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"Polish death camp" and "Polish concentration camp" are misnomers that have been a subject of controversy and legislation.
A Brief Stop on the Road from Auschwitz (Ett kort uppehåll på vägen från Auschwitz) is a 2012 book by Swedish author Göran Rosenberg, variously described as a novel and a non-fiction narrative book.
A Child of Our Time is a secular oratorio by the British composer Michael Tippett (190598), who also wrote the libretto.
A Contract with God and Other Tenement Stories is a graphic novel by American cartoonist Will Eisner published in 1978.
A Damaged Mirror is a 2014 "novelized" memoir by Yael Shahar and Ovadya ben Malka.
A History of the World in 100 Objects was a joint project of BBC Radio 4 and the British Museum, comprising a 100-part radio series written and presented by British Museum director Neil MacGregor.
A Lucky Child (2007) is a memoir written by Thomas Buergenthal, in the vein of Night by Elie Wiesel or My Brother's Voice (2003) by Stephen Nasser, in which he recounts the astounding story of his surviving the Holocaust as a ten-year-old child owing to his wits and some remarkable strokes of luck.
Adolf Edward Nussbaum (10 January 1925 – 31 October 2009) was a German-born American theoretical mathematician who was a professor of mathematics at Washington University in St. Louis for nearly 40 years.
This is a list of people named after Abraham, the Biblical patriarch (Ashkenazi Avrohom or Avruhom); the father of the Abrahamic Religions, Judaism, Christianity and Islam: As recounted in the Torah, his name was originally Avram which means "High Father" - "av" (אב) "father", "ram" (רם) "high" - with the "ha" (ה) added in mark of his covenant with God.
Abraham Joseph Berline (6 October 1893 – 1942) was a Russian artist who lived in Paris and died during World War II.
Abraham ('Appie') Bueno de Mesquita (July 23, 1918, in Amsterdam – August 19, 2005, in Lelystad), commonly known under his stage name Bueno de Mesquita was a Dutch comedian, actor and stage artist, well known for his ability to make funny faces.
Abraham Icek Tuschinski (Polish spelling: Tuszyński) (Brzeziny (near Łódź), 14 May 1886 – Auschwitz, 17 September 1942) was a Dutch businessman of Jewish Polish descent who ordered the construction of the Tuschinski Theater, a famed cinema in Amsterdam.
Abraham (Abram) Leon (1918–1944) (born Abraham Wejnstok), was a Belgian Jewish Trotskyist party leader and theorist.
Abraham Mok (15 May 1888 – 29 February 1944) was a Dutch gymnast who competed in the 1908 Summer Olympics.
Abram (Abraham) Szpiro (1912, Stringenau, Płock Governorate, Russian Empire — 16 February 1943, Auschwitz) was a Polish chess master.
Absurd is a German black metal band, and has been classified as a "right-wing extremist" group by the Thuringian Landesbehörde für Verfassungsschutz.
Achern is a city in Western Baden-Württemberg, Germany.
The Act on the Institute of National Remembrance – Commission for the Prosecution of Crimes against the Polish Nation ("Ustawy o Instytucie Pamięci Narodowej - Komisji Ścigania Zbrodni przeciwko Narodowi Polskiemu") is a 1998 Polish law that created the Institute of National Remembrance.
Action 14f13, also called "Sonderbehandlung (special treatment) 14f13" and Aktion 14f13, was a campaign by Nazi Germany to murder Nazi concentration camp prisoners.
The Action Reconciliation Service for Peace is a German peace organization founded to confront the legacy of Nazism.
Action Saybusch (Aktion Saybusch, Akcja Żywiec) was the mass expulsion of some 18,000–20,000 ethnic Poles from the territory of Żywiec County in Polish Silesia, conducted by the Wehrmacht and German police during the German occupation of Poland in World War II.
Adam Cyra (born 1949) is a Polish historian.
Adam Kopyciński (b. 5 August 1907 in Osielcu near Maków Podhalański – 3 October 1982 in Wrocław, Poland) was a Polish conductor and composer.
Cardinal Adam Kozłowiecki, S.J., (1 April 1911 – 28 September 2007) was Archbishop of the Archdiocese of Lusaka in Zambia.
The Adelaide Institute is a Holocaust denial group in Australia and is considered to be anti-semitic by the Australian Human Rights Commission and others.
Adelsheim is a small town in northern Baden-Württemberg, about 30 km north of Heilbronn.
Administrative division of Polish territories during World War II can be divided into several phases, when territories of the Second Polish Republic were administered first by Nazi Germany (in the west) and Soviet Union (in the east), then (following German invasion of the Soviet Union) in their entirety by Nazi Germany and finally (following Soviet push westwards) by the Soviet Union again.
Adolf Burger (12 August 1917 – 6 December 2016) was a Jewish Slovak typographer, memoir writer, and Holocaust survivor involved in Operation Bernhard.
Otto Adolf Eichmann (19 March 1906 – 1 June 1962) was a German Nazi SS-Obersturmbannführer (lieutenant colonel) and one of the major organizers of the Holocaust.
Adolf Gawalewicz (2 September 1916 - 11 June 1987) was a Polish jurist and writer best known for his memoirs of his years at Auschwitz and other Nazi concentration camps.
Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician, demagogue, and revolutionary, who was the leader of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.
Adolf Hitler made many hundreds of directives, orders and decrees while Führer of Nazi Germany, many of them related to military policy, and the treatment of civilians in occupied countries.
Adolf Strauss (16 August 1902 – 28 September 1944) was a Czech pianist, violinist, accordion and harmonica player, composer and kapellmeister.
Adolf Theuer (sometimes given as Teuer) (20 September 1920 in Henneborg-Bolatitz, today borough of Borová, Bolatice, Opava District – 23 April 1947 in Opava) was an SS-Unterscharführer at Auschwitz concentration camp.
Adolphe Féder (also Aizik Féder; 16 July 1886 – 13 December 1943) was a Jewish-Ukrainian painter and illustrator.
Adrian Goldberg born in Northfield, Birmingham is an English journalist, radio and television presenter.
Allgemeine Elektricitäts-Gesellschaft AG (AEG) (German: "General electricity company") was a German producer of electrical equipment founded as the Deutsche Edison-Gesellschaft für angewandte Elektricität in 1883 in Berlin by Emil Rathenau.
After the Truth (Nichts als die Wahrheit) is a 1999 German film depicting the fictional trial of Dr.
The Holocaust had a deep effect on society in both Europe and the rest of the world.
Agnieszka Haupe-Kalka (born June 13, 1970 in Zielona Góra) is a Polish fairy tale poet, games designer and translator.
Agudath Israel Etz Ahayem ("Congregation of Israel Tree of Life") is a Conservative Jewish congregation located at 3525 Cloverdale Road in Montgomery, Alabama.
Aharon Gluska (born 1951) is an Israeli–American painter.
Ahrensbök is a municipality in the district of Ostholstein, in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany.
Marie-Aimée Éléonore Lallement (16 August 1898 at Givet – 11 September 1988 at Reims) was a community activist, socialist and feminist who was a world champion in the 110m and the Javelin.
Ala Gertner (March 12, 1912 – January 5, 1945), referred to in other sources as Alla, Alina, Ella, and Ela Gertner, was one of four women hanged in the Auschwitz concentration camp for her role in the Sonderkommando revolt of October 7, 1944.
Alain Finkielkraut (born 30 June 1949) is a French philosopher and public intellectual.
Alan Morton Dershowitz (born September 1, 1938) is an American lawyer and academic.
Albert Ganzenmüller (born 25 February 1905 in Passau – died 20 March 1996 in Munich) was a German National Socialist and, as the Under-secretary of State at the Reich Transport Ministry (Reichsverkehrsministerium), was involved in the deportation of German Jews.
Albert Pierrepoint (30 March 1905 – 10 July 1992) was a long-serving hangman in England.
Albert Salomon (1883–1976), Leonard Gold, Rosaline and Myer Feinstein Lecture Series, 2001.
Berthold Konrad Hermann Albert Speer (March 19, 1905 – September 1, 1981) was a German architect who was, for most of World War II, Reich Minister of Armaments and War Production for Nazi Germany.
Alberto Israel Errera (Αλβέρτος Ερρέρα, 15 January 1913 in Thessaloniki, Greece – August 1944 in Birkenau) was a Greek-Jewish officer and a member of the anti-Nazi resistance.
Alcina Lubitch Domecq (born 1953) is a Jewish Guatemalan short story writer.
Aleksander Świętochowski (pseudonyms Poseł Prawdy and others; 18 January 1849 – 25 April 1938) was a Polish writer, educator, and philosopher of the Positivist period that followed the January 1863 Uprising.
Aleksander Stawarz codename: Leśnik, Baca (7 August 1896, Nowy Targ - 28 January 1941, Auschwitz) was a Polish Army Colonel.
Aleksandra Ziółkowska-Boehm, or Aleksandra Ziolkowska-Boehm (born 15 April 1949, Łódź, Poland), is a Polish-born U.S.-based writer and academic.
Alena Hájková (11 October 1924 in Prague - 2 August 2012 in Prague) was a Czech Communist resistance fighter and historian.
Alessandria (Piedmontese: Lissandria) is a city and comune in Piedmont, Italy, and the capital of the Province of Alessandria.
Alex (Uldis) Kurzem (born 1935 or 1936) is an Australian pensioner originally from Eastern Europe, living in Melbourne; a centre-point of a long-standing controversy regarding his Holocaust memoir which has led to a financial windfall in the early 21st century.
Alexander Bülow (born 28 April 1905, date of death unknown) was an SS-Sturmmann and member of staff at Auschwitz concentration camp.
Alexander Grothendieck (28 March 1928 – 13 November 2014) was a German-born French mathematician who became the leading figure in the creation of modern algebraic geometry.
Alexander Katan (1899-1943) was a Dutch Jewish physically disabled accountant, translator, and teacher, who was murdered by the Nazis in The Holocaust, after which time his photographs were notoriously on display in various museums.
Alexander Ernst Alfred Hermann Freiherr von Falkenhausen (29 October 1878 – 31 July 1966) was a German General and military advisor to Chiang Kai-shek.
Alexandra Sviridova (Александра Свиридова, alternate spellings: Alexandra Sviridov, Aleksandra Sviridov, and Aleksandra Sviridova) is a writer, journalist and filmmaker from Moscow, Russia.
Alexandru Iacob (born Jakab Sándor; 1913–1997) was a Hungarian-born Romanian and Hungarian communist politician and economist, who served as Deputy to Vasile Luca within the Romanian Ministry of Finance, and eventually became a victim of repression in Communist Romania.
General Alexej Čepička (18 August 1910, Kroměříž – 30 September 1990, Dobříš) was a Czechoslovak communist politician.
Alfréd Israel Wetzler (10 May 1918– 8 February 1988), who later wrote under the alias Jozef Lánik, was a Slovak Jew, and one of a very small number of Jews known to have escaped from the Auschwitz death camp during the Holocaust.
Alfred Deutsch-German (1870–1943) was an Austrian journalist, playwright, screenwriter and film director.
Alfred Klahr (16 September 1904, Vienna - 1944, Warsaw) was an Austrian communist politician, journalist and historian.
Alfred Pal (30 November 1920 – 30 June 2010) was Croatian painter and graphic designer.
Alfred Trzebinski (29 August 1902 – 8 October 1946) was an SS-physician at the Auschwitz, Majdanek and Neuengamme concentration camps in Nazi Germany.
Alfred Wolfsohn (23 September 1896 – 5 February 1962) was a German singing teacher who suffered persistent auditory hallucination of screaming soldiers, whom he had witnessed dying of wounds while serving as a stretcher bearer in the trenches of World War I. After being subsequently diagnosed with Shell Shock, Wolfsohn failed to recover in response to hospitalization or psychiatric treatment, but cured himself by vocalizing extreme sounds, bringing about what he described as a combination of catharsis and exorcism.
