292 relations: Academic genealogy of theoretical physicists, Age of the universe, Albert E. Green, Albert Einstein, Albert Einstein in popular culture, Alfred North Whitehead, Alpher–Bethe–Gamow paper, An Experiment with Time, Andy Serkis, Arieh Ben-Naim, Arrow of time, Arthur, Arthur Bleksley, Arthur Compton, Arthur Eddington, Arthur Robert Hinks, Ascension Parish Burial Ground, Asimov's Biographical Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, Astronomical Society Ruđer Bošković, Astrophysics, Bachelor, Basil Hiley, Big Bang, Biquaternion, Black hole, Black Holes and Time Warps, Boltzmann brain, Bruce Medal, Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin, Cepheid variable, Chandrasekhar limit, Charles Coulson, Charles De Koninck, Classical field theory, Classical unified field theories, Clive W. Kilmister, Complex spacetime, Confirmation holism, Cosmic background radiation, Cosmic microwave background, Cosmological constant, Cosmological principle, Cosmology, Criticism of the theory of relativity, Culture of the United Kingdom, David Stanley Evans, David Tennant, December 28, Degenerate matter, Deriving the Schwarzschild solution, ..., Deutsche Physik, Digital physics, Dimensionless physical constant, Dirac large numbers hypothesis, Discovery of the neutron, Dynamical friction, E. T. Whittaker, Eddington, Eddington (crater), Eddington (spacecraft), Eddington (surname), Eddington luminosity, Eddington Medal, Eddington number, Eddington–Finkelstein coordinates, Eden (Faun album), Edward Arthur Milne, Edward FitzGerald (poet), Ehrenfest paradox, Einstein and Eddington, Errett Lobban Cord, Erwin Finlay-Freundlich, Eternal return, Eureka: A Prose Poem, Experimentum crucis, Fantasia Mathematica, Fine-structure constant, Formation and evolution of the Solar System, Francis G. Pease, Frank Pick, Friedmann–Lemaître–Robertson–Walker metric, Fundamental theory, Fusion power, G. R. Blanco White, Gaia (spacecraft), Gaisford Prize, Galen Strawson, Gateway to the Great Books, Geiger–Marsden experiment, General relativity, Geometrodynamics, George C. McVittie, George Frederick James Temple, Georges Lemaître, Gifford Lectures, Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society, Gravitational lens, Gravitational microlensing, Gravitational redshift, Gravitational wave, Gravity, Great Books of the Western World, H. L. Mencken, Hans Bethe, Harold Spencer Jones, Herbert Dingle, Hermann Bondi, Hermann Brück, Hertzsprung–Russell diagram, History of general relativity, History of gravitational theory, History of Solar System formation and evolution hypotheses, History of the Encyclopædia Britannica, Holger Pedersen (astronomer), Human Accomplishment, Icarus (journal), Idealism, Indeterminism, Index of philosophy articles (A–C), Index of physics articles (A), Infinite monkey theorem, Infinite monkey theorem in popular culture, Institute of Astronomy, Cambridge, Introduction to general relativity, James Jeans, John D. Barrow, Kappa Tauri, Karl Popper, Kelvin–Helmholtz mechanism, Kendal, Leon Mestel, Light-year, List of alumni of Trinity College, Cambridge, List of astronomers, List of British innovations and discoveries, List of Cambridge mathematicians, List of Christians in science and technology, List of contributors to general relativity, List of covers of Time magazine (1930s), List of craters on the Moon: C–F, List of Desert Island Discs episodes (1951–60), List of English Heritage blue plaques in London, List of English inventions and discoveries, List of English people, List of English writers (D-J), List of experiments, List of Fellows of the Royal Society D, E, F, List of Fellows of the Royal Society elected in 1914, List of International Congresses of Mathematicians Plenary and Invited Speakers, List of members of the Order of Merit, List of orphans and foundlings, List of participants in the dialogue of religion and science, List of people from the London Borough of Lewisham, List of philosophers (D–H), List of physicists, List of presidents of the Institute of Physics, List of Quakers, List of scholars on the relationship between religion and science, List of scientific constants named after people, List of solar eclipses in the 20th century, List of theoretical physicists, List of University of Calcutta honorary degree recipients, List of University of Cambridge people, List of University of Manchester people, Literary Taste: How to Form It, Lutz–Kelker bias, Lyman Spitzer, M. S. Bartlett, Manchester Astronomical Society, Mark Oliphant, Mary Brazier, Mass–energy equivalence, Mass–luminosity relation, Mathematical Association, Max Krook, May 29, Meaning and Purpose, Meanings of minor planet names: 2001–3000, Messenger Lectures, Michael Persinger, National Observatory of Athens, National Peace Council, Nobel Prize controversies, Norman Foster Ramsey Jr., North West Cambridge development, November 1944, November 22, Nuclear astrophysics, Nuclear fusion, Nuclear physics, Nucleosynthesis, Numerology, Olbers' paradox, Optical depth (astrophysics), Osipkov–Merritt model, Outer space, Paradigm shift, Parameterized post-Newtonian formalism, Perpetual motion, Physical constant, Physical Society of London, Planck units, Plumian Professor of Astronomy and Experimental Philosophy, Popular science, Príncipe, Predictive power, President of the Royal Astronomical Society, Proton–proton chain reaction, Quakers in science, Ralph H. Fowler, Robert Alfred Herman, Roderick Oliver Redman, Romanes Lecture, Royal Society Bakerian Medal, Schwarzschild metric, Science & Religion: A Symposium, Scientific method, Scientific phenomena named after people, Second law of thermodynamics, Senior Wrangler (University of Cambridge), Sheila Tinney, Shu Xingbei, Smith's Prize, Social teachings of Pope Pius XII, Solar eclipse, Solar eclipse of May 29, 1919, Solar wind, South West England, St Edmund's