318 relations: Absorbance, Absorption (electromagnetic radiation), Absorption cross section, Absorption spectroscopy, Acoustic attenuation, Acoustic resonance spectroscopy, Acoustic rheometer, Acousto-electric effect, Active cable, Active noise control, Active sensory systems, Adam Dziewonski, ADK Vienna II-Au, Aethalometer, Afterglow, Air mass (astronomy), Air mass (solar energy), All-pass filter, Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, Altiplano–Puna volcanic complex, Amanita flavorubens, Amanita virgineoides, AMAX, Ampelocera hottlei, Analogue filter, Anechoic chamber, Anelastic attenuation factor, Artifact (error), Asymmetric digital subscriber line, Atmospheric duct, Atmospheric tide, Attenuation (disambiguation), Attenuation coefficient, Attenuation distortion, Attenuation length, Attenuation theory, Attenuation-to-crosstalk ratio, Audio signal processing, Automatic exposure control, Automatic gain control, Backscatter, Band-pass filter, Band-stop filter, Bandplan, Beijing Anomaly, Bit error rate, Bode plot, Bridge tap, Broadband over power lines, Broadbent's filter model of attention, ..., Broadcast license, Broadcast range, Cab signalling, Calamagrostis arundinacea, Capture effect, Castle Bravo, Cavity ring-down spectroscopy, Cell site, Cellular repeater, Cerro Tuzgle, Cetacean stranding, Chainsaw safety clothing, Charles K. Kao, Chebyshev filter, Cleave (fiber), Coaxial, CobraNet, Common-mode rejection ratio, Communication channel, Computation of radiowave attenuation in the atmosphere, Contrast agent, Copper cable certification, Critical area (aeronautics), CT scan, Cutback technique, Cutoff frequency, Daisy chain (electrical engineering), Damping ratio, Dante (networking), De Haas–van Alphen effect, Decibel, Deep-focus earthquake, Dendrocnide sinuata, Dietary fiber, Diffuse sky radiation, Diffusion MRI, Digital imaging, Digital loop carrier, Digital subscriber line, Digital subscriber line access multiplexer, Dispersion relation, Dispersion-shifted fiber, Diver Detection Sonar, Double bass, Duck and cover, Earmuffs, Earplug, Echo suppression and cancellation, Effects unit, Elastic mechanisms in animals, Electronic filter, Empire of the Sun (film), Entropy, Environmental impact of concrete, Environmental remediation, Environmental restoration, Equalization (audio), Ethernet over twisted pair, Ethernet physical layer, Extinction (astronomy), Extinction (disambiguation), Extinction (neurology), Extremely high frequency, Fading, Familial adenomatous polyposis, Feed horn, Feedforward (management), Fiber tapping, Fiber-optic communication, Fiberglass, Fictional universe of Avatar, Field strength meter, Fluoroscopy, Frequency frogging, G.992.1, Gain (electronics), George Ashley Campbell, Glossary of astronomy, Glossary of jazz and popular music, Glossary of video terms, GPS navigation device, Half-value layer, HDMI, Heinrich Hertz Submillimeter Telescope, High-pass filter, HK3, Hydroxyl ion absorption, IEEE 802.11, Image sensor, Indefeasible rights of use, Index of electronics articles, Index of physics articles (A), Indoor positioning system, Internet access, Internet backbone, Intravital microscopy, Intrinsic immunity, Iris tenuifolia, ITU-R P.525, Jones calculus, K band (IEEE), Kinetic imaging, King's Lynn, Koch–Pasteur rivalry, KPAR, KTEN, Last mile, Lattice phase equaliser, Leakage inductance, Leaky mode, Lidar, Lightning detection, Link Quality Report, List of Dutch inventions and discoveries, List of Latin words with English derivatives, Llano de Chajnantor Observatory, Loading coil, Lock-in amplifier, Logarithmic resistor ladder, Long-slit spectroscopy, Long-term Ecosystem Observatory, Longwave, Loss, Low frequency, Low-noise block downconverter, Low-pass filter, Luting agent, Lysiana exocarpi, M-derived filter, Malaria vaccine, Mass attenuation coefficient, Mathematical Q models, Mean free path, Measurement while drilling, Micro-g environment, Microwave transmission, Minnaert resonance, Mobile phone signal, Mobile User Objective System, Modular connector, Modulation, Mood repair strategies, Multi-band device, Multipass spectroscopic absorption cells, Negative refraction, Nephelometer, Neural dust, Neutrino, Noise gate, Noisy miner, Nonlinear acoustics, Nonsynaptic plasticity, Nuclear winter, Ocean turbidity, Okumura model, Oliver Heaviside, One woodland terminal model, Optical attenuator, Optical cavity, Optical communication, Optical communications repeater, Optical cross-connect, Optical depth, Optical fiber, Optical networking, Optical power budget, P-wave, Pan law, Pant-hoot (call), Paris polyphylla, Patch cable, Path loss, Patternation, Penetration depth, Peucedanum officinale, Phase-contrast X-ray imaging, Photic zone, Photoelectrochemical process, Photofluorography, Picosecond ultrasonics, Plane wave, Polarization (waves), Polarizer, Preamplifier, Primary production, Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2, Pure tone audiometry, Q factor, QuietRock, Radiation effects on optical fibers, Radiation length, Radio atmospheric, Radio propagation, Radiography, Radome, Range of motion, Rayleigh fading, Record restoration, Refractive index, Repeating coil, ReplayGain, Resonance, RIAA equalization, Richter magnitude scale, Robotic non-destructive testing, Rodney Loudon, Scanning electron microscope, SeaPerch, Seashell resonance, Seismic attribute, Seismic site effects, Seismic tomography, Sensitivity time control, Serial digital interface, Shadow loss, Signal reflection, Silicon Photonics Cloud, Single vegetative obstruction model, Single-photon source, Single-wire transmission line, Solar balloon, Solar irradiance, Sound, Sound effect, Sound transmission class, Spectral mask, Speed Dreams, Stan Douglas, Standard Reference Method, Stokes's law of sound attenuation, Stopband, Stormwater, Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment, Sun, Sunspot, Superheterodyne receiver, Surround optical-fiber immunoassay, Synthesizer, Telecommunication, Telecommunications engineering, Thin-film interference, Thrombus perviousness, Tomographic reconstruction, Tone control circuit, Total internal reflection, Transmission level point, Transmissometer, Transparency and translucency, Transposon mutagenesis, Turbidity, Twisted pair, TXN2, Ultra high frequency, Ultrasound, Ultrasound computer tomography, Underwater acoustic communication, Variety (cybernetics), VDSL, WCPO-TV, Weather radar, Wi-Fi over Coax, Wireless power transfer, Wolf tone, Zone of Avoidance, 1872 North Cascades earthquake, 1948 Desert Hot Springs earthquake, 4A Engine, 700 MHz auction in Canada. 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In chemistry, absorbance or decadic absorbance is the common logarithm of the ratio of incident to transmitted radiant power through a material, and spectral absorbance or spectral decadic absorbance is the common logarithm of the ratio of incident to transmitted spectral radiant power through a material.