Alfried Felix Alwyn Krupp von Bohlen und Halbach (13 August 1907 – 30 July 1967), often referred to as Alfried Krupp, was an industrialist, a competitor in Olympic yacht races and a member of the Krupp family, which has been prominent in German industry since the early 19th century.
Alice Lok Cahana (February 7, 1929 – November 28, 2017) was a Hungarian Holocaust survivor.
Alice Orlowski (September 30, 1903 – 1976) was a German concentration camp guard at several of the Nazi German camps in occupied Poland during World War II.
Alina Szapocznikow (sometimes called Szaposznikow; (May 16, 1926 – March 2, 1973) was a Polish sculptor and Holocaust survivor. She produced casts of her and her son's body. She worked mainly in bronze and stone and her provocative work recalled genres such as surrealism, nouveau realism, and pop art. During World War II she was imprisoned in the Pabianice and Łódź Ghettos and in Auschwitz, Bergen-Belsen and Theresienstadt Nazi concentration camps.
Aliza Bin-Noun is an Israeli diplomat.
Allan Charles Neuwirth (born 1956) is an American screenwriter, producer, author, designer and cartoonist known for his work in film, television and print, as co-creator of the syndicated comic strip Chelsea Boys.
Allan A. Ryan (Jr.) is an American attorney, author and university and law school professor.
Several authors have alleged that there was a plot to kidnap Pope Pius XII by the Nazis when they occupied Rome during World War II.
Alma Rosé (3 November 1906 – 5 April 1944) was an Austrian violinist of Jewish descent.
Alois Hudal (also known as Luigi Hudal; 31 May 1885 – 13 May 1963) was an Austrian titular bishop in the Roman Catholic church, based in Rome.
Alojzija Štebi (24 March 1883-9 August 1956) was a Slovene feminist, educator and politician.
Alojzy "Alex" Ehrlich (1914 – 7 December 1992), also called "King of the Chiselers," was a Polish table tennis player, widely regarded as one of the best players in Polish history of this sport, who three times won silver in the World Championships.
Ambérieu-en-Bugey (pronounced) is a French commune in the department of Ain in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region of eastern France.
The American Jewish Congress is as an association of Jewish Americans organized to defend Jewish interests at home and abroad through public policy advocacy, using diplomacy, legislation, and the courts.
Amersfoort is a city and municipality in the province of Utrecht, Netherlands.
Amersfoort concentration camp (Kamp Amersfoort, Durchgangslager Amersfoort) was a Nazi concentration camp in Amersfoort, Netherlands.
Amiel Shomrony (born Emil Schwarz; עמיאל שומרוני; 1917 – 2009) was a Croatian-Israeli Holocaust survivor, who served as cantor of the Jewish community in Zagreb and secretary of Zagreb's chief rabbi Miroslav Šalom Freiberger during World War II.
Mohammed Amin al-Husseini (محمد أمين الحسيني; 1897 – 4 July 1974) was a Palestinian Arab nationalist and Muslim leader in Mandatory Palestine.
Aluf Amir Eshel (אמיר אשל; born 1959) is a former Israeli general who served as commander of the Israeli Air Force.
Amnon Weinstein (born July 21, 1939) is an Israeli luthier.
Amon Leopold Göth (alternative spelling Goeth; 11 December 1908 – 13 September 1946) was an Austrian SS-Hauptsturmführer (captain) and the commandant of the Kraków-Płaszów concentration camp in Płaszów in German-occupied Poland for most of the camp's existence during World War II.
Amos Manor (עמוס מנור; October 8, 1918 – August 5, 2007), born Arthur Mendelowitz, was Director of the Shin Bet, Israel's internal intelligence and security service, from 1953 until 1963.
An Englishman in Auschwitz is a book written by Leon Greenman, a Holocaust survivor.
An Israeli Love Story is a play translated from the Hebrew play Sippur Ahava Eretz Yisraeli.
Ana Novac (June 21, 1929 – March 31, 2010) was a Romanian-born writer.
Anal Cunt, also known as AxCx and A.C., was an American grindcore band that formed in Newton, Massachusetts in 1988.
Anatoly Vasilievich Kuznetsov (Анато́лий Васи́льевич Кузнецо́в; August 18, 1929, Kiev – June 13, 1979, London) was a Russian-language Soviet writer who described his experiences in German-occupied Kiev during World War II in his internationally acclaimed novel Babi Yar: A Document in the Form of a Novel.
Anatoly Pavlovich Shapiro (Анатолий Павлович Шапиро, Анатолій Павлович Шапіро; 18 January 1913 – 8 October 2005), was a Ukrainian-born Jewish soldier of the Army of the Soviet Union, who led the first elements of the advancing army into the Nazi-developed Auschwitz concentration camp in Poland, during the latter stages of World War II.
And Along Come Tourists is a 2007 German dramatic film that was written and directed by Robert Thalheim.
And the Violins Stopped Playing (I Skrzypce Przestaly Grac) (1988) is a Polish/American historical drama film written produced and directed by Alexander Ramati and based upon his biographical novel about an actual group of Romani people who were forced to flee from persecution by the Nazi regime at the height of the Porajmos (Romani holocaust), during World War II.
Anda is an Israeli play written and directed by Hillel Mittelpunkt on 24 September 2008, on the stage of the Beit Lessin Theater.
André Bettencourt (21 April 1919 – 19 November 2007) was a French politician.
André Rogerie (25 December 1921 – May 2014, courrierdelouest.fr) was a member of the French Resistance in World War II and survivor of seven Nazi concentration camps who testified after the war about what he had seen in the camps.
André Salomon (27 October 1881 – 5 June 1944) was a French classical pianist.
André Schwarz-Bart (May 28, 1928, Metz, Moselle - September 30, 2006, Pointe-à-Pitre, Guadeloupe) was a French novelist of Polish-Jewish origins.
André Tulard (1899–1967) was a French civil administrator and police inspector.
Andrea (Andi) Murez (אנדראה מורז; born January 29, 1992), is an Israeli-American Olympic swimmer.
Andrew Stephen 'Andy' Grove (born András István Gróf; 2 September 193621 March 2016) was a Hungarian-born American businessman, engineer, author and a pioneer in the semiconductor industry.
Andrew Edmund Karpati Kennedy (9 January 1931 – 20 December 2016) was an author and literary critic with a passionate interest in the language of drama.
Andrew Laszlo A.S.C. László András (January 12, 1926 – October 7, 2011) was a Hungarian-American cinematographer best known for his work on the cult film classic The Warriors.
Andrew (Andrzej) Stanislaw Targowski (born October 9, 1937 in Warsaw, Poland) is a Polish-American computer scientist specializing in enterprise computing, societal computing, information technology impact upon civilization, information theory, wisdom theory, and civilization theory.
Andrychów (list, list, hist. also Andrychau) is the largest town in Wadowice County in southern Poland, in Little Beskids, in historical region Lesser Poland, with 22,257 inhabitants.
Andrzej Grzegorczyk (22 August 1922 – 20 March 2014) was a Polish logician, mathematician, philosopher, and ethicist noted for his work in computability, mathematical logic, and the foundations of mathematics.
Andrzej Krakowski is an award winning film producer, screenwriter and director.
Andrzej Munk (16 October 1921 – 20 September 1961) was a Polish film director, screen writer and documentalist.
Andrzej Sawa (born 1941) is a Polish-South African photographer.
"Angel of Death" is the opening track on the American thrash metal band Slayer's 1986 album Reign in Blood.
Angela Maria of the Heart of Jesus, also called Angela Maria Autsch, baptized as Maria Cecilia Autsch (Röllecken, 26 March 1900 – Auschwitz, 23 December 1944), was a German Trinitarian Sister of Valencia, and Roman Catholic servant of God.
Angers is a city in western France, about southwest of Paris.
Angoulême (Poitevin-Saintongeais: Engoulaeme; Engoleime) is a commune, the capital of the Charente department, in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of southwestern France.
Anicet Kopliński (July 30, 1875 – October 16, 1941) was a Capuchin friar of German descent and priest in Warsaw.
Anna "Ans" Dresden-Polak (née Anna Polak) (24 November 1906 – 23 July 1943) was a Jewish Dutch gymnast.
Anna Heilman, born Hana Wajcblum (1 December 1928 – 1 May 2011), referred to in other sources as Hanka or Chana Weissman, was one of the surviving prisoners from Auschwitz who plotted to blow up the crematoria.
Anna Rezan (Άννα Hannah Rezan Κριτσέλη; born 12 December 1992) is an actress, model, musician, and filmmaker.
Anna Sophia Polak (27 April 1874, Rotterdam — 26 February 1943) was a Jewish feminist and author.
Anna Vissi (Άννα Βίσση; born 20 December 1957), also known as Anna Vishy, is a Greek Cypriot singer, songwriter, actress, television presenter, radio personality, and businesswoman.
Anna Zahorska de domo Elzenberg (1882 in Byszlaki – 1942 in Auschwitz concentration camp), pseudonym Savitri, was a Polish poet, prosaist, dramatist.
ANNE is a 2014 play dramatising the story of Jewish diarist Anne Frank's period in hiding in the Secret Annex in Amsterdam during the Second World War.
Annelies Marie Frank (12 June 1929 – February or March 1945)Research by The Anne Frank House in 2015 revealed that Frank may have died in February 1945 rather than in March, as Dutch authorities had long assumed.
Anne Frank and Me is a 2001 novel by husband-wife writing team Cherie Bennett and Jeff Gottesfeld.
Anne Frank Remembered is a 1995 documentary film by Jon Blair about the life of the diarist Anne Frank.
Anne Frank: The Whole Story is a two-part mini-series based on the book Anne Frank: The Biography by Melissa Müller.
Anne-Lise Stern (born Anneliese Stern: 16 July 1921 - 6 May 2013) was a French psychoanalyst and Holocaust survivor.
The Catholic Church has been criticised in fiction, such as literature, film and television.
Polonophobia, anti-Polonism, antipolonism, and anti-Polish sentiment are terms for a variety of hostile attitudes and acts toward Polish persons and culture.
Antisemitism (also spelled anti-Semitism) – prejudice, hatred of, or discrimination against Jews for reasons connected to their Jewish heritage – has experienced a long history of expression since the days of ancient civilizations, with most of it having originated in the Christian and pre-Christian civilizations of Europe.
With only a small and relatively obscure Jewish population, Japan had no traditional antisemitism until nationalist ideology and propaganda influenced a small number of Japanese in the years preceding World War II.
Surveys show that antisemitism exists in Sweden.
Antoinette Feuerwerker (24 November 1912 – 10 February 2003) was a French jurist and an active fighter in the French Resistance during the Second World War.
Anton "Toni" Burger (19 November 1911 – 25 December 1991) was a Hauptsturmführer (Captain) in the German Nazi SS, Judenreferent in Greece (1944) and Lagerkommandant of Theresienstadt concentration camp.
Anton Lechner (born November 18, 1907, date of death September 14, 1975) was an SS-Rottenführer and member of staff at Auschwitz concentration camp.
Anton Thumann (31 October 1912 – 8 October 1946) was a member of the SS of Nazi Germany who served in various Nazi concentration camps during World War II.
Antoni Andrzej Łyko (27 May 1907 in Krakow – 3 June 1941 in Auschwitz concentration camp) was a Polish footballer (striker) and a member of the Poland national football team for the 1938 FIFA World Cup.
Antoni "Kajtek" Czortek (1915–2004) was a Polish boxing champion, one of the Polish legends of this sport.
Antoni Dobrowolski (October 8, 1904 – October 21, 2012) was a Polish educator, teacher and Holocaust survivor.
Antoni Ignacy Tadeusz Kępiński (November 16, 1918 – June 8, 1972) was a Polish psychiatrist and philosopher.
Antoni Kocjan (12 August 1902 – 13 August 1944) was a renowned Polish glider constructor and a contributor to the intelligence services of the Polish Home Army during World War II.
Antoni Rewera (1869–1942) was a priest and dean of the Cathedral Chapter in Sandomierz.
Antonia "Toni" Bruha (born Antonia Spath: 1 March 1915 - 27 December 2006) was an Austrian resistance fighter.
