662 relations: Abdominal epilepsy, Acetone, Acetophenone, Acylurea, Adenylosuccinate lyase deficiency, Adinazolam, AED, Agranulocytosis, Albutoin, Alcohol intoxication, Alcoholic polyneuropathy, Allobarbital, Allopregnanolone, Alphenal, Alpidem, Alprazolam, AM404, Ameltolide, Aminooxyacetic acid, Amobarbital, Amphenone B, Analgesic, Analgesic adjuvant, Anaphrodisiac, Androstenol, Androsterone, Anencephaly, Anesthesia, Anethole, Angelman syndrome, Animal models of epilepsy, Anti-Hu associated encephalitis, Anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome, Antidepressant, Antifolate, AP-7 (drug), Aprobarbital, Aromatization, Asafoetida, ASD, Aseptic meningitis, Asima Chatterjee, Ataxia, ATC code N03, Atypical facial pain, Atypical trigeminal neuralgia, Autism, Autism therapies, Automatism (medicine), Autosomal dominant porencephaly type I, ..., Azinphos-methyl, Bamaluzole, Barbiturate, Becampanel, Beclamide, Benign familial infantile epilepsy, Benign fasciculation syndrome, Benign infantile epilepsy, Benign neonatal seizures, Benocyclidine, Bentazepam, Benzobarbital, Benzodiazepine, Benzodiazepine dependence, Benzodiazepine overdose, Benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome, Benzoylecgonine, Benzyl cyanide, Beta-Hydroxybutyric acid, Binge eating disorder, Biological psychiatry, Biotin deficiency, Bipolar disorder, Bipolar I disorder, Bipolar II disorder, Birth control, Birth defect, Brain injury, Brain metastasis, Brain tumor, Brivaracetam, Bromide, Bromine, Brotizolam, Bruxism, Buccal administration, Bupropion/naltrexone, Bupropion/zonisamide, Burning mouth syndrome, Buspirone, Butyramide, Camazepam, Cancer pain, Carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, Carisbamate, Carnitine, Catamenial epilepsy, Causes of seizures, CBD-DMH, Central nervous system depression, Central pain syndrome, Cerebral hypoxia, Cerebral palsy, Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, CGP-37849, Channel blocker, Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy, Childhood chronic pain, Childhood disintegrative disorder, Chloramphenicol, Chlordiazepoxide, Chlorfenvinphos, Chorea, Chorea gravidarum, Chronic pain, Chronic paroxysmal hemicrania, CI-966, Cicuta, Cinolazepam, Circumstantial speech, CL-218,872, Cleft lip and cleft palate, Clerodendrum infortunatum, Clobazam, Clomethiazole, Clonazepam, Clorazepate, Clotiazepam, Cloxazolam, Cocaine dependence, Colestilan, Colpocephaly, Complication (medicine), Complications of traumatic brain injury, Conantokin, Congenital bilateral perisylvian syndrome, Constipation, Constitutive androstane receptor, Contraceptive patch, Convulsant, Cortical blindness, Costochondritis, CP-1414S, Cross-tolerance, Cyclopentobarbital, Cymbopogon citratus, Cynthia A. Maryanoff, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C19, CYP2C9, CYP3A4, Cyprazepam, Cysticercosis, Cytochrome P450, DA2PPC vaccine, DCG-IV, DCPG, Dejerine–Roussy syndrome, Delorazepam, Dementia, Dentomandibular sensorimotor dysfunction, Depressant, Depression (mood), Depressogenic, Dexanabinol, Diabetic neuropathy, Diazepam, Diclazepam, Dihydrodeoxycorticosterone, Dihydromethysticin, Dimethylheptylpyran, Diphenylsilanediol, Dipropylcyclopentylxanthine, Divaplon, Dizocilpine, DMCM, Doxefazepam, Dronabinol, Drug class, Drug eruption, Drug of last resort, Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms, Drug rehabilitation, Drug titration, Drug-induced lupus erythematosus, Drug-related gingival hyperplasia, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, Duloxetine, Dutasteride, Eastern equine encephalitis, Eclampsia, ELB-139, Electroconvulsive therapy, Eli Lilly and Company, Emergency contraception, Emoxypine, Encephalitis, Encephalopathy, Environmental impact of pharmaceuticals and personal care products, Environmental xenobiotic, Enzyme inhibitor, Eosinophilia, Eosinophilic myocarditis, Epilepsy, Epilepsy and driving, Epilepsy in animals, Epilepsy in children, Epilepsy surgery, Epilepsy syndromes, Epilepsy-intellectual disability in females, Epileptic seizure, Epileptogenesis, Epileptologist, Eslicarbazepine acetate, Estazolam, Etazepine, Eterobarb, Ethadione, Ethanolamine-O-sulfate, Ethinylestradiol, Ethosuximide, Ethotoin, Ethyl cyanoacetate, Ethyl loflazepate, Etifoxine, Etiocholanolone, Etiracetam, Etizolam, Etoxadrol, Fabry disease, Febrile seizure, Felbamate, Fenofibrate, Fetal trimethadione syndrome, FG-8205, Fludiazepam, Flurazepam, Flutazolam, Flutemazepam, Flutoprazepam, Folate deficiency, FOSB, Fosphenytoin, Fragile X syndrome, Fregoli delusion, Frontal lobe epilepsy, Furosemide, GABA analogue, GABA receptor agonist, GABA reuptake inhibitor, GABA transaminase, GABA transaminase inhibitor, GABAA receptor, GABAA receptor positive allosteric modulator, Gabapentin, Gabapentin enacarbil, Galanin, Galanin receptor, Galantamine, Galmic, Galnon, Gamma-Amino-beta-hydroxybutyric acid, Ganaxolone, Gelastic seizure, Gemfibrozil, Gene therapy for epilepsy, General anaesthesia, Geniculate ganglionitis, Ghrelin, Gideon Koren, Gingival enlargement, Girisopam, Glaucine, Glioblastoma, Group C nerve fiber, Guaifenesin, GYKI-52,466, H. Houston Merritt, HA-966, Hallucinatory palinopsia, Hemifacial spasm, Hepatitis, Hernandiaceae, Hexethal, Hippeastrum, Hispidulin, History of medical cannabis, Hives, Holoprosencephaly, Homotaurine, Human brain, Hydantoin, Hydrocodone/paracetamol, Hydroxylamine-O-sulfonic acid, Hyperkinesia, Hyperreligiosity, Hypertensive encephalopathy, Hypnogram, Hypocalcaemia, Hypoparathyroidism, Ian Curtis, ICD-10 Chapter XIX: Injury, poisoning and certain other consequences of external causes, ICD-10 Chapter XX: External causes of morbidity and mortality, Ictal headache, Ilepcimide, Imagabalin, Imepitoin, Imidazenil, Imidazopyridine, Indantadol, Indeloxazine, Index of oncology articles, Infantile convulsions and choreoathetosis, Iniencephaly, Intention tremor, Interictal dysphoric disorder, Intracerebral hemorrhage, Irazepine, Κ-opioid receptor, Jack Hoffman, Jane Stanford, Jeavons syndrome, Jennifer Syme, JNJ-26489112, JNJ-26990990, Kava, Kavain, Ketazolam, Ketogenic diet, Kynurenic acid, Lacosamide, Lamotrigine, Landau–Kleffner syndrome, Late-onset hypogonadism, Lead poisoning, Leukopenia, Levodopa-induced dyskinesia, Levopropylhexedrine, Licarbazepine, List of benzodiazepines, List of ICD-9 codes 800–999: injury and poisoning, List of MeSH codes (D16), List of people with epilepsy, List of psychotropic medications, List of Rescue 911 episodes, List of veterinary drugs, Local anesthetic, Lofepramine, Long-term video-EEG monitoring, Loprazolam, Lorazepam, Loreclezole, Lormetazepam, Lundbeck, LY-379,268, Macrogol, Magnesium bromide, Major depressive disorder, Management of cerebral palsy, Management of depression, Management of drug-resistant epilepsy, Management of schizophrenia, Margo Cohen, Maropitant, Medazepam, Medeola, Medical cannabis, Medical cannabis in the United States, Medication, Medroxyprogesterone acetate, Meningioma, Meningitis, Menitrazepam, Mental health care in South Africa, Mephenytoin, Mesobuthus martensii, Mesocarb, Mesuximide, Metharbital, Methotrexate, Methylpentynol, Methylphenidate, Methylphenobarbital, Mianserin, Migralepsy, Mitragyna speciosa, Mixed affective state, Modafinil, Modafinil sulfone, Molecular neuroscience, Mood disorder, Mood stabilizer, Murder of Dee Dee Blanchard, Muscular dystrophy, Musical ear syndrome, Myoclonic epilepsy, Myoclonus, Myotonia congenita, Nabazenil, Nafimidone, NCS-382, Necrotizing fasciitis, Neuroacanthocytosis, Neuromyotonia, Neuronal migration disorder, Neuropathic pain, Neurosarcoidosis, Neurosteroid, Neurotmesis, Neurotransmitter transporter, Next to Normal, Nimetazepam, Nirvanol, Nitrazepam, NMP-7, Nocturnal epilepsy, Nomegestrol acetate, Nonbenzodiazepine, Nordazepam, Northern epilepsy syndrome, NS-2664, NS-2710, Nurse Ratched, Obesity, Occipital epilepsy, Occipital neuralgia, Ocular myasthenia, Off-label use, Ohtahara syndrome, Oligodendroglioma, Opioid, Opioid receptor, Opipramol, Orally disintegrating tablet, ORG-25935, Oropharyngeal dysphagia, Orrin Devinsky, Osteomalacia, 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Pregnanolone, Premedication, Prescription drug, Prevention of migraines, Priapism, Primidone, Probarbital, Progesterone (medication), Progressive myoclonus epilepsy, Prolactin, Propallylonal, Propylhexedrine, Proximal diabetic neuropathy, Psychiatric medication, Psychoactive drug, Psychogenic non-epileptic seizure, Psycholeptic, Psychoneuroimmunology, Psychopharmacology, Pudendal nerve entrapment, Purple Day, QH-II-66, Quazepam, Quinazolinone, Racetam, Rage syndrome, Recreational drug use, Regulation of therapeutic goods, Remacemide, Reposal, Restless legs syndrome, Retigabine, Rett syndrome, Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome, Ring chromosome 14 syndrome, Rita Marcalo, Ro64-6198, Roemheld syndrome, Rolandic epilepsy, Roswell Lee Evans, Rufinamide, Saclofen, Sandhoff disease, Sarashi Ranjan Mukherjee, Sarcoidosis, Schizophreniform disorder, Schwartz–Jampel syndrome, Secobarbital, Seizure threshold, Seizure types, Seletracetam, Selfotel, Semen quality, Severe cutaneous adverse reactions, Sex effects of water pollution, Short-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency, SIB-1893, Sigmodal, SKF-89976A, SL-164, SL-651,498, SL-75102, Smith–Fineman–Myers syndrome, Social anxiety disorder, Sodium bromide, Sodium channel blocker, Sodium fluoroacetate, Somnolence, Somnology, Spike-and-wave, Spina bifida, Status epilepticus, STEPS trial, Stevens–Johnson syndrome, Stiff-person syndrome, Stiripentol, Stroke recovery, Strychnine, Sturge–Weber syndrome, Stuttering, Styramate, Subarachnoid hemorrhage, Subdural hematoma, Substance dependence, Substance-induced psychosis, Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency, Succinimide, Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy, Suicide inhibition, Sulazepam, Sulfonamide (medicine), Sulpiride, Sultiame, SUNCT syndrome, Surendra Nath Pandeya, SV2A, Temazepam, Temporal lobe epilepsy, Temporomandibular joint dysfunction, Tert-Amyl alcohol, Tetrahydrocannabinol, Tetrahydrodeoxycorticosterone, Tetrazepam, Tezampanel, Therapeutic drug monitoring, Thiamylal, Thiobutabarbital, Thyroid hormone binding ratio, Tiagabine, Tianeptine, Tinnitus, Tizanidine, Tofisopam, Tolgabide, Topical anesthetic, Topiramate, Topotecan, Toxic epidermal necrolysis, Toxidrome, Toxinology, TP-003, TP-13, TPA-023, Tracazolate, Transient epileptic amnesia, Treatment of bipolar disorder, Tremor, Triazolam, Tricyclic, Triflunordazepam, Trigeminal neuralgia, Trimethadione, UCB (company), UGT1A4, Ulegyria, Unverricht–Lundborg disease, Valerian (herb), Valperinol, Valproate, Valproate pivoxil, Valpromide, Vertiginous epilepsy, Vertigo, Vigabatrin, Viral encephalitis, Vitamin B6, White blood cell, Wogonin, Women's health, Wyeth, Y-23684, Zaleplon, ZK-93423, Zolpidem, Zonisamide, Zopiclone, ...First Do No Harm, 17q21.31 microdeletion syndrome, 3,3-Diethyl-2-pyrrolidinone, 3-Hydroxymorphinan, 3-Hydroxyphenazepam, 3-Methylbutanoic acid, 3α-Androstanediol, 3β-Androstenol, 4-Iodopropofol, 4-Methylpregabalin, 5α-Reductase inhibitor. 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Abdominal epilepsy, also known as autonomic epilepsy, is a rare condition most frequently found in children, consisting of gastrointestinal (GI) disturbances caused by epileptiform seizure activity.
Acetone (systematically named propanone) is the organic compound with the formula (CH3)2CO.