In physics, absorption of electromagnetic radiation is the way in which the energy of a photon is taken up by matter, typically the electrons of an atom.
Absorption cross section is a measure for the probability of an absorption process.
Absorption spectroscopy refers to spectroscopic techniques that measure the absorption of radiation, as a function of frequency or wavelength, due to its interaction with a sample.
Acoustic attenuation is a measure of the energy loss of sound propagation in media.
Acoustic resonance spectroscopy (ARS) is a method of spectroscopy in the acoustic region, primarily the sonic and ultrasonic regions.
An acoustic rheometer employs a piezo-electric crystal that can easily launch a successive wave of extensions and contractions into the fluid.
Acousto-electric effect is a nonlinear phenomenon of generation of electric current in a piezo-electric semiconductor by a propagating acoustic wave.
Active cables are copper cables for data transmission that use a silicon chip (semiconductor) to boost the performance of the cable.
Active noise control (ANC), also known as noise cancellation, or active noise reduction (ANR), is a method for reducing unwanted sound by the addition of a second sound specifically designed to cancel the first.
Active sensory systems are sensory receptors that are activated by probing the environment with self-generated energy.
Adam Marian Dziewoński (November 15, 1936 – March 1, 2016) was a Polish-American geophysicist who made seminal contributions to the determination of the large-scale structure of the Earth's interior and the nature of earthquakes using seismological methods.
The Vienna II-Au is a FET condenser microphone made by ADK Microphones.
An aethalometer is an instrument for measuring the concentration of optically absorbing (‘black’) suspended particulates in a gas colloid stream; commonly visualized as smoke or haze, often seen in ambient air under polluted conditions.
An afterglow is a broad arch of whitish or pinkish sunlight in the sky that is scattered by fine particulates like dust suspended in the atmosphere.
In astronomy, air mass (airmass, or AM) is the path length for light from a celestial source to pass through the atmosphere.
The air mass coefficient defines the direct optical path length through the Earth's atmosphere, expressed as a ratio relative to the path length vertically upwards, i.e. at the zenith.
An all-pass filter is a signal processing filter that passes all frequencies equally in gain, but changes the phase relationship among various frequencies.
Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is a condition characterised by an exaggerated response of the immune system (a hypersensitivity response) to the fungus Aspergillus (most commonly Aspergillus fumigatus).
The Altiplano–Puna volcanic complex, also known as APVC, is a complex of volcanic systems in the Puna of the Andes.
Amanita flavorubens, also known as the Yellow American Blusher, is a species of the genus Amanita.
Amanita virgineoides, known as the False Virgin's Lepidella, is a species of the genus Amanita.
AMAX is an American certification program developed by the Electronic Industries Association (EIA) and the National Association of Broadcasters (NAB) in 1993.
Ampelocera hottlei is a species of neotropical trees in the Ulmaceae family.
Analogue filters are a basic building block of signal processing much used in electronics.
An anechoic chamber (an-echoic meaning "non-reflective, non-echoing, echo-free") is a room designed to completely absorb reflections of either sound or electromagnetic waves.
In reflection seismology, the anelastic attenuation factor, often expressed as seismic quality factor or Q (which is inversely proportional to attenuation factor), quantifies the effects of anelastic attenuation on the seismic wavelet caused by fluid movement and grain boundary friction.
In natural science and signal processing, an artifact is any error in the perception or representation of any information, introduced by the involved equipment or technique(s).
Asymmetric digital subscriber line (ADSL) is a type of digital subscriber line (DSL) technology, a data communications technology that enables faster data transmission over copper telephone lines than a conventional voiceband modem can provide.
In telecommunications, an atmospheric duct is a horizontal layer in the lower atmosphere in which the vertical refractive index gradients are such that radio signals (and light rays) are guided or ducted, tend to follow the curvature of the Earth, and experience less attenuation in the ducts than they would if the ducts were not present.
Atmospheric tides are global-scale periodic oscillations of the atmosphere.
Attenuation is the gradual loss in intensity of any kind of flux through a medium, including.
Attenuation coefficient or narrow beam attenuation coefficient of the volume of a material characterizes how easily it can be penetrated by a beam of light, sound, particles, or other energy or matter.
Attenuation distortion is the distortion of an analog signal that occurs during transmission when the transmission medium does not have a flat frequency response across the bandwidth of the medium or the frequency spectrum of the signal.
In physics, the attenuation length or absorption length is the distance \lambda into a material when the probability has dropped to 1/e that a particle has not been absorbed.
Attenuation theory is a model of selective attention proposed by Anne Treisman, and can be seen as a revision of Donald Broadbent's filter model.
Attenuation-to-crosstalk ratio (ACR) is a parameter that is measured when testing a communication link, which represents the overall performance of the cable.
Audio signal processing or audio processing is the intentional alteration of audio signals often through an audio effect or effects unit.
Automatic Exposure Control (AEC) is an X-ray exposure termination device.
Automatic gain control (AGC), also called automatic volume control (AVC), is a closed-loop feedback regulating circuit in an amplifier or chain of amplifiers, the purpose of which is to maintain a suitable signal amplitude at its output, despite variation of the signal amplitude at the input.
In physics, backscatter (or backscattering) is the reflection of waves, particles, or signals back to the direction from which they came.
A band-pass filter, also bandpass filter or BPF, is a device that passes frequencies within a certain range and rejects (attenuates) frequencies outside that range.