Antonin Bajewski (17 January 1915 – 18 May 1941) was a Polish Franciscan monk, born Jan Eugene Bajewski.
Antonio González Iturbe (Zaragoza, March 7, 1967) is a Spanish journalist, writer and professor.
The following events occurred in April 1917.
The following events occurred in April 1940.
The following events occurred in April 1943.
The following events occurred in April 1944.
The following events occurred in April 1947.
Arado Flugzeugwerke was a German aircraft manufacturer, originally established as the Warnemünde factory of the Flugzeugbau Friedrichshafen firm, that produced land-based military aircraft and seaplanes during the First World War.
Aranka Siegal (born Aranka Meizlik; June 10, 1930) is a writer, Holocaust survivor, and recipient of the Newbery Honor and Boston Globe-Horn Book Award, both awarded to her in 1982.
"Arbeit macht frei" is a German phrase meaning "work sets you free".
Arbeitslager is a German language word which means labor camp.
The Ardeatine massacre, or Fosse Ardeatine massacre (Eccidio delle Fosse Ardeatine) was a mass killing carried out in Rome on 24 March 1944 by German occupation troops during the Second World War as a reprisal for a partisan attack conducted on the previous day in central Rome against the SS Police Regiment Bozen.
Area - International POPular Group, most commonly known as Area or AreA, is an Italian progressive rock, jazz fusion, electronic, experimental group formed in 1972 by singer Demetrio Stratos and drummer Giulio Capiozzo. They are considered one of the most respected and important bands of the blooming 1970s Italian progressive rock scene.
Arek Hersh, MBE, is a survivor of the Holocaust.
In argumentation theory, an argumentum ad populum (Latin for "argument to the people") is a fallacious argument that concludes that a proposition must be true because many or most people believe it, often concisely encapsulated as: "If many believe so, it is so." This type of argument is known by several names, including appeal to the masses, appeal to belief, appeal to the majority, appeal to democracy, appeal to popularity, argument by consensus, consensus fallacy, authority of the many, bandwagon fallacy, vox populi, and in Latin as argumentum ad numerum ("appeal to the number"), fickle crowd syndrome, and consensus gentium ("agreement of the clans").
Ari Daniel Norman is a British designer and manufacturer of traditional and modern sterling silver jewellery and gifts.
Aribert Ferdinand Heim (28 June 1914 – 10 August 1992) was an Austrian SS doctor, also known as "Dr Death".
The Arie Livne Jewish cultural center is a cultural center in the town of Banja Luka in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Armand Vetulani (16 December 1909 – 3 April 1994) was a Polish art historian and educator, first director of the Central Bureau for Art Exhibitions.
Armin Mordekhai Schreiner (25 February 187429 November 1941) was influential Croatian industrialist, banker, Jewish activist and member of the first Freemasonry Jewish Lodge Zagreb No.
Arno Lustiger (May 7, 1924 – May 15, 2012) was a German historian and author of Jewish origin.
Arno Nadel (October 5, 1878 – March 1943) was a Jewish musicologist, composer, playwright, poet, and painter.
Arnošt Lustig (21 December 1926 – 26 February 2011) was a renowned Czech Jewish author of novels, short stories, plays, and screenplays whose works have often involved the Holocaust.
Arnold Büscher (16 December 1899 in Bad Oeynhausen – 2 August 1949) was a German SS officer.
Victor Arnold Rosenblad Jacoby (September 10, 1913 – January 15, 2002) was a Norwegian writer and translator.
Arnold Kohn (21 May 1905 – 16 November 1984) was a Croatian Zionist, longtime president of the Jewish community Osijek and Holocaust survivor.
Arnold Josef Rosé (born Rosenblum; 24 October 1863 – 25 August 1946) was a Romanian-born Austrian Jewish violinist.
Arnold Zadikow (Kolberg, Pomerania 27 March 1884 – 8 March 1943 Theresienstadt concentration camp) was a modernist German-Jewish sculptor and medalist who worked in Germany and France.
Arnon Yasha Yves Grunberg (born 22 February 1971) is a Dutch writer of novels, essays, and columns, as well as a journalist.
Arpad Wigand (born 13 January 1906 – 26 July 1983) was a Nazi German war criminal with the rank of SS-Oberführer who served as the SS and Police Leader in Warsaw (SS-und Polizeiführer (SSPF) from 4 August 1941 until 23 April 1943 during the occupation of Poland in World War II. As an aide to Erich von dem Bach Zelewski he first suggested the site of the former Polish artillery barracks in the Zasole suburb of Oswiecim for a concentration camp in January 1940. This site would evolve into the Auschwitz concentration camp which went on to become a major site of the Nazi "Final Solution to the Jewish question" resulting in the death of up to 1,000,000 Jews.
Art and Remembrance: The Legacy of Felix Nussbaum is a 1993 documentary directed by Barbara Pfeffer, which explores the life of Jewish artist, Felix Nussbaum.
The art of the Third Reich was the government-approved art produced in Nazi Germany between 1933 and 1945.
Art Spiegelman (born Itzhak Avraham ben Zeev on February 15, 1948) is an American cartoonist, editor, and comics advocate best known for his graphic novel Maus.
Arthur Benjamins (born June 22, 1953 in Rotterdam) is a Dutch artist who has progressed from figurative motor sport paintings to Abstract Iconography, taking on the revival of Neoplasticism.
Arthur Bergen (24 October 1875 – 1943) was an Austrian actor and film director.
Arthur Dodd (born 7 December 1919 in Northwich, Cheshire – 17 January 2011) served in the British Army during World War II and was a Prisoner of War at Auschwitz III (Monowitz), a sub-camp of the notorious Auschwitz.
Arthur Goldstein (18 March 1887 in Lipine, Germany – 1943 in Auschwitz, Poland) was a German journalist and communist politician.
Arthur Liebehenschel (25 November 1901 – 24 January 1948) was a commandant at the Auschwitz and Majdanek concentration camps during World War II.
(13 November 1894 – 21 March 1945) was a key functionary in the security and police apparatus of Nazi Germany and a Holocaust perpetrator.
Arthur Schmidt (born 1937 in Los Angeles, California) is an American film editor with about 27 film credits between 1977 and 2005.
Arthur Seyss-Inquart (German:; 22 July 189216 October 1946) was an Austrian Nazi politician who served as Chancellor of Austria for two days – from 11 to 13 March 1938 – before the Anschluss annexation of Austria by Nazi Germany, signing the constitutional law as acting head of state upon the resignation of President Wilhelm Miklas.
Arthur Zorn is a musician and artist from Montpelier, Vermont.
Asriel Günzig (also known as Azriel Günzig, Ezriel Günzig, Israel Günzig, Izrael Günzig, or J. Günzig) (עזריאל גינציג) was a rabbi, scholar, bookseller, editor and writer.
When World War II was declared in 1939, it had a negative effect on association football; competitions were suspended and players signed up to fight, resulting in the deaths of many players.
The mythical island of Atlantis has often been depicted in books, television shows, films and other creative works of popular culture.
Atrocities was Christian Death's fourth album and the first with Valor Kand taking over main duties after Rozz Williams' departure.
The Twentieth Convoy (Vingtième convoi), also known as the Twentieth Train, was a Holocaust train and prisoner transport in Belgium organized by Nazi Germany during World War II.
Attendorn is a German town in the Olpe district in North Rhine-Westphalia.
Au revoir les enfants (meaning "Goodbye, Children") is an autobiographical 1987 film written, produced and directed by Louis Malle.
Außenarbeitslager Gerdauen was a subcamp of the Stutthof concentration camp in nowaday's Zheleznodorozhny, Kaliningrad Oblast.
Augsburg Morellstraße station is a station on the Augsburg–Buchloe railway in the German state of Bavaria.
The following events occurred in August 1941.
The following events occurred in August 1943.
The following events occurred in August 1944.
The following events occurred in August 1965.
August Raimond Bogusch (5 August 1890 – 28 January 1948) was an SS-Scharführer and member of staff at Auschwitz concentration camp.
The August Frank memorandum of 26 September 1942 was a directive from SS Lieutenant General (Obergruppenführer) August Frank of the SS concentration camp administration department (SS-WVHA).
August Hirt (28 April 1898 – 2 June 1945) was an anatomist with Swiss and German nationality who served as a chairman at the Reich University in Strasbourg during World War II.
August Marian Kowalczyk (15 August 1921 – 29 July 2012) was a Polish actor, theatre, television and film director who was the last survivor of a breakout of prisoners from Auschwitz Concentration Camp on 10 June 1942.
Augustyn Suski (November 8, 1907 – May 26, 1942), was a Polish poet, pedagogue in the interwar period, and underground activist during World War II.
Aulus-les-Bains is a commune in the Ariège department in the Occitanie region of south-western France.
Auschwitz, in English, most commonly refers to the Auschwitz concentration camp complex built by Nazi Germany during World War II, comprising.
Auschwitz is a 2011 German drama film directed by Uwe Boll.
"Auschwitz" is a song composed by Francesco Guccini, and performed by Equipe 84.
The Auschwitz Album is a unique photographic record of the Holocaust of the Second World War.
Auschwitz and After (Auschwitz, et après) is a first person account of life and survival in Birkenau by Charlotte Delbo, translated into English by Rose C. Lamont.
The issue of why Auschwitz concentration camp was not bombed by the Allies during World War II continues to be explored by historians.
The Auschwitz Cross (Krzyż Oświęcimski), instituted on 14 March 1985, was a Polish decoration awarded to honour survivors of Nazi German concentration camps, including Auschwitz (Auschwitz is a German name for the Polish town Oświęcim, where the camps were built by Nazi Germans).
The Auschwitz cross is a cross erected near the Auschwitz concentration camp.
The Auschwitz Institute for Peace and Reconciliation (AIPR) is a non-profit organization devoted to genocide and mass atrocity prevention.
"Auschwitz or the great alibi" (French: Auschwitz ou le grand alibi) is an article published in 1960 in Programme communiste, the magazine of the International Communist Party (ICP), in French, later reedited in the form of a brochure.
The Auschwitz Protocols, also known as the Auschwitz Reports, is a collection of three eyewitness reports from 1943–44 about the mass murder that was taking place inside the Auschwitz concentration camp in German-occupied Poland during the Second World War.
Auschwitz Report (2006) is a non-fiction report on the Auschwitz extermination camp by Primo Levi and Leonardo de Benedetti.
The Auschwitz trial began on November 24, 1947, in Kraków, when Polish authorities (the Supreme National Tribunal) tried 40 former staff of the Auschwitz concentration camps.
Auschwitz-Birkenau Foundation, created in 2009 by Wladyslaw Bartoszewski, aims in gathering and manage the iron fund from which income shall finance long-term, global preservation program of the Auschwitz-Birkenau Memorial Site.
The Auschwitz-Birkenau Memorial and Museum (Państwowe Muzeum Auschwitz-Birkenau w Oświęcimiu (Teren Niemiecki zabrany Polsce) is a memorial and museum in Oświęcim (German: Auschwitz), Poland, which includes the Nazi concentration camps Auschwitz I and Auschwitz II-Birkenau. It is devoted to the memory of the victims who died at both camps during World War II. The museum performs several tasks, including Holocaust research.
Auschwitz: The Nazis and 'The Final Solution is a BBC six-episode documentary film series presenting the story of Auschwitz concentration camp.
Austerlitz may refer to.
Austin Joseph App (1902 – 1984) was a controversial German-American professor of medieval English literature who taught at the University of Scranton and La Salle University.
Australia–Poland relations refers to the diplomatic relations between Australia and Poland.
The Austrian Resistance launched in response to the rise in fascism across Europe and, more specifically, to the Anschluss in 1938 and resulting occupation of Austria by Germany.
Avraham Haim Yosef (Avi) haCohen Weiss (אברהם חיים יוסף הכהן ווייס; born June 24, 1944) is an American open Orthodox ordained rabbi, author, teacher, lecturer, and activist who heads the Hebrew Institute of Riverdale in The Bronx, New York, from which he will be retired in 2015.
