100 relations: A (disambiguation), Abel transform, Absorbance, Absorptance, Absorption (acoustics), Absorption (electromagnetic radiation), Absorption cross section, Absorption spectroscopy, Acoustic transmission, Acoustic wave, Aluminium gallium indium phosphide, Attenuation, Attenuation (disambiguation), Attenuation length, Avalanche photodiode, Backscatter X-ray, Beer–Lambert law, Bright-field microscopy, Ceramography, CFAP157, Collimated transmission theory, Conductivity of transparency, Copper indium gallium selenide solar cells, Copper(I) oxide, Cuvette, Cybermed, Dark-field microscopy, Delafossite, Direct and indirect band gaps, Double-clad fiber, Einstein coefficients, Erbium, Extended X-ray absorption fine structure, Extinction coefficient, Filling factor, Fluorescence in the life sciences, Franz–Keldysh effect, Functional near-infrared spectroscopy, Gain (laser), Glossary of physics, Grey atmosphere, Half-value layer, Hapke parameters, Heat transfer physics, High-intensity focused ultrasound, Hounsfield scale, Index of physics articles (A), Infrared open-path detector, J-aggregate, J. Robert Oppenheimer, ..., K-edge, Kinetic imaging, Kramers–Kronig relations, Lead, List of letters used in mathematics and science, Mass attenuation coefficient, Mathematical descriptions of opacity, Mean free path, Monte Carlo method for photon transport, Opacity (optics), Operation of computed tomography, Optical depth, Optical modulator, Optical modulators using semiconductor nano-structures, Optical solar reflector, Optical tweezers, Organic photorefractive materials, Organic solar cell, Penetration depth, Photoacoustic microscopy, Planck's law, Plasmonic solar cell, Propagation constant, Radiation length, Radiative transfer equation and diffusion theory for photon transport in biological tissue, Reciprocal length, Refractive index, Resonant-cavity-enhanced photo detector, Reverberation room, Sabin (unit), Sallen–Key topology, Scattering theory, Scatterometer, Sea ice emissivity modelling, Seismic migration, Speed of light, Stark spectroscopy, Su-Shu Huang, Surface photovoltage, Tomographic reconstruction, Two-photon absorption, Ultrasound attenuation spectroscopy, Ultrasound computer tomography, Ultrasound transmission tomography, Variable pathlength cell, Vector radiative transfer, Visibility, Water remote sensing, X-ray, Zero-dispersion wavelength. Expand index (50 more) »

## A (disambiguation)

A is the first letter of the Latin alphabet.

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## Abel transform

In mathematics, the Abel transform, named for Niels Henrik Abel, is an integral transform often used in the analysis of spherically symmetric or axially symmetric functions.

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## Absorbance

In chemistry, absorbance or decadic absorbance is the common logarithm of the ratio of incident to transmitted radiant power through a material, and spectral absorbance or spectral decadic absorbance is the common logarithm of the ratio of incident to transmitted spectral radiant power through a material.

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## Absorptance

Absorptance of the surface of a material is its effectiveness in absorbing radiant energy.

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## Absorption (acoustics)

Acoustic absorption refers to the process by which a material, structure, or object takes in sound energy when sound waves are encountered, as opposed to reflecting the energy.

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## Absorption (electromagnetic radiation)

In physics, absorption of electromagnetic radiation is the way in which the energy of a photon is taken up by matter, typically the electrons of an atom.

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## Absorption cross section

Absorption cross section is a measure for the probability of an absorption process.

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## Absorption spectroscopy

Absorption spectroscopy refers to spectroscopic techniques that measure the absorption of radiation, as a function of frequency or wavelength, due to its interaction with a sample.

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## Acoustic transmission

Acoustic transmission is the transmission of sounds through and between materials, including air, wall, and musical instruments.

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## Acoustic wave

Acoustic waves (also known as sound waves) are a type of longitudinal waves that propagate by means of adiabatic compression and decompression.

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## Aluminium gallium indium phosphide

Aluminium gallium indium phosphide (also AlInGaP, InGaAlP, GaInP, etc.) is a semiconductor material that provides a platform for the development of novel multi-junction photovoltaics and optoelectronic devices, as it spans a direct bandgap from deep ultraviolet to infrared.

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## Attenuation

In physics, attenuation or, in some contexts, extinction is the gradual loss of flux intensity through a medium.

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## Attenuation (disambiguation)

Attenuation is the gradual loss in intensity of any kind of flux through a medium, including.

