used in various fields of computational neuroscience.

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Theta wave

Theta waves generate the theta rhythm, a neural oscillatory pattern that can be seen on an electroencephalogram (EEG), recorded either from inside the brain or from electrodes attached to the scalp.

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Thigmonasty

Thigmonasty or seismonasty is the nastic response of a plant or fungus to touch or vibration.

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Third-degree atrioventricular block

Third-degree atrioventricular block (AV block), also known as complete heart block, is a medical condition in which the nerve impulse generated in the sinoatrial node (SA node) in the atrium of the heart does not propagate to the ventricles.

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Threshold

Threshold may refer to.

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Threshold potential

In neuroscience, the threshold potential is the critical level to which a membrane potential must be depolarized to initiate an action potential.

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Tick paralysis

Tick paralysis is the only tick-borne disease that is not caused by an infectious organism.

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Tickling

Tickling is the act of touching a part of a body in a way that causes involuntary twitching movements or laughter.

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Time constant

In physics and engineering, the time constant, usually denoted by the Greek letter τ (tau), is the parameter characterizing the response to a step input of a first-order, linear time-invariant (LTI) system.

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Timeline of psychology

This article is a general timeline of psychology.

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Tin can telephone

A tin can telephone is a type of acoustic (non-electrical) speech-transmitting device made up of two tin cans, paper cups or similarly shaped items attached to either end of a taut string or wire.

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Tonic (physiology)

Tonic in physiology refers to a physiological response which is slow and may be graded.

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Trace amine

Trace amines are an endogenous group of trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1) agonists – and hence, monoaminergic neuromodulators – that are structurally and metabolically related to classical monoamine neurotransmitters.

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Transcranial direct-current stimulation

Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a form of neurostimulation that uses constant, low direct current delivered via electrodes on the head; it can be contrasted with cranial electrotherapy stimulation which generally uses alternating current the same way.

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Transcranial magnetic stimulation

Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a method in which a changing magnetic field is used to cause electric current to flow in a small region of the brain via electromagnetic induction.

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Transduction (physiology)

In physiology, sensory transduction is the conversion of a sensory stimulus from one form to another.

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Transport phenomena

In engineering, physics and chemistry, the study of transport phenomena concerns the exchange of mass, energy, charge, momentum and angular momentum between observed and studied systems.

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Treehouse of Horror XV

"Treehouse of Horror XV" is the first episode of the sixteenth season of The Simpsons.

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Tricaine mesylate

Tricaine mesylate (Tricaine methanesulfonate, TMS, MS-222), is white powder used for anesthesia, sedation, or euthanasia of fish.

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Triceps reflex

The triceps reflex, a deep tendon reflex, is a reflex as it elicits involuntary contraction of the triceps brachii muscle.

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Trichoderma

Trichoderma is a genus of fungi that is present in all soils, where they are the most prevalent culturable fungi.

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Trichoderma longibrachiatum

Trichoderma longibrachiatum is a fungus in the genus Trichoderma.

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Trigger zone

In neuroscience and neurology, a trigger zone is an area of the body, or of a cell, in which a specific type of stimulation triggers a specific type of response.

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Trimecaine

Trimecaine (systematic name (2,4,6-trimethylphenylcarbamoylmethyl)diethylammonium chloride, chemical formula C15H25ClN2O) is an organic compound used as a local anesthetic and cardial antiarrhythmic.

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Troponin

bibcode.

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TRPM5

Transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily M member 5 (TRPM5), also known as long transient receptor potential channel 5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TRPM5 gene.

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TRPV2

Transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TRPV2 gene.

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Type II sensory fiber

Type II sensory fiber (group Aβ) is a type of sensory fiber, the second of the two main groups of stretch receptors.

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Uhthoff's phenomenon

Uhthoff's phenomenon (also known as Uhthoff's syndrome, Uhthoff's sign, and Uhthoff's symptom) is the worsening of neurologic symptoms in multiple sclerosis (MS) and other neurological, demyelinating conditions when the body gets overheated from hot weather, exercise, fever, or saunas and hot tubs.

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Uniporter

A uniporter is an integral membrane protein that is involved in facilitated diffusion.

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Upper motor neuron

Upper motor neurons (UMNs) are the main source of voluntary movement.

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Van der Pol oscillator

In dynamics, the Van der Pol oscillator is a non-conservative oscillator with non-linear damping.

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Variation potential

A variation potential (VP) (also called slow wave potential) is a hydraulically propagating electrical signal occurring exclusively in plant cells.