College, Cambridge, Stellar nucleosynthesis, Sticky bead argument, Structuralism (philosophy of science), Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar, Sun, Swarthmore Lecture, Tarner Lectures, Taurus (constellation), Ted Bastin, Tests of general relativity, The Dreams in the Witch House, The House of Sand, The Logic of Modern Physics, The Observatory (journal), The Oxford Book of Modern Science Writing, The Unreasonable Effectiveness of Mathematics in the Natural Sciences, Theophysics, Theory of everything, Theosophy and science, Thomas precession, Time geography, Timeline of astronomy, Timeline of gravitational physics and relativity, Timeline of luminiferous aether, Timeline of nuclear fusion, Timeline of Portuguese São Tomé and Príncipe, Timeline of scientific discoveries, Timeline of scientific experiments, Timeline of Solar System astronomy, Timeline of stellar astronomy, Timeline of the 20th century, Trinity College Chapel, Cambridge, Ultimate fate of the universe, Unit fraction, University of Cambridge, University of Florida College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, Variable speed of light, Variable star, Vibert Douglas, Victor Ambartsumian, Wave–particle duality, Weston-super-Mare, White dwarf, William Wallace Campbell, ZETA (fusion reactor), 137 (number), 1882, 1882 in science, 1882 in the United Kingdom, 1919, 1919 in science, 1919 in the United Kingdom, 1920 in science, 1920 in the United Kingdom, 1923 in science, 1928 in science, 1930 Birthday Honours, 1933 in science, 1938 Birthday Honours, 1944, 1944 in science, 1944 in the United Kingdom, 2015 in public domain. 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The following is an academic genealogy of theoretical physicists and is constructed by following the pedigree of thesis advisors.
In physical cosmology, the age of the universe is the time elapsed since the Big Bang.
Albert Edward Green (11 November 1912, London – 12 August 1999) was a British applied mathematician and research scientist in theoretical and applied mechanics.
Albert Einstein (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics (alongside quantum mechanics).
Albert Einstein has been the subject of, or inspiration for, many works of popular culture.
Alfred North Whitehead (15 February 1861 – 30 December 1947) was an English mathematician and philosopher.
In physical cosmology, the Alpher–Bethe–Gamow paper, or αβγ paper, was created by Ralph Alpher, then a physics PhD student, and his advisor George Gamow.
An Experiment with Time is a book by the British soldier, aeronautical engineer and philosopher J. W. Dunne (1875–1949) on the subjects of precognitive dreams and a theory of time which he later called Serialism.
Andrew Clement Serkis (born 20 April 1964) is an English actor and film director.
Arieh Ben-Naim (Hebrew: אריה בן-נאים; Jerusalem, 11 July 1934) is a professor of physical chemistry who retired in 2003 from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.
The Arrow of Time, or Time's Arrow, is a concept developed in 1927 by the British astronomer Arthur Eddington involving the "one-way direction" or "asymmetry" of time.
Arthur is a common masculine given name.
Arthur Edward Herbert Bleksley (1908 – 1984) was a South African Professor of Applied Mathematics and an astronomer.
Arthur Holly Compton (September 10, 1892 – March 15, 1962) was an American physicist who won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1927 for his 1923 discovery of the Compton effect, which demonstrated the particle nature of electromagnetic radiation.
Sir Arthur Stanley Eddington (28 December 1882 – 22 November 1944) was an English astronomer, physicist, and mathematician of the early 20th century who did his greatest work in astrophysics.
Arthur Robert Hinks, CBE, FRS (26 May 1873 – 14 April 1945) was a British astronomer and geographer.
The Ascension Parish Burial Ground, formerly the burial ground for the parish of St Giles and St Peter's, is a cemetery in Cambridge, England.
Asimov's Biographical Encyclopedia of Science and Technology is a history of science by Isaac Asimov, written as the biographies of over 1500 scientists.
Astronomical Society Ruđer Bošković (Astronomsko društvo Ruđer Bošković) is an astronomical society in Belgrade, Serbia.
Astrophysics is the branch of astronomy that employs the principles of physics and chemistry "to ascertain the nature of the astronomical objects, rather than their positions or motions in space".
A bachelor is a man who is socially regarded as able to marry, but has not yet.
Basil J. Hiley (born 1935), is a British quantum physicist and professor emeritus of the University of London.
The Big Bang theory is the prevailing cosmological model for the universe from the earliest known periods through its subsequent large-scale evolution.
In abstract algebra, the biquaternions are the numbers, where, and are complex numbers, or variants thereof, and the elements of multiply as in the quaternion group.
A black hole is a region of spacetime exhibiting such strong gravitational effects that nothing—not even particles and electromagnetic radiation such as light—can escape from inside it.
Black Holes & Time Warps: Einstein's Outrageous Legacy is a 1994 popular science book by physicist Kip Thorne.
In physics thought experiments, a Boltzmann brain is a self-aware entity that arises due to extremely rare random fluctuations out of a state of thermodynamic equilibrium.
The Catherine Wolfe Bruce Gold Medal is awarded every year by the Astronomical Society of the Pacific for outstanding lifetime contributions to astronomy.
Cecilia Helena Payne-Gaposchkin (May 10, 1900 – December 7, 1979) was a British–American astronomer and astrophysicist who, in 1925, proposed in her Ph.D. thesis an explanation for the composition of stars in terms of the relative abundances of hydrogen and helium.