The occupation of Greece by the Axis Powers (Η Κατοχή, I Katochi, meaning "The Occupation") began in April 1941 after Nazi Germany invaded Greece to assist its ally, Fascist Italy, which had been at war with Greece since October 1940.
Ágnes Heller (born 12 May 1929) is a Hungarian philosopher.
Ágnes Keleti (born Ágnes Klein, 9 January 1921) is a Hungarian-Israeli retired Olympic and world champion artistic gymnast and coach.
Ángel Sanz Briz (28 September 1910 – 11 June 1980) was a Spanish diplomat who served under Francoist Spain during World War II.
Árpád Weisz (also spelt Veisz; 16 April 1896 – 31 January 1944) was a Hungarian Olympic football player and manager.
Åsmund (Aasmund) Esval (February 16, 1889 in Nes in Romerike, Norway – October 17, 1971 in Oslo, Norway) was a Norwegian painter.
Étienne Hirsch (20 January 1901 – 17 May 1994) was a French civil engineer and a member of the French Resistance during World War II.
Újfehértó (Yiddish, Ratzfert) is a small town in Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg County, in the Northern Great Plain region of eastern Hungary.
Červená Voda (Mährisch Rothwasser) is a village in the Pardubice Region of the Czech Republic with a population of 3,264 (2006), is situated in a valley 19 km north-west from the city of Šumperk and belongs to the Okres Ústí nad Orlicí district.
Łódź (לאדזש, Lodzh; also written as Lodz) is the third-largest city in Poland and an industrial hub.
The Łódź Ghetto (Ghetto Litzmannstadt) was a World War II ghetto established by the Nazi German authorities for Polish Jews and Roma following the 1939 invasion of Poland.
Łomża (Yiddish: Lomzhe) is a city in north-eastern Poland, approximately 150 kilometres (90 miles) to the north-east of Warsaw and west of Białystok.
The Łomża Ghetto was a World War II ghetto created by Nazi Germany on 12 August 1941 in Łomża, Poland; for the purpose of persecution of Polish Jews.
Šandor Alexander pl.
The Šiauliai or Shavli Ghetto was a Jewish ghetto established in July 1941 by Nazi Germany in the city of Šiauliai (שאַװל, Shavl) in Nazi-occupied Lithuania during the Holocaust.
Babice is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Oświęcim, within Oświęcim County, Lesser Poland Voivodeship, in southern Poland.
Bad Kreuznach is a town in the Bad Kreuznach district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.
Baden-Baden is a spa town located in the state of Baden-Württemberg in southwestern Germany.
The Baia Mare ghetto was one of the Nazi-era ghettos for European Jews during World War II.
Balassagyarmat (formerly Balassa-Gyarmath, Balašske Ďarmoty, Jahrmarkt) is a town in northern Hungary.
The company Ballets Russes de Monte Carlo (note the plural) was formed in 1932 after the death of Diaghilev and the demise of Ballets Russes.
Baraka is a 1992 non-narrative documentary film directed by Ron Fricke.
Barbed wire, also known as barb wire, less often as bob wire or, in the southeastern United States, bobbed wire, is a type of steel fencing wire constructed with sharp edges or points arranged at intervals along the strand(s).
Barouh Berkovits (May 7, 1926 – October 23, 2012) was one of the pioneers of bio-engineering, particularly the cardiac defibrillator and artificial cardiac pacemaker.
Rabbi Barry Marcus is a Rabbi of the Central Synagogue, Great Portland Street located in the West End of London, notable for his rabbinical and pastoral duties in the UK, Israel and South Africa.
Baruch Lopes Leão de Laguna (16 February 1864, Amsterdam - 19 November 1943, Auschwitz) was a Dutch painter of Portuguese-Jewish ancestry; associated with the Laren School.
The church in Niepokalanów, devoted to the BVM the Immaculate, the Omni-mediatress of All Glories, was designed by the architect from Cracow - Zygmunt Gawlik.
The Basilica of the Sacred Heart of Jesus is a Catholic parish church and minor basilica in Syracuse, New York.
Bat-Sheva Dagan (בת-שבע דגן) (born September 8, 1925) is a Polish-Israeli Holocaust survivor, educator, author, and speaker.
Bata Brands is a multinational shoes maker based in Lausanne, Switzerland.
The Battle of Verdun (Bataille de Verdun,, Schlacht um Verdun), fought from 21 February to 18 December 1916, was the largest and longest battle of the First World War on the Western Front between the German and French armies.
Bayer AG is a German multinational, pharmaceutical and life sciences company.
Bálint Hóman (29 December 1885 – 2 June 1951) was a Hungarian scholar and politician who served as Minister of Religion and Education twice: between 1932–1938 and between 1939–1942.
Béatrice Reinach (1894–1945) was a French socialite and a Holocaust victim.
Békéscsaba (see also other alternative names) is a city in Southeast Hungary, the capital of the county Békés.
Béla Guttmann (27 January 1899 – 28 August 1981) was a Hungarian footballer and coach.
Béla Zsolt (born as Béla Steiner, 1895–1949) was a Hungarian radical socialist journalist and politician, author of the second generation of the Nyugat literary journal.
Będzin (also Bendzin; Bendzin, בענדין Bendin) is a city in Zagłębie Dąbrowskie, southern Poland.
The Będzin Ghetto (a.k.a. the Bendzin Ghetto, בענדינער געטאָ, Bendiner geto; Ghetto von Bendsburg) was a World War II ghetto set up by Nazi Germany for the Polish Jews in the town of Będzin in occupied south-western Poland.
Beat the Reaper is a crime novel published in 2009, the debut novel of author/physician Josh Bazell.
Beate Auguste Klarsfeld (née Künzel; born 13 February 1939 in Berlin) is a Franco-German journalist.
Beaune-la-Rolande internment camp was a French-run Nazi transit camp for Jews in Beaune-la-Rolande, France.
Beautiful Words is a play by the Australian playwright Sean Riley.
Bełżec (in Belzec) was a Nazi German extermination camp built by the SS for the purpose of implementing the secretive Operation Reinhard, the plan to eradicate Polish Jewry, a key part of the "Final Solution" which entailed the murder of some 6 million Jews in the Holocaust.
Bedřich Fritta (19 September 1906, Višňová – 8 November 1944, Auschwitz) was a Czech-Jewish artist and cartoonist.
Bela Ewald Althans (born 23 March 1966 in BremenStephen E. Atkins, Holocaust Denial as an International Movement, ABC-CLIO, 2009, p. 111) is a German former neo-Nazi activist.
Béla Ferenc Dezső Blaskó (20 October 1882 – 16 August 1956), better known as Bela Lugosi, was a Hungarian-American actor famous for portraying Count Dracula in the 1931 film and for his roles in various other horror films.
The Belarusian Great Patriotic War Museum is a museum in Minsk, Belarus.
The Belgian Resistance (Résistance belge, Belgisch verzet) collectively refers to the resistance movements opposed to the German occupation of Belgium during World War II.
Despite being neutral at the start of World War II, Belgium and its colonial possessions found themselves at war after the country was invaded by German forces on 10 May 1940.
Belomorkanal (Беломорканал) is a Russian brand of cigarettes, originally made by the Uritsky Tobacco Factory in Leningrad, Soviet Union.
The Belsen trial was one of several trials which the Allied occupation forces conducted against former officials and functionaries of Nazi Germany after the end of World War II.
Belz (Белз; Bełz ; בעלז &thinsp) is a small city in Sokal Raion of Lviv Oblast (region) of Western Ukraine, near the border with Poland, is located between the Solokiya river (a tributary of the Bug River) and the Rzeczyca stream.
Ben Abraham (born Henryk Nekrycz; December 11, 1924 – October 9, 2015) was a Polish-born writer and historian who became a naturalized Brazilian citizen.
Ben Burns (August 25, 1913 – January 29, 2000) was a pioneering editor of black publications (including the Chicago Daily Defender, Ebony, Jet and Negro Digest) and a public relations executive in Chicago.
Benjamin John Whishaw (born 14 October 1980) is an English actor.
Beni Virtzberg (בני וירצברג; August 12, 1928 – August 4, 1968) was an Israeli forester, Holocaust survivor and writer who was among the first in Israel to write an autobiographical account of his experiences during and after the Holocaust.
Benjamin Akzin (בנימין אקצין) (1904–1985) was an early Zionist activist and, later, an Israeli professor of law.
Benjamin Fondane or Benjamin Fundoianu (born Benjamin Wechsler, Wexler or Vecsler, first name also Beniamin or Barbu, usually abridged to B.; November 14, 1898 – October 2, 1944) was a Romanian and French poet, critic and existentialist philosopher, also noted for his work in film and theater.
Benjamin Israel Murmelstein (9 June 1905 – 27 October 1989) was an Austrian rabbi.
The Benjamin Prize was established as a Norwegian prize to counter racism in 2002.
Benjamin Z. Kedar (born 2 September 1938)Who's Who in Israel 2001 (Tel Aviv, 2002), p. 214: "KEDAR, Benjamin Z. is professor emeritus of History at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.
Bennekom is a village and parish in the Netherlands, which is part of the Municipality of Ede in the south-west of the Veluwe district of the Province of Gelderland.
Benno Martin (12 February 1893 – 2 July 1975) was a German SS functionary during the Nazi era.
Binyamin "Beny" Alagem (בנימין אלג'ם) (born 1953 in Israel) is an Israeli American entrepreneur, business executive, hotelier and philanthropist.
Bereck Kofman (October 10, 1900 – 1943) was a French Hasidic orthodox rabbi, independent from the consistory, born in Poland, deported and murdered in Auschwitz.
Rabbi Shlomo Dovber Pinchas Lazar (born May 19, 1964 in Milan, Italy), better known as Berel Lazar, is an Italian Jewish Orthodox, Chabad-Lubavitch Hasidic rabbi.
Bergen-Belsen, or Belsen, was a Nazi concentration camp in what is today Lower Saxony in northern Germany, southwest of the town of Bergen near Celle.
Berlin is the capital and the largest city of Germany, as well as one of its 16 constituent states.
The Berlin Biennale (full name: Berlin Biennale für zeitgenössische Kunst, Berlin Biennale for Contemporary Art) is a contemporary art exhibition, which has been held at various locations in Berlin, Germany, every two to three years since 1998.
Berlin-Grunewald is a railway station in the Grunewald district of Berlin.
Berlin-Marzahn Rastplatz was a camp set up for Romani people in the Berlin suburb of Marzahn by Nazi authorities.
Berliner Motor Corporation was the US distributor from the 1950s through the 1980s for several European motorcycle marques, including Ducati, J-Be, Matchless, Moto Guzzi, Norton, Sachs and Zündapp, as well as selling Metzeler tires.
Bernard B. Fall (November 19, 1926 – February 21, 1967) was a prominent war correspondent, historian, political scientist, and expert on Indochina during the 1950s and 1960s.
Bernard Etté (September 13, 1898, Kassel - September 26, 1973, Mühldorf) was a German jazz and light music violinist and conductor.
Bernard Natan (born Natan Tannenzaft; July 14, 1886 – October 1942) was a Franco-Romanian film entrepreneur, director and actor of the 1920s and 1930s.
Bernard Offen (born 17 April 1929) in Kraków, Poland is a Holocaust survivor.
Bernat Rosner (born 29 January 1932) is a survivor of Auschwitz concentration camp and Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp.
Berthold Frank Hoselitz (1913–1995) taught Economics and Social Science at the University of Chicago between 1945 and 1978.
Bertha Pappenheim (February 27, 1859 – May 28, 1936) was an Austrian-Jewish feminist, a social pioneer, and the founder of the Jewish Women's Association (Jüdischer Frauenbund).
Berthold Epstein (1 April 1890 – 9 June 1962) was a pediatrician, professor, and scientist who was conscripted as a doctor in the Auschwitz concentration camp during World War II.
Berthold Guthmann (13 April 1893 – 29 September 1944) was a German lawyer and First World War veteran.