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Vasily Danilewsky

Vasily Iakovlevich Danilewsky (variously spelled Vasili Yakovlevich Danilewsky or Vasili Yakolevich Danilevski or Vasily Yakovlevich Danilevsky, Russian: Даниле́вский Васи́лий Я́ковлевич) (13 or 25 January 1852 – 25 February 1939) was a Ukrainian-born Russian physician, physiologist and parasitologist.

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Vasoconstriction

Vasoconstriction is the narrowing of the blood vessels resulting from contraction of the muscular wall of the vessels, in particular the large arteries and small arterioles.

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Ventricular action potential

In electrocardiography, the ventricular cardiomyocyte membrane potential is about −90 mV at rest, which is close to the potassium reversal potential.

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Venus flytrap

The Venus flytrap (also referred to as Venus's flytrap or Venus' flytrap), Dionaea muscipula, is a carnivorous plant native to subtropical wetlands on the East Coast of the United States in North Carolina and South Carolina.

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Vesicle fusion

Vesicle fusion is the merging of a vesicle with other vesicles or a part of a cell membrane.

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Vesicular monoamine transporter 2

The vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) also known as solute carrier family 18 member 2 (SLC18A2) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC18A2 gene.

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Visual cortex

The visual cortex of the brain is a part of the cerebral cortex that processes visual information.

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Visual learning

Visual learning is a style in which a learner utilizes graphs, charts, maps and diagrams.

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Visual neuroscience

Visual Neuroscience is a branch of neuroscience that focuses on the visual system of the human body, mainly located in the brain's visual cortex.

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Visual perception

Visual perception is the ability to interpret the surrounding environment using light in the visible spectrum reflected by the objects in the environment.

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Visual system

The visual system is the part of the central nervous system which gives organisms the ability to process visual detail, as well as enabling the formation of several non-image photo response functions.

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Vitreomacular adhesion

Vitreomacular adhesion (VMA) is a human medical condition where the vitreous gel (or simply vitreous) of the human eye adheres to the retina in an abnormally strong manner.

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Volley theory

Volley theory states that groups of neurons of the auditory system respond to a sound by firing action potentials slightly out of phase with one another so that when combined, a greater frequency of sound can be encoded and sent to the brain to be analyzed.

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Voltage clamp

The voltage clamp is an experimental method used by electrophysiologists to measure the ion currents through the membranes of excitable cells, such as neurons, while holding the membrane voltage at a set level.

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Voltage-gated ion channel

Voltage-gated ion channels are a class of transmembrane proteins that form ion channels that are activated by changes in the electrical membrane potential near the channel.

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Voltage-gated potassium channel

Voltage-gated potassium channels (VGKCs) are transmembrane channels specific for potassium and sensitive to voltage changes in the cell's membrane potential.

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Voltage-sensitive dye

Voltage-sensitive dyes, also known as potentiometric dyes, are dyes which change their spectral properties in response to voltage changes.

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Weakness

Weakness or asthenia is a symptom of a number of different conditions.

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Werner Reichardt Centre for Integrative Neuroscience

The Werner Reichardt Centre for Integrative Neuroscience (CIN) is the common platform for systems neuroscience at the University of Tübingen in Germany.

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White matter

White matter refers to areas of the central nervous system (CNS) that are mainly made up of myelinated axons, also called tracts.

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Wide dynamic range neuron

The wide dynamic range neuron (WDR) was first discovered by Mendell in 1966.

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William H. Calvin

William H. Calvin, Ph.D. (born April 30, 1939) is an American theoretical neurophysiologist and professor at the University of Washington in Seattle.

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Work loop

The work loop technique is used in muscle physiology to evaluate the mechanical work and power output of skeletal or cardiac muscle contractions via ''in vitro'' muscle testing of whole muscles, fiber bundles or single muscle fibers.

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1952 in science

The year 1952 in science and technology involved some significant events, listed below.

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1954 in science

The year 1954 in science and technology involved some significant events, listed below.

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4-Aminopyridine

4-Aminopyridine (4-AP, fampridine, dalfampridine) is an organic compound with the chemical formula C5H4N–NH2.

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Action Potential, Action potentials, Activation potential, Firing rate (cells), Firing rate (neurons), Nerve conduction, Nerve impulse, Nerve impulses, Nerve potential, Nerve signal, Neural firing, Neural firing rate, Neuronal firing, Spike train.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Action_potential

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