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## Attenuation length

In physics, the attenuation length or absorption length is the distance \lambda into a material when the probability has dropped to 1/e that a particle has not been absorbed.

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## Avalanche photodiode

An avalanche photodiode (APD) is a highly sensitive semiconductor electronic device that exploits the photoelectric effect to convert light to electricity.

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## Backscatter X-ray

Backscatter X-ray is an advanced X-ray imaging technology.

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## Beer–Lambert law

The Beer–Lambert law, also known as Beer's law, the Lambert–Beer law, or the Beer–Lambert–Bouguer law relates the attenuation of light to the properties of the material through which the light is travelling.

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## Bright-field microscopy

Bright-field microscopy is the simplest of all the optical microscopy illumination techniques.

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## Ceramography

Ceramography is the art and science of preparation, examination and evaluation of ceramic microstructures.

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## CFAP157

Cilia and flagella associated protein 157 (CFAP157) also known as chromosome 9 open reading frame 117 (c9orf117) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CFAP157 gene.

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## Collimated transmission theory

The collimated transmission method is a direct way of measuring the optical properties of materials.

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## Conductivity of transparency

In physics the conductivity of transparency describes the combination of the sheet resistance and the transparency and utilizes the properties of graphene as the reference.

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## Copper indium gallium selenide solar cells

A copper indium gallium selenide solar cell (or CIGS cell, sometimes CI(G)S or CIS cell) is a thin-film solar cell used to convert sunlight into electric power.

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## Copper(I) oxide

Copper(I) oxide or cuprous oxide is the inorganic compound with the formula Cu2O.

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## Cuvette

A cuvette (French: cuvette.

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## Cybermed

Cybermed Inc. (Korean: 사이버메드), located in Seoul, South Korea, has been active in the field of 3D image processing and dental software since its conception in 1998.

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## Dark-field microscopy

Dark-field microscopy (dark-ground microscopy) describes microscopy methods, in both light and electron microscopy, which exclude the unscattered beam from the image.

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## Delafossite

Delafossite is a copper iron oxide mineral with formula CuFeO2 or Cu1+Fe3+O2.

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## Direct and indirect band gaps

In semiconductor physics, the band gap of a semiconductor is of two types, a direct band gap or an indirect band gap.

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## Double-clad fiber

Double-clad fiber (DCF) is a class of optical fiber with a structure consisting of three layers of optical material instead of the usual two.

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## Einstein coefficients

Einstein coefficients are mathematical quantities which are a measure of the probability of absorption or emission of light by an atom or molecule.

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## Erbium

Erbium is a chemical element with symbol Er and atomic number 68.

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## Extended X-ray absorption fine structure

X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) includes both Extended X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) and X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES).

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## Extinction coefficient

Extinction coefficient refers to several different measures of the absorption of light in a medium.

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## Filling factor

Filling factor, ~F~, is a quantity measuring the efficiency of absorption of pump in the core of a double-clad fiber.

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## Fluorescence in the life sciences

Fluorescence is used in the life sciences generally as a non-destructive way of tracking or analysing biological molecules by means of fluorescence.

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## Franz–Keldysh effect

The Franz–Keldysh effect is a change in optical absorption by a semiconductor when an electric field is applied.

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## Functional near-infrared spectroscopy

Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIR or fNIRS), is the use of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) for the purpose of functional neuroimaging.

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## Gain (laser)

In laser physics, gain or amplification is a process where the medium transfers part of its energy to the emitted electromagnetic radiation, resulting in an increase in optical power.

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## Glossary of physics

Most of the terms listed in Wikipedia glossaries are already defined and explained within Wikipedia itself.

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## Grey atmosphere

The Grey atmosphere (or gray) is a useful set of approximations made for radiative transfer applications in studies of stellar atmospheres based on the simplification that the absorption coefficient \alpha_ of matter within the atmosphere is constant for all frequencies of incident radiation.

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## Half-value layer

A material's half-value layer (HVL), or half-value thickness, is the thickness of the material at which the intensity of radiation entering it is reduced by one half.

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## Hapke parameters

The Hapke parameters are a set of parameters for an empirical model that is commonly used to describe the directional reflectance properties of the airless regolith surfaces of bodies in the solar system.

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## Heat transfer physics

Heat transfer physics describes the kinetics of energy storage, transport, and energy transformation by principal energy carriers: phonons (lattice vibration waves), electrons, fluid particles, and photons.

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## High-intensity focused ultrasound

High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is an early stage medical technology that is in various stages of development worldwide to treat a range of disorders.