In signal processing, a band-stop filter or band-rejection filter is a filter that passes most frequencies unaltered, but attenuates those in a specific range to very low levels.
A bandplan or band plan is a plan for using a particular band of radio frequencies, that are a portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.
The Beijing Anomaly is an observed seismic feature in the Earth's mantle at a depth of around 700–1400 km below Northeastern China where a high degree of seismic attenuation was discovered to exist.
In digital transmission, the number of bit errors is the number of received bits of a data stream over a communication channel that have been altered due to noise, interference, distortion or bit synchronization errors.
In electrical engineering and control theory, a Bode plot is a graph of the frequency response of a system.
Bridged tap or bridge tap is a long-used method of cabling for telephone lines.
Broadband over power lines (BPL) is a method of power line communication (PLC) that allows relatively high-speed digital data transmission over the public electric power distribution wiring.
Broadbent's filter model is an early selection theory of attention.
A broadcast license is a type of spectrum license granting the licensee permission to use a portion of the radio frequency spectrum in a given geographical area for broadcasting purposes.
A broadcast range (also listening range or listening area for radio, or viewing range or viewing area for television) is the service area that a broadcast station or other transmission covers via radio waves (or possibly infrared light, which is closely related).
Cab signalling is a railway safety system that communicates track status and condition information to the cab, crew compartment or driver's compartment of a locomotive, railcar or multiple unit.
Calamagrostis arundinacea is a species of bunch grass in the Poaceae family, native to Eurasia, China and India.
In telecommunications, the capture effect, or FM capture effect, is a phenomenon associated with FM reception in which only the stronger of two signals at, or near, the same frequency or channel will be demodulated.
Castle Bravo was the first in a series of high-yield thermonuclear weapon design tests conducted by the United States at Bikini Atoll, Marshall Islands, as part of Operation Castle.
Cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) is a highly sensitive optical spectroscopic technique that enables measurement of absolute optical extinction by samples that scatter and absorb light.
A cell site or cell tower is a cellular-enabled mobile device site where antennae and electronic communications equipment are placed — typically on a radio mast, tower, or other raised structure — to create a cell (or adjacent cells) in a cellular network.
A cellular repeater (also known as cell phone signal booster or amplifier) is a type of bi-directional amplifier used to improve cell phone reception.
Cerro Tuzgle is a dormant stratovolcano in the Susques Department of Jujuy Province in Argentina.
Cetacean stranding, commonly known as beaching, is a phenomenon in which whales and dolphins strand themselves on land, usually on a beach.
Safety practices generally recommend that chainsaw users wear protective clothing, also known as personal protective equipment or PPE, while operating chainsaws.
Sir Charles Kuen Kao, as a member of National Academy of Engineering in Electronics, Communication & Information Systems Engineering for pioneering and sustained accomplishments towards the theoretical and practical realization of optical fiber communication systems.
Chebyshev filters are analog or digital filters having a steeper roll-off and more passband ripple (type I) or stopband ripple (type II) than Butterworth filters.
A cleave in an optical fiber is a deliberate, controlled break, intended to create a perfectly flat endface, perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the fiber.
In geometry, coaxial means that two or more three-dimensional linear forms share a common axis.
CobraNet is a combination of software, hardware, and network protocols designed to deliver uncompressed, multi-channel, low-latency digital audio over a standard Ethernet network.
The common mode rejection ratio (CMRR) of a differential amplifier (or other device) is a metric used to quantify the ability of the device to reject common-mode signals, i.e., those that appear simultaneously and in-phase on both inputs.
A communication channel or simply channel refers either to a physical transmission medium such as a wire, or to a logical connection over a multiplexed medium such as a radio channel in telecommunications and computer networking.
One of the causes of attenuation of radio propagation is the absorption by the atmosphere.
A contrast agent (or contrast medium) is a substance used to increase the contrast of structures or fluids within the body in medical imaging.
In copper twisted pair wire networks, copper cable certification is achieved through a thorough series of tests in accordance with Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA) or International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standards.
In aviation, a critical area refers to a designated area of an airport that all aircraft, vehicles, persons or physical obstructions must remain clear of when one or more Instrument Landing Systems are in use, to protect against signal interference or attenuation that may lead to navigation errors, or accident.
A CT scan, also known as computed tomography scan, makes use of computer-processed combinations of many X-ray measurements taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of specific areas of a scanned object, allowing the user to see inside the object without cutting.
In telecommunications, a cutback technique is a destructive technique for determining certain optical fiber transmission characteristics, such as attenuation and bandwidth.
In physics and electrical engineering, a cutoff frequency, corner frequency, or break frequency is a boundary in a system's frequency response at which energy flowing through the system begins to be reduced (attenuated or reflected) rather than passing through.
In electrical and electronic engineering a daisy chain is a wiring scheme in which multiple devices are wired together in sequence or in a ring.
Damping is an influence within or upon an oscillatory system that has the effect of reducing, restricting or preventing its oscillations.
Dante (Digital Audio Network Through Ethernet) is a combination of software, hardware, and network protocols that deliver uncompressed, multi-channel, low-latency digital audio over a standard Ethernet network using Layer 3 IP packets.
The de Haas–van Alphen effect, often abbreviated to dHvA, is a quantum mechanical effect in which the magnetic susceptibility of a pure metal crystal oscillates as the intensity of an applied magnetic field H is increased.
The decibel (symbol: dB) is a unit of measurement used to express the ratio of one value of a physical property to another on a logarithmic scale.
A deep-focus earthquake in seismology (also called a plutonic earthquake) is an earthquake with a hypocenter depth exceeding 300 km.
Dendrocnide sinuata (meaning "tree nettle" with "wavy leaf margin" in Greek) is a poisonous plant called pulutus, pulus, stinging tree, fever nettle, or elephant nettle, growing in subtropical wet evergreen forests throughout Asia.
Dietary fiber or roughage is the indigestible portion of food derived from plants.
Diffuse sky radiation is solar radiation reaching the Earth's surface after having been scattered from the direct solar beam by molecules or particulates in the atmosphere.
Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI or DW-MRI) is the use of specific MRI sequences as well as software that generates images from the resulting data, that uses the diffusion of water molecules to generate contrast in MR images.