Acetophenone is the organic compound with the formula C6H5C(O)CH3 (also represented by the pseudoelement symbols PhAc or BzMe).
Acylureas (also called N-acylureas or ureides) are a class of chemical compounds formally derived from the acylation of urea.
Adenylosuccinate lyase deficiency, also called adenylosuccinase deficiency, is a rare autosomal recessive metabolic disorder characterized by the appearance of succinylaminoimidazolecarboxamide riboside (SAICA riboside) and succinyladenosine (S-Ado) in cerebrospinal fluid, urine.
AdinazolamFR Patent 2248050 (marketed under the brand name Deracyn) is a benzodiazepine derivative, and more specifically, a triazolobenzodiazepine (TBZD).
Aed or AED may refer to.
Agranulocytosis, also known as agranulosis or granulopenia, is an acute condition involving a severe and dangerous leukopenia (lowered white blood cell count), most commonly of neutrophils causing a neutropenia in the circulating blood.
Albutoin is an anticonvulsant.
Alcohol intoxication, also known as drunkenness or alcohol poisoning, is negative behavior and physical effects due to the recent drinking of ethanol (alcohol).
Alcoholic polyneuropathy (A.K.A alcohol leg) is a neurological disorder in which peripheral nerves throughout the body malfunction simultaneously.
Allobarbital, also known as allobarbitone and branded as Cibalgine or Dial-Ciba (in combination with ethyl carbamate), is a barbiturate derivative invented in 1912 by Ernst Preiswerk and Ernst Grether working for CIBA.
Allopregnanolone, also known as 5α-pregnan-3α-ol-20-one or 3α,5α-tetrahydroprogesterone (3α,5α-THP), as well as brexanolone, is an endogenous inhibitory pregnane neurosteroid.
Alphenal (Alphenal, Efrodal, Prophenal, Sanudorm), also known as 5-allyl-5-phenylbarbituric acid, is a barbiturate derivative developed in the 1920s.
Alpidem (Ananxyl) is an anxiolytic drug from the imidazopyridine family, related to the more well known sleeping medication zolpidem.
Alprazolam, available under the trade name Xanax, is a potent, short-acting benzodiazepine anxiolytic—a minor tranquilizer.
AM404, also known as N-arachidonoylaminophenol, is an active metabolite of paracetamol (acetaminophen), responsible for all or part of its analgesic action and anticonvulsant effects.
Ameltolide, a 4-aminobenzamide derivative, is an experimental anticonvulsant agent, effective at inhibiting seizures in animal models.
Aminooxyacetic acid, often abbreviated AOA or AOAA, is a compound that inhibits 4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase (GABA-T) activity in vitro and in vivo, leading to less gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) being broken down.
Amobarbital (formerly known as amylobarbitone or sodium amytal) is a drug that is a barbiturate derivative.
Amphenone B, or simply amphenone, also known as 3,3-bis(p-aminophenyl)butan-2-one, is an inhibitor of steroid hormone and thyroid hormone biosynthesis which was never marketed but has been used as a tool in scientific research to study corticosteroids and the adrenal glands.
An analgesic or painkiller is any member of the group of drugs used to achieve analgesia, relief from pain.
An analgesic adjuvant is a medication that is typically used for indications other than pain control but provides control of pain in some painful diseases.
An anaphrodisiac (also antaphrodisiac or antiaphrodisiac) is a substance that quells or blunts the libido.
Androstenol, also known as 5α-androst-16-en-3α-ol (shortened to 3α,5α-androstenol or 3α-androstenol), is a steroidal pheromone and neurosteroid in humans and other mammals, notably pigs.
Androsterone, or 5α-androstan-3α-ol-17-one, is an endogenous steroid hormone, neurosteroid, and putative pheromone.
Anencephaly is the absence of a major portion of the brain, skull, and scalp that occurs during embryonic development.
In the practice of medicine (especially surgery and dentistry), anesthesia or anaesthesia (from Greek "without sensation") is a state of temporary induced loss of sensation or awareness.
Anethole (anise camphor) is an organic compound that is widely used as a flavoring substance.
Angelman syndrome (AS) is a genetic disorder that mainly affects the nervous system.
Animal models of epilepsy have helped to advance the understanding of how brains develop epilepsy (Epileptogenesis), and have been used in pre-clinical trials of antiepileptic drugs.
Anti-Hu associated encephalitis, also known as Anti-ANNA1 associated encephalitis, is an uncommon form of brain inflammation that is associated with an underlying cancer.
Anticonvulsant/sulfonamide hypersensitivity syndrome is a potentially serious hypersensitivity reaction that can be seen with drugs with an aromatic amine chemical structure, such as aromatic anticonvulsants (e.g. diphenylhydantoin, phenobarbital, phenytoin, carbamazepine, lamotrigine), sulfonamides, or other drugs with an aromatic amine (procainamide).
Antidepressants are drugs used for the treatment of major depressive disorder and other conditions, including dysthymia, anxiety disorders, obsessive–compulsive disorder, eating disorders, chronic pain, neuropathic pain and, in some cases, dysmenorrhoea, snoring, migraine, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), addiction, dependence, and sleep disorders.
Antifolates are a class of antimetabolite medications that antagonise (that is, block) the actions of folic acid (vitamin B9).
AP-7 is a selective NMDA receptor (NMDAR) antagonist that competitively inhibits the glutamate binding site and thus activation of NMDAR.
Aprobarbital (or aprobarbitone), sold as Oramon, Somnifaine, and Allonal, is a barbiturate derivative invented in the 1920s by Ernst Preiswerk.
Aromatization is a chemical reaction in which an aromatic system is formed.
Asafoetida is the dried latex (gum oleoresin) exuded from the rhizome or tap root of several species of Ferula, a perennial herb that grows tall.
ASD may refer to.
Aseptic meningitis is the inflammation of the meninges, a membrane covering the brain and spinal cord in patients whose cerebral spinal fluid test negative with routine bacterial cultures.
Asima Chatterjee (23 September 1917 – 22 November 2006) was an Indian organic chemist noted for her work in the fields of organic chemistry and phytomedicine.
Ataxia is a neurological sign consisting of lack of voluntary coordination of muscle movements that includes gait abnormality.
Atypical facial pain (AFP) is a type of chronic facial pain which does not fulfill any other diagnosis.
Atypical trigeminal neuralgia (ATN), or type 2 trigeminal neuralgia, is a form of trigeminal neuralgia, a disorder of the fifth cranial nerve.
Autism is a developmental disorder characterized by troubles with social interaction and communication and by restricted and repetitive behavior.
for explicitly cited references.
In medicine, automatism refers to a set of brief unconscious behaviors.
Autosomal dominant porencephaly type I is a rare type of porencephaly that causes cysts to grow on the brain and damage to small blood vessels, which can lead to cognitive impairment, migraines, seizures, and hemiplegia or hemiparesis.
Azinphos-methyl (Guthion) (also spelled azinophos-methyl) is a broad spectrum organophosphate insecticide manufactured by Bayer CropScience, Gowan Co., and Makhteshim Agan.
Bamaluzole is a GABA receptor agonist.
A barbiturate is a drug that acts as a central nervous system depressant, and can therefore produce a wide spectrum of effects, from mild sedation to death.
Becampanel (INN) (code name AMP397) is a quinoxalinedione derivative drug which acts as a competitive antagonist of the AMPA receptor (IC50.
Beclamide (marketed as Chloracon, Hibicon, Posedrine, Nydrane, Seclar, and other names) is a drug that possesses anticonvulsant activity.
Benign familial infantile epilepsy (BFIE), also known as benign familial infantile seizures (BFIS) or benign familial infantile convulsions (BFIC) is an epilepsy syndrome.
Benign fasciculation syndrome (BFS) is a neurological disorder characterized by fasciculation (twitching) of various voluntary muscles in the body.
Benign infantile epilepsy (BIE), also known as benign infantile seizures (BIS), is an epilepsy syndrome of which several forms have been described.
Benign neonatal seizures include two disorders benign idiopathic neonatal seizures and benign familial neonatal seizures.
Benocyclidine, also known as benzothiophenylcyclohexylpiperidine (BTCP), is a psychoactive recreational drug of the arylcyclohexylamine class which is related to phencyclidine (PCP).
Bentazepam (also known as Thiadipone, Tiadipona) is a thienodiazepine which is a benzodiazepine analog.
Benzobarbital (Benzonal) is a barbiturate derivative.
Benzodiazepines (BZD, BZs), sometimes called "benzos", are a class of psychoactive drugs whose core chemical structure is the fusion of a benzene ring and a diazepine ring.
Benzodiazepine dependence or benzodiazepine addiction is when one has developed one or more of either tolerance, withdrawal symptoms, drug seeking behaviors, such as continued use despite harmful effects, and maladaptive pattern of substance use, according to the DSM-IV.
Benzodiazepine overdose describes the ingestion of one of the drugs in the benzodiazepine class in quantities greater than are recommended or generally practiced.
Benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome—often abbreviated to benzo withdrawal—is the cluster of symptoms that emerge when a person who has taken benzodiazepines, either medically or recreationally, and has developed a physical dependence undergoes dosage reduction or discontinuation.
Benzoylecgonine is the main metabolite of cocaine.
Benzyl cyanide (abbreviated BnCN) is an organic compound with the chemical formula C6H5CH2CN.
β-Hydroxybutyric acid, also known as 3-hydroxybutyric acid, is an organic compound and a beta hydroxy acid with the chemical formula CH3CH(OH)CH2CO2H; its conjugate base is β-hydroxybutyrate, also known as 3-hydroxybutyrate.
Binge eating disorder (BED) is an eating disorder characterized by frequent and recurrent binge eating episodes with associated negative psychological and social problems, but without subsequent purging episodes (e.g. vomiting).
Biological psychiatry or biopsychiatry is an approach to psychiatry that aims to understand mental disorder in terms of the biological function of the nervous system.
Biotin deficiency is a rare nutritional disorder which can become serious, even fatal, if allowed to progress untreated.
Bipolar disorder, previously known as manic depression, is a mental disorder that causes periods of depression and periods of abnormally elevated mood.
Bipolar I disorder (BD-I; pronounced "type one bipolar disorder") is a bipolar spectrum disorder characterized by the occurrence of at least one manic episode, with or without mixed or psychotic features.
Bipolar II disorder (BP-II; pronounced "type two bipolar" or "bipolar type two" disorder) is a bipolar spectrum disorder (see also Bipolar disorder) characterized by at least one episode of hypomania and at least one episode of major depression.
Birth control, also known as contraception and fertility control, is a method or device used to prevent pregnancy.
A birth defect, also known as a congenital disorder, is a condition present at birth regardless of its cause.
A brain injury is an injury to the brain of a living organism, and can be categorized by many properties.
A brain metastasis is a cancer that has metastasized (spread) to the brain from another location in the body and is therefore considered a secondary brain tumor.
A brain tumor occurs when abnormal cells form within the brain.
Brivaracetam (trade name Briviact), a chemical analog of levetiracetam, is a racetam derivative with anticonvulsant (antiepileptic) properties.
A bromide is a chemical compound containing a bromide ion or ligand.
Bromine is a chemical element with symbol Br and atomic number 35.
Brotizolam (marketed under brand name Lendormin) is a sedative-hypnotic thienotriazolodiazepine drug which is a benzodiazepine analog.
Bruxism is excessive teeth grinding or jaw clenching.
Buccal administration refers to a topical route of administration by which drugs held or applied in the buccal area (in the cheek) diffuse through the oral mucosa (tissues which line the mouth) and enter directly into the bloodstream.
Bupropion/naltrexone is a combination drug used for weight loss in those that are either obese or overweight with some weight-related illnesses.
Bupropion/zonisamide (planned trade name Empatic) is an experimental drug combination for the treatment of obesity.
Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a burning sensation in the mouth with no underlying dental or medical cause.
Buspirone, sold under the brand name Buspar, is an anxiolytic drug that is primarily used to treat generalized anxiety disorder (GAD).
Butyramide is the amide of butyric acid.
Camazepam is a benzodiazepine psychoactive drug, marketed under the brand names Albego, Limpidon and Paxor.
Pain in cancer may arise from a tumor compressing or infiltrating nearby body parts; from treatments and diagnostic procedures; or from skin, nerve and other changes caused by a hormone imbalance or immune response.
Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors are a class of pharmaceuticals that suppress the activity of carbonic anhydrase.
Carisbamate (YKP 509, proposed trade name Comfyde) is an experimental anticonvulsant drug under development by Johnson & Johnson Pharmaceutical Research and Development.
Carnitine (β-hydroxy-γ-N-trimethylaminobutyric acid, 3-hydroxy-4-N,N,N- trimethylaminobutyrate) is a quaternary ammonium compound involved in metabolism in most mammals, plants and some bacteria. Carnitine may exist in two isomers, labeled D-carnitine and L-carnitine, as they are optically active. At room temperature, pure carnitine is a white powder, and a water-soluble zwitterion with low toxicity. Carnitine only exists in animals as the L-enantiomer, and D-carnitine is toxic because it inhibits the activity of L-carnitine. Carnitine, derived from an amino acid, is found in nearly all organisms and animal tissue. Carnitine is the generic expression for a number of compounds that include L-carnitine, acetyl-L-carnitine, and propionyl-L-carnitine. It is most accumulated in cardiac and skeletal muscles as it accounts for 0.1% of its dry matter. It was first derived from meat extracts in 1905, therefore the name carnitine is derived from Latin "carnus" or flesh. The body synthesizes enough carnitine from lysine side chains to keep up with the needs of energy production in the body as carnitine acts as a transporter of long-chain fatty acids into the mitochondria to be oxidized and produce energy. Some individuals with genetic or medical disorders (like preterm infants) cannot make enough, so this makes carnitine a conditionally essential nutrient for them.