A Cepheid variable is a type of star that pulsates radially, varying in both diameter and temperature and producing changes in brightness with a well-defined stable period and amplitude.
The Chandrasekhar limit is the maximum mass of a stable white dwarf star.
Charles Alfred Coulson (13 December 1910 – 7 January 1974) was a British applied mathematician, theoretical chemist and religious author.
Charles De Koninck (29 July 1906 – 13 February 1965) was a Belgian-Canadian Thomist philosopher and theologian.
A classical field theory is a physical theory that predicts how one or more physical fields interact with matter through field equations.
Since the 19th century, some physicists, notably Albert Einstein, have attempted to develop a single theoretical framework that can account for all the fundamental forces of nature – a unified field theory.
Clive W. Kilmister (1924 – May 2, 2010) was a British Mathematician who specialised in the mathematical foundations of Physics, especially Quantum Mechanics and Relativity and published widely in these fields (see References).
In mathematics and mathematical physics, complex spacetime extends the traditional notion of spacetime described by real-valued space and time coordinates to complex-valued space and time coordinates.
In the epistemology of science, confirmation holism, also called epistemological holism, is the view that no individual statement can be confirmed or disconfirmed by an empirical test, but only a set of statements (a whole theory).
Cosmic background radiation is electromagnetic radiation from the big bang.
The cosmic microwave background (CMB, CMBR) is electromagnetic radiation as a remnant from an early stage of the universe in Big Bang cosmology.
In cosmology, the cosmological constant (usually denoted by the Greek capital letter lambda: Λ) is the value of the energy density of the vacuum of space.
In modern physical cosmology, the cosmological principle is the notion that the spatial distribution of matter in the universe is homogeneous and isotropic when viewed on a large enough scale, since the forces are expected to act uniformly throughout the universe, and should, therefore, produce no observable irregularities in the large-scale structuring over the course of evolution of the matter field that was initially laid down by the Big Bang.
Cosmology (from the Greek κόσμος, kosmos "world" and -λογία, -logia "study of") is the study of the origin, evolution, and eventual fate of the universe.
Criticism of the theory of relativity of Albert Einstein was mainly expressed in the early years after its publication in the early twentieth century, on scientific, pseudoscientific, philosophical, or ideological bases.
The culture of the United Kingdom is influenced by the UK's history as a developed state, a liberal democracy and a great power; its predominantly Christian religious life; and its composition of four countries—England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland—each of which has distinct customs, cultures and symbolism.
David Stanley Evans (28 January 1916 – 14 November 2004) was a British astronomer, noted for his use of lunar occultations to measure stellar angular diameters during the 1950s.
David Tennant (born David John McDonald; 18 April 1971) is a Scottish actor and voice actor.
Degenerate matter is a highly dense state of matter in which particles must occupy high states of kinetic energy in order to satisfy the Pauli exclusion principle.
The Schwarzschild solution describes spacetime in the vicinity of a non-rotating massive spherically-symmetric object.
Deutsche Physik (literally: "German Physics") or Aryan Physics (Arische Physik) was a nationalist movement in the German physics community in the early 1930s.
In physics and cosmology, digital physics (also referred to as digital ontology or digital philosophy) is a collection of theoretical perspectives based on the premise that the universe is describable by information.
In physics, a dimensionless physical constant, sometimes called a fundamental physical constant, is a physical constant that is dimensionless.
The Dirac large numbers hypothesis (LNH) is an observation made by Paul Dirac in 1937 relating ratios of size scales in the Universe to that of force scales.
The discovery of the neutron and its properties was central to the extraordinary developments in atomic physics that occurred in the first half of the 20th century.
In astrophysics, dynamical friction or Chandrasekhar friction, sometimes called gravitational drag, is loss of momentum and kinetic energy of moving bodies through gravitational interactions with surrounding matter in space.
Edmund Taylor Whittaker FRS FRSE (24 October 1873 – 24 March 1956) was an English mathematician who contributed widely to applied mathematics, mathematical physics, and the theory of special functions.
Eddington or Edington may refer to.
Eddington is the lava-flooded remnant of a lunar impact crater, located on the western part of Oceanus Procellarum.
The Eddington mission was a European Space Agency (ESA) project that planned to search for Earth-like planets, but was cancelled in 2003.
Eddington or Edington is a surname.
The Eddington luminosity, also referred to as the Eddington limit, is the maximum luminosity a body (such as a star) can achieve when there is balance between the force of radiation acting outward and the gravitational force acting inward.
The Eddington Medal is awarded by the Royal Astronomical Society for investigations of outstanding merit in theoretical astrophysics.
In astrophysics, the Eddington number, NEdd, is the number of protons in the observable universe.
In general relativity, Eddington–Finkelstein coordinates are a pair of coordinate systems for a Schwarzschild geometry (i.e. a spherically symmetric black hole) which are adapted to radial null geodesics.
Eden is a concept album released in 2011 by the German band Faun.
Edward Arthur Milne FRS (14 February 1896 – 21 September 1950) was a British astrophysicist and mathematician.
Edward FitzGerald (31 March 1809 – 14 June 1883) was an English poet and writer, best known as the poet of the first and most famous English translation of The Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam.
The Ehrenfest paradox concerns the rotation of a "rigid" disc in the theory of relativity.
Einstein and Eddington is a British single drama produced by Company Pictures and the BBC, in association with HBO.
Errett Lobban "E.