Digital imaging or digital image acquisition is the creation of a digitally encoded representation of the visual characteristics of an object, such as a physical scene or the interior structure of an object.
A digital loop carrier (DLC) is a system which uses digital transmission to extend the range of the local loop farther than would be possible using only twisted pair copper wires.
Digital subscriber line (DSL; originally digital subscriber loop) is a family of technologies that are used to transmit digital data over telephone lines.
A digital subscriber line access multiplexer (DSLAM, often pronounced DEE-slam) is a network device, often located in telephone exchanges, that connects multiple customer digital subscriber line (DSL) interfaces to a high-speed digital communications channel using multiplexing techniques.
In physical sciences and electrical engineering, dispersion relations describe the effect of dispersion in a medium on the properties of a wave traveling within that medium.
Dispersion-shifted fiber (DSF) is a type of optical fiber made to optimize both low dispersion and low attenuation.
Diver Detection Sonar (DDS) systems are sonar and acoustic location systems employed underwater for the detection of divers and submerged swimmer delivery vehicles (SDVs).
The double bass, or simply the bass (and numerous other names), is the largest and lowest-pitched bowed string instrument in the modern symphony orchestra.
"Duck and cover" is a method of personal protection against the effects of a nuclear explosion.
Earmuffs are objects designed to cover a person's ears for hearing protection or for warmth.
An earplug is a device that is meant to be inserted in the ear canal to protect the user's ears from loud noises or the intrusion of water, foreign bodies, dust or excessive wind.
Echo suppression and echo cancellation are methods used in telephony to improve voice quality by preventing echo from being created or removing it after it is already present.
An effects unit or effects pedal is an electronic or digital device that alters the sound of a musical instrument or other audio source.
Elastic mechanisms are very important in the movement of vertebrate animals.
Electronic filters are circuits which perform signal processing functions, specifically to remove unwanted frequency components from the signal, to enhance wanted ones, or both.
Empire of the Sun is a 1987 American epic coming-of-age war film based on J. G. Ballard's semi-autobiographical novel of the same name.
In statistical mechanics, entropy is an extensive property of a thermodynamic system.
The environmental impact of concrete, its manufacture and applications, are complex.
Environmental remediation deals with the removal of pollution or contaminants from environmental media such as soil, groundwater, sediment, or surface water.
Environmental restoration is a term common in the citizens’ environmental movement.
Equalization or equalisation is the process of adjusting the balance between frequency components within an electronic signal.
Ethernet over twisted pair technologies use twisted-pair cables for the physical layer of an Ethernet computer network.
The Ethernet physical layer is the physical layer functionality of the Ethernet family of computer network standards.
In astronomy, extinction is the absorption and scattering of electromagnetic radiation by dust and gas between an emitting astronomical object and the observer.
Extinction is in biology and palaeontology, the end of a species or other taxon.
Extinction is a neurological disorder that impairs the ability to perceive multiple stimuli of the same type simultaneously.
Extremely high frequency (EHF) is the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) designation for the band of radio frequencies in the electromagnetic spectrum from 30 to 300 gigahertz (GHz).
In wireless communications, fading is variation or the attenuation of a signal with various variables.
Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is an autosomal dominant inherited condition in which numerous adenomatous polyps form mainly in the epithelium of the large intestine.
In parabolic antennas such as satellite dishes, a feed horn (or feedhorn) is a small horn antenna used to convey radio waves between the transmitter and/or receiver and the parabolic reflector.
In management, feed forward is giving a control impact in a downlink to a subordinate to a person or an organization from which you are expecting an output.
Fiber tapping uses a network tap method that extracts signal from an optical fiber without breaking the connection.
Fiber-optic communication is a method of transmitting information from one place to another by sending pulses of light through an optical fiber.
Fiberglass (US) or fibreglass (UK) is a common type of fiber-reinforced plastic using glass fiber.
In the 2009 science fiction film Avatar, director James Cameron conceived a fictional universe in which humans seek to mine unobtanium on the fictional exoplanetary moon, Pandora.
In telecommunications, a field strength meter is an instrument that measures the electric field strength emanating from a transmitter.
Fluoroscopy is an imaging technique that uses X-rays to obtain real-time moving images of the interior of an object.
In telecommunication, the term frequency frogging has the following meanings.
In telecommunications, ITU-T G.992.1 (better known as G.dmt) is an ITU standard for ADSL using discrete multitone modulation (DMT).
In electronics, gain is a measure of the ability of a two-port circuit (often an amplifier) to increase the power or amplitude of a signal from the input to the output port by adding energy converted from some power supply to the signal.
George Ashley Campbell (November 27, 1870 – November 10, 1954) was an American engineer.
This page is a glossary of astronomy.
This is a list of jazz and popular music terms that are likely to be encountered in printed popular music songbooks, fake books and vocal scores, big band scores, jazz, and rock concert reviews, and album liner notes.
This glossary defines terms that are used in the document, developed by the.
A GPS navigation device, GPS receiver, or simply GPS is a device that is capable of receiving information from GPS satellites and then to calculate the device's geographical position.
A material's half-value layer (HVL), or half-value thickness, is the thickness of the material at which the intensity of radiation entering it is reduced by one half.
HDMI (High-Definition Multimedia Interface) is a proprietary audio/video interface for transmitting uncompressed video data and compressed or uncompressed digital audio data from an HDMI-compliant source device, such as a display controller, to a compatible computer monitor, video projector, digital television, or digital audio device.
The Submillimeter Telescope (SMT), formerly known as the Heinrich Hertz Submillimeter Telescope, is a submillimeter wavelength radio telescope located on Mount Graham, Arizona.
A high-pass filter (HPF) is an electronic filter that passes signals with a frequency higher than a certain cutoff frequency and attenuates signals with frequencies lower than the cutoff frequency.
Hexokinase 3 also known as HK3 is an enzyme which in humans is encoded by the HK2 gene on chromosome 5.
Hydroxyl ion absorption is the absorption in optical fibers of electromagnetic waves, including the near-infrared, due to the presence of trapped hydroxyl ions remaining from water as a contaminant.
IEEE 802.11 is a set of media access control (MAC) and physical layer (PHY) specifications for implementing wireless local area network (WLAN) computer communication in the 900 MHz and 2.4, 3.6, 5, and 60 GHz frequency bands.