Epilepsy is a chronic neurological condition characterized by recurrent seizures.
There are many causes of seizures.
Cannabidiol-dimethylheptyl (also known as CBD-DMH or DMH-CBD) is a synthetic homologue of cannabidiol where the pentyl chain has been replaced by a dimethylheptyl chain.
Central nervous system depression or CNS depression refers to physiological depression of the central nervous system that can result in decreased rate of breathing, decreased heart rate, and loss of consciousness possibly leading to coma or death.
Central pain syndrome is a neurological condition caused by damage or malfunction in the Central Nervous System (CNS) which causes a sensitization of the pain system.
Cerebral hypoxia is a form of hypoxia (reduced supply of oxygen), specifically involving the brain; when the brain is completely deprived of oxygen, it is called cerebral anoxia.
Cerebral palsy (CP) is a group of permanent movement disorders that appear in early childhood.
Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) is the presence of a blood clot in the dural venous sinuses, which drain blood from the brain.
CGP-37849 is a competitive antagonist at the NMDA receptor.
A channel blocker is the biological mechanism in which a particular molecule is used to prevent the opening of ion channels in order to produce a physiological response in a cell.
Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a progressive, enduring, and often irreversible condition featuring pain, numbness, tingling and sensitivity to cold in the hands and feet (sometimes progressing to the arms and legs) that afflicts between 30% and 40% of patients undergoing chemotherapy.
Childhood chronic pain affects at least 5% of the population under the age of 18, according to conservative epidemiological studies.
The childhood disintegrative disorder (CDD), also known as Heller's syndrome and disintegrative psychosis, is a rare condition characterized by late onset of developmental delays—or severe and sudden reversals—in language, social function, and motor skills.
Chloramphenicol is an antibiotic useful for the treatment of a number of bacterial infections.
Chlordiazepoxide, trade name Librium, is a sedative and hypnotic medication of the benzodiazepine class; it is used to treat anxiety, insomnia and withdrawal symptoms from alcohol and/or drug abuse.
Chlorfenvinphos is the common name of an organophosphorus compound that was widely used as an insecticide and an acaricide.
Chorea (or choreia, occasionally) is an abnormal involuntary movement disorder, one of a group of neurological disorders called dyskinesias.
Chorea gravidarum is a rare type of chorea which presents with involuntary abnormal movement, characterized by abrupt, brief, nonrhythmic, nonrepetitive movement of any limb, often associated with nonpatterned facial grimaces.
Chronic pain is pain that lasts a long time.
Chronic paroxysmal hemicrania (CPH), also known as Sjaastad syndrome, is a severe debilitating unilateral headache usually affecting the area around the eye.
CI-966 (developmental code name) is a central nervous system depressant acting as a GABA reuptake inhibitor, specifically a highly potent and selective blocker of the GABA transporter 1 (GAT-1) (IC50.
Cicuta, commonly known as water hemlock, is a small genus of four species of highly poisonous plants in the family Apiaceae.
Cinolazepam (marketed under the brand name Gerodorm) is a drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative.
Circumstantial speech (also referred to as circumstantiality) is the result of a so-called "non-linear thought pattern" and occurs when the focus of a conversation drifts, but often comes back to the point.
CL-218,872 is a sedative and hypnotic drug used in scientific research.
Cleft lip and cleft palate, also known as orofacial cleft, is a group of conditions that includes cleft lip (CL), cleft palate (CP), and both together (CLP).
Clerodendrum infortunatum, the hill glory bower, is a perennial shrub belonging to the family Lamiaceae, also sometimes classified under Verbenaceae.
Clobazam (marketed under the brand names Frisium, Urbanol, Onfi and Tapclob) is a benzodiazepine class medication that has been marketed as an anxiolytic since 1975 and an anticonvulsant since 1984.
Clomethiazole (also called chlormethiazole) is a sedative and hypnotic originally developed by Hoffmann-La Roche in the 1930s.
Clonazepam, sold under the brand name Klonopin among others, is a medication used to prevent and treat seizures, panic disorder, and for the movement disorder known as akathisia.
Clorazepate, sold under the brand names Tranxene among others, is a benzodiazepine medication.
Clotiazepam (marketed under brand name Clozan, Distensan, Trecalmo, Rize, Rizen and Veratran) is a thienodiazepine drug which is a benzodiazepine analog.
Cloxazolam (marketed under the brand names Sepazon, Olcadil (Brazil, Portugal and Spain), Akton (Belgium), and Lubalix (Switzerland)) is a drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative. Cloxazolam is metabolised into the active metabolite chlordesmethyldiazepam (delorazepam). It possesses anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, hypnotic, sedative and skeletal muscle relaxant properties.
Cocaine dependence is a psychological desire to use cocaine regularly.
Colestilan (INN, trade name BindRen) is a medication that acts as a phosphate binder and bile acid sequestrant.
Colpocephaly is a cephalic disorder involving the disproportionate enlargement of the occipital horns of the lateral ventricles and is usually diagnosed early after birth due to seizures.
Complication, in medicine, is an unfavorable evolution or consequence of a disease, a health condition or a therapy.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI, physical trauma to the brain) can cause a variety of complications, health effects that are not TBI themselves but that result from it.
Conantokins are a small family of helical peptides that are derived from the venom of predatory marine snails of the genus Conus.
Congenital bilateral perisylvian syndrome (CBPS) is a rare neurological disease characterized by paralysis of certain facial muscles and epileptic seizures.
Constipation refers to bowel movements that are infrequent or hard to pass.
The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) also known as nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group I, member 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NR1I3 gene.
A contraceptive patch, also known as "the patch", is a transdermal patch applied to the skin that releases synthetic estrogen and progestin hormones to prevent pregnancy.
A convulsant is a drug which induces convulsions and/or epileptic seizures, the opposite of an anticonvulsant.
Cortical blindness is the total or partial loss of vision in a normal-appearing eye caused by damage to the brain's occipital cortex.
Costochondritis, also known as chest wall pain, costosternal syndrome, or costosternal chondrodynia is an acute and often temporary inflammation of the costal cartilage, the structure that connects each rib to the sternum at the costosternal joint.
CP-1414S is an experimental drug first made by a team in Germany.
Cross-tolerance is a phenomenon that occurs when tolerance to the effects of a certain drug produces tolerance to another drug.
Cyclopentobarbital sodium (Cyclopal, Dormisan) is a barbiturate derivative invented in the 1940s.
Cymbopogon citratus, commonly known as lemon grass or oil grass, is a tropical plant from South Asia and introduced to Southeast Asia.
Cynthia "Cyndie" Anne Maryanoff (née Milewski; November 27, 1949-) is an American organic and materials chemist.
Cytochrome P450 2A6 (abbreviated CYP2A6) is a member of the cytochrome P450 mixed-function oxidase system, which is involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics in the body.
Cytochrome P450 2B6 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CYP2B6 gene.
Cytochrome P450 2C19 (abbreviated CYP2C19) is an enzyme.
Cytochrome P450 2C9 (abbreviated CYP2C9) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CYP2C9 gene.
Cytochrome P450 3A4 (abbreviated CYP3A4) is an important enzyme in the body, mainly found in the liver and in the intestine.
Cyprazepam is a drug which is a sedative-hypnotic benzodiazepine derivative.
Cysticercosis is a tissue infection caused by the young form of the pork tapeworm.
Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) are proteins of the superfamily containing heme as a cofactor and, therefore, are hemoproteins.
DA2PP is a multivalent vaccine for dogs that protects against the viruses indicated by the alphanumeric characters forming the acronym: D for canine distemper, A2 for canine adenovirus type 2, which offers cross-protection to canine adenovirus type 1 (the more pathogenic of the two strains) (see Canine adenovirus), the first P for canine parvovirus, and the second P for parainfluenza.
DCG-IV is a research drug which acts as a group-selective agonist for the group II metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR2/3).
DCPG ((S)-3,4-DCPG) is a drug used in scientific research, which acts as a potent and subtype-selective agonist for the metabotropic glutamate receptor mGluR8.
Dejerine–Roussy syndrome or thalamic pain syndrome is a condition developed after a thalamic stroke, a stroke causing damage to the thalamus.
Delorazepam, also known as chlordesmethyldiazepam and nordiclazepam, is a drug which is a benzodiazepine and a derivative of desmethyldiazepam.
Dementia is a broad category of brain diseases that cause a long-term and often gradual decrease in the ability to think and remember that is great enough to affect a person's daily functioning.
Dentomandibular sensorimotor dysfunction (DMDS) is a medical condition involving the mandible (lower jaw), upper three cervical (neck) vertebrae, and the surrounding muscle and nerve areas.
A depressant, or central depressant, is a drug that lowers neurotransmission levels, which is to depress or reduce arousal or stimulation, in various areas of the brain.
Depression is a state of low mood and aversion to activity that can affect a person's thoughts, behavior, tendencies, feelings, and sense of well-being.
A depressogenic substance (or depressogen) is one that causes or can cause depression, usually as a side effect.
Dexanabinol (HU-211 or ETS2101) is a synthetic cannabinoid derivative in development by e-Therapeutics plc.
Diabetic neuropathies are nerve damaging disorders associated with diabetes mellitus.
Diazepam, first marketed as Valium, is a medicine of the benzodiazepine family that typically produces a calming effect.
Diclazepam (Ro5-3448), also known as chlorodiazepam and 2'-chloro-diazepam, is a benzodiazepine and functional analog of diazepam.
5α-Dihydrodeoxycorticosterone (abbreviated as DHDOC), also known as 21-hydroxy-5α-pregnan-20-one, is an endogenous progestogen and neurosteroid.
Dihydromethysticin is one of the six major kavalactones found in the kava plant.
Dimethylheptylpyran (DMHP, 3-(1,2-dimethylheptyl)-Δ6a,10a-THC, 1,2-dimethylheptyl-Δ3THC, A-40824, EA-2233) is a synthetic analogue of THC, which was invented in 1949 during attempts to elucidate the structure of Δ9-THC, one of the active components of cannabis.
Diphenylsilanediol, Ph2Si(OH)2, is a silanol.
8-Cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX, PD-116,948) is a drug which acts as a potent and selective antagonist for the adenosine A1 receptor.
Divaplon (RU-32698) is a nonbenzodiazepine, anxiolytic and anticonvulsant drug from the pyrazolopyrimidine family of drugs.
Dizocilpine (INN), also known as MK-801, is a noncompetitive antagonist of the ''N''-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, a glutamate receptor, discovered by a team at Merck in 1982.
DMCM (methyl-6,7-dimethoxy-4-ethyl-beta-carboline-3-carboxylate) is a drug from the beta-carboline family.
Doxefazepam (marketed under brand name Doxans) is a benzodiazepine derivative drug developed by Schiapparelli in the 1970s.
Dronabinol – trade names Marinol and Syndros – is a synthetic form of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) approved by the FDA as an appetite stimulant for people with AIDS and antiemetic for people receiving chemotherapy.
A drug class is a set of medications that have similar chemical structures, the same mechanism of action (i.e., bind to the same biological target), a related mode of action, and/or are used to treat the same disease.
In medicine, a drug eruption is an adverse drug reaction of the skin.
A drug of last resort (DoLR) is a pharmaceutical drug that is tried after all other drug options have failed to produce an adequate response in the patient.
Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS syndrome), also termed drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome (DIHS), is a rare reaction to certain medications.
Drug rehabilitation (often drug rehab or just rehab) is the processes of medical or psychotherapeutic treatment for dependency on psychoactive substances such as alcohol, prescription drugs, and street drugs such as cocaine, heroin or amphetamines.
Drug titration is the process of adjusting the dose of a medication for the maximum benefit without adverse effects.
Drug-induced lupus erythematosus (DIL or DILE) is an autoimmune disorder (similar to systemic lupus erythematosus) caused by chronic use of certain drugs.
Drug-related gingival hyperplasia is a cutaneous condition characterized by enlargement of the gums noted during the first year of drug treatment.
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a severe type of muscular dystrophy.
Duloxetine, sold under the brand name Cymbalta among others, is a medication mostly used for major depressive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, fibromyalgia and neuropathic pain.
Dutasteride, sold under the brand name Avodart among others, is a medication used primarily to treat enlarged prostate in men.
Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE), commonly called Triple E or, sleeping sickness (not to be confused with Trypanosomiasis) is a zoonotic alphavirus and arbovirus present in North, Central and South America and the Caribbean.
Eclampsia is the onset of seizures (convulsions) in a woman with pre-eclampsia.
ELB-139 (LS-191,811) is an anxiolytic drug with a novel chemical structure, which is used in scientific research.
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), formerly known as electroshock therapy, and often referred to as shock treatment, is a psychiatric treatment in which seizures are electrically induced in patients to provide relief from mental disorders.
Eli Lilly and Company is a global pharmaceutical company headquartered in Indianapolis, Indiana, with offices in 18 countries.
Emergency contraception (EC), or emergency postcoital contraception, are birth control measures that may be used after sexual intercourse to prevent pregnancy.