Berthold Romanovich Lubetkin (14 December 1901 – 23 October 1990) was a Russian émigré architect who pioneered modernist design in Britain in the 1930s.
Bertioga is a Brazilian municipality of the state of São Paulo in the Baixada Santista.
Beuthen Jewish Community was one of twenty-five Jewish communities of the district of Oppeln, established in the city of Beuthen (now Bytom, Poland) with a Jewish primary school supported by the city, a religious school, 13 charitable societies, and 4 institutions, prior to German invasion of Poland in World War II.
The Białystok Ghetto (getto w Białymstoku) was a World War II Jewish ghetto set up by Nazi Germany between July 26 and early August 1941 in the newly formed Bezirk Bialystok district within Nazi occupied Poland.
The Białystok Ghetto uprising was a Jewish insurrection in the Białystok Ghetto against the Nazi German occupation authorities during World War II.
Bicske is a town in Fejér county, Hungary.
Bielsko-Biała (Bílsko-Bělá; Bielitz-Biala) is a city in Southern Poland with the population of approximately 174,000 (December 2013).
Bill Copeland was an American poet, writer and historian.
William Randall Downs, Jr. (August 17, 1914 – May 3, 1978) was an American broadcast journalist and war correspondent.
Bill Graham (born Wulf Wolodia Grajonca; January 8, 1931 – October 25, 1991) was a German-American impresario and rock concert promoter from the 1960s until his death in 1991 in a helicopter crash.
William Wolf "Bill" Handel (born August 25, 1951) is the director and founder of the Center for Surrogate Parenting, licensed attorney, and an AM radio personality in Los Angeles, California.
Binjamin Wilkomirski, real name Bruno Dössekker (born Bruno Grosjean in 1941), was a musician and writer who constructed an identity as a Holocaust survivor.
Binky Brown Meets the Holy Virgin Mary is a comic-book story by American cartoonist Justin Green, published in 1972.
The Biographical Dictionary of the Extreme Right Since 1890 is a reference book by Philip Rees, on leading people in the various far right movements since 1890.
Birgit Stauch (Born in Baden-Baden, Germany, December 11, 1961) is a contemporary German sculptor who works in bronzes, sculptures, sketches and portraits.
Birkenau commonly refers to the Nazi German extermination camp Auschwitz II–Birkenau in the Auschwitz concentration camp during World War II, located near Brzezinka, Poland.
Bistrița (Bistritz, archaic Nösen; Beszterce) is the capital city of Bistrița-Năsăud County, in northern Transylvania, Romania.
The Bistrița ghetto was one of the Nazi-era ghettos for European Jews during World War II.
Black Book (Zwartboek) is a 2006 thriller film co-written and directed by Paul Verhoeven and starring Carice van Houten, Sebastian Koch, Thom Hoffman, and Halina Reijn.
Black Thursday (Les Guichets du Louvre) is a French film from 1974 directed by Michel Mitrani.
Blanche Baker (born December 20, 1956) is an American actress and filmmaker.
The Blechhammer (sheet metal hammer) area was the location of Nazi Germany chemical plants, prisoner of war (POW) camps, and forced labor camps (Arbeitslager Blechhammer; also Nummernbücher).
Blind Love: A Holocaust Journey Through Poland with Man’s Best Friend is a 2015 documentary film about blind Israelis traveling to Poland with the help of their guide dogs, to learn about the Holocaust.
Block 10 was a cellblock at the Auschwitz Concentration Camp where women and men were used as experimental subjects for German doctors.
Block 11 was the name of a brick building in the Auschwitz concentration camp.
Block 66, the Children's Block, or Kinderblock was part of Buchenwald concentration camp, located in what was known as the "little camp" which was separated from the rest of the camp by barbed wire.
Bloeme Evers-Emden (26 July 1926 – 18 July 2016) was a Dutch Jewish teacher and child psychologist who extensively researched the phenomenon of "hidden children" during World War II and wrote four books on the subject in the 1990s.
The Blue Police (more precisely, Navy-Blue Police, Granatowa policja) was the Polish police during the Second World War in German-occupied Poland (the General Government).
The von Blumenthal family are Lutheran and Roman Catholic German nobility, originally from Brandenburg-Prussia.
Bobrek was a subcamp of Monowitz concentration camp located in or near Bobrek, Lesser Poland Voivodeship, Poland, and was part of the Auschwitz concentration camp complex.
Bolesław Strzelecki (1896–1941) was a Polish and Roman Catholic priest.
The Bolzano transit camp (Polizei- und Durchgangslager Bozen) was a Nazi concentration camp active in Bolzano between 1944 and the end of the Second World War.
The bombing of Dresden was a British/American aerial bombing attack on the city of Dresden, the capital of the German state of Saxony, during World War II in the European Theatre.
Bonyhád is a town in Tolna County in Southwestern Hungary.
Boppard, formerly also spelled Boppart, is a town and municipality (since the 1976 inclusion of 9 neighbouring villages, Ortsbezirken) in the Rhein-Hunsrück-Kreis (district) in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, lying in the Rhine Gorge, a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Borat Sagdiyev (Борат Сағдиев, Borat Saǵdıev; bɐˈrat sɐɡˈdʲi(j)ɪf; born February 27, 1972) is a satirical fictional character, created and performed by British comedian Sacha Baron Cohen.
Boris Braun (20 August 1920, Đurđevac) is a Croatian University professor, Holocaust survivor and member of the Jewish community in Zagreb.
Boris Nikolaevich Polevoy (or Polevoi) (Бори́с Никола́евич Полево́й; March 17, 1908 – July 12, 1981) was a notable Soviet writer.
Boris Taslitzky, sometimes Boris Tazlitsky, (born September 30, 1911 in Paris, December 9, 2005 in Paris), was a French painter with left-wing sympathies, best known for his figurative depictions of some difficult moments in the history of the twentieth century.
Bosse Lindquist (born 1954) is a Swedish radio and TV producer and writer.
Boyan (באיאן) is a Hasidic dynasty named after the town of Boiany in the historic region of Bukovina, now in Ukraine.
Brainin (Брайнин, also Brainen, Brajnin, Braynen, Breinin) is a Russian-Jewish surname.
Brandenburg an der Havel is a town in Brandenburg, Germany, which served as the capital of the Margraviate of Brandenburg until replaced by Berlin in 1417.
The Brandenburg Euthanasia Centre (NS-Tötungsanstalt Brandenburg), officially known as the Brandenburg an der Havel State Welfare Institute (Landes-Pflegeanstalt Brandenburg a. H.) was established in 1939 and acted during the Nazi era as a killing centre as part of the Nazi Euthanasia Programme, subsequently referred to after the war as Action T4.
Branko Benzon (29 August 1903 – September 1970) was a Croatian physician, diplomat and politician.
Branko Lustig (born 10 June 1932) is a Croatian film producer best known for winning Academy Awards for Best Picture for Schindler's List and Gladiator.
Brücken (Pfalz) is an Ortsgemeinde – a municipality belonging to a Verbandsgemeinde, a kind of collective municipality – in the Kusel district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.
The Brünnlitz labor camp (Arbeitslager Brünnlitz) was a concentration camp of Nazi Germany which was established in 1944 just outside the town of Brünnlitz, solely as a site for an armaments factory run by German industrialist Oskar Schindler, which was in actuality a front for a safe haven for Schindlerjuden.
Bredtveit Prison (formally named Bredtveit Prison Service, Custody and Supervision Unit, Bredtveit fengsel, forvarings- og sikringsanstalt) is a prison located in the neighborhood of Bredtvet in Oslo, Norway.
Breendonk is a small town in the province of Antwerp, Belgium, with a population 3,000, halfway between Brussels and Antwerp.
Breyer may refer to.
The British Hero of the Holocaust award is a special national award given by the government of the United Kingdom in recognition of British citizens who assisted in rescuing victims of the Holocaust.
The British National Party (BNP) is a far-right and fascist political party in the United Kingdom.
Brno (Brünn) is the second largest city in the Czech Republic by population and area, the largest Moravian city, and the historical capital city of the Margraviate of Moravia.
Bronisław "Bronek" Czech (July 25, 1908 – June 4, 1944) was a Polish sportsman and artist.
Professor Bronisław Geremek (born Benjamin Lewertow; 6 March 1932 – 13 July 2008) was a Polish social historian and politician.
Brundibár is a children's opera by Jewish Czech composer Hans Krása with a libretto by Adolf Hoffmeister, originally performed by the children of Theresienstadt concentration camp in occupied Czechoslovakia.
Bruno Abdank-Abakanowicz (6 October 1852 – 29 August 1900) was a Polish mathematician, inventor, and electrical engineer.
Bruno Beger (27 April 1911 – 12 October 2009) was a German racial anthropologist, ethnologist, and explorer who worked for the Ahnenerbe.
Bruno Gollnisch (born 28 January 1950) is a French academic and politician, a member of the National Front (FN) far-right party, and a member of the European Parliament.
Bruno Kittel (born 1922 in Austria) was a Nazi official who oversaw the liquidation of the Vilna Ghetto in September 1943 and became known for his cynical cruelty.
Bruno Emil Tesch (14 August 1890 – 16 May 1946) was a German chemist and entrepreneur.
Bruno Nikolaus Maria Weber (21 May 1915 in Trier – 23 September 1956 in Homburg) was a German physician, bacteriologist and Hauptsturmführer (1944), at Auschwitz, in the branch of the Hygiene Institute of the Waffen SS.
Brzeg (Latin: Alta Ripa, former German name: Brieg) is a town in southwestern Poland with 36,381 inhabitants (2016) and the capital of Brzeg County.
Brzesko Ghetto was a Nazi ghetto during World War II in occupied Poland.
Brzeszcze is a town in Oświęcim County, Lesser Poland Voivodeship in southern Poland, near Oświęcim.
Brzezinka (Birkenau, Březinka) is a village in southern Poland, about from Oświęcim (Auschwitz), in the district of Gmina Oświęcim, Oświęcim County, Lesser Poland Voivodeship.
The Bubi people (also known as Bobe, Voove, Ewota, and Bantu Bubi) are a Bantu ethnic group of Central Africa who are indigenous to Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea.
Buchenwald concentration camp (German: Konzentrationslager (KZ) Buchenwald,; literally, in English: beech forest) was a German Nazi concentration camp established on Ettersberg hill near Weimar, Germany, in July 1937, one of the first and the largest of the concentration camps on German soil, following Dachau's opening just over four years earlier.
The Budapest String Quartet was a string quartet in existence from 1917 to 1967.
The Budapest University of Jewish Studies (Országos Rabbiképző – Zsidó Egyetem, or Országos Rabbiképző Intézet / Jewish Theological Seminary – University of Jewish Studies / Landesrabbinerschule in Budapest) is a university in Budapest, Hungary.
The Bullenhuser Damm School is located at 92–94 Bullenhuser Damm, a street in the Rothenburgsort section of Hamburg, Germany.
, established in 1923, is a Japanese publishing company known for its leading monthly magazine Bungeishunjū.
The Bunte (company's preferred spelling in capital letters) is a German-language people magazine published by Hubert Burda Media.
Bystrzyca Kłodzka (Habelschwerdt, Kladská Bystřice) is a historic town in Kłodzko County, in Lower Silesian Voivodeship in southwestern Poland.
Bytom (Polish pronunciation:; Silesian: Bytůń, Beuthen O.S.) is a city in Silesia in southern Poland, near Katowice.
Bytom Synagogue or Beuthen Synagogue was a synagogue in Beuthen, in the Prussian Province of Silesia (present-day Bytom, Poland), a border–town between Germany and the Second Polish Republic prior to German invasion of Poland in World War II.
Cecil Philip Taylor (1929 – 1981), usually credited as C.P. Taylor, was a Scottish playwright.
Camill Hoffmann was a Jewish Czechoslovak diplomat and writer born in 1878.
Camouflage is a 2004 science fiction novel by American writer Joe Haldeman.