An image sensor or imaging sensor is a sensor that detects and conveys the information that constitutes an image.
Indefeasible right of use (IRU) is a permanent contractual agreement, that cannot be undone, between the owners of a communications system and a customer of that system.
This is an index of articles relating to electronics and electricity or natural electricity and things that run on electricity and things that use or conduct electricity.
The index of physics articles is split into multiple pages due to its size.
An indoor positioning system (IPS) is a system to locate objects or people inside a building using lights, radio waves, magnetic fields, acoustic signals, or other sensory information collected by mobile devices.
Internet access is the ability of individuals and organizations to connect to the Internet using computer terminals, computers, and other devices; and to access services such as email and the World Wide Web.
The Internet backbone might be defined by the principal data routes between large, strategically interconnected computer networks and core routers on the Internet.
Intravital microscopy is a form of microscopy that allows observing biological processes in live animals (in vivo) at a high resolution that makes distinguishing between individual cells of a tissue possible.
Intrinsic immunity refers to a set of recently discovered cellular-based anti-viral defense mechanisms, notably genetically encoded proteins which specifically target eukaryotic retroviruses.
Iris tenuifolia is a beardless iris in the genus Iris, in the subgenus Limniris and in the Tenuifoliae series of the species.
ITU-R P.525 is the International Telecommunications Union radiocommunications standard for the calculation of free-space attenuation.
In optics, polarized light can be described using the Jones calculus, discovered by R. C. Jones in 1941.
The IEEE K band is a portion of the radio spectrum in the microwave range of frequencies from 18 to 27 gigahertz (GHz).
Kinetic imaging is an imaging technology developed by Szabolcs Osváth and Krisztián Szigeti in the Department of Biophysics and Radiation Biology at Semmelweis University (Budapest, Hungary).
King's Lynn, known until 1537 as Bishop's Lynn, is a seaport and market town in Norfolk, England, about north of London, north-east of Peterborough, north north-east of Cambridge and west of Norwich.
The French Louis Pasteur (1822–1895) and German Robert Koch (1843–1910) are the two greatest figures in medical microbiology and in establishing acceptance of the germ theory of disease (germ theory).
KPAR may refer to.
KTEN, virtual channel 10 (UHF digital channel 26), is an NBC-affiliated television station licensed to Ada, Oklahoma, United States and serving the Ada–Sherman television market.
The last mile or last kilometer is a colloquial phrase widely used in the telecommunications, cable television and internet industries to refer to the final leg of the telecommunications networks that deliver telecommunication services to retail end-users (customers).
A lattice phase equaliser or lattice filter is an example of an all-pass filter.
Leakage inductance is that property of an electrical transformer that causes a winding to appear to have some pure inductance in series with the mutually-coupled transformer windings.
A leaky mode or tunneling mode in an optical fiber or other waveguide is a mode having an electric field that decays monotonically for a finite distance in the transverse direction but becomes oscillatory everywhere beyond that finite distance.
Lidar (also called LIDAR, LiDAR, and LADAR) is a surveying method that measures distance to a target by illuminating the target with pulsed laser light and measuring the reflected pulses with a sensor.
A lightning detector is a device that detects lightning produced by thunderstorms.
The Link Quality Report (LQR) protocol is a part of the Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP), which allows two computers to connect to each other.
The Netherlands had a considerable part in the making of modern society.
This is a list of Latin words with derivatives in English (and other modern languages).
Llano de Chajnantor Observatory is the name for a group of astronomical observatories located at an altitude of over in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile.
A loading coil or load coil is an inductor that is inserted into an electronic circuit to increase its inductance.
A lock-in amplifier is a type of amplifier that can extract a signal with a known carrier wave from an extremely noisy environment.
A logarithmic resistor ladder is an electronic circuit composed of a series of resistors and switches, designed to create an attenuation from an input to an output signal, where the logarithm of the attenuation ratio is proportional to a digital code word that represents the state of the switches.
In astronomy, long-slit spectroscopy involves observing an elongated celestial object (such as a nebula or along the major axis of a disc galaxy at high inclination) through an elongated slit aperture, and refracting this light with a prism or diffraction grating.
The Long-term Ecological Observatory (LEO) is a project off the coast of New Jersey, United States, which monitors the processes in the ocean with online IT systems, spearheaded by the Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences at Rutgers University.
In radio, longwave, long wave or long-wave, and commonly abbreviated LW, refers to parts of the radio spectrum with wavelengths longer than what was originally called the medium-wave broadcasting band.
Loss may refer to.
Low frequency (low freq) or LF is the ITU designation for radio frequencies (RF) in the range of 30 kilohertz (kHz)–300 kHz.
A low-noise block downconverter (LNB) is the receiving device mounted on satellite dishes used for satellite TV reception, which collects the radio waves from the dish and converts them to a signal which is sent through a cable to the receiver inside the building.
A low-pass filter (LPF) is a filter that passes signals with a frequency lower than a certain cutoff frequency and attenuates signals with frequencies higher than the cutoff frequency.
A luting agent is an application of a dental cement.
Lysiana exocarpi, commonly known as harlequin mistletoe, is a species of hemiparasitic shrub, endemic to Australia.
m-derived filters or m-type filters are a type of electronic filter designed using the image method.
Malaria vaccine is a vaccine that is used to prevent malaria.
The mass attenuation coefficient, mass extinction coefficient, or mass narrow beam attenuation coefficient of the volume of a material characterizes how easily it can be penetrated by a beam of light, sound, particles, or other energy or matter.
Mathematical Q models provide a model of the earth's response to seismic waves.
In physics, the mean free path is the average distance traveled by a moving particle (such as an atom, a molecule, a photon) between successive impacts (collisions), which modify its direction or energy or other particle properties.
A drilling rig is used to create a borehole or well (also called a wellbore) in the earth's sub-surface, for example in order to extract natural resources such as gas or oil.
The term micro-g environment (also µg, often referred to by the term microgravity) is more or less a synonym for weightlessness and zero-g, but indicates that g-forces are not quite zero—just very small.
Microwave transmission is the transmission of information or energy by microwave radio waves.
The Minnaert resonance is the acoustic resonance frequency of a single bubble in an infinite domain of water (neglecting the effects of surface tension and viscous attenuation).