Emoxypine (2-ethyl-6-methyl-3-hydroxypyridine), also known as Mexidol or Mexifin when used as the succinate salt, is an antioxidant manufactured in Russia by Pharmasoft Pharmaceuticals.
Encephalitis is inflammation of the brain.
Encephalopathy (from ἐγκέφαλος "brain" + πάθος "suffering") means any disorder or disease of the brain, especially chronic degenerative conditions.
The environmental effect of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) is largely speculative.
Environmental xenobiotic are xenobiotic compounds with a biological activity that are found as pollutants in the natural environment.
4QI9) An enzyme inhibitor is a molecule that binds to an enzyme and decreases its activity.
Eosinophilia is a condition in which the eosinophil count in the peripheral blood exceeds.
Eosinophilic myocarditis is inflammation in the heart muscle that is caused by the infiltration and destructive activity of a type of white blood cell, the eosinophil.
Epilepsy is a group of neurological disorders characterized by epileptic seizures.
Epilepsy and driving is a personal and safety issue.
Epilepsy in animals is a group of neurological disorders characterized by seizures, caused by abnormal bursts of electrical activity in the brain.
Epilepsy affects all ages groups.
Epilepsy surgery involves a neurosurgical procedure where an area of the brain involved in seizures is either resected, disconnected or stimulated.
Cases of epilepsy may be organized into epilepsy syndromes by the specific features that are present.
Epilepsy-intellectual disability in females also known as PCDH19 gene-related epilepsy or epileptic encephalopathy, early infantile, 9 (EIEE9), is a rare type of epilepsy that affects predominately females and is characterized by clusters of brief seizures, which start in infancy or early childhood, and is occasionally accompanied by varying degrees of cognitive impairment.
An epileptic seizure is a brief episode of signs or symptoms due to abnormally excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
Epileptogenesis is the gradual process by which a normal brain develops epilepsy.
An epileptologist is a neurologist who specializes in the treatment of epilepsy.
Eslicarbazepine acetate (trade names Aptiom in North America, Zebinix in Europe, Exalief in Russia, Eslicarba in Egypt), abbreviated as ESL, is an anticonvulsant medication approved for use in Europe and the United States as monotherapy or adjunctive therapy (additional therapy) for partial-onset seizures epilepsy.
Estazolam (desmethylalprazolam, marketed under the brand names ProSom, Eurodin, Nuctalon) is a benzodiazepine derivative drug developed by Upjohn in the 1970s.
Etazepine (INN) is an anticonvulsant with a tricyclic structure which is related to the benzodiazepines, but was never marketed.
Eterobarb (Antilon) is a barbiturate derivative.
Ethadione is an anticonvulsant medication in the oxazolidinedione family used mainly to treat seizures.
Ethanolamine-O-sulfate (EOS) is an ester of sulfuric acid and ethanolamine.
Ethinylestradiol (EE) is an estrogen medication which is used widely in birth control pills in combination with progestins.
Ethosuximide, sold under the brand name Zarontin among others, is a medication used to treat absence seizures.
Ethotoin (marketed as Peganone by Ovation) is an anticonvulsant drug used in the treatment of epilepsy.
Ethyl cyanoacetate is an organic compound that contains a carboxylate ester and a nitrile.
Ethyl loflazepate (marketed under the brand names Meilax, Ronlax and Victan) is a drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative.
Etifoxine (INN, also known as etafenoxine; trade name Stresam) is an anxiolytic and anticonvulsant drug developed by Hoechst in the 1960s.
Etiocholanolone, also known as 5β-androsterone, as well as 3α-hydroxy-5β-androstan-17-one or etiocholan-3α-ol-17-one, is an etiocholane (5β-androstane) steroid as well as an endogenous 17-ketosteroid that is produced from the metabolism of testosterone.
Etiracetam is a chemical compound belonging to the racetam family, which was developed as a nootropic drug.
Etizolam (marketed under the brand name Etilaam, Etizola, Sedekopan, Etizest, Pasaden or Depas) is a benzodiazepine analog.
Etoxadrol (CL-1848C) is a dissociative anaesthetic drug that has been found to be an NMDA antagonist and produce similar effects to PCP in animals.
Fabry disease is a rare genetic disease.
A febrile seizure, also known as a fever fit or febrile convulsion, is a seizure associated with a high body temperature but without any serious underlying health issue.
Felbamate (marketed under the brand name Felbatol by MedPointe) is an anticonvulsant used in the treatment of epilepsy.
Fenofibrate, marketed as Tricor and under several other brand names, is a drug of the fibrate class.
Fetal trimethadione syndrome (also known as paramethadione syndrome, German syndrome, tridione syndrome, among others) is a set of birth defects caused by the administration of the anticonvulsants trimethadione (also known as Tridione) or paramethadione to epileptic mothers during pregnancy.
FG-8205 (L-663,581) is an imidazobenzodiazepine derivative related to bretazenil, which acts as a partial agonist at GABAA receptors, with slight selectivity for the α1-containing subtype.
Fludiazepam, marketed under the brand name Erispan (エリスパン) is a potent benzodiazepine and 2ʹ-fluoro derivative of diazepam, originally developed by Hoffman-La Roche in the 1960s.
Flurazepam (marketed under the brand names Dalmane and Dalmadorm) is a drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative.
Flutazolam (Coreminal, MS-4101) is a drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative.
Flutemazepam was developed at a team at Stabilimenti Chimici Farmaceutici Riuniti SpA in the mid 1970s.
Flutoprazepam (Restas) is a drug which is a benzodiazepine.
Folate deficiency is a low level of folic acid and derivatives in the body.
FBJ murine osteosarcoma viral oncogene homolog B, also known as Finkel-Biskis-Jinkins murine osteosarcoma viral oncogene homolog B, FOSB or FosB, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the FOSB gene.
Fosphenytoin (fosphenytoin sodium, trade names Cerebyx, Parke-Davis; Prodilantin, Pfizer Holding France) is a water-soluble phenytoin prodrug that is administered intravenously to deliver phenytoin, potentially more safely than intravenous phenytoin.
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a genetic disorder.
The Fregoli delusion, or the delusion of doubles, is a rare disorder in which a person holds a delusional belief that different people are in fact a single person who changes appearance or is in disguise.
Frontal lobe epilepsy, or FLE, is a neurological disorder that is characterized by brief, recurring seizures that arise in the frontal lobes of the brain, often while the patient is sleeping.
Furosemide, sold under the brand name Lasix among others, is a medication used to treat fluid build-up due to heart failure, liver scarring, or kidney disease.
A GABA analogue is a compound which is an analogue or derivative of the neurotransmitter gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) (the IUPAC of which is 4-aminobutanoic acid).
A GABA receptor agonist is a drug that is an agonist for one or more of the GABA receptors, producing typically sedative effects, and may also cause other effects such as anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, and muscle relaxant effects.
A GABA reuptake inhibitor (GRI) is a type of drug which acts as a reuptake inhibitor for the neurotransmitter gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) by blocking the action of the gamma-Aminobutyric acid transporters (GATs).
A GABA transaminase is an enzyme that catalyzes two reactions.
A GABA transaminase inhibitor is an enzyme inhibitor that acts upon GABA transaminase.
The GABAA receptor (GABAAR) is an ionotropic receptor and ligand-gated ion channel.
In pharmacology, GABAA receptor positive allosteric modulators are positive allosteric modulator (PAM) molecules that increase the activity of the GABAA receptor protein in the vertebrate central nervous system.
Gabapentin, sold under the brand name Neurontin among others, is a medication which is used to treat epilepsy (specifically partial seizures), neuropathic pain, hot flashes, and restless legs syndrome.
Gabapentin enacarbil (Horizant, Regnite (in Japan)) is an anticonvulsant and analgesic drug of the gabapentinoid class, and a prodrug to gabapentin.
Galanin is a neuropeptide encoded by the GAL gene, that is widely expressed in the brain, spinal cord, and gut of humans as well as other mammals.
The galanin receptor is a G protein-coupled receptor, or metabotropic receptor which binds galanin.
Galantamine (Nivalin, Razadyne, Razadyne ER, Reminyl, Lycoremine) is used for the treatment of cognitive decline in mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease and various other memory impairments.
Galmic is a drug which acts as a selective, non-peptide agonist at the galanin receptors GALR.
Galnon is a drug which acts as a selective, non-peptide agonist at the galanin receptors GALR.
γ-Amino-β-hydroxybutyric acid (GABOB), also known as β-hydroxy-γ-aminobutyric acid (β-hydroxy-GABA), and sold under the brand name Gamibetal among others, is an anticonvulsant which is used for the treatment of epilepsy in Europe, Japan, and Mexico.
Ganaxolone is an experimental CNS-selective GABAA modulator that is under development by Marinus Pharmaceuticals as an anxiolytic and anticonvulsant agent.
A gelastic seizure, also known as "gelastic epilepsy", is a rare type of seizure that involves a sudden burst of energy, usually in the form of laughing or crying.
Gemfibrozil is the generic name for an oral drug used to lower lipid levels.
Gene therapy is being studied for some forms of epilepsy.
General anaesthesia or general anesthesia (see spelling differences) is a medically induced coma with loss of protective reflexes, resulting from the administration of one or more general anaesthetic agents.
Geniculate ganglionitis or geniculate neuralgia (GN), also called nervus intermedius neuralgia, Ramsay Hunt syndrome, or Hunt's neuralgia, is a rare disorder characterized by severe paroxysmal neuralgic pain deep in the ear, that may spread to the ear canal, outer ear, mastoid or eye regions.
Ghrelin (pronounced), the "hunger hormone", also known as lenomorelin (INN), is a peptide hormone produced by ghrelinergic cells in the gastrointestinal tract which functions as a neuropeptide in the central nervous system.
Gideon Koren M.D., FACMT, FRCP(C) (גדעון קורן; born 1947 in Tel Aviv, Mandatory Palestine (now in Israel) is an Israeli-Canadian pediatrician, clinical pharmacologist, toxicologist, and a composer of Israeli popular music. He is perhaps best known for being at the centre of the Motherisk scandal which has thrown into doubt the findings of 16,000 child protection cases and six criminal cases. An independent review found that neither the lab's director, clinical toxicologist Gideon Koren, nor his staff, had the qualifications or expertise to do that kind of forensic work. Prior to this Dr. Koren was officially reprimanded by the Ontario College of Physicians and Surgeons for writing harassing anonymous letters to Dr. Nancy Olivieri and three other colleagues, about which he then lied repeatedly to conceal his responsibility. The Ontario College of Physicians and Surgeons also cited him for additional misconduct in research.
Gingival enlargement, (also termed gingival overgrowth, hypertrophic gingivitis, gingival hyperplasia, or gingival hypertrophy, and sometimes abbreviated to GO), is an increase in the size of the gingiva (gums).
Girisopam (GYKI-51189, EGIS-5810) is a drug which is a 2,3-benzodiazepine derivative, related to tofisopam and zometapine.
Glaucine is an alkaloid found in several different plant species in the Papaveraceae family such as Glaucium flavum, Glaucium oxylobum and Corydalis yanhusuo, and in other plants like Croton lechleri in the family Euphorbiaceae.
Glioblastoma, also known as glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), is the most aggressive cancer that begins within the brain.
Group C nerve fibers are one of three classes of nerve fiber in the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system.
Guaifenesin, also known as guaiphenesin or glyceryl guaiacolate, is an expectorant medication sold over the counter and usually taken by mouth to assist the bringing up (expectoration) of phlegm from the airways in acute respiratory tract infections.
GYKI-52466 is a 2,3-benzodiazepine that acts as an ionotropic glutamate receptor antagonist, which is a non-competitive AMPA receptor antagonist (IC50 values are 10-20, ~ 450 and >> 50 μM for AMPA-, kainate- and NMDA-induced responses respectively), orally-active anticonvulsant, and skeletal muscle relaxant.
Hiram Houston Merritt (January 2, 1902, Wilmington, North Carolina – January 9, 1979 in Boston, Massachusetts) was one of the pre-eminent academic neurologists of his day.
HA-966 or (±) 3-Amino-1-hydroxy-pyrrolidin-2-one is a molecule used in scientific research as a glycine receptor and NMDA receptor antagonist / low efficacy partial agonist.
Hallucinatory palinopsia (Greek: palin for "again" and opsia for "seeing") is a subtype of palinopsia, a visual disturbance defined as the persistent or recurrence of a visual image after the stimulus has been removed.
Hemifacial spasm (HFS) is a rare neuromuscular disease characterized by irregular, involuntary muscle contractions (spasms) on one side (hemi-) of the face (-facial).
Hepatitis is inflammation of the liver tissue.
The Hernandiaceae are a family of flowering plants, angiosperms, in the order Laurales.
Hexethal (Ortol) is a barbiturate derivative invented in the 1940s.
Hippeastrum is a genus of about 90 species and over 600 hybrids and cultivars of perennial herbaceous bulbous plants.
Hispidulin is a naturally occurring flavone with potential antiepileptic activity in rats and gerbils.
The history of medical cannabis goes back to ancient times.
Hives, also known as urticaria, is a kind of skin rash with red, raised, itchy bumps.
Holoprosencephaly (HPE) is a cephalic disorder in which the prosencephalon (the forebrain of the embryo) fails to develop into two hemispheres.
Homotaurine (3-amino-1-propanesulfonic acid (3-APS) or tramiprosate (INN)) is a natural organic compound found in seaweed.