Erwin Finlay-Freundlich FRSE FRAS (29 May 1885 – 24 July 1964) was a German astronomer, a pupil of Felix Klein.
Eternal return (also known as eternal recurrence) is a theory that the universe and all existence and energy has been recurring, and will continue to recur, in a self-similar form an infinite number of times across infinite time or space.
Eureka (1848) is a lengthy non-fiction work by American author Edgar Allan Poe (1809–1849) which he subtitled "A Prose Poem", though it has also been subtitled as "An Essay on the Material and Spiritual Universe".
In the sciences, an experimentum crucis (English: crucial experiment or critical experiment) is an experiment capable of decisively determining whether or not a particular hypothesis or theory is superior to all other hypotheses or theories whose acceptance is currently widespread in the scientific community.
Fantasia Mathematica is an anthology published in 1958 containing stories, humor, poems, etc., all on mathematical topics, compiled by Clifton Fadiman.
In physics, the fine-structure constant, also known as Sommerfeld's constant, commonly denoted (the Greek letter ''alpha''), is a fundamental physical constant characterizing the strength of the electromagnetic interaction between elementary charged particles.
The formation and evolution of the Solar System began 4.6 billion years ago with the gravitational collapse of a small part of a giant molecular cloud.
Francis Gladheim Pease (January 14, 1881 – February 7, 1938) was an American astronomer.
Frank Pick Hon. RIBA (23 November 1878 – 7 November 1941) was a British transport administrator.
The Friedmann–Lemaître–Robertson–Walker (FLRW) metric is an exact solution of Einstein's field equations of general relativity; it describes a homogeneous, isotropic, expanding or contracting universe that is path connected, but not necessarily simply connected.
Fundamental theory or Fundamental Theory may refer to.
Fusion power is a form of power generation in which energy is generated by using fusion reactions to produce heat for electricity generation.
George Rivers Blanco White QC (8 May 1883 – 26 March 1966) was an English judge, Recorder of Croydon from 1940 to 1956, and a member of the Special Divorce Commission, from 1948–1957.
Gaia is a space observatory of the European Space Agency (ESA) designed for astrometry: measuring the positions and distances of stars with unprecedented precision.
The Gaisford Prize is a prize in the University of Oxford, founded in 1855 in memory of Dr Thomas Gaisford (1779–1855).
Galen John Strawson (born 1952) is a British analytic philosopher and literary critic who works primarily on philosophy of mind, metaphysics (including free will, panpsychism, the mind-body problem, and the self), John Locke, David Hume, Immanuel Kant and Friedrich Nietzsche.
Gateway to the Great Books is a 10-volume series of books originally published by Encyclopædia Britannica Inc.
The Geiger–Marsden experiment(s) (also called the Rutherford gold foil experiment) were a landmark series of experiments by which scientists discovered that every atom contains a nucleus where all of its positive charge and most of its mass are concentrated.
General relativity (GR, also known as the general theory of relativity or GTR) is the geometric theory of gravitation published by Albert Einstein in 1915 and the current description of gravitation in modern physics.
In theoretical physics, geometrodynamics is an attempt to describe spacetime and associated phenomena completely in terms of geometry.
Prof George Cunliffe McVittie FRSE FRAS OBE (1904-1988) was a British mathematician and cosmologist.
Dom George Frederick James Temple FRS OSB (born 2 September 1901, London; died 30 January 1992, Isle of Wight) was an English mathematician, recipient of the Sylvester Medal in 1969.
Georges Henri Joseph Édouard Lemaître, RAS Associate (17 July 1894 – 20 June 1966) was a Belgian Catholic Priest, astronomer and professor of physics at the Catholic University of Leuven.
The Gifford Lectures are an annual series of lectures which were established by the will of Adam Lord Gifford (died 1887).
The Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society (RAS) is the highest award given by the RAS.
A gravitational lens is a distribution of matter (such as a cluster of galaxies) between a distant light source and an observer, that is capable of bending the light from the source as the light travels towards the observer.
Gravitational microlensing is an astronomical phenomenon due to the gravitational lens effect.
In astrophysics, gravitational redshift or Einstein shift is the process by which electromagnetic radiation originating from a source that is in a gravitational field is reduced in frequency, or redshifted, when observed in a region at a higher gravitational potential.
Gravitational waves are the disturbance in the fabric ("curvature") of spacetime generated by accelerated masses and propagate as waves outward from their source at the speed of light.
Gravity, or gravitation, is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass or energy—including planets, stars, galaxies, and even light—are brought toward (or gravitate toward) one another.
Great Books of the Western World is a series of books originally published in the United States in 1952, by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., to present the Great Books in a 54-volume set.
Henry Louis Mencken (September 12, 1880 – January 29, 1956) was an American journalist, satirist, cultural critic and scholar of American English.
Hans Albrecht Bethe (July 2, 1906 – March 6, 2005) was a German-American nuclear physicist who made important contributions to astrophysics, quantum electrodynamics and solid-state physics, and won the 1967 Nobel Prize in Physics for his work on the theory of stellar nucleosynthesis.
Sir Harold Spencer Jones KBE FRS FRSE PRAS (29 March 1890 Kensington, London – 3 November 1960) was an English astronomer.
Herbert Dingle (2 August 1890 – 4 September 1978) was an English physicist and natural philosopher, who served as president of the Royal Astronomical Society from 1951 to 1953.
Sir Hermann Bondi (1 November 1919 – 10 September 2005) was an Anglo-Austrian mathematician and cosmologist.
Hermann Alexander Brück CBE FRSE (15 August 1905 in Berlin, Germany – 4 March 2000 in Penicuik, Scotland) was a German-born astronomer who spent the great portion of his career in the United Kingdom.