The Camp de Rivesaltes, also known as Camp Maréchal Joffre, is a military camp in the commune of Rivesaltes nearby Perpignan in the department of Pyrénées-Orientales in the South of France.
The Camp des Milles was a French internment camp, opened in September 1939, in a former tile factory near the village of Les Milles, part of the commune of Aix-en-Provence (Bouches-du-Rhône).
Campaign Against Antisemitism (CAA) is a United Kingdom non-governmental organisation established in August 2014 by members of the Anglo-Jewish community.
Canada is a country in North America.
The 2015 Canadian federal election (formally the 42nd Canadian general election) was held on October 19, 2015, to elect members to the House of Commons of the 42nd Canadian Parliament.
CANDLES Holocaust Museum and Education Center ("Children of Auschwitz Nazi Deadly Lab Experiments Survivors") is a museum in Terre Haute, Indiana which educates the public about the Holocaust.
Capital punishment remained in Polish law until April 1, 1997, but from 1989 there was a moratorium on executions, with the last execution taking place one year earlier.
Carl Clauberg (28 September 1898 – 9 August 1957) was a German gynecologist who conducted medical experiments on human subjects (mainly Jewish) at Auschwitz concentration camp.
Carl Fredriksens Transport was the code name for an operation during the occupation of Norway by Nazi Germany to help Jews and other persecuted Norwegians escape persecution, deportation, and murder in death camps.
Carlo Sigmund Taube (born 4 July 1897 in Galicia, died 1 October 1944 in Auschwitz-Birkenau) was a pianist, composer, conductor, and victim of the Holocaust.
Carmel Schrire (born May 15, 1941) is a professor of anthropology at Rutgers University whose research focuses on historical archaeology, particularly in South Africa and Europe.
The Order of the Brothers of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Mount Carmel or Carmelites (sometimes simply Carmel by synecdoche; Ordo Fratrum Beatissimæ Virginis Mariæ de Monte Carmelo) is a Roman Catholic religious order founded, probably in the 12th century, on Mount Carmel in the Crusader States, hence the name Carmelites.
Caroline Mary Moorehead (born 28 October 1944) is a human rights journalist and biographer.
Caroline Wyatt (born 1967) is an Australian-born English journalist.
Carpathian Ruthenia, Carpatho-Ukraine or Zakarpattia (Rusyn and Карпатська Русь, Karpats'ka Rus' or Закарпаття, Zakarpattja; Slovak and Podkarpatská Rus; Kárpátalja; Transcarpatia; Zakarpacie; Karpatenukraine) is a historic region in the border between Central and Eastern Europe, mostly located in western Ukraine's Zakarpattia Oblast, with smaller parts in easternmost Slovakia (largely in Prešov Region and Košice Region) and Poland's Lemkovyna.
Carpathian Ruthenia was a region in the easternmost part of Czechoslovakia (Subcarpathian Ruthenia, or Transcarpathia) that became autonomous within that country in September 1938, declared its independence as the "Republic of Carpatho-Ukraine” in March 1939, was immediately occupied and annexed by Hungary, invaded by the Soviet Red Army in 1944 and incorporated into the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic in 1946.
Casimir Oberfeld (16 November 1903 – January 1945) was a Jewish Polish-born French composer.
Cathleen Prunty "Cathie" Black (born April 26, 1944) is a former New York City Schools Chancellor.
Popes Pius XI (1922–39) and Pius XII (1939–58) led the Roman Catholic Church through the rise and fall of Nazi Germany.
Several Catholic countries and populations fell under Nazi domination during the period of the Second World War (1939–1945), and ordinary Catholics fought on both sides of the conflict.
Catholic resistance to Nazism was a component of German resistance to Nazism and of Resistance during World War II.
Cândido Godói is a municipality of 6,641 inhabitants in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil near the Argentine border, famous for the high number of twins born there.
Cédric Klapisch (born 4 September 1961) is a French film director, screenwriter and producer.
CCC Film (German: Central Cinema Compagnie-Film GmbH) is a German film production company founded in 1946 by Artur Brauner.
Cecily Lefort (30 April 1900 – February 1945) was a British SOE agent during the Second World War.
The Cehei ghetto, also known as the Șimleu Silvaniei ghetto, was one of the Nazi-era ghettos for European Jews during World War II.
Cehu Silvaniei (meaning "Czechs of Szilágy") is a town in Sălaj County, Transylvania, Romania.
Ceija Stojka (1933–2013) was an Austrian-Romani writer, painter and musician, and survivor of the Holocaust.
The Norwegian Center for Studies of the Holocaust and Religious Minorities (Norwegian: Senter for studier av Holocaust og livssynsminoriteter, or HL-senteret) opened its doors to the public on August 24, 2006, in the former residence of Vidkun Quisling known as Villa Grande, on the peninsula of Bygdøy in Oslo.
The Central Council of German Sinti and Roma (German: Zentralrat Deutscher Sinti und Roma) is a German Romanies rights group based in Heidelberg, Germany.
Central European University (CEU) is a graduate-level, private university accredited in Hungary and the U.S., located in Budapest.
Central Office of the State Justice Administrations for the Investigation of National Socialist Crimes
The Central Office of the State Justice Administrations for the Investigation of National Socialist Crimes (Zentrale Stelle der Landesjustizverwaltungen zur Aufklärung nationalsozialistischer Verbrechen or Zentrale Stelle or Z Commission) is Germany's main agency responsible for investigating war crimes during Nazi rule.
Cerium is a chemical element with symbol Ce and atomic number 58.
Chaim Itsl Goldstein, also known as Charles Goldstein, was born in Warsaw, Poland.
Chaim Michael Dov Weissmandl (חיים מיכאל דב וויסמנדל) (25 October 1903, Debrecen, Hungary – 29 November 1957, Mount Kisco, New York) (known as Michael Ber Weissmandl) was a rabbi and shtadlan who became known for his efforts to save the Jews of Slovakia from extermination at the hands of the Nazis during the Holocaust.
Chaim Mordechai Rumkowski (February 27, 1877 – August 28, 1944) was a Polish Jew and wartime businessman appointed by Nazi Germany as the head of the Council of Elders in the Łódź Ghetto during the German occupation of Poland in World War II.
Chamber of the Holocaust (מרתף השואה, Martef HaShoa, lit. "Cellar of the Catastrophe") is a small Holocaust museum located on Mount Zion in Jerusalem.
Chance Survivor is Andrew Karpati Kennedy's literary memoir of his childhood and youth in Hungary, in a wartime labour camp near Vienna, and, from his mid-teens, at school and university in England.
The ''BioShock'' series is a collection of story-driven first person shooters in which the player explores dystopian settings created by Ken Levine and his team at Irrational Games.
Charles Arnold-Baker, OBE (born Wolfgang Charles Werner von Blumenthal; 25 June 1918 — 6 June 2009) was an English member of MI6, barrister (called 1948) and historian.
Charles Joseph Coward (30 January 1905–1976), known as the "Count of Auschwitz", was a British soldier captured during the Second World War who rescued Jews from Auschwitz and claimed he had smuggled himself into the camp for one night, subsequently testifying about his experience at the IG Farben Trial at Nuremberg.
Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle (22 November 1890 – 9 November 1970) was a French general and statesman who led the French Resistance against Nazi Germany in World War II and chaired the Provisional Government of the French Republic from 1944 to 1946 in order to reestablish democracy in France.
Charles Haldeman (September 27, 1931 – January 19, 1983) was an American novelist.
Irving Charles Krauthammer (March 13, 1950 – June 21, 2018) was an American political columnist whose weekly column was syndicated to more than 400 publications worldwide.
Charles Picard (7 June 1883 – 15 December 1965) was a prominent Classical archaeologist and historian of ancient Greek art.
Charles Thomas Payne (February 1925 – August 1, 2014) was an American who served in the U.S. military during World War II as a member of the U.S. Army's 89th Infantry Division that liberated Ohrdruf, a sub-camp of the Buchenwald concentration camp.
Charlotte Delbo, (10 August 1913 – 1 March 1985), was a French writer chiefly known for her haunting memoirs of her time as a prisoner in Auschwitz, where she was sent for her activities as a member of the French resistance.
Charlotte Salomon (April 16, 1917 – October 10, 1943) was a German-Jewish artist born in Berlin.
Chava Rosenfarb (9 February 1923 – 30 January 2011) (Chawa Rosenfarb, חוה ראָזענפֿאַרב) was a Holocaust survivor and Jewish-Canadian author of Yiddish poetry and novels, a major contributor to post-World War II Yiddish Literature.
Chaviva Milada Hošek,; (born 6 October 1946) is a Canadian academic, feminist and former politician.
Chełmek is a town in Lesser Poland Voivodeship in southern Poland.
Chełmno extermination camp (Vernichtungslager Kulmhof), built during World War II, was the first of the Nazi German extermination camps and was situated north of the metropolitan city of Łódź (renamed to Litzmannstadt), near the village of Chełmno nad Nerem (Kulmhof an der Nehr in German).
The Chełmno trials were a series of consecutive war-crime trials of the Chełmno extermination camp personnel, held in Poland and in Germany following World War II.
The Chernihiv–Ovruch railway is a partially electrified and partially operational single track railway line that stretches between the town of Ovruch and the city of Chernihiv, in northern Ukraine, passing through southern Belarus and the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone.
Children were especially vulnerable to Nazi murder or death in the era of the Holocaust.
Chorzów (Königshütte; Chorzůw) is a city in Silesia in southern Poland, near Katowice.
Christopher Moyles (born 22 February 1974) is an English radio and television presenter, author, and presenter of The Chris Moyles Show on Radio X. Previously he has presented The Chris Moyles Show on BBC Radio 1 from 2004 to 2012 and Chris Moyles' Quiz Night between 2009 and 2012 on Channel 4.
The idea of the Christ of Europe, a messianic doctrine based in the New Testament, first became widespread among Poland and other various European nations through the activities of the Reformed Churches in the 16th to the 18th centuries.
Christian Schneider (born 19 November 1887 in Kulmbach – died 5 May 1972 in Heidelberg-Ziegelhausen) was a German chemist, industrial manager and, in the Third Reich, a Wehrwirtschaftsführer (war economy leader).
Christine Borland (born 1965, Darvel, Ayrshire, Scotland) is a Scottish artist and one of the Young British Artists (YBAs).
Christine Linda Shawcroft (born April 1955) is a British Labour Party activist and former politician.
Christopher Robert Browning (born May 22, 1944) is an American historian, known best for his works on the Holocaust.
Christopher Jargocki (born Krzysztof Piotr Leopold Jargocki,, April 29, 1944 in Warsaw, Poland), also known by the pen name Christopher Jargodzki, is a Polish-born American physicist, author, and translator who is a Professor Emeritus of Physics at the University of Central Missouri, as well as the Director of the Center for Cooperative Phenomena.
Chronicles of Terror – a digital internet archive established by the in August 2016.
A list of 20th-century saints and blesseds.
Chrzanów is a town in southern Poland with 39,704 inhabitants.
Cissi Pera Klein (19 April 1929 in Narvik – 3 March 1943 in Auschwitz) was a Norwegian Jewish girl who is commemorated every year as one of the victims of the Holocaust in her home town in Trondheim.
The Citadel of Besançon (Citadelle de Besançon) is a 17th-century fortress in Franche-Comté, France.
City Opera of Vancouver is a professional chamber opera company in Vancouver, Canada, founded in 2006.
Claude Anshin Thomas (born 1947) is an American Zen Buddhist monk and Vietnam War veteran.
Glen Clay Higgins (born August 24, 1961) is an American politician and reserve law enforcement officer from the state of Louisiana.
Cluj-Napoca (Klausenburg; Kolozsvár,; Medieval Latin: Castrum Clus, Claudiopolis; and קלויזנבורג, Kloiznburg), commonly known as Cluj, is the fourth most populous city in Romania, and the seat of Cluj County in the northwestern part of the country.
The Neolog Synagogue (Sinagoga Neologă or Templul Memorial al Deportaţilor; Kolozsvári Neológ Zsinagóga, Emléktemplom) in Cluj-Napoca, Romania, is the city's only working synagogue, Jewish community.