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## Hounsfield scale

The Hounsfield scale or CT numbers, named after Sir Godfrey Hounsfield, is a quantitative scale for describing radiodensity.

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## Index of physics articles (A)

The index of physics articles is split into multiple pages due to its size.

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## Infrared open-path detector

Infrared open-path gas detectors send out a beam of infrared light, detecting gas anywhere along the path of the beam.

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## J-aggregate

A J-aggregate is a type of dye with an absorption band that shifts to a longer wavelength (bathochromic shift) of increasing sharpness (higher absorption coefficient) when it aggregates under the influence of a solvent or additive or concentration as a result of supramolecular self-organisation.

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## J. Robert Oppenheimer

Julius Robert Oppenheimer (April 22, 1904 – February 18, 1967) was an American theoretical physicist and professor of physics at the University of California, Berkeley.

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## K-edge

K-edge is the binding energy of the K-shell (innermost, using X-ray notation) electron of an atom.

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## Kinetic imaging

Kinetic imaging is an imaging technology developed by Szabolcs Osváth and Krisztián Szigeti in the Department of Biophysics and Radiation Biology at Semmelweis University (Budapest, Hungary).

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## Kramers–Kronig relations

The Kramers–Kronig relations are bidirectional mathematical relations, connecting the real and imaginary parts of any complex function that is analytic in the upper half-plane.

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## Lead

Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.

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## List of letters used in mathematics and science

Latin and Greek letters are used in mathematics, science, engineering, and other areas where mathematical notation is used as symbols for constants, special functions, and also conventionally for variables representing certain quantities.

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## Mass attenuation coefficient

The mass attenuation coefficient, mass extinction coefficient, or mass narrow beam attenuation coefficient of the volume of a material characterizes how easily it can be penetrated by a beam of light, sound, particles, or other energy or matter.

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## Mathematical descriptions of opacity

When an electromagnetic wave travels through a medium in which it gets attenuated (this is called an "opaque" or "attenuating" medium), it undergoes exponential decay as described by the Beer–Lambert law.

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## Mean free path

In physics, the mean free path is the average distance traveled by a moving particle (such as an atom, a molecule, a photon) between successive impacts (collisions), which modify its direction or energy or other particle properties.

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## Monte Carlo method for photon transport

Modeling photon propagation with Monte Carlo methods is a flexible yet rigorous approach to simulate photon transport.

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## Opacity (optics)

Opacity is the measure of impenetrability to electromagnetic or other kinds of radiation, especially visible light.

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## Operation of computed tomography

X-ray computed tomography operates by using an X-ray generator that rotates around the object; X-ray detectors are positioned on the opposite side of the circle from the X-ray source.

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## Optical depth

In physics, optical depth or optical thickness, is the natural logarithm of the ratio of incident to transmitted radiant power through a material, and spectral optical depth or spectral optical thickness is the natural logarithm of the ratio of incident to transmitted spectral radiant power through a material.

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## Optical modulator

An optical modulator is a device which is used to modulate a beam of light.

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## Optical modulators using semiconductor nano-structures

An optical modulator is an optical device which is used to modulate a beam of light with a perturbation device.

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## Optical solar reflector

An optical solar reflector (OSR) consists of a top layer made out of quartz, over a reflecting layer made of metal.

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## Optical tweezers

Optical tweezers (originally called "single-beam gradient force trap") are scientific instruments that use a highly focused laser beam to provide an attractive or repulsive force (typically on the order of piconewtons), depending on the relative refractive index between particle and surrounding medium, to physically hold and move microscopic objects similar to tweezers.

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## Organic photorefractive materials

Organic photorefractive materials are materials that exhibit a temporary change in refractive index when exposed to light.

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## Organic solar cell

An organic solar cell or plastic solar cell is a type of photovoltaic that uses organic electronics, a branch of electronics that deals with conductive organic polymers or small organic molecules, for light absorption and charge transport to produce electricity from sunlight by the photovoltaic effect.

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## Penetration depth

Penetration depth is a measure of how deep light or any electromagnetic radiation can penetrate into a material.

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## Photoacoustic microscopy

Photoacoustic microscropy is an imaging method based on the photoacoustic effect and is a subset of photoacoustic tomography.

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## Planck's law

Planck's law describes the spectral density of electromagnetic radiation emitted by a black body in thermal equilibrium at a given temperature T. The law is named after Max Planck, who proposed it in 1900.

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## Plasmonic solar cell

A plasmonic-enhanced solar cell is a type of solar cell (including thin-film, crystalline silicon, amorphous silicon, and other types of cells) that convert light into electricity with the assistance of plasmons.