A mobile phone signal (also known as reception and service) is the signal strength (measured in dBm) received by a mobile phone from a cellular network (on the downlink).
The Mobile User Objective System is a narrowband military communications satellite system that supports a worldwide, multi-Service population of users in the ultra high frequency band.
A modular connector is an electrical connector that was originally designed for use in telephone wiring, but has since been used for many other purposes.
In electronics and telecommunications, modulation is the process of varying one or more properties of a periodic waveform, called the carrier signal, with a modulating signal that typically contains information to be transmitted.
Mood repair strategies offer techniques that an individual can use to shift their mood from general sadness or clinical depression to a state of greater contentment or happiness.
In telecommunications, a multi-band device (including dual-band, tri-band, quad-band and penta-band devices) is a communication device (especially a mobile phone) that supports multiple radio frequency bands.
Multiple-pass or long path absorption cells are commonly used in spectroscopy to measure low-concentration components or to observe weak spectra in gases or liquids.
Negative refraction is the name for an electromagnetic phenomenon where light rays are refracted at an interface in the reverse sense to that normally expected.
A nephelometer is an instrument for measuring concentration of suspended particulates in a liquid or gas colloid.
Neural dust, or neural dust mote is a term used to refer to millimeter-sized devices operated as wirelessly powered nerve sensors.
A neutrino (denoted by the Greek letter ν) is a fermion (an elementary particle with half-integer spin) that interacts only via the weak subatomic force and gravity.
A noise gate or gate is an electronic device or software that is used to control the volume of an audio signal.
The noisy miner (Manorina melanocephala) is a bird in the honeyeater family, Meliphagidae, and is endemic to eastern and south-eastern Australia.
Nonlinear acoustics (NLA) is a branch of physics and acoustics dealing with sound waves of sufficiently large amplitudes.
Nonsynaptic plasticity is a form of neuroplasticity that involves modification of ion channel function in the axon, dendrites, and cell body that results in specific changes in the integration of excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) and inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs).
Nuclear winter is the severe and prolonged global climatic cooling effect hypothesized to occur after widespread firestorms following a nuclear war.
Ocean turbidity is a measure of the amount of cloudiness or haziness in sea water caused by individual particles that are too small to be seen without magnification.
The Okumura model is a Radio propagation model that was built using the data collected in the city of Tokyo, Japan.
Oliver Heaviside FRS (18 May 1850 – 3 February 1925) was an English self-taught electrical engineer, mathematician, and physicist who adapted complex numbers to the study of electrical circuits, invented mathematical techniques for the solution of differential equations (equivalent to Laplace transforms), reformulated Maxwell's field equations in terms of electric and magnetic forces and energy flux, and independently co-formulated vector analysis.
The ITU terrestrial model for one terminal in woodland is a radio propagation model belonging to the class of foliage models.
An optical attenuator, or fiber optic attenuator, is a device used to reduce the power level of an optical signal, either in free space or in an optical fiber.
An optical cavity, resonating cavity or optical resonator is an arrangement of mirrors that forms a standing wave cavity resonator for light waves.
Optical communication, also known as optical telecommunication, is communication at a distance using light to carry information.
An optical communications repeater is used in a fiber-optic communications system to regenerate an optical signal.
An optical cross-connect (OXC) is a device used by telecommunications carriers to switch high-speed optical signals in a fiber optic network, such as an optical mesh network.
In physics, optical depth or optical thickness, is the natural logarithm of the ratio of incident to transmitted radiant power through a material, and spectral optical depth or spectral optical thickness is the natural logarithm of the ratio of incident to transmitted spectral radiant power through a material.
An optical fiber or optical fibre is a flexible, transparent fiber made by drawing glass (silica) or plastic to a diameter slightly thicker than that of a human hair.
Optical networking is a means of communication that uses signals encoded onto light to transmit information among various nodes of a telecommunications network.
The optical power budget in a fiber-optic communication link is the allocation of available optical power (launched into a given fiber by a given source) among various loss-producing mechanisms such as launch coupling loss, fiber attenuation, splice losses, and connector losses, in order to ensure that adequate signal strength (optical power) is available at the receiver.
A P-wave is one of the two main types of elastic body waves, called seismic waves in seismology.
Pan law, or pan rule, is a recording and mixing principle that states that any signal of equal amplitude and phase that is played in both channels of a stereo system will increase in loudness up to 6.02 dBSPL, provided there is perfect response in the loudspeaker system and perfect acoustics in the room.
The pant-hoot (call) is a well-studied, structurally complex and long-distance vocalization of chimpanzees.Fedurek, P., Zuberbühler, K., & Dahl, C. D. (2016).
Paris polyphylla is an Asian species of plants native to China, Taiwan, the Indian Subcontinent, and Indochina.
A patch cable, patch cord or patch lead is an electrical or optical cable used to connect ("patch in") one electronic or optical device to another for signal routing.
Path loss (or path attenuation) is the reduction in power density (attenuation) of an electromagnetic wave as it propagates through space.
Patternation is the specialized technical art of performing quantitative measurements of specific properties of particles within a spray and visualizing the patterns of this specific property within the spray.
Penetration depth is a measure of how deep light or any electromagnetic radiation can penetrate into a material.
Peucedanum officinale is a herbaceous perennial plant in the Apiaceae found mainly in Central Europe and Southern Europe.
Phase-contrast X-ray imaging (PCI) or phase-sensitive X-ray imaging is a general term for different technical methods that use information concerning changes in the phase of an X-ray beam that passes through an object in order to create its images.
The photic zone, euphotic zone (Greek for "well lit": εὖ "well" + φῶς "light"), or sunlight or (sunlit) zone is the uppermost layer of water in a lake or ocean that is exposed to intense sunlight.
Photoelectrochemical processes are processes in photoelectrochemistry; they usually involve transforming light into other forms of energy.
Photofluorography (sometimes called just fluorography) is photography of X-ray images from a fluorescent screen.
Picosecond ultrasonics is a type of ultrasonics that uses ultra-high frequency ultrasound generated by ultrashort light pulses.
In the physics of wave propagation, a plane wave (also spelled planewave) is a wave whose wavefronts (surfaces of constant phase) are infinite parallel planes.
Polarization (also polarisation) is a property applying to transverse waves that specifies the geometrical orientation of the oscillations.