Heinz Jakob "Coco" Schumann (14 May 1924 – 28 January 2018) was a German jazz musician and Holocaust survivor.
Throughout World War II, Poland was a member of the Allied coalition that fought Nazi Germany.
The Committee for Jewish Refugees (Dutch: Comité voor Joodsche Vluchtelingen) was a Dutch charitable organization.
Commodore International (or Commodore International Limited) was an American home computer and electronics manufacturer founded by Jack Tramiel.
During World War II, there existed numerous Concentration camps in the Independent State of Croatia.
The Concentration Camps Inspectorate (CCI) or in German, IKL (Inspektion der Konzentrationslager) was the central SS administrative and managerial authority for the concentration camps of the Third Reich.
Congregation Aish Kodesh (קהילת אש קודש, "Congregation Holy Fire") is an Orthodox synagogue in Woodmere, New York.
Congregation Beth Israel (בית ישראל) is an egalitarian Conservative congregation located at 15 Jamesbury Drive in Worcester, Massachusetts.
Congregation Habonim Toronto, founded in 1954, is a liberal reform synagogue located at 5 Glen Park Avenue in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, and one of the first Holocaust refugee/survivor congregations to develop in Canada.
For centuries, Marian devotions among Roman Catholics have included many examples of personal or collective acts of consecration and entrustment to the Virgin Mary, with the Latin terms oblatio, servitus, commendatio and dedicatio having been used in this context.
Contact, l'encyclopédie de la création is a television series originally broadcast by Quebec's public broadcaster Télé-Québec.
Cordelia Edvardson (née Heller; 1 January 1929 – 29 October 2012) was a German-born Jewish journalist, author and Holocaust survivor.
Corfu or Kerkyra (translit,; translit,; Corcyra; Corfù) is a Greek island in the Ionian Sea.
Costas Mandylor (born Constantinos "Costas" Theodosopoulos Greek: Κωνσταντίνος "Κώστας" Θεοδοσόπουλος; 3 September 1965) is a Greek Australian actor.
The Council for the Protection of Struggle and Martyrdom Sites (Rada Ochrony Pamięci Walk i Męczeństwa) is a Polish government body charged with the preservation of historical sites of wartime persecution of the Polish nation.
Teresa Łubieńska, née Skarżyńska, a Polish countess, (born 18 April 1884 in Poland, died 25 May 1957 in London) was a social activist, resistance fighter – lieutenant in the Polish Underground Army – and survivor of two Nazi concentration camps.
Bury St Edmunds County Upper School is a 13 to 19 co-educational comprehensive high-performing academy part of the Bury St Edmunds All-Through Trust, comprising County Upper School, Horringer Court School, Westley School and Barrow CEVC and Tollgate Primaries.
Craig Gottlieb (born 1971) is an American dealer of militaria and antique dealer, known for his appearances on the History television program Pawn Stars, and for his uncovering of notable military artifacts.
Cremation is the combustion, vaporization, and oxidation of cadavers to basic chemical compounds, such as gases, ashes and mineral fragments retaining the appearance of dry bone.
Critical responses to David Irving have changed dramatically as Irving, a writer on the subject of World War II and Nazism, changed his own public political views; further, there are doubts as to how far Irving applies the historical method.
Criticism of atheism is criticism of the concepts, validity, or impact of atheism, including associated political and social implications.
Criticism of Holocaust denial is directed against people who claim that the genocide of Jews during World War II in the HolocaustDonald L Niewyk, The Columbia Guide to the Holocaust, Columbia University Press, 2000, p.45: "The Holocaust is commonly defined as the murder of more than 5,000,000 Jews by the Germans in World War II." Estimates by scholars range from 5.1 million to 7.8 million.
Criticism of multiculturalism questions the ideal of the maintenance of distinct ethnic cultures within a country.
Csanád Szegedi (born 22 September 1982) is a Hungarian politician and former Member of the European Parliament.
The "cursed soldiers" (also known as "doomed soldiers", "accursed soldiers" or "damned soldiers"; Żołnierze wyklęci) or "indomitable soldiers" is a term applied to a variety of Polish anti-Soviet or anti-communist Polish resistance movements formed in the later stages of World War II and its aftermath by some members of the Polish Underground State.
Curt Lowens (17 November 1925 – 8 May 2017) was an actor of the stage and in feature films and television, as well as a Holocaust survivor and a rescuer who saved about 150 Jewish children during the Holocaust.
Curtis Grover Shake (July 14, 1887 – September 11, 1978), a noted Indiana jurist and politician, author, and a member of the Indiana Senate, is best known for his service as the 72nd Justice of the Indiana Supreme Court from January 4, 1938, to January 7,1945, and as the presiding civilian judge over the IG Farben trial, one of the Nurember trials the United States convened at Nuremberg, Germany, in 1947–48, following World War II.
Cyanide poisoning is poisoning that results from exposure to a number of forms of cyanide.
Czechowice-Dziedzice (Czechowice-Dźydźice) is a town in Bielsko County, Silesian Voivodeship, southern Poland with 35,498 inhabitants (2012).
Czesław Gęborski (5 June 1924, Dąbrowa Górnicza – 14 June 2006) was a captain of the security forces of the People's Republic of Poland.
Czesława Kwoka (15 August 1928 – 12 March 1943) was a Polish Catholic girl who was murdered at the age of 14 in Auschwitz.
Don David Guttenplan is the London correspondent for The Nation and author of The Holocaust on Trial, a book about the Irving v Penguin Books and Lipstadt libel case.
Herman Melville, Friedrich Nietzsche, Arthur Schopenhauer, Lev Shestov, Walt Whitman | influenced.
Dagmar Renate Kirchner Henney (born May 6, 1931) is a German-born American mathematician and former professor of calculus, finite mathematics, and measure and integration at George Washington University in Washington, DC.
Dagobert Biermann (November 13, 1904 — February 22, 1943) was a Communist and German resistance fighter against National Socialism.
Dahn Ben-Amotz (דן בן אמוץ, born on April 13, 1924, died October 20, 1989) was an Israeli radio broadcaster, journalist, playwright, and author, as well as a former Palmah member.
Dan Hardy Yaalon (Hebrew: דן הארדי יעלון; May 11, 1924, Uherské Hradiště, Czechoslovakia – January 29, 2014, Mevasseret Zion, Israel) was an Israeli pedologist and soil scientist, who contributed to the fields of arid and Mediterranean pedology and paleopedology, as well as the history, sociology, and philosophy of soil science.
Dan Laksov (10 July 1940 – 25 October 2013) was a Norwegian-Swedish mathematician and human rights activist.
Daniel Samuel Senor (born November 6, 1971) is an American columnist, writer, and political adviser.
Daniel Berger (born November 25, 1957) is a leading HIV specialist in the United States.
Daniel Boyarin (דניאל בוירין; born 1946) is a historian of religion.
Daniel (Daniil) Kluger, Даниэль (Даниил) Мусеевич Клугер (born October 8, 1951) is an Israeli writer in science fiction and detective genres.
Daniel Mandl (April 20, 1891 – March 23, 1945) was a civil engineer, inventor, and a student of anthroposophy.
Daniel Mróz (born February 3, 1917 in Kraków, died January 21, 1993 in Kraków) – Polish stage designer and artist, illustrator of the science fiction books of Stanislaw Lem and of the unique, absurd writings of Sławomir Mrożek.
thumb Danielle Casanova (born as Vincentelli Perini, 9 January 1909 - 9 May 1943) was a French militant communist and member of the French resistance.
Danilo Kiš (22 February 1935 – 15 October 1989) was a Yugoslav novelist, short story writer, essayist and translator, who wrote in Serbo-Croatian.
Dante's Equation is a novel written by Jane Jensen and published in 2003.
The Sardar Mohammad Daoud Khan National Military Hospital, often referred to as the Daoud Khan Military Hospital or the National Military Hospital, is a military hospital located in Kabul, Afghanistan.
David Dario Gabbai (born September 2, 1922) is a Greek Sephardi Jew and Holocaust survivor, notable for his role as a member of the Sonderkommando at Auschwitz.
Dariusz Ratajczak (November 28, 1962 – 2010) was a Polish historian (formerly of the University of Opole), publicist and right-wing activist.
Dark tourism (also black tourism or grief tourism) has been defined as tourism involving travel to places historically associated with death and tragedy.
Das häßliche Mädchen ("The Ugly Girl", sometimes translated "The Ugly Duckling") is a German comedy film made in early 1933, during the transition from the Weimar Republic to Nazi Germany, and premièred in September that year.
David Beigelman (1887–1945), also known as Dawid Bajgelman and Dawid Beigelman, was a Polish violinist, orchestra leader, and composer of Yiddish theatre music and songs.
David Cole, also known as David Stein, is an American journalist, documentary film director, writer and Holocaust revisionist.
David Michael Draiman (born March 13, 1973) is an American songwriter and the vocalist for the band Disturbed as well as for the band Device.
David Ernest Duke (born July 1, 1950) is an American white supremacist and white nationalist politician, antisemitic conspiracy theorist, Holocaust denier, convicted felon, and former Grand Wizard of the Ku Klux Klan.
David G. Greenfield is an American politician who served in the New York City Council from the 44th district from 2010 to 2017.
David John Cawdell Irving (born 24 March 1938) is an English author and Holocaust denier who has written on the military and political history of World War II, with a focus on Nazi Germany.
The Jewish student David Koker (27 November 1921 - 23 February 1945) lived with his family in Amsterdam until he was captured on the night of 11 February 1943 and transported to camp Vught.
David Leslie Hoggan (March 23, 1923 – August 7, 1988) was an American professor of history, author of The Forced War: When Peaceful Revision Failed and other works in the German and English languages.
William David McCalden (20 September 1951 – 15 October 1990) was a figure in the British political far right.
David Mickenherg (born 1954 in Brooklyn, New York) is an American Art Museum director, currently of the Allentown Art Museum in Allentown, Pennsylvania, an art professor and an author.
David Olère (January 19, 1902 in Warsaw – August 21, 1985 in Paris) was a Polish-born French painter and sculptor best known for his explicit drawings and paintings based on his experiences as a Jewish Sonderkommando inmate at Auschwitz concentration camp during World War II.
David Shentow (April 29, 1925 – June 12, 2017) was a Belgian-Canadian Holocaust survivor and educator.
David Stoliar (31 October 1922 – 1 May 2014) was the sole survivor of the Struma disaster, in which the torpedoed and sank the Holocaust refugee ship in the Black Sea in the early morning of 24 February 1942.
David Vogel (1891–1944) was a Russian-born Hebrew poet, novelist, and diarist.
David Weiss Halivni (דוד וייס הלבני) (born 1927) is a European-born American-Israeli rabbi, scholar in the domain of Jewish Sciences and professor of Talmud.
Dénes Friedmann (1903-1944) was a Hungarian writer and Chief Rabbi in Újpest (today part of Budapest), Hungary.
The Dąbrowa Basin (also, Dąbrowa Coal Basin) or Zagłębie Dąbrowskie is a geographical and historical region in southern Poland.
Dębica (דעמביץ Dembitz) is a city in southeastern Poland with 46,693 inhabitants, as of 2 June 2009.
The de Havilland Mosquito was a British light bomber that served in many roles during and after the Second World War.
Dean Karr (born February 22, 1965) is an American photographer and music video, commercial, and film director.
Death Is My Trade (La mort est mon métier) is a 1952 French fictionalized biographical novel by Robert Merle.
Death is My Trade (Aus einem deutschen Leben) is a 1977 German film, which is based on the script of director Theodor Kotulla starring Götz George in the leading role.
A death march is a forced march of prisoners of war or other captives or deportees in which individuals are left to die along the way.
Death marches (Todesmärsche in German) refer to the forcible movements of prisoners of Nazi Germany between Nazi camps on pain of death during World War II.
Death Mills (or Die Todesmühlen) is a 1945 American film directed by Billy Wilder and produced by the United States Department of War.