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## Propagation constant

The propagation constant of a sinusoidal electromagnetic wave is a measure of the change undergone by the amplitude and phase of the wave as it propagates in a given direction.

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## Radiation length

In physics, the radiation length is a characteristic of a material, related to the energy loss of high energy, electromagnetic-interacting particles with it.

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## Radiative transfer equation and diffusion theory for photon transport in biological tissue

Photon transport in biological tissue can be equivalently modeled numerically with Monte Carlo simulations or analytically by the radiative transfer equation (RTE).

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## Reciprocal length

Reciprocal length or inverse length is a measurement used in several branches of science and mathematics.

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## Refractive index

In optics, the refractive index or index of refraction of a material is a dimensionless number that describes how light propagates through that medium.

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## Resonant-cavity-enhanced photo detector

Resonant-cavity-enhanced photo detectors (or, RCE photo detectors) enable improved performance over their predecessors by placing the active device structure inside a Fabry–Pérot resonant cavity.

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## Reverberation room

A reverberation chamber or room is a room designed to create a diffuse or random incidence sound field (i.e. one with a uniform distribution of acoustic energy and random direction of sound incidence over a short time period).

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## Sabin (unit)

The sabin is defined as a unit of sound absorption.

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## Sallen–Key topology

The Sallen–Key topology is an electronic filter topology used to implement second-order active filters that is particularly valued for its simplicity.

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## Scattering theory

In mathematics and physics, scattering theory is a framework for studying and understanding the scattering of waves and particles.

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## Scatterometer

A scatterometer or diffusionmeter is a scientific instrument to measure the return of a beam of light or radar waves scattered by diffusion in a medium such as air.

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## Sea ice emissivity modelling

With increased interest in sea ice and its effects on the global climate, efficient methods are required to monitor both its extent and exchange processes.

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## Seismic migration

Seismic migration is the process by which seismic events are geometrically re-located in either space or time to the location the event occurred in the subsurface rather than the location that it was recorded at the surface, thereby creating a more accurate image of the subsurface.

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## Speed of light

The speed of light in vacuum, commonly denoted, is a universal physical constant important in many areas of physics.

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## Stark spectroscopy

Stark spectroscopy (sometimes known as electroabsorption/emission spectroscopy) is a form of spectroscopy based on the Stark effect.

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## Su-Shu Huang

Su-Shu Huang (黃授書, April 16, 1915 – September 15, 1977) was a Chinese-born American astrophysicist.

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## Surface photovoltage

Surface photovoltage (SPV) measurements are a widely used method to determine the minority carrier diffusion length of semiconductors.

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## Tomographic reconstruction

Tomographic reconstruction is a type of multidimensional inverse problem where the challenge is to yield an estimate of a specific system from a finite number of projections.

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## Two-photon absorption

Two-photon absorption (TPA) is the absorption of two photons of identical or different frequencies in order to excite a molecule from one state (usually the ground state) to a higher energy electronic state.

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## Ultrasound attenuation spectroscopy

Ultrasound attenuation spectroscopy is a method for characterizing properties of fluids and dispersed particles.

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## Ultrasound computer tomography

Ultrasound computer tomography (USCT), sometimes also Ultrasound computed tomography, Ultrasound computerized tomography or just Ultrasound tomography, is a form of medical ultrasound tomography utilizing ultrasound waves as physical phenomenon for imaging.

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## Ultrasound transmission tomography

Ultrasound transmission tomography (UTT) is a form of tomography involving ultrasound.

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## Variable pathlength cell

A variable pathlength cell is a sample holder used for ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy or infrared spectroscopy that has a path length that can be varied to change the absorbance without changing the sample concentration.

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## Vector radiative transfer

In spectroscopy and radiometry, vector radiative transfer (VRT) is a method of modelling the propagation of polarized electromagnetic radiation in low density media.

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## Visibility

In meteorology, visibility is a measure of the distance at which an object or light can be clearly discerned.

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## Water remote sensing

Water Remote Sensing studies the color of water through the observation of the spectrum of water leaving radiation.

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## X-ray

X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation.

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## Zero-dispersion wavelength

In a single-mode optical fiber, the zero-dispersion wavelength is the wavelength or wavelengths at which material dispersion and waveguide dispersion cancel one another.

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## Redirects here:

Absorption Coefficient, Absorption coefficient, Linear absorption coefficient, Linear attenuation coefficient, Linear coefficient, Narrow beam attenuation coefficient.

## References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Attenuation_coefficient