A polarizer or polariser is an optical filter that lets light waves of a specific polarization pass through while blocking light waves of other polarizations.
A preamplifier (preamp or "pre") is an electronic amplifier that converts a weak electrical signal into an output signal strong enough to be noise-tolerant and strong enough for further processing, or for sending to a power amplifier and a loudspeaker.
Global oceanic and terrestrial photoautotroph abundance, from September 1997 to August 2000. As an estimate of autotroph biomass, it is only a rough indicator of primary-production potential, and not an actual estimate of it. Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center and ORBIMAGE. In ecology, primary production is the synthesis of organic compounds from atmospheric or aqueous carbon dioxide.
Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (prostaglandin G/H synthase and cyclooxygenase) (The HUGO official symbol is PTGS2; HGNC ID, HGNC:9605), also known as cyclooxygenase-2 or COX-2, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PTGS2 gene.
Pure tone audiometry (PTA) is the key hearing test used to identify hearing threshold levels of an individual, enabling determination of the degree, type and configuration of a hearing loss and thus providing a basis for diagnosis and management.
In physics and engineering the quality factor or Q factor is a dimensionless parameter that describes how underdamped an oscillator or resonator is, and characterizes a resonator's bandwidth relative to its centre frequency.
QuietRock is a brand of internally damped gypsum drywall panels manufactured in Newark, CA by PABCO Gypsum.
When optical fibers are exposed to ionizing radiation such as energetic electrons, protons, neutrons, X-rays, Ƴ-radiation, etc., they undergo 'damage'.
In physics, the radiation length is a characteristic of a material, related to the energy loss of high energy, electromagnetic-interacting particles with it.
A radio atmospheric signal or sferic (sometimes also spelled "spheric") is a broadband electromagnetic impulse that occurs as a result of natural atmospheric lightning discharges.
Radio propagation is the behavior of radio waves as they travel, or are propagated, from one point to another, or into various parts of the atmosphere.
Radiography is an imaging technique using X-rays to view the internal form of an object.
A radome (which is a portmanteau of radar and dome) is a structural, weatherproof enclosure that protects a radar antenna.
Range of motion (or ROM), is the linear or angular distance that a moving object may normally travel while properly attached to another.
Rayleigh fading is a statistical model for the effect of a propagation environment on a radio signal, such as that used by wireless devices.
Record restoration, a particular kind of audio restoration, is the process of converting the analog signal stored on gramophone records (either 78 rpm shellac, or 45 and 33⅓ rpm vinyl) into digital audio files that can then be edited with computer software and eventually stored on a hard-drive, recorded to digital tape, or burned to a CD or DVD.
In optics, the refractive index or index of refraction of a material is a dimensionless number that describes how light propagates through that medium.
In telecommunications, a repeating coil is a voice-frequency transformer characterized by a closed magnetic core, a pair of identical balanced primary (line) windings, a pair of identical but not necessarily balanced secondary (drop) windings, and low transmission loss at voice frequencies.
ReplayGain is a proposed standard published by David Robinson in 2001 to measure the perceived loudness of audio in computer audio formats such as MP3 and Ogg Vorbis.
In physics, resonance is a phenomenon in which a vibrating system or external force drives another system to oscillate with greater amplitude at specific frequencies.
RIAA equalization is a specification for the recording and playback of phonograph records, established by the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA).
The so-called Richter magnitude scale – more accurately, Richter's magnitude scale, or just Richter magnitude – for measuring the strength ("size") of earthquakes refers to the original "magnitude scale" developed by Charles F. Richter and presented in his landmark 1935 paper, and later revised and renamed the Local magnitude scale, denoted as "ML" or "ML".
Robotic non-destructive testing (NDT) is a method of inspection used to assess the structural integrity of petroleum, natural gas, and water installations.
Rodney Loudon (born 25 July 1934) is a British physicist, best known for his work in quantum optics.
A scanning electron microscope (SEM) is a type of electron microscope that produces images of a sample by scanning the surface with a focused beam of electrons.
The SeaPerch Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) educational program was inspired by the 1997 book,, by Harry Bohm and Vickie Jensen.
There is a popular folk myth that if one holds a seashell—specifically, most often, a conch shell—to one's ear, one can hear the sound of the ocean.
In reflection seismology, a seismic attribute is a quantity extracted or derived from seismic data that can be analysed in order to enhance information that might be more subtle in a traditional seismic image, leading to a better geological or geophysical interpretation of the data.
Seismic site effects are related to the amplification of seismic waves in surficial geological layers.
Seismic tomography is a technique for imaging the subsurface of the Earth with seismic waves produced by earthquakes or explosions.
Sensitivity time control (STC) is used to attenuate the very strong signals returned from nearby ground clutter targets in the first few range gates of a Radar receiver.
Serial digital interface (SDI) is a family of digital video interfaces first standardized by SMPTE (The Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers) in 1989.
In telecommunication, the term shadow loss has the following meanings.
Signal reflection occurs when a signal is transmitted along a transmission medium, such as a copper cable or an optical fiber.
Silicon Photonics Cloud (SiCloud) is an instructional web-based research tool for silicon photonics developed at UCLA under the National Science Foundation-funded CIAN research center.
The ITU Single Vegetative Obstruction Model is a Radio propagation model that quantitatively approximates the attenuation due to the vegetation in the middle of a telecommunication link.
Single-photon sources are light sources that emit light as single particles or photons.
A single-wire transmission line (or single wire method) is a method of transmitting electrical power or signals using only a single electrical conductor.
A solar balloon is a balloon that gains buoyancy when the air inside is heated by solar radiation, usually with the help of black or dark balloon material.
Solar irradiance is the power per unit area received from the Sun in the form of electromagnetic radiation in the wavelength range of the measuring instrument.
In physics, sound is a vibration that typically propagates as an audible wave of pressure, through a transmission medium such as a gas, liquid or solid.
A sound effect (or audio effect) is an artificially created or enhanced sound, or sound process used to emphasize artistic or other content of films, television shows, live performance, animation, video games, music, or other media.
Sound Transmission Class (or STC) is an integer rating of how well a building partition attenuates airborne sound.
In telecommunications, a spectral mask, also known as a channel mask or transmission mask, is a mathematically-defined set of lines applied to the levels of radio (or optical) transmissions.