The human brain is the central organ of the human nervous system, and with the spinal cord makes up the central nervous system.
Hydantoin, or glycolylurea, is a heterocyclic organic compound with the formula CH2C(O)NHC(O)NH.
Hydrocodone/paracetamol, also known as hydrocodone/acetaminophen or hydrocodone/APAP and marketed under the trade name Vicodin and Norco among others, is the combination of an opioid pain medication, hydrocodone, with paracetamol (acetaminophen).
Hydroxylamine-O-sulfonic acid ("HOSA") is the inorganic compound with molecular formula H3NO4S that is formed by the sulfonation of hydroxylamine with oleum.
Hyperkinesia, also known as hyperkinesis, refers to an increase in muscular activity that can result in excessive abnormal movements, excessive normal movements, or a combination of both.
Hyperreligiosity is a psychiatric disturbance in which a person experiences intense religious beliefs or experiences that interfere with normal functioning.
Hypertensive encephalopathy (HE) is general brain dysfunction due to significantly high blood pressure.
A hypnogram is a form of polysomnography; it is a graph that represents the stages of sleep as a function of time.
Hypocalcaemia, also spelled hypocalcemia, is low calcium levels in the blood serum.
Hypoparathyroidism is decreased function of the parathyroid glands with underproduction of parathyroid hormone.
Ian Kevin Curtis (15 July 1956 – 18 May 1980) was an English singer-songwriter and musician.
ICD-10 is an international statistical classification used in health care and related industries.
ICD-10 is an international statistical classification used in health care and related industries.
Ictal headaches are headaches associated with seizure activity.
Ilepcimide, also known as antiepilepserine, is a anticonvulsant.
Imagabalin (INN, USAN; PD-332,334) is a drug which acts as a ligand for the α2δ subunit of the voltage-dependent calcium channel, with some selectivity for the α2δ1 subunit over α2δ2.
Imepitoin, sold under the brand name Pexion, is an anticonvulsant which is used in veterinary medicine in Europe to treat epilepsy in dogs.
Imidazenil is an experimental anxiolytic drug which is derived from the benzodiazepine family, and is most closely related to other imidazobenzodiazepines such as midazolam, flumazenil, and bretazenil.
The imidazopyridines are a class of drugs defined by their chemical structure.
Indantadol (CHF-3381, V-3381) is a drug which was formerly being investigated as an anticonvulsant and neuroprotective and is now under development for the treatment of neuropathic pain and chronic cough in Europe by Vernalis and Chiesi.
Indeloxazine (INN) (Elen, Noin) is an antidepressant and cerebral activator that was marketed in Japan and South Korea by Yamanouchi Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd for the treatment of psychiatric symptoms associated with cerebrovascular diseases, namely depression resulting from stroke, emotional disturbance, and avolition.
This is a list of terms related to oncology.
Infantile convulsions and choreoathetosis (ICCA) syndrome is a neurological genetic disorder with an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance.
Iniencephaly, a term derived from the Greek word "inion" for nape of the neck, is a rare type of cephalic disorder that was first described by Étienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire in 1836.
Intention tremor, also known as cerebellar tremor, is a dyskinetic disorder characterized by a broad, coarse, and low frequency (below 5 Hz) tremor.
Interictal dysphoric disorder (IDD) is a mood disorder sometimes found in patients with epilepsy, at a prevalence rate of approximately 17%.
Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), also known as cerebral bleed, is a type of intracranial bleed that occurs within the brain tissue or ventricles.
Irazepine (Ro 7-1986/1) is a benzodiazepine derivative containing isothiocyanate functional group.
The κ-opioid receptor (KOR) is a G protein-coupled receptor that in humans is encoded by the OPRK1 gene.
Jack Hoffman (born September 26, 2005) from Atkinson, Nebraska, has pediatric brain cancer.
Jane Elizabeth Lathrop Stanford (August 25, 1828 – February 28, 1905) was a co-founder of Stanford University in 1885 (opened 1891) along with her husband, Leland Stanford, as a memorial to their only child, Leland Stanford Jr., who died in 1884 at the age of 15.
Jeavons syndrome is a type of epilepsy.
Jennifer Maria Syme (December 7, 1972 – April 2, 2001) was an American actress and personal assistant.
JNJ-26489112 is an anticonvulsant drug being developed by Johnson & Johnson for the treatment of epilepsy.
JNJ-26990990 is a broad-spectrum anticonvulsant drug currently under development by Janssen Pharmaceutica as a second-generation followup to the marketed drug topiramate.
Kava or kava kava or Piper methysticum (Latin "pepper" and Latinized Greek "intoxicating") is a crop of the Pacific Islands.
Kavain is the main kavalactone found mostly in the roots of the kava plant.
Ketazolam (marketed under the brand names Anseren, Ansieten, Ansietil, Marcen, Sedatival, Sedotime, Solatran and Unakalm) is a drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative.
The ketogenic diet is a high-fat, adequate-protein, low-carbohydrate diet that in medicine is used primarily to treat difficult-to-control (refractory) epilepsy in children.
Kynurenic acid (KYNA or KYN) is a product of the normal metabolism of amino acid L-tryptophan.
Lacosamide (INN, formerly known as erlosamide, harkeroside, SPM 927, or ADD 234037), is a medication for the adjunctive treatment of partial-onset seizures and diabetic neuropathic pain.
Lamotrigine, sold as the brand name Lamictal among others, is an anticonvulsant medication used to treat epilepsy and bipolar disorder.
Landau–Kleffner syndrome (LKS)—also called infantile acquired aphasia, acquired epileptic aphasia or aphasia with convulsive disorder—is a rare childhood neurological syndrome.
Late-onset hypogonadism is a rare condition in older men, characterized by measurably low testosterone levels and clinical symptoms mostly of a sexual nature, including decreased desire for sex, fewer spontaneous erections, and erectile dysfunction.
Lead poisoning is a type of metal poisoning caused by lead in the body.
Leukopenia is a decrease in the number of white blood cells (leukocytes) found in the blood, which places individuals at increased risk of infection.
Levodopa-induced dyskinesia is a form of dyskinesia associated with levodopa, used to treat Parkinson's disease.
Levopropylhexedrine (Eventin) is a psychostimulant used as an anorectic in Germany and patented by Smith Kline & French in 1947.
Licarbazepine is a voltage-gated sodium channel blocker with anticonvulsant and mood-stabilizing effects that is related to oxcarbazepine.
The below tables contain a sample list of benzodiazepines and benzodiazepine analogs that are commonly prescribed, with their basic pharmacological characteristics such as half-life and equivalent doses to other benzodiazepines also listed, along with their trade names and primary uses.
The List of ICD-9 codes 800–999: injury and poisoning is one of the ranges International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems codes.
This is the fourth part of the list of the "D" codes for MeSH.
This is a list of notable people who have, or had, the medical condition epilepsy.
List of medications which are used to treat psychiatric conditions that are on the market in the United States (this list is incomplete; the title of the entry is "List of Psychotropic Medications" and what follows is a list of psychiatric drugs - not all psychotropic agents are used to treat psychiatric conditions. A couple of examples are 'Tramadol' and 'Morphine').
The following is a list of episodes of the CBS television series Rescue 911.
This article lists veterinary pharmaceutical drugs alphabetically by name.
A local anesthetic (LA) is a medication that causes reversible absence of pain sensation, although other senses are often affected, as well.
Lofepramine, sold under the brand names Gamanil, Lomont, and Tymelyt among others, is a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) which is used to treat depression.
Long-term or "continuous" video-electroencephalography (EEG) monitoring is a diagnostic technique commonly used in patients with epilepsy.
Loprazolam (triazulenone) marketed under the brand names Dormonoct, Havlane, Sonin and Somnovit, is a drug which is an imidazolobenzodiazepine derivative.
Lorazepam, sold under the brand name Ativan among others, is a benzodiazepine medication.
Loreclezole is a sedative and an anticonvulsant which acts as a GABAA receptor positive allosteric modulator.
Lormetazepam (INN), or methyl-lorazepam, marketed as Noctamid among others, is a drug which is a short to intermediate acting 3-hydroxy benzodiazepine derivative.
LY-379,268 is a drug that is used in neuroscience research, which acts as a potent and selective agonist for the group II metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR2/3).
Macrogol is the international nonproprietary name for polyethylene glycol (PEG) used in medicine.
Magnesium bromide (MgBr2) is a chemical compound of magnesium and bromine that is white and deliquescent.
Major depressive disorder (MDD), also known simply as depression, is a mental disorder characterized by at least two weeks of low mood that is present across most situations.
Over time, the approach to cerebral palsy management has shifted away from narrow attempts to fix individual physical problems such as spasticity in a particular limb to making such treatments part of a larger goal of maximizing the person's independence and community engagement.
Management of depression may involve a number of different therapies: medications, behavior therapy, and medical devices.
Drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE), also known as refractory epilepsy or pharmacoresistant epilepsy, is defined as failure of adequate trials of two tolerated and appropriately chosen and used antiepileptic drugs (AED schedules) (whether as monotherapies or in combination) to achieve sustained seizure freedom.
Management of schizophrenia usually involved many aspects including psychological, pharmacological, social, educational, and employment-related interventions directed to recovery, reducing the impact of the disease on quality of life, social functioning, and longevity.
Margo Panush Cohen is an American physician and entrepreneur.
Maropitant (INN, trade name Cerenia, used as maropitant citrate (USAN), is a neurokinin-1 (NK1) receptor antagonist, which was developed by Zoetis specifically for the treatment of motion sickness and vomiting in dogs. It was approved by the FDA in 2007 for use in dogs, and in 2012 for cats. Maropitant also has mild pain-relieving, anti-anxiety, and anti-inflammatory effects.
Medazepam is a drug that is a benzodiazepine derivative.
Medeola virginiana, Indian cucumber-root (or Indian cucumber, or Indian cucumber root) is an eastern North American plant species in the lily family, Liliaceae.
Medical cannabis, or medical marijuana, is cannabis and cannabinoids that are recommended by doctors for their patients.
In the United States, the use of cannabis for medical purposes is legal in 30 states, plus the territories of Guam and Puerto Rico, and the District of Columbia, as of June 2018.
A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.
Medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA), sold under the brand name Depo-Provera among others, is a hormonal medication of the progestin type.
Meningioma, also known as meningeal tumor, is typically a slow-growing tumor that forms from the meninges, the membranous layers surrounding the brain and spinal cord.
Meningitis is an acute inflammation of the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord, known collectively as the meninges.
Menitrazepam is a drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative.
Mental illness is very prevalent in South Africa, yet the country lacks many of the necessary resources and policies needed to execute an effective mental health strategy.
Mephenytoin (marketed as Mesantoin by Novartis) is a hydantoin, used as an anticonvulsant.
Mesobuthus martensii is a species of scorpion in the family Buthidae.
Mesocarb (brand names Sidnocarb, Sydnocarb) is a stimulant drug which was developed in the USSR in the 1970s.
Mesuximide (or methsuximide, methosuximide) is a succinimide anticonvulsant medication.
Metharbital was patented in 1905 by Emil Fischer working for Merck.
Methotrexate (MTX), formerly known as amethopterin, is a chemotherapy agent and immune system suppressant.
Methylpentynol (Methylparafynol, Dormison, Atemorin, Oblivon) is a tertiary hexanol with hypnotic/sedative and anticonvulsant effects and an exceptionally low therapeutic index.
Methylphenidate, sold under various trade names, Ritalin being one of the most commonly known, is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the phenethylamine and piperidine classes that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy.
Methylphenobarbital (INN), also known as mephobarbital (USAN, JAN) and mephobarbitone (BAN), marketed under brand names such as Mebaral, Mephyltaletten, Phemiton, and Prominal, is a drug which is a barbiturate derivative and is used primarily as an anticonvulsant, but also as a sedative and anxiolytic.
Mianserin, sold under the brand name Tolvon among others, is an atypical antidepressant which is used in the treatment of depression in Europe and elsewhere in the world.
Migralepsy is a rare condition in which a migraine is followed, within an hour period, by an epileptic seizure.
Mitragyna speciosa (commonly known as kratom also ketum) is a tropical evergreen tree in the coffee family native to Southeast Asia.
Traditionally, a mixed affective state, formerly known as a mixed-manic or mixed episode, has been defined as a state wherein features unique to both depression and mania—such as despair, fatigue, morbid or suicidal ideation, racing thoughts, pressure of activity, and heightened irritability—occur either simultaneously or in very short succession.
Modafinil, sold under the brand name Provigil among others, is a medication to treat sleepiness due to narcolepsy, shift work sleep disorder, or obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). In OSA continuous positive airway pressure is the preferred treatment. While it has seen off-label use as a purported cognitive enhancer, evidence for any benefit is lacking. It is taken by mouth. Common side effects include headache, anxiety, trouble sleeping, and nausea. Serious side effects may include allergic reactions such as anaphylaxis, Stevens–Johnson syndrome, abuse, or hallucinations. It is unclear if use during pregnancy is safe. The amount of medication used may need to be adjusted in those with kidney or liver problems. It is not recommended in those with an arrhythmia, significant hypertension, or left ventricular hypertrophy. How it works is not entirely clear. One possibility is that it may affect the areas of the brain involved with the sleep cycle. Modafinil was approved for medical use in the United States in 1998. In the United States it is classified as a schedule IV controlled substance due to concerns about addiction. In the United Kingdom it is a prescription only medication. It is avaliable as a generic medication. In the United Kingdom it costs the NHS about £105.21 a month as of 2018. In the United States the wholesale cost per month is about 34.20 USD as of 2018.