The Hertzsprung–Russell diagram, abbreviated H–R diagram, HR diagram or HRD, is a scatter plot of stars showing the relationship between the stars' absolute magnitudes or luminosities versus their stellar classifications or effective temperatures.
General relativity (GR) is a theory of gravitation that was developed by Albert Einstein between 1907 and 1915, with contributions by many others after 1915.
In physics, theories of gravitation postulate mechanisms of interaction governing the movements of bodies with mass.
The history of scientific thought about the Formation and evolution of the Solar System begins with the Copernican Revolution.
The Encyclopædia Britannica has been published continuously since 1768, appearing in fifteen official editions.
Holger Pedersen (born 3 November 1946), Emeritus at the Niels Bohr Institute is a Danish astronomer at the European Southern Observatory.
Human Accomplishment: The Pursuit of Excellence in the Arts and Sciences, 800 B.C. to 1950 is a 2003 book by Charles Murray, most widely known as the co-author of The Bell Curve (1994).
Icarus is a scientific journal dedicated to the field of planetary science.
In philosophy, idealism is the group of metaphysical philosophies that assert that reality, or reality as humans can know it, is fundamentally mental, mentally constructed, or otherwise immaterial.
Indeterminism is the idea that events (certain events, or events of certain types) are not caused, or not caused deterministically.
The index of physics articles is split into multiple pages due to its size.
The infinite monkey theorem states that a monkey hitting keys at random on a typewriter keyboard for an infinite amount of time will almost surely type a given text, such as the complete works of William Shakespeare.
The infinite monkey theorem and its associated imagery is considered a popular and proverbial illustration of the mathematics of probability, widely known to the general public because of its transmission through popular culture rather than because of its transmission via the classroom.
The Institute of Astronomy (IoA) is the largest of the three astronomy departments in the University of Cambridge, and one of the largest astronomy sites in the UK.
General relativity is a theory of gravitation that was developed by Albert Einstein between 1907 and 1915.
Sir James Hopwood Jeans (11 September 187716 September 1946) was an English physicist, astronomer and mathematician.
John David Barrow (born 29 November 1952) is an English cosmologist, theoretical physicist, and mathematician.
Kappa Tauri (κ Tau, κ Tauri) is a double star in the constellation Taurus and a member of the Hyades open cluster.
Sir Karl Raimund Popper (28 July 1902 – 17 September 1994) was an Austrian-British philosopher and professor.
The Kelvin–Helmholtz mechanism is an astronomical process that occurs when the surface of a star or a planet cools.
Kendal, anciently known as Kirkby in Kendal or Kirkby Kendal, is a market town and civil parish within the South Lakeland District of Cumbria, England.
Leon Mestel (5 August 1927 – 15 September 2017) was a British astronomer and astrophysicist and Emeritus Professor at the University of Sussex.
The light-year is a unit of length used to express astronomical distances and measures about 9.5 trillion kilometres or 5.9 trillion miles.
This is a list of notable alumni of Trinity College, Cambridge.
The following are list of astronomers, astrophysicists and other notable people who have made contributions to the field of astronomy.
The following is a list and timeline of innovations as well as inventions and discoveries that involved British people or the United Kingdom including predecessor states in the history of the formation of the United Kingdom.
A list of mathematicians, past and present, with associations with the University of Cambridge.
This is a list of Christians in science and technology.
This is a partial list of persons who have made major contributions to the development of standard mainstream general relativity.
This is a list of people appearing on the cover of ''Time'' magazine in the 1930s.
The list of approved names in the Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature maintained by the International Astronomical Union includes the diameter of the crater and the person the crater is named for.
The BBC Radio 4 programme Desert Island Discs invites castaways to choose eight pieces of music, a book (in addition to the Bible - or a religious text appropriate to that person's beliefs - and the Complete Works of Shakespeare) and a luxury item that they would take to an imaginary desert island, where they will be marooned indefinitely.
This is a list of the approximately 938 blue plaques placed by English Heritage and its predecessors in the boroughs of London, the City of Westminster, and the City of London.
English inventions and discoveries are objects, processes or techniques invented, innovated or discovered, partially or entirely, in England by a person from England (that is, someone born in England - including to non-English parents - or born abroad with at least one English parent and who had the majority of their education or career in England).
Listed below are English people of note and some notable individuals born in England.
List of English writers lists writers in English, born or raised in England (or who lived in England for a lengthy period), who already have Wikipedia pages.
The following is a list of historically important scientific experiments and observations demonstrating something of great scientific interest, typically in an elegant or clever manner.
About 8,000 Fellows have been elected to the Royal Society of London since its inception in 1660.
This is a complete list of Fellows of the Royal Society elected in 1914.
This is a list of International Congresses of Mathematicians Plenary and Invited Speakers.
Below is a list of Members of the Order of Merit from the order's creation in 1902 until the present day.
Notable orphans and foundlings include world leaders, celebrated writers, entertainment greats, figures in science and business, as well as innumerable fictional characters in literature and comics.
The people who have been active in the dialogue between science and religion include.
Among those who were born in the London Borough of Lewisham, or have dwelt within the borders of the borough are.
Philosophers (and others important in the history of philosophy), listed alphabetically.
Following is a list of physicists who are notable for their achievements.
The President of the Institute of Physics is the head of the governing Council of the Institute of Physics.
This is a list of notable people associated with the Religious Society of Friends, also known as Quakers, who have a Wikipedia article.
This is a list of notable individuals who have focused on studying the intersection of religion and science.