Speed Dreams, often shortened to SD and formerly known as Torcs-NG, is a free and open source 3D racing video game for Linux, Microsoft Windows, AmigaOS 4, AROS, MorphOS and Haiku.
Stan Douglas (born October 11, 1960) is an artist based in Vancouver, British Columbia.
The Standard Reference Method or SRM is one of several systems modern brewers use to specify beer color.
Stokes's law of sound attenuation is a formula for the attenuation of sound in a Newtonian fluid, such as water or air, due to the fluid's viscosity.
A stopband is a band of frequencies, between specified limits, through which a circuit, such as a filter or telephone circuit, does not allow signals to pass, or the attenuation is above the required stopband attenuation level.
Stormwater, also spelled storm water, is water that originates during precipitation events and snow/ice melt.
The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) is a series of remote sensing satellite instruments used to study the chemical composition of earth's atmosphere.
The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System.
Sunspots are temporary phenomena on the Sun's photosphere that appear as spots darker than the surrounding areas.
A superheterodyne receiver, often shortened to superhet, is a type of radio receiver that uses frequency mixing to convert a received signal to a fixed intermediate frequency (IF) which can be more conveniently processed than the original carrier frequency.
Surround optical-fiber immunoassay (SOFIA) is an ultrasensitive, ''in vitro'' diagnostic platform incorporating a surround optical-fiber assembly that captures fluorescence emissions from an entire sample.
A synthesizer (often abbreviated as synth, also spelled synthesiser) is an electronic musical instrument that generates electric signals that are converted to sound through instrument amplifiers and loudspeakers or headphones.
Telecommunication is the transmission of signs, signals, messages, words, writings, images and sounds or information of any nature by wire, radio, optical or other electromagnetic systems.
Telecommunications engineering is an engineering discipline centered on electrical and computer engineering which seeks to support and enhance telecommunication systems.
Thin-film interference is a natural phenomenon in which light waves reflected by the upper and lower boundaries of a thin film interfere with one another, either enhancing or reducing the reflected light.
Thrombus perviousness is an imaging biomarker which is used to estimate clot permeability from CT imaging.
Tomographic reconstruction is a type of multidimensional inverse problem where the challenge is to yield an estimate of a specific system from a finite number of projections.
Tone control is a type of equalization used to make specific pitches or "frequencies" in an audio signal softer or louder.
Total internal reflection is the phenomenon which occurs when a propagated wave strikes a medium boundary at an angle larger than a particular critical angle with respect to the normal to the surface.
In telecommunication, a transmission level point (TLP) is a physical test point in an electronic circuit, typically a transmission channel, where a test signal may be inserted or measured.
A transmissometer is an instrument for measuring the extinction coefficient of the atmosphere and sea water, and for the determination of visual range.
In the field of optics, transparency (also called pellucidity or diaphaneity) is the physical property of allowing light to pass through the material without being scattered.
Transposon mutagenesis, or transposition mutagenesis, is a biological process that allows genes to be transferred to a host organism's chromosome, interrupting or modifying the function of an extant gene on the chromosome and causing mutation.
Turbidity is the cloudiness or haziness of a fluid caused by large numbers of individual particles that are generally invisible to the naked eye, similar to smoke in air.
Twisted pair cabling is a type of wiring in which two conductors of a single circuit are twisted together for the purposes of improving electromagnetic compatibility.
Thioredoxin, mitochondrial also known as thioredoxin-2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TXN2 gene on chromosome 22.
Ultra high frequency (UHF) is the ITU designation for radio frequencies in the range between 300 megahertz (MHz) and 3 gigahertz (GHz), also known as the decimetre band as the wavelengths range from one meter to one decimeter.
Ultrasound is sound waves with frequencies higher than the upper audible limit of human hearing.
Ultrasound computer tomography (USCT), sometimes also Ultrasound computed tomography, Ultrasound computerized tomography or just Ultrasound tomography, is a form of medical ultrasound tomography utilizing ultrasound waves as physical phenomenon for imaging.
Underwater acoustic communication is a technique of sending and receiving messages below water.
In cybernetics, the term variety denotes the total number of distinct states of a system.
Very-high-bit-rate digital subscriber line (VDSL) and very-high-bit-rate digital subscriber line 2 (VDSL2) are digital subscriber line (DSL) technologies providing data transmission faster than asymmetric digital subscriber line (ADSL).
WCPO-TV, virtual channel 9 (UHF digital channel 22), is an ABC-affiliated television station licensed to Cincinnati, Ohio, United States.
Weather radar, also called weather surveillance radar (WSR) and Doppler weather radar, is a type of radar used to locate precipitation, calculate its motion, and estimate its type (rain, snow, hail etc.). Modern weather radars are mostly pulse-Doppler radars, capable of detecting the motion of rain droplets in addition to the intensity of the precipitation.
Wi-Fi over Coax is a technology for extending and distributing Wi-Fi signals via coaxial cables.
Wireless power transfer (WPT), wireless power transmission, wireless energy transmission, or electromagnetic power transfer is the transmission of electrical energy without wires as a physical link.
A wolf tone, or simply a "wolf", is produced when a played note matches the natural resonating frequency of the body of a musical instrument, producing a sustaining sympathetic artificial overtone that amplifies and expands the frequencies of the original note, frequently accompanied by an oscillating beating (due to the uneven frequencies between the natural note and artificial overtone) which may be likened to the howling of the animal.
The Zone of Avoidance (ZOA) is the area of the sky that is obscured by the Milky Way.
The 1872 North Cascades earthquake occurred at in central Washington state.
The 1948 Desert Hot Springs earthquake occurred on December 4 at 3:43 p.m. Pacific Standard Time with a moment magnitude of 6.4 and a maximum Mercalli intensity of VII (Very strong).
The 4A Engine is a graphics middleware engine developed by 4A Games for use in their video game Metro 2033, published by THQ.
700 MHz auction in Canada was a spectrum auction that took place in 2014 from January 14 to February 13.
Attentuate, Attenuate, Attenuating, Attenuation (electromagnetic radiation), Extinction (physics), Natural attenuation, Optical extinction, Scattering of electromagnetic radiation, Ultrasonic attenuation, Ultrasound attenuation.