Modafinil sulfone (code name CRL-41056) is an achiral, oxidized metabolite of modafinil, a wakefulness-promoting agent.
Molecular neuroscience is a branch of neuroscience that observes concepts in molecular biology applied to the nervous systems of animals.
Mood disorder, also known as mood (affective) disorders, is a group of conditions where a disturbance in the person's mood is the main underlying feature.
A mood stabilizer is a psychiatric pharmaceutical drug used to treat mood disorders characterized by intense and sustained mood shifts, typically bipolar disorder type I or type II, borderline personality disorder (BPD) and schizophrenia.
Late on the night of June 14, 2015, deputy sheriffs in Greene County, Missouri, United States, found the body of Dee Dee Blanchard (born May 3, 1967, Chackbay, Louisiana, as Clauddine Pitre) facedown in the bedroom of her house just outside Springfield, lying on the bed in a pool of blood from the stab wounds that had killed her several days earlier.
Muscular dystrophy (MD) is a group of muscle diseases that results in increasing weakening and breakdown of skeletal muscles over time.
Musical ear syndrome (MES) describes a condition seen in people who have hearing loss and subsequently develop auditory hallucinations.
Myoclonic epilepsy refers to a family of epilepsies that present with myoclonus.
Myoclonus is a brief, involuntary twitching of a muscle or a group of muscles.
Congenital myotonia, also called myotonia congenita, is a congenital neuromuscular channelopathy that affects skeletal muscles (muscles used for movement).
Nabazenil (SP-175) is a synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonist, which has anticonvulsant properties.
Nafimidone is an anticonvulsant drug of the imidazole class.
NCS-382 is a moderately selective antagonist for the GHB receptor. It blocks the effects of GHB in animals and has both anti-sedative and anticonvulsant effects. It has been proposed as a treatment for GHB overdose in humans as well as the genetic metabolic disorder succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency (SSADHD), but has never been developed for clinical use.
Necrotizing fasciitis (NF), commonly known as flesh-eating disease, is an infection that results in the death of the body's soft tissue.
Neuroacanthocytosis is a label applied to several neurological conditions in which the blood contains misshapen, spiculated red blood cells called acanthocytes.
Neuromyotonia (NMT) is a form of peripheral nerve hyperexcitability that causes spontaneous muscular activity resulting from repetitive motor unit action potentials of peripheral origin.
Neuronal migration disorder (NMD) refers to a heterogenous group of disorders that, it is supposed, share the same etiopathological mechanism: a variable degree of disruption in the migration of neuroblasts during neurogenesis.
Neuropathic pain is pain caused by damage or disease affecting the somatosensory nervous system.
Neurosarcoidosis (sometimes shortened to neurosarcoid) refers to sarcoidosis, a condition of unknown cause featuring granulomas in various tissues, involving the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord).
Neurosteroids, also known as neuroactive steroids, are endogenous or exogenous steroids that rapidly alter neuronal excitability through interaction with ligand-gated ion channels and other cell surface receptors.
Neurotmesis (in Greek tmesis signifies "to cut") is part of Seddon's classification scheme used to classify nerve damage.
Neurotransmitter transporters are a class of membrane transport proteins that span the cellular membranes of neurons.
Next to Normal (stylized as next to normal) is a 2008 American rock musical with book and lyrics by Brian Yorkey and music by Tom Kitt.
Nimetazepam (marketed under brand name Erimin and Lavol) is an intermediate-acting hypnotic drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative.
Nirvanol, also known as ethylphenylhydantoin, is a derivative of hydantoin with anticonvulsant properties.
Nitrazepam (brand names Alodorm and Mogadon, among others) is a hypnotic drug of the benzodiazepine class used for short-term relief from severe, disabling anxiety and insomnia.
NMP-7 is a drug which acts as both a non-selective agonist of the CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors, and also as a blocker of T-type calcium channels, the target of anticonvulsant drugs such as ethosuximide.
Nocturnal epilepsy is a seizure disorder in which seizures occur only while sleeping.
Nomegestrol acetate (NOMAC), sold under the brand names Lutenyl and Zoely among others, is a progestin medication which is used in birth control pills, menopausal hormone therapy, and for the treatment of gynecological disorders.
Nonbenzodiazepines (sometimes referred to colloquially as "Z-drugs") are a class of psychoactive drugs that are very benzodiazepine-like in nature.
Nordazepam (INN; marketed under brand names Nordaz, Stilny, Madar, Vegesan, and Calmday; also known as nordiazepam, desoxydemoxepam, and desmethyldiazepam) is a 1,4-benzodiazepine derivative.
Northern epilepsy syndrome or progressive epilepsy with mental retardation (EPMR) is a subtype of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis and a rare disease that is regarded as a Finnish heritage disease.
NS-2664 (LS-193,048) is an anxiolytic drug with a novel chemical structure, developed by the small pharmaceutical company Neurosearch.
NS-2710 (LS-193,970) is an anxiolytic drug with a novel chemical structure, developed by the small pharmaceutical company Neurosearch.
Nurse Ratched (also known as "Big Nurse") is a fictional character and the main antagonist of Ken Kesey's 1962 novel One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest as well as the 1975 film.
Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have a negative effect on health.
Occipital epilepsy is a neurological disorder that arises from excessive neural activity in the occipital lobe of the brain that may or may not be symptomatic.
Occipital neuralgia is a medical condition characterized by chronic pain in the lower neck, back of the head and behind the eyes.
Ocular myasthenia gravis (MG) is a disease of the neuromuscular junction resulting in hallmark variability in muscle weakness and fatigability.
Off-label use is the use of pharmaceutical drugs for an unapproved indication or in an unapproved age group, dosage, or route of administration.
Ohtahara syndrome (OS), also known as early infantile epileptic encephalopathy with burst-suppression (EIEE), is a progressive epileptic encephalopathy.
Oligodendrogliomas are a type of glioma that are believed to originate from the oligodendrocytes of the brain or from a glial precursor cell.
Opioids are substances that act on opioid receptors to produce morphine-like effects.
Opioid receptors are a group of inhibitory G protein-coupled receptors with opioids as ligands.
Opipramol, sold under the brand name Insidon among others, is an anxiolytic and antidepressant which is used throughout Europe.
An orally disintegrating tablet or orally dissolving tablet (ODT) is a drug dosage form available for a limited range of over-the-counter (OTC) and prescription medications.
ORG-25935, also known as SCH-900435 is a synthetic drug developed by Organon International, which acts as a selective inhibitor of the glycine transporter GlyT-1.
Oropharyngeal dysphagia arises from abnormalities of muscles, nerves or structures of the oral cavity, pharynx, and upper esophageal sphincter.
Orrin Devinsky, M.D. (born February 12, 1957) is the Director of the NYU Comprehensive Epilepsy Center and the Saint Barnabas Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery (INN).
Osteomalacia is the softening of the bones caused by impaired bone metabolism primarily due to inadequate levels of available phosphate, calcium, and vitamin D, or because of resorption of calcium.
Osteoporosis is a disease where increased bone weakness increases the risk of a broken bone.
Oxazepam is a short-to-intermediate-acting benzodiazepine.
Oxazolam is a drug that is a benzodiazepine derivative.
An oxazolidine is a five-membered ring compound consisting of three carbons, a nitrogen, and an oxygen.
Oxazolidinedione is a heterocyclic chemical compound that forms the core structure of a variety anticonvulsant drugs including: File:Dimethadione.svg|Dimethadione File:Ethadione.svg|Ethadione File:Paramethadione.svg|Paramethadione File:Trimethadione.svg|Trimethadione.
Oxcarbazepine is an anticonvulsant drug primarily used in the treatment of epilepsy. There is some evidence for oxcarbazepine as a mood-stabilizing agent and thus, it can be used as add-on therapy for bipolar disorder in patients that have failed or are unable to tolerate approved treatments. Common side effects include nausea, vomiting, dizziness, drowsiness, headache, double vision and trouble with walking. Although not common, anaphylaxis may occur. Due to its structural similarities to carbamazepine there is approximately a 25–30% chance of cross-reactivity between the two medications. Oxcarbazepine is marketed as Trileptal by Novartis and available in some countries as a generic drug. There is also an extended-release formulation marketed as Oxtellar XR by Supernus Pharmaceuticals.
Oxitriptyline (BS-7679) is an anticonvulsant of the tricyclic family which was never marketed.
The P-type calcium channel is a type of voltage-dependent calcium channel.
"Pain ladder", or analgesic ladder, was created by the World Health Organization (WHO) as a guideline for the use of drugs in the management of pain.
Pain management, pain medicine, pain control or algiatry, is a branch of medicine employing an interdisciplinary approach for easing the suffering and improving the quality of life of those living with chronic pain The typical pain management team includes medical practitioners, pharmacists, clinical psychologists, physiotherapists, occupational therapists, physician assistants, nurses.
Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) is an endogenous fatty acid amide, belonging to the class of nuclear factor agonists.
Panayiotopoulos syndrome (named after C. P. Panayiotopoulos) is a common idiopathic childhood-related seizure disorder that occurs exclusively in otherwise normal children (idiopathic epilepsy) and manifests mainly with autonomic epileptic seizures and autonomic status epilepticus.
Papaverine (Latin papaver, "poppy") is an opium alkaloid antispasmodic drug, used primarily in the treatment of visceral spasm and vasospasm (especially those involving the intestines, heart, or brain), and occasionally in the treatment of erectile dysfunction.
A paradoxical reaction or paradoxical effect is an effect of medical treatment, usually a drug, opposite to the effect which would normally be expected.
Paraldehyde is the cyclic trimer of acetaldehyde molecules.
Paramethadione (brand name Paradione) is an anticonvulsant in the oxazolidinedione class developed by the Illinois-based pharmaceutical company Abbott Laboratories (known as AbbVie since January 1, 2013), and approved by the Food and Drug Administration in 1949 for the treatment of absence seizures, also called partial seizures.
Paresthesia is an abnormal sensation such as tingling, tickling, pricking, numbness or burning of a person's skin with no apparent physical cause.
Paroxysmal kinesigenic choreathetosis (PKC) also called paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (PKD) is a hyperkinetic movement disorder characterized by attacks of involuntary movements, which are triggered by sudden voluntary movements.
Paroxysmal Nonkinesigenic Dyskinesia (PNKD) is an episodic movement disorder first described by Mount and Reback in 1940 under the name "Familial paroxysmal choreoathetosis".
PEAQX is a competitive antagonist at the NMDA receptor.
Peduncular hallucinosis (PH), or Lhermitte's peduncular hallucinosis, is a rare neurological disorder that causes vivid visual hallucinations that typically occur in dark environments, and last for several minutes.
Pentoxyverine (rINN) or carbetapentane is an antitussive (cough suppressant) commonly used for cough associated with illnesses like common cold.
Pentylenetetrazol, also known as pentylenetetrazole, metrazol, pentetrazol (INN), pentamethylenetetrazol, Corazol, Cardiazol, deumacard or PTZ, is a drug formerly used as a circulatory and respiratory stimulant.
Perampanel (sold under the trade name Fycompa) is an antiepileptic drug developed by Eisai Co. that is used in addition to other drugs to treat partial seizures and generalized tonic-clonic seizures for people older than 12 years.
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR-alpha), also known as NR1C1 (nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group C, member 1), is a nuclear receptor protein that in humans is encoded by the PPARA gene.
Peucedanum palustre (milk-parsley) is an almost glabrous biennial plant in the family Apiaceae.
Phantosmia (phantom smell) -->, also called an olfactory hallucination, is smelling an odor that is not actually there.
Pharmacokinetics (from Ancient Greek pharmakon "drug" and kinetikos "moving, putting in motion"; see chemical kinetics), sometimes abbreviated as PK, is a branch of pharmacology dedicated to determining the fate of substances administered to a living organism.
Pharmacology is the branch of biology concerned with the study of drug action, where a drug can be broadly defined as any man-made, natural, or endogenous (from within body) molecule which exerts a biochemical or physiological effect on the cell, tissue, organ, or organism (sometimes the word pharmacon is used as a term to encompass these endogenous and exogenous bioactive species).
Phenacemide (INN, BAN) (brand name Phenurone), also known as phenylacetylurea, is an anticonvulsant of the ureide (acetylurea) class.
Phenaglycodol (brand names Acalmid, Acalo, Alterton, Atadiol, Felixyn, Neotran, Pausital, Remin, Sedapsin, Sinforil, Stesil, Ultran) is a drug described as a tranquilizer or sedative which has anxiolytic and anticonvulsant properties.
Pheneturide (INN, BAN) (brand names Benuride, Deturid, Pheneturid, Septotence, Trinuride), also known as phenylethylacetylurea (or ethylphenacemide), is an anticonvulsant of the ureide class.
Phenibut, sold under the brand names Anvifen, Fenibut, and Noofen among others, is a central nervous system depressant with anxiolytic and sedative effects which is used in the treatment of anxiety, insomnia, and for a variety of other indications.
Phenobarbital, also known as phenobarbitone or phenobarb, is a medication recommended by the World Health Organization for the treatment of certain types of epilepsy in developing countries.
Phenprobamate (Gamaquil, Isotonil) is a centrally acting skeletal muscle relaxant, with additional sedative and anticonvulsant effects.