This is a list of physical and mathematical constants named after people.
This is a list of solar eclipses in the 20th century.
The following is a partial list of notable physics theorists, those who are recognized in theoretical physics.
This is a list of honorary degree recipients from the University of Calcutta.
This is a list of University of Cambridge people, featuring members of the University of Cambridge segregated in accordance with their fields of achievement.
This is a list of University of Manchester people.
Literary Taste: How to Form it is a long essay by Arnold Bennett, first published in 1909, with a revised edition by his friend Frank Swinnerton appearing in 1937.
The Lutz–Kelker bias is a supposed systematic bias that results from the assumption that the number of observable stars increases with the square of the distance.
Lyman Strong Spitzer, Jr. (June 26, 1914 – March 31, 1997) was an American theoretical physicist, astronomer and mountaineer.
Maurice Stevenson Bartlett FRS (18 June 1910 – 8 January 2002) was an English statistician who made particular contributions to the analysis of data with spatial and temporal patterns.
The Manchester Astronomical Society is an organisation that promotes amateur and popular astronomy in North West England.
Sir Marcus Laurence Elwin "Mark" Oliphant (8 October 1901 – 14 July 2000) was an Australian physicist and humanitarian who played an important role in the first experimental demonstration of nuclear fusion and also the development of nuclear weapons.
Mary "Mollie" Agnes Burnston Brown Brazier (1904–1995) was a prominent neuroscientist at Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA).
In physics, mass–energy equivalence states that anything having mass has an equivalent amount of energy and vice versa, with these fundamental quantities directly relating to one another by Albert Einstein's famous formula: E.
In astrophysics, the mass–luminosity relation is an equation giving the relationship between a star's mass and its luminosity, first noted by Jakob Karl Ernst Halm.
The Mathematical Association is a professional society concerned with mathematics education in the UK.
Max Krook (1913 – 4 August 1985) was an American mathematician and astrophysicst.
Meaning and Purpose, written by Kenneth Walker, was first published in September 1944 by Jonathan Cape, London, and republished by Pelican books in 1950.
139 | 2139 Makharadze || 1970 MC || The Georgian city of Ozurgeti (formerly known as Makharadze) is the twin city of Genichesk, Ukraine.
The Messenger Lectures are a prestigious series of talks given by leading scholars and public figures at Cornell University.
Michael A. Persinger (born June 26, 1945) is a professor of psychology at Laurentian University, a position he held since 1971.
The National Observatory of Athens (NOA; Εθνικό Αστεροσκοπείο Αθηνών) is a research institute in Athens, Greece.
The National Peace Council, founded in 1908, and disbanded in 2000, acted as the co-ordinating body for almost 200 groups across Britain, with a membership ranging from small village peace groups to national trade unions and local authorities.
After his death in 1896, the will of Swedish industrialist Alfred Nobel established the Nobel Prizes.
Norman Foster Ramsey Jr. (August 27, 1915 – November 4, 2011) was an American physicist who was awarded the 1989 Nobel Prize in Physics, for the invention of the separated oscillatory field method, which had important applications in the construction of atomic clocks.
The North West Cambridge development is a University of Cambridge site to the north west of Cambridge city centre in England.
The following events occurred in November 1944.
In the ancient astronomy, it is the cusp day between Scorpio and Sagittarius.
Nuclear astrophysics is an interdisciplinary branch of physics involving close collaboration among researchers in various subfields of nuclear physics and astrophysics, with significant emphasis in areas such as stellar modeling, measurement and theoretical estimation of nuclear reaction rates, cosmology, cosmochemistry, gamma ray, optical and X-ray astronomy, and extending our knowledge about nuclear lifetimes and masses.
In nuclear physics, nuclear fusion is a reaction in which two or more atomic nuclei come close enough to form one or more different atomic nuclei and subatomic particles (neutrons or protons).
Nuclear physics is the field of physics that studies atomic nuclei and their constituents and interactions.
Nucleosynthesis is the process that creates new atomic nuclei from pre-existing nucleons, primarily protons and neutrons.
Numerology is any belief in the divine or mystical relationship between a number and one or more coinciding events.
In astrophysics and physical cosmology, Olbers' paradox, named after the German astronomer Heinrich Wilhelm Olbers (1758–1840), also known as the "dark night sky paradox", is the argument that the darkness of the night sky conflicts with the assumption of an infinite and eternal static universe.
Optical depth in astrophysics refers to a specific level of transparency.
Osipkov–Merritt models (named for Leonid Osipkov and David Merritt) are mathematical representations of spherical stellar systems (galaxies, star clusters, globular clusters etc.). The Osipkov-Merritt formula generates a one-parameter family of phase-space distribution functions that reproduce a specified density profile (representing stars) in a specified gravitational potential (in which the stars move).
Outer space, or just space, is the expanse that exists beyond the Earth and between celestial bodies.
A paradigm shift (also radical theory change), a concept identified by the American physicist and philosopher Thomas Kuhn (1922–1996), is a fundamental change in the basic concepts and experimental practices of a scientific discipline.
Post-Newtonian formalism is a calculational tool that expresses Einstein's (nonlinear) equations of gravity in terms of the lowest-order deviations from Newton's law of universal gravitation.
Perpetual motion is motion of bodies that continues indefinitely.
A physical constant, sometimes fundamental physical constant or universal constant, is a physical quantity that is generally believed to be both universal in nature and have constant value in time.
The Physical Society of London, England, existed from 1874 to 1921.