Phensuximide is an anticonvulsant in the succinimide class.
Phentermine and topiramate, sold under the trade name Qsymia, is a combination medication used for weight loss.
Phenylpiracetam (INN: fonturacetam, brand names Phenotropil Фенотропил, Carphedon), is a phenylated analog of the drug piracetam.
Phenylpiracetam hydrazide, also known as fonturacetam hydrazide, is a designer drug that is a derivative of phenylpiracetam in which the amide group is replaced with a hydrazide group.
Phenyltriazines are a class of molecules containing a phenyl group and a triazine group.
Phenytoin (PHT), sold under the brand name Dilantin among others, is an anti-seizure medication.
Phetharbital (phenetharbital) is a barbiturate derivative.
Physical dependence is a physical condition caused by chronic use of a tolerance forming drug, in which abrupt or gradual drug withdrawal causes unpleasant physical symptoms.
Pinazepam (marketed under the brand name Domar and Duna) is a drug that is a benzodiazepine.
Pipequaline (INN) (developmental code name PK-8165) is an anxiolytic drug that was never marketed.
Piracetam (sold under many brand names) is a medication in the racetams group, with chemical name 2-oxo-1-pyrrolidine acetamide.
Polyestradiol phosphate (PEP), sold under the brand name Estradurin, is a medication which is used primarily in the treatment of prostate cancer in men.
Porencephaly is an extremely rare cephalic disorder involving encephalomalacia.
Porphyria is a group of diseases in which substances called porphyrins build up, negatively affecting the skin or nervous system.
Post-traumatic epilepsy (PTE) is a form of epilepsy that results from brain damage caused by physical trauma to the brain (traumatic brain injury, abbreviated TBI).
Post-traumatic seizures (PTS) are seizures that result from traumatic brain injury (TBI), brain damage caused by physical trauma.
Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is nerve pain which occurs due to damage to a peripheral nerve caused by the reactivation of the varicella zoster virus (herpes zoster, also known as shingles).
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)Acceptable variants of this term exist; see the Terminology section in this article.
Potassium bromide (KBr) is a salt, widely used as an anticonvulsant and a sedative in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, with over-the-counter use extending to 1975 in the US.
Prazepam is a benzodiazepine derivative drug developed by Warner-Lambert in the 1960s.
Pregabalin, marketed under the brand name Lyrica among others, is a medication used to treat epilepsy, neuropathic pain, fibromyalgia, and generalized anxiety disorder.
Pregnanolone, also known as eltanolone, is an endogenous neurosteroid that is biosynthesized from progesterone.
Premedication is using medication before some other therapy (usually surgery or chemotherapy) to prepare for that forthcoming therapy.
A prescription drug (also prescription medication or prescription medicine) is a pharmaceutical drug that legally requires a medical prescription to be dispensed.
Preventive (also called prophylactic) treatment of migraines can be an important component of migraine management.
Priapism is a condition in which a penis remains erect for hours in the absence of stimulation or after stimulation has ended.
Primidone (INN, BAN, USP) is an anticonvulsant of the barbiturate class.
Probarbital (trade names Ipral, Vasalgin) is a barbiturate derivative invented in the 1920s.
Progesterone is a medication and naturally occurring steroid hormone.
Progressive myoclonus epilepsy (PME) is a rare epilepsy syndrome caused by a variety of genetic disorders.
Prolactin (PRL), also known as luteotropic hormone or luteotropin, is a protein that is best known for its role in enabling mammals, usually females, to produce milk.
Propallylonal (trade names Nostal, Quietal, Ibomal) is a barbiturate derivative invented in the 1920s.
Propylhexedrine, sold under the brand names Benzedrex and Obesin among others, is a nasal decongestant, appetite suppressant, and psychostimulant medication.
Proximal diabetic neuropathy, more commonly known as diabetic amyotrophy, is a nerve disorder that results as a complication of diabetes mellitus.
A psychiatric medication is a licensed psychoactive drug taken to exert an effect on the chemical makeup of the brain and nervous system.
A psychoactive drug, psychopharmaceutical, or psychotropic is a chemical substance that changes brain function and results in alterations in perception, mood, consciousness, cognition, or behavior.
Psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) are events resembling an epileptic seizure, but without the characteristic electrical discharges associated with epilepsy.
In pharmacology, a psycholeptic is a medication which produces a calming effect upon a person.
Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI), also referred to as psychoendoneuroimmunology (PENI) or psychoneuroendocrinoimmunology (PNEI), is the study of the interaction between psychological processes and the nervous and immune systems of the human body.
Psychopharmacology (from Greek label; label; and label) is the scientific study of the effects drugs have on mood, sensation, thinking, and behavior.
Pudendal nerve entrapment (PNE), also known as Alcock canal syndrome, is an uncommon source of chronic pain, in which the pudendal nerve (located in the pelvis) is entrapped or compressed.
Purple Day is a global grassroots event formed with the intention to increase worldwide awareness of epilepsy, and to dispel common myths and fears of the neurological disorder.
QH-II-66 (QH-ii-066) is a sedative drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative.
Quazepam (marketed under brand names Doral, Dormalin) is a relatively long-acting benzodiazepine derivative drug developed by the Schering Corporation in the 1970s.
Quinazolinone is a heterocyclic chemical compound, a quinazoline with a keto group.
Racetams are a class of drugs that share a pyrrolidone nucleus.
Rage Syndrome, also known as Sudden Onset Aggression or (SOA) or Avalanche of Rage Syndrome, is a rare but serious behavioural problem that has been reported most commonly in the English Springer Spaniel but also in a variety of other dog breeds.
Recreational drug use is the use of a psychoactive drug to induce an altered state of consciousness for pleasure, by modifying the perceptions, feelings, and emotions of the user.
The regulation of therapeutic goods, that is drugs and therapeutic devices, varies by jurisdiction.
Remacemide is a drug which acts as a low-affinity NMDA antagonist with sodium channel blocking properties.
Reposal is a barbiturate derivative invented in the 1960s in Denmark.
Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a disorder that causes a strong urge to move one's legs.
Retigabine or ezogabine is an anticonvulsant used as an adjunctive treatment for partial epilepsies in treatment-experienced adult patients.
Rett syndrome (RTT) is a genetic brain disorder which typically becomes apparent after 6 to 18 months of age in females.
Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS, sometimes called Call-Fleming syndrome) is a disease characterized by a weeks-long course of thunderclap headaches, sometimes focal neurologic signs, and occasionally seizures.
Ring chromosome 14 syndrome is a very rare human chromosome abnormality.
Rita Marcalo is a Portuguese dancer, choreographer and artistic director of Instant Dissidence, a dance theatre company based in Leeds.
Ro64-6198 is an nociceptoid drug used in scientific research.
Roemheld syndrome (RS), also known as Roemheld-Techlenburg-Ceconi-Syndrome or gastric-cardia, is a complex of gastrocardiac symptoms first described by Ludwig von Roemheld (1871–1938).
Benign Rolandic epilepsy or benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BCECTS) is the most common epilepsy syndrome in childhood.
Roswell Lee Evans, originally from Georgia, is the current Dean of the Harrison School of Pharmacy at Auburn University and an alleged expert on the use of the benzodiazepine, midazolam for carrying out the death penalty.
Rufinamide is an anticonvulsant medication.
Saclofen is a competitive antagonist for the GABAB receptor.
Sandhoff disease, also known as Sandhoff–Jatzkewitz disease, variant 0 of GM2-Gangliosidosis or Hexosaminidase A and B deficiency, is a lysosomal genetic, lipid storage disorder caused by the inherited deficiency to create functional beta-hexosaminidases A and B. These catabolic enzymes are needed to degrade the neuronal membrane components, ganglioside GM2, its derivative GA2, the glycolipid globoside in visceral tissues, and some oligosaccharides.
Sarashi Ranjan Mukherjee (1919–1991) was an Indian surgeon and a neurobiologist.
Sarcoidosis is a disease involving abnormal collections of inflammatory cells that form lumps known as granulomas.
Schizophreniform disorder is a mental disorder diagnosed when symptoms of schizophrenia are present for a significant portion of the time within a one-month period, but signs of disruption are not present for the full six months required for the diagnosis of schizophrenia.
Schwartz–Jampel syndrome (SJS) is a rare genetic disease caused by a mutation in the HSPG2 gene, which makes the protein perlecan, and causes osteochondrodysplasia associated with myotonia.
Secobarbital sodium (marketed by Eli Lilly and Company, and subsequently by other companies as described below, under the brand name Seconal) is a barbiturate derivative drug that was patented in 1934 in the United States.
The term seizure threshold is used to describe the balance between excitatory and inhibitory forces in the brain which affect how susceptible a person is to seizures.
Seizure types most commonly follow the classification proposed by the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) in 1981.
Seletracetam (UCB 44212) is a pyrrolidone-derived drug of the racetam family that is structurally related to levetiracetam (trade name Keppra).
Selfotel (CGS-19755) is a drug which acts as a competitive NMDA antagonist, directly competing with glutamate for binding to the receptor.
Semen quality is a measure of the ability of semen to accomplish fertilization.
Severe cutaneous adverse reactions or SCARs are a group of potentially lethal adverse drug reactions that involve the skin and mucous membranes of various body openings such as the eyes, ears, and inside the nose, mouth, and lips.
Sex is influenced by water pollutants that are encountered in everyday life.
Short-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency (SCADD), also called ACADS deficiency and SCAD deficiency, is an autosomal recessive fatty acid oxidation disorder which affects enzymes required to break down a certain group of fats called short chain fatty acids.
SIB-1893 is a drug used in scientific research which was one of the first compounds developed that acts as a selective antagonist for the metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype mGluR5.
Sigmodal (Rectidon) is a barbiturate derivative.
SKF-89976A is an anticonvulsant, acting as a GABA reuptake inhibitor via blockade of GAT-1.
SL-164 is an analogue of methaqualone developed in the late 1960s by a team at Sumitomo.
SL-651,498 is an anxiolytic and anticonvulsant drug used in scientific research, with a chemical structure most closely related to β-carboline derivatives such as abecarnil and gedocarnil.
SL-75102, or progabide acid, is an active metabolite of progabide and an anticonvulsant GABA receptor agonist.
Smith–Fineman–Myers syndrome (SFMS1) is a congenital disorder that causes birth defects.
Social anxiety disorder (SAD), also known as social phobia, is an anxiety disorder characterized by a significant amount of fear in one or more social situations, causing considerable distress and impaired ability to function in at least some parts of daily life.
Sodium bromide is an inorganic compound with the formula NaBr.
Sodium channel blockers are drugs which impair the conduction of sodium ions (Na+) through sodium channels.
Somnolence (alternatively "sleepiness" or "drowsiness") is a state of strong desire for sleep, or sleeping for unusually long periods (compare hypersomnia).
Somnology is the scientific study of sleep.
Spike-and-wave is a pattern of the electroencephalogram (EEG) typically observed during epileptic seizures.
Spina bifida is a birth defect where there is incomplete closing of the backbone and membranes around the spinal cord.
Status epilepticus (SE) is a single epileptic seizure lasting more than five minutes or two or more seizures within a five-minute period without the person returning to normal between them.
The STEPS trial (an acronym for Study of Neurontin: Titrate to Efficacy, Profile of Safety) was a clinical trial sponsored by Parke-Davis (now Pfizer) to evaluate the anticonvulsant Neurontin.
Stevens–Johnson syndrome (SJS) is a type of severe skin reaction.
Stiff-person syndrome (SPS), also known as stiff-man syndrome (SMS), is a rare neurologic disorder of unclear cause characterized by progressive rigidity and stiffness.
Stiripentol (marketed as Diacomit by Laboratoires Biocodex) is an anticonvulsant drug used in the treatment of epilepsy.
The primary goals of stroke management are to reduce brain injury and promote maximum patient recovery.
Strychnine (also or) is a highly toxic, colorless, bitter, crystalline alkaloid used as a pesticide, particularly for killing small vertebrates such as birds and rodents.
Sturge–Weber syndrome or Sturge–Weber–Krabbe disease, sometimes referred to as encephalotrigeminal angiomatosis, is a rare congenital neurological and skin disorder.