In particle physics and physical cosmology, Planck units are a set of units of measurement defined exclusively in terms of five universal physical constants, in such a manner that these five physical constants take on the numerical value of 1 when expressed in terms of these units.
The Plumian chair of Astronomy and Experimental Philosophy is one of the two major Professorships in Astronomy at Cambridge University, alongside the Lowndean Professorship.
Popular science (also called pop-science or popsci) is an interpretation of science intended for a general audience.
Príncipe is the smaller, northern major island of the country of São Tomé and Príncipe lying off the west coast of Africa in the Gulf of Guinea.
The concept of predictive power differs from explanatory and descriptive power (where phenomena that are already known are retrospectively explained or described by a given theory) in that it allows a prospective test of theoretical understanding.
The President of the Royal Astronomical Society (prior to 1831 known as President of the Astronomical Society of London) chairs the Council of the Royal Astronomical Society (RAS) and its formal meetings.
The proton–proton chain reaction is one of the two (known) sets of fusion reactions by which stars convert hydrogen to helium.
The Religious Society of Friends, commonly known as Quakers, encouraged some values which may have been conducive to encouraging scientific talents.
Sir Ralph Howard Fowler OBE FRS (17 January 1889 – 28 July 1944) was a British physicist and astronomer.
Robert Alfred Herman (1861–1927) was a fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, who coached many students to a high wrangler rank in the Cambridge Mathematical Tripos.
Roderick Oliver Redman FRS (1905–1975) was Professor of Astronomy at the University of Cambridge.
The Romanes Lecture is a prestigious free public lecture given annually at the Sheldonian Theatre, Oxford, England.
The Bakerian Medal is one of the premier medals of the Royal Society that recognizes exceptional and outstanding science.
In Einstein's theory of general relativity, the Schwarzschild metric (also known as the Schwarzschild vacuum or Schwarzschild solution) is the solution to the Einstein field equations that describes the gravitational field outside a spherical mass, on the assumption that the electric charge of the mass, angular momentum of the mass, and universal cosmological constant are all zero.
Science & Religion: A Symposium (1931) is a book first published in 1931, consisting of a lightly edited transcription of twelve talks broadcast on the BBC between September and December 1930.
Scientific method is an empirical method of knowledge acquisition, which has characterized the development of natural science since at least the 17th century, involving careful observation, which includes rigorous skepticism about what one observes, given that cognitive assumptions about how the world works influence how one interprets a percept; formulating hypotheses, via induction, based on such observations; experimental testing and measurement of deductions drawn from the hypotheses; and refinement (or elimination) of the hypotheses based on the experimental findings.
This is a list of scientific phenomena and concepts named after people (eponymous phenomena).
The second law of thermodynamics states that the total entropy of an isolated system can never decrease over time.
The Senior Wrangler is the top mathematics undergraduate at Cambridge University in England, a position which has been described as "the greatest intellectual achievement attainable in Britain." Specifically, it is the person who achieves the highest overall mark among the Wranglers – the students at Cambridge who gain first-class degrees in mathematics.
Sheila Christina Tinney (née Power, 15 January 1918 – 27 March 2010) was an Irish mathematical physicist.
Shu Xingbei (aka Hsin Pei Soh, Hsin-Pei Soh, or Hsin P. Soh) (October 1, 1905 - October 30, 1983), was an educator and leading physicist in China.
The Smith's Prize was the name of each of two prizes awarded annually to two research students in mathematics and theoretical physics at the University of Cambridge from 1769.
Social teachings of Pope Pius XII refers to encyclicals, apostolic constitutions and speeches by Pope Pius XII on non-theological issues involving medicine, science, education, social justice, family and sexuality and occupations.
A solar eclipse (as seen from the planet Earth) is a type of eclipse that occurs when the Moon passes between the Sun and Earth, and when the Moon fully or partially blocks ("occults") the Sun.
A total solar eclipse occurred on May 29, 1919.
The solar wind is a stream of charged particles released from the upper atmosphere of the Sun, called the corona.
South West England is one of nine official regions of England.
St Edmund's College is one of the 31 constituent colleges of the University of Cambridge.
Stellar nucleosynthesis is the theory explaining the creation (nucleosynthesis) of chemical elements by nuclear fusion reactions between atoms within the stars.
In general relativity, the sticky bead argument is a simple thought experiment designed to show that gravitational radiation is indeed predicted by general relativity, and can have physical effects.
Structuralism (also known as scientific structuralism or as the structuralistic theory-concept) is an active research program in the philosophy of science, which was first developed in the late 1960s and throughout the 1970s by several analytic philosophers.
Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar FRS (19 October 1910 – 21 August 1995) was an Indian American astrophysicist who spent his professional life in the United States.
The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System.
Swarthmore Lecture is one of a series of lectures, started in 1908, addressed to Britain Yearly Meeting of the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers).
The Tarner lectures are a series of public lectures in the philosophy of science given at Trinity College, Cambridge since 1916.
Taurus (Latin for "the Bull") is one of the constellations of the zodiac, which means it is crossed by the plane of the ecliptic.
Edward William "Ted" Bastin (8 January 1926 – 15 October 2011) was a physicist and mathematician who held doctorate degrees in mathematics from Queen Mary College, London University and physics from King's College, Cambridge, to which he won an Isaac Newton studentship.
Tests of general relativity serve to establish observational evidence for the theory of general relativity.
"The Dreams in the Witch House" is a horror short story by American writer H. P. Lovecraft, part of the Cthulhu Mythos cycle.
The House of Sand (Casa de Areia) is a 2005 Brazilian film directed by Andrucha Waddington.