Stuttering, also known as stammering, is a speech disorder in which the flow of speech is disrupted by involuntary repetitions and prolongations of sounds, syllables, words or phrases as well as involuntary silent pauses or blocks in which the person who stutters is unable to produce sounds. The term stuttering is most commonly associated with involuntary sound repetition, but it also encompasses the abnormal hesitation or pausing before speech, referred to by people who stutter as blocks, and the prolongation of certain sounds, usually vowels or semivowels. According to Watkins et al., stuttering is a disorder of "selection, initiation, and execution of motor sequences necessary for fluent speech production." For many people who stutter, repetition is the primary problem. The term "stuttering" covers a wide range of severity, encompassing barely perceptible impediments that are largely cosmetic to severe symptoms that effectively prevent oral communication. In the world, approximately four times as many men as women stutter, encompassing 70 million people worldwide, or about 1% of the world's population. The impact of stuttering on a person's functioning and emotional state can be severe. This may include fears of having to enunciate specific vowels or consonants, fears of being caught stuttering in social situations, self-imposed isolation, anxiety, stress, shame, being a possible target of bullying having to use word substitution and rearrange words in a sentence to hide stuttering, or a feeling of "loss of control" during speech. Stuttering is sometimes popularly seen as a symptom of anxiety, but there is actually no direct correlation in that direction (though as mentioned the inverse can be true, as social anxiety may actually develop in individuals as a result of their stuttering). Stuttering is generally not a problem with the physical production of speech sounds or putting thoughts into words. Acute nervousness and stress do not cause stuttering, but they can trigger stuttering in people who have the speech disorder, and living with a stigmatized disability can result in anxiety and high allostatic stress load (chronic nervousness and stress) that reduce the amount of acute stress necessary to trigger stuttering in any given person who stutters, exacerbating the problem in the manner of a positive feedback system; the name 'stuttered speech syndrome' has been proposed for this condition. Neither acute nor chronic stress, however, itself creates any predisposition to stuttering. The disorder is also variable, which means that in certain situations, such as talking on the telephone or in a large group, the stuttering might be more severe or less, depending on whether or not the stutterer is self-conscious about their stuttering. Stutterers often find that their stuttering fluctuates and that they have "good" days, "bad" days and "stutter-free" days. The times in which their stuttering fluctuates can be random. Although the exact etiology, or cause, of stuttering is unknown, both genetics and neurophysiology are thought to contribute. There are many treatments and speech therapy techniques available that may help decrease speech disfluency in some people who stutter to the point where an untrained ear cannot identify a problem; however, there is essentially no cure for the disorder at present. The severity of the person's stuttering would correspond to the amount of speech therapy needed to decrease disfluency. For severe stuttering, long-term therapy and hard work is required to decrease disfluency.
Styramate is a muscle relaxant and anticonvulsant drug.
Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is bleeding into the subarachnoid space—the area between the arachnoid membrane and the pia mater surrounding the brain.
A subdural hematoma (SDH), is a type of hematoma, usually associated with traumatic brain injury.
Substance dependence also known as drug dependence is an adaptive state that develops from repeated drug administration, and which results in withdrawal upon cessation of drug use.
Substance-induced psychosis (commonly known as toxic psychosis) is a form of substance use disorder where psychosis can be attributed to substance use.
Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency (SSADHD), also known as 4-hydroxybutyric aciduria or gamma-hydroxybutyric aciduria, is a rare autosomal recessive disorder of the degradation pathway of the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid, or GABA.
Succinimide is an organic compound with the formula (CH2)2(CO)2NH.
Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is a fatal complication of epilepsy.
In biochemistry, suicide inhibition, also known as suicide inactivation or mechanism-based inhibition, is an irreversible form of enzyme inhibition that occurs when an enzyme binds a substrate analogue and forms an irreversible complex with it through a covalent bond during the normal catalysis reaction.
Sulazepam is a benzodiazepine derivative.
Sulfonamide (also called sulphonamide, sulfa drugs or sulpha drugs) is the basis of several groups of drugs.
Sulpiride, sold under the brand name Dogmatil among others, is an atypical antipsychotic (although some texts have referred to it as a typical antipsychotic) medication of the benzamide class which is used mainly in the treatment of psychosis associated with schizophrenia and major depressive disorder, and sometimes used in low dosage to treat anxiety and mild depression.
Sultiame, also known as sulthiame, is a sulfonamide and inhibitor of the enzyme carbonic anhydrase.
Short-lasting unilateral neuralgiform headache with conjunctival injection and tearing (SUNCT syndrome), is a rare headache disorder that belongs to the group of headaches called trigeminal autonomic cephalalgia (TACs).
Professor Surendra Nath Pandeya (1939 – 2012) was an Indian medicinal and organic chemist.
Synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2A is a ubiquitous synaptic vesicle protein that in humans is encoded by the SV2A gene.
Temazepam (brand names Restoril and Normison, among others) is an intermediate-acting 3-hydroxy hypnotic of the benzodiazepine class of psychoactive drugs.
Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is a chronic disorder of the nervous system characterized by recurrent, unprovoked focal seizures that originate in the temporal lobe of the brain and last about one or two minutes.
Temporomandibular joint dysfunction (TMD, TMJD) is an umbrella term covering pain and dysfunction of the muscles of mastication (the muscles that move the jaw) and the temporomandibular joints (the joints which connect the mandible to the skull).
tert-Amyl alcohol (TAA), systematic name: 2-methylbutan-2-ol (2M2B), is a branched pentanol.
Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is one of at least 113 cannabinoids identified in cannabis.
Tetrahydrodeoxycorticosterone (abbreviated as THDOC; 3α,21-dihydroxy-5α-pregnan-20-one), also referred to as allotetrahydrocorticosterone, is an endogenous neurosteroid.
Tetrazepam (is marketed under the following brand names, Clinoxan, Epsipam, Myolastan, Musaril, Relaxam and Spasmorelax) is a benzodiazepine derivative with anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, muscle relaxant and slightly hypnotic properties.
Tezampanel (INN, USAN) (code names LY-293,558, NGX-424) is a drug originally developed by Eli Lilly which acts as a competitive antagonist of the AMPA and kainate subtypes of the ionotropic glutamate receptor family, with selectivity for the GluR5 subtype of the kainate receptor.
Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is a branch of clinical chemistry and clinical pharmacology that specializes in the measurement of medication concentrations in blood.
Thiamylal (Surital) is a barbiturate derivative invented in the 1950s.
Thiobutabarbital (Inactin, Brevinarcon) is a short-acting barbiturate derivative invented in the 1950s.
Thyroid hormone binding ratio (THBR) is a Thyroid Function Test that measures the "uptake" of T3 or T4 tracer by Thyroid Binding Globulin (TBG) in a given serum sample.
Tiagabine (trade name Gabitril) is an anticonvulsant medication used in the treatment of epilepsy that is produced by Cephalon.
Tianeptine, sold under the brand names Stablon and Coaxil among others, is an atypical antidepressant which is used mainly in the treatment of major depressive disorder, although it may also be used to treat anxiety, asthma, and irritable bowel syndrome.
Tinnitus is the hearing of sound when no external sound is present.
Tizanidine (trade names Zanaflex (Acorda Therapeutics), Sirdalud (Novartis), Relentus (Beximco Pharma) Is a centrally acting α2 adrenergic agonist used as a muscle relaxant. It is used to treat the spasms, cramping, and tightness of muscles caused by medical problems such as multiple sclerosis, ALS, spastic diplegia, back pain, or certain other injuries to the spine or central nervous system. It is also prescribed off-label for migraine headaches, as a sleep aid, and as an anticonvulsant. It is also prescribed for some symptoms of fibromyalgia. Tizanidine has been found to be as effective as other antispasmodic drugs and is more tolerable than baclofen and diazepam. Tizanidine can be very strong even at the 2 mg dose and may cause hypotension, so caution is advised when it is used in patients who have a history of orthostatic hypotension, or when switching from gel cap to tablet form and vice versa. Tizanidine can occasionally cause acute liver failure. Clinical trials show that up to 5% of patients treated with tizanidine had elevated liver function test values, though symptoms disappeared upon withdrawal of the drug. Care should be used when first beginning treatment with tizanidine with regular liver tests for the first six months of treatment. As of 2015 the cost for a typical month of medication in the United States is US$100200.
Tofisopam (Emandaxin, Grandaxin, Sériel) is an anxiolytic that is marketed in several European countries.
Tolgabide INN (SL-81.0142) is a drug which was patented by Synthélabo as an anticonvulsant but was never marketed.
A topical anesthetic is a local anesthetic that is used to numb the surface of a body part.
Topiramate (brand name Topamax) is an anticonvulsant (antiepilepsy) drug.
Topotecan (trade name Hycamtin) is a chemotherapeutic agent that is a topoisomerase inhibitor.
Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) is a type of severe skin reaction.
A toxidrome (a portmanteau of toxic and syndrome) is a syndrome caused by a dangerous level of toxins in the body.
Toxinology is the specialized area of science that deals specifically with animal, plant, and microbial toxins.
TP-003 is an anxiolytic drug with a novel chemical structure, which is used in scientific research.
TP-13 is an anxiolytic drug with a novel chemical structure, which is used in scientific research.
TPA-023 is an anxiolytic drug with a novel chemical structure, which is used in scientific research.
Tracazolate (ICI-136,753) is an anxiolytic drug which is used in scientific research.
Transient epileptic amnesia (TEA) is a rare but probably underdiagnosed neurological condition which manifests as relatively brief and generally recurring episodes of amnesia caused by underlying temporal lobe epilepsy.
The emphasis of the treatment of bipolar disorder is on effective management of the long-term course of the illness, which can involve treatment of emergent symptoms.
A tremor is an involuntary, somewhat rhythmic, muscle contraction and relaxation involving oscillations or twitching movements of one or more body parts.
Triazolam (original brand name Halcion) is a central nervous system (CNS) depressant in the benzodiazepine class.
Tricyclics are chemical compounds that contain three interconnected rings of atoms.
Triflunordazepam (also known as Ro5-2904) is a drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative with high GABAA receptor affinity, and has anticonvulsant effects.
Trigeminal neuralgia (TN or TGN) is a chronic pain disorder that affects the trigeminal nerve.
Trimethadione is an oxazolidinedione anticonvulsant.
UCB (Union Chimique Belge) is a multinational biopharmaceutical company headquartered in Brussels, Belgium.
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-4 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the UGT1A4 gene.
Ulegyria is a diagnosis used to describe a specific type of cortical scarring in the deep regions of the sulcus that leads to distortion of the gyri.
Unverricht–Lundborg disease (abbreviated ULD or EPM1) is the most common form of an uncommon group of genetic epilepsy disorders called the progressive myoclonus epilepsies.
Valerian (Valeriana officinalis, Caprifoliaceae) is a perennial flowering plant native to Europe and Asia.
Valperinol (INN; GA 30-905) is a drug which acts as a calcium channel blocker.
Valproate (VPA), and its valproic acid, sodium valproate, and valproate semisodium forms, are medications primarily used to treat epilepsy and bipolar disorder and to prevent migraine headaches.
Valproate pivoxil (Pivadin, Valproxen) is an anticonvulsant used in the treatment of epilepsy.
Valpromide (marketed as Depamide by Sanofi-Aventis) is a carboxamide derivative of valproic acid used in the treatment of epilepsy and some affective disorders.
Vertiginous epilepsy is infrequently the first symptom of a seizure, characterized by a feeling of vertigo.
Vertigo is a symptom where a person feels as if they or the objects around them are moving when they are not.
Vigabatrin, brand name Sabril, is an antiepileptic drug that inhibits the breakdown of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) by acting as a suicide inhibitor of the enzyme GABA transaminase (GABA-T).
Viral encephalitis is a type of encephalitis caused by a virus.
Vitamin B6 refers to a group of chemically similar compounds which can be interconverted in biological systems.
White blood cells (WBCs), also called leukocytes or leucocytes, are the cells of the immune system that are involved in protecting the body against both infectious disease and foreign invaders.
Wogonin is an O-methylated flavone, a flavonoid-like chemical compound which was found in Scutellaria baicalensis.
Women's health refers to the health of women, which differs from that of men in many unique ways.
Wyeth was a pharmaceutical company purchased by Pfizer in 2009.
Y-23684 is an anxiolytic drug with a novel chemical structure, which is used in scientific research.
Zaleplon (marketed under the brand names Sonata, Starnoc, and Andante) is a sedative-hypnotic, almost entirely used for the management/treatment of insomnia.
ZK-93423 is an anxiolytic drug from the β-Carboline family, closely related to abecarnil.
Zolpidem, sold under the brand name Ambien, among others, is a sedative primarily used for the treatment of trouble sleeping.
Zonisamide is a medication used to treat the symptoms of epilepsy and Parkinson's disease.
--> Zopiclone (brand names Imovane, Zimovane, Dopareel) is a nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic agent used in the treatment of insomnia.
...First Do No Harm is a 1997 American made-for-television drama film directed by Jim Abrahams about a boy whose severe epilepsy, unresponsive to medications with terrible side effects, is controlled by the ketogenic diet.
17q21.31 microdeletion syndrome, also known as Koolen–de Vries syndrome (KdVS), is a rare genetic disorder caused by a deletion of a segment of chromosome 17 which contains six genes.
3,3-Diethyl-2-pyrrolidinone (DEABL) is an anticonvulsant drug most closely related to pyrithyldione and gabapentin.
3-Hydroxymorphinan (3-HM), or morphinan-3-ol, is a psychoactive drug of the morphinan family.
3-Hydroxyphenazepam is a benzodiazepine with hypnotic, sedative, anxiolytic, and anticonvulsant properties.
3-Methylbutanoic acid, also known as β-methylbutyric acid or more commonly isovaleric acid, is an organic compound with the formula (CH3)2CHCH2CO2H.
3α-Androstanediol (often abbreviated as 3α-diol), also known as 5α-androstane-3α,17β-diol, is an endogenous inhibitory androstane neurosteroid and weak androgen, and a major metabolite of dihydrotestosterone (DHT).
3β-Androstenol, also known as 5α-androst-16-en-3β-ol, is a naturally occurring mammalian pheromone known to be present in humans and pigs.
4-Iodopropofol is a drug derived from the commonly used sedative anaesthetic agent, propofol.
4-Methylpregabalin is a drug developed by Pfizer and related to pregabalin, which similarly acts as an analgesic with effectiveness against difficult to treat "atypical" pain syndromes such as neuropathic pain.
5α-Reductase inhibitors (5-ARIs), also known as dihydrotestosterone (DHT) blockers, are a class of medications with antiandrogenic effects which are used primarily in the treatment of enlarged prostate and scalp hair loss.
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