The Logic of Modern Physics is a 1927 philosophy of science book by American physicist and Nobel laureate Percy Williams Bridgman.
The Observatory is a publication, variously described as a journal, a magazine and a review, devoted to astronomy.
The Oxford Book of Modern Science Writing is an anthology of scientific writings, arranged and introduced by Richard Dawkins of the University of Oxford.
"The Unreasonable Effectiveness of Mathematics in the Natural Sciences" is the title of an article published in 1960 by the physicist Eugene Wigner.
Theophysics is a term used occasionally in philosophy for an approach to cosmology that attempts to reconcile physical cosmology and religious cosmology.
A theory of everything (ToE), final theory, ultimate theory, or master theory is a hypothetical single, all-encompassing, coherent theoretical framework of physics that fully explains and links together all physical aspects of the universe.
Immediately after formation the Theosophical Society in 1875, the founders of modern Theosophy were aimed to show that their ideas can be confirmed by science.
In physics, the Thomas precession, named after Llewellyn Thomas, is a relativistic correction that applies to the spin of an elementary particle or the rotation of a macroscopic gyroscope and relates the angular velocity of the spin of a particle following a curvilinear orbit to the angular velocity of the orbital motion.
Time geography or time-space geography is an evolving transdisciplinary perspective on spatial and temporal processes and events such as social interaction, ecological interaction, social and environmental change, and biographies of individuals.
Babylonian astronomers discover an 18.6-year cycle in the rising and setting of the Moon.
Timeline of gravitational physics and general relativity.
The timeline of luminiferous aether (light-bearing aether) or ether as a medium for propagating electromagnetic radiation begins in the 18th century.
This timeline of nuclear fusion is an incomplete chronological summary of significant events in the study and use of nuclear fusion.
This is a timeline of Portuguese São Tomé and Príncipe from its discovery between mid January 1469 to 1471 to independence on July 12, 1975.
The timeline below shows the date of publication of possible major scientific theories and discoveries, along with the discoverer.
The timeline below shows the date of publication of major scientific experiments.
Timeline of Solar System astronomy.
Timeline of stellar astronomy.
This is a timeline of the 20th century.
Trinity College Chapel is the chapel of Trinity College, Cambridge, a constituent college of the University of Cambridge.
The ultimate fate of the universe is a topic in physical cosmology, whose theoretical restrictions allow possible scenarios for the evolution and ultimate fate of the universe to be described and evaluated.
A unit fraction is a rational number written as a fraction where the numerator is one and the denominator is a positive integer.
The University of Cambridge (informally Cambridge University)The corporate title of the university is The Chancellor, Masters, and Scholars of the University of Cambridge.
The University of Florida College of Liberal Arts and Sciences (CLAS) is the college for the liberal arts and sciences of the University of Florida, and the largest of the university's 16 academic colleges.
A variable speed of light (VSL) is a feature of a family of hypotheses stating that the speed of light in vacuum, usually denoted by c, may in some way not be constant, e.g. varying in space or time, or depending on frequency.
A variable star is a star whose brightness as seen from Earth (its apparent magnitude) fluctuates.
Allie (or Alice) Vibert Douglas, (December 15, 1894 - July 2, 1988), who usually went by her middle name, was a Canadian astronomer and the first Canadian woman to become an astrophysicist.
Victor Amazaspovich Ambartsumian (Ви́ктор Амаза́спович Амбарцумя́н; Վիկտոր Համազասպի Համբարձումյան, Viktor Hamazaspi Hambardzumyan; 12 August 1996) was a Soviet Armenian scientist, and one of the founders of theoretical astrophysics.
Wave–particle duality is the concept in quantum mechanics that every particle or quantic entity may be partly described in terms not only of particles, but also of waves.
Weston-super-Mare is a seaside town in Somerset, England, on the Bristol Channel south west of Bristol between Worlebury Hill and Bleadon Hill.
A white dwarf, also called a degenerate dwarf, is a stellar core remnant composed mostly of electron-degenerate matter.
William Wallace Campbell (April 11, 1862 – June 14, 1938) was an American astronomer, and director of Lick Observatory from 1901 to 1930.
ZETA, short for "Zero Energy Thermonuclear Assembly", was a major experiment in the early history of fusion power research.
137 (one hundred thirty-seven) is the natural number following 136 and preceding 138.
The year 1882 in science and technology involved some significant events, listed below.
Events from the year 1882 in the United Kingdom.
The year 1919 in science and technology involved some significant events, listed below.
Events from the year 1919 in the United Kingdom.
The year 1920 in science and technology involved some significant events, listed below.
Events from the year 1920 in the United Kingdom.
The year 1923 in science and technology involved some significant events, listed below.
The year 1928 in science and technology involved some significant events, listed below.
The King's Birthday Honours 1930 were appointments by King George V to various orders and honours to reward and highlight good works by members of the British Empire.
The year 1933 in science and technology involved some significant events, listed below.
The King's Birthday Honours 1938 were appointments in many of the Commonwealth realms of King George VI to various orders and honours to reward and highlight the meritorious work of his subjects in those countries.
Below, events of World War II have the "WWII" prefix.
The year 1944 in science and technology involved some significant events, listed below.
Events from the year 1944 in the United Kingdom.
This is a list of authors whose works enter the public domain in part of the world in 2015.
A. S. Eddington, Arthur S. Eddington, Arthur Stanley Eddington, Fundamental theory (Eddington), Sir Arthur Eddington, Sir Arthur Stanley Eddington, Sir Arthur Stanley Eddington, OM, FRS, Sir Eddington, Stanley Arthur Eddington.