Death of God theology refers to a range of ideas by various theologians and philosophers that try to account for the rise of secularity and abandonment of traditional beliefs in God.
The following is a list of notable deaths in April 2015.
The following is a list of notable deaths in June 2008.
The following is a list of notable deaths in March 2006.
The following is a list of notable deaths in March 2018.
The following is a list of notable deaths in October 2011.
The following is a list of notable deaths in October 2012.
The following is a list of notable deaths in October 2016.
"Deaths-Head Revisited" is episode 74 of the American television anthology series The Twilight Zone.
Deborah Lifchitz was a French Jewish expert on Semitic languages of Ethiopia, who worked at the Musée de l'Homme in Paris and took part in the Mission Dakar Djibouti in 1932-3.
Decapitation is the complete separation of the head from the body.
The following events occurred in December 1917.
The following events occurred in December 1943.
The following events occurred in December 1960.
The following events occurred in December 1963.
Defamation (השמצה; translit. Hashmatsa) is a 2009 documentary film by award-winning filmmaker Yoav Shamir.
Dehomag was a German subsidiary of IBM with monopoly in the German market before and during World War II.
The Deir ez-Zor camps were concentration camps in the heart of the Syrian desert where many thousands of Armenian refugees were forced into death marches during the Armenian Genocide.
The Dej ghetto or dési gettó was one of the Nazi-era ghettos for European Jews during World War II.
Delegation for the Assistance of Jewish Emigrants (Delegazione per l'Assistenza degli Emigranti Ebrei) or DELASEM, was an Italian and Jewish resistance organization that worked in Italy between 1939 and 1947.
Efstratios Dimitriou (Ευστράτιος Δημητρίου; April 22, 1945 – June 13, 1979), known professionally as Demetrio Stratos, was a Greek-Italian lyricist, multi-instrumentalist, music researcher, and co-founder, frontman, and lead singer of the Italian progressive rock band Area – International POPular Group.
Denes Agay (June 10, 1911 - January 24, 2007) was a Hungarian-born American composer, arranger and author.
Denial is a 2016 British-American historical drama film directed by Mick Jackson and written by David Hare, based on Deborah Lipstadt's book History on Trial: My Day in Court with a Holocaust Denier. It dramatises the Irving v Penguin Books Ltd case, in which Lipstadt, a Holocaust scholar, was sued by Holocaust denier David Irving for libel.
Denis Avey (11 January 1919 – 16 July 2015) was a British veteran of the Second World War who was held as a prisoner of war at Auschwitz.
Denise Vernay-Jacob (June 21, 1924March 4, 2013) was a member of the French Resistance during World War II, who operated under the aliases of "Miarka" and "Annie." Arrested for clandestine activities, she survived torture by the Gestapo and imprisonment at two Nazi concentration camps – Ravensbrück in Germany in 1944 and Mauthausen in Upper Austria in 1945.
The Deportation of the Chechens and Ingush, also known as Aardakh (Aardax), Operation Lentil (Чечевица, Chechevitsa; Вайнах махкахбахар Vaynax Maxkaxbaxar) was the Soviet forced transfer of the whole of the Vainakh (Chechen and Ingush) populations of the North Caucasus to Central Asia on February 23, 1944, during World War II.
(The Emperor of Atlantis or The Disobedience of Death) is a one-act opera by Viktor Ullmann with a libretto by Peter Kien.
The Derby della Capitale (Derby of the capital city), also known as Derby Capitolino and Derby del Cupolone, as well as The Rome Derby in English and Derby di Roma in Italian, is the football local derby in Rome, Italy, between Roma and Lazio.
Deborah Petroz-Abeles (born Deborah Sharon Abeles on 20 December 1948 in Bulawayo, Southern Rhodesia, now Zimbabwe), known professionally as Dessa, is a Swiss artist.
Dessauer Ufer was a subcamp of the Neuengamme concentration camp in Nazi Germany, located inside the Port of Hamburg on the Kleiner Grasbrook in Veddel.
Detlef Nebbe (also Detleff) (born 20 June 1912) was an SS-Hauptscharführer and member of staff at Auschwitz concentration camp.
The Deutsche Ausrüstungswerke (DAW; literally the German Equipment Works) was a Nazi German defense contractor with headquarters in Berlin during World War II, owned and operated by the Schutzstaffel (SS).
Deutsche Bank AG is a German investment bank and financial services company headquartered in Frankfurt, Hesse, Germany.
The Deutsche Reichsbahn, also known as the German National Railway, the German State Railway, German Reich Railway, and the German Imperial Railway, was the name of the German national railway system created after the end of World War I from the regional railways of the individual states of the German Empire.
Deutsche Volkszeitung ('German People's Newspaper', abbreviated DVZ) was a newspaper published daily from Berlin, Germany 1945-1946.
Deventer is a city and municipality in the Salland region of the province of Overijssel, Netherlands.
Diane von Fürstenberg, formerly Princess Diane of Fürstenberg (Diane Prinzessin zu Fürstenberg; born Diane Simone Michelle Halfin; December 31, 1946) is a Belgian-American fashion designer best known for her wrap dress.
Dick Kattenburg (11 November 1919 in Amsterdam – 1944 in Auschwitz) was a Dutch Jewish composer who was murdered at Auschwitz at the age of 24.
Did Six Million Really Die? The Truth At Last is a Holocaust denial pamphlet allegedly written by British National Front member Richard Verrall under the pseudonym Richard E. Harwood and published in 1974 by Nazi propagandist Ernst Zündel, another Holocaust denier and pamphleteer.
Didier Pollefeyt (Menen, November 18, 1965) is a Belgian catholic theologian, full professor at the Faculty of Theology and Religious Studies and vice rector for education policy at the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.
Dieter Wisliceny (born 13 January 1911 in Regulowken now Możdżany, Giżycko County in East Prussia, was executed 4 May 1948 in Bratislava, now in the Republic of Slovakia), was a member of the Nazi SS, and a key executioner in the final phase of the Holocaust.
Dimitar Peshev (Димитър Пешев) (25 June 1894 – 20 February 1973) was the Deputy Speaker of the National Assembly of Bulgaria and Minister of Justice (1935-1936), before World War II.
Dimitris Kammenos (Δημήτρης Καμμένος) (born 27 April 1966) is a Greek politician who served for less than one day as Deputy Minister of Infrastructure, Transport and Networks in the Second Tsipras Cabinet.
Annemarie Dina Babbitt (née Gottliebová; January 21, 1923, Brno, Czechoslovakia – July 29, 2009, Felton, California) was an artist and Holocaust survivor.
Dino Antonio Brugioni (December 16, 1921 – September 25, 2015) was a former senior official at the CIA's National Photographic Interpretation Center (NPIC).
Direto do Campo de Extermínio It is the sixth studio album Facção Central hip hop group, released in 2003.
Dirmstein is an Ortsgemeinde – a municipality belonging to a Verbandsgemeinde, a kind of collective municipality – in the Bad Dürkheim district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.
Dmitry Mikhaylovich Karbyshev (Дмитрий Михайлович Карбышев) (Omsk — February 18, 1945, Mauthausen, Austria) was an officer of the Russian Imperial Army, a Red Army general, professor of the Soviet General Staff Academy (Doctor of Military Sciences), and Hero of the Soviet Union (posthumously).
Adolf Dauber (known also as Dol, Doli or Dolfi Dauber) (born 27 July 1894 – died 15 September 1950) was a jazz violinist, bandleader, composer and music arranger of Jewish origin, who was active in the first half of the 20th century in Central Europe, mainly in Austria, Czechoslovakia and Germany.
Dominique Moïsi (born 21 October 1946) is a French political scientist and writer.
Dominique Probst (born 1954) is a French composer.
Donald Joseph Watt (born 1918) is an Australian ex-serviceman (Army) and the author of a literary hoax, a fictitious Holocaust memoir entitled Stoker: the story of an Australian soldier who survived Auschwitz-Birkenau published in 1995 by Simon & Schuster.
Don Large (May 30, 1975 – November 26, 2016) was a perennial candidate for public office in Harris County, Texas.
Poruchik Donat Aduiovich Makijonek (19 May 1890 – 18 June 1941) was a World War I flying ace credited with eight aerial victories.
Dora Gerson (23 March 1899 – 14 February 1943) was a Jewish German cabaret singer and motion picture actress of the silent film era who died with her family at Auschwitz concentration camp.
Dora (Doris, Dorothea) Stock (6 March 1760 – 30 March 1832) was a German artist of the 18th and 19th centuries who specialized in portraiture.
The Dora Trial, also the "Dora"-Nordhausen or Dachau Dora Proceeding (Dachau-Dora Prozess) was a war crimes trial conducted by the United States Army in the aftermath of the collapse of the Third Reich.
Dorothee Steffensky-Sölle (born Nipperdey; 30 September 1929 – 27 April 2003) was a German liberation theologian and writer who coined the term Christofascism.
Dov Eichenwald (born November 7, 1955) is CEO and publisher of Yedioth Books and editor in chief of the publishing house.
Dragomirești (Dragomérfalva; דראגאמירעשט) is a town in Maramureș County, Romania.
The Drancy internment camp was an assembly and detention camp for confining Jews who were later deported to the extermination camps during the German military administration of Occupied France during World War II.
Dresden-Neustadt station is the second largest railway station in the German city of Dresden after Dresden Hauptbahnhof and is also a stop for long-distance traafic.
Dresdner Bank AG was one of Germany's largest banking corporations and was based in Frankfurt.
Drobytsky Yar is a ravine in Kharkiv, Ukraine.
Echo (stylised as ECHO) was an accolade by the, an association of recording companies of Germany to recognize outstanding achievement in the music industry.
Echo TV is a christian-conservative Hungarian television channel owned and operated by Echo Hungária TV Zrt, and founded in 2005 to cover business news.
The German economy, like those of many other western nations, suffered the effects of the Great Depression with unemployment soaring around the Wall Street Crash of 1929.
Edward Tabash is an American lawyer and political and social activist.
Major Eddie Hellmuth Willner (August 15, 1926 – March 30, 2008) was a German Jew, a US Army Major, and a survivor of Auschwitz and Buchenwald.
Eddy Hamel (October 21, 1902 – April 30, 1943) was an American soccer player for Dutch club AFC Ajax.
Eddy Wynschenk (July 18, 1927, Amsterdam, the Netherlands – December 16, 2003) was a Holocaust survivor who became renowned throughout the San Francisco Bay Area and beyond for sharing his story, frequently, at schools throughout Northern California.
Ediciones El Puente (The Bridge Publications) was a literary project for young writers in Cuba just after the 1959 revolution.
Edith Balas is a Professor of Art History, College of Humanities & Social Sciences at Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
Edith Birkin née Hofmann (born 13 November 1927) is a Jewish artist, writer, and survivor of the Holocaust who lives in Britain.
Edith Bruck (born 3 May 1932) is a Hungarian-born writer and director who has lived most of her life in Italy and writes in Italian.
Edith Flagg (née Feuerstein; November 1, 1919 – August 13, 2014) was an American fashion designer, fashion industry executive, and philanthropist.
Edith Frank (née Holländer; 16 January 1900 – 6 January 1945) was the mother of Holocaust diarist Anne Frank, and her older sister Margot.
Edith Stein (religious name Teresa Benedicta a Cruce OCD; also known as St. Teresa Benedicta of the Cross; 12 October 1891 – 9 August 1942), was a German Jewish philosopher who converted to Roman Catholicism and became a Discalced Carmelite nun.
Eduard Lorenz (born February 12, 1921) was an SS-Unterscharführer (Corporal) and member of staff at Auschwitz concentration camp.
Eduard Roschmann (25 November 1908 – 8 August 1977) was an Austrian Nazi SS-Obersturmführer and commandant of the Riga ghetto during 1943.
Eduard Wirths (4 September 1909 – 20 September 1945) was the Chief SS doctor (SS-Standortarzt) at the Auschwitz concentration camp from September 1942 to January 1945.
Major Edward Karol Gött-Getyński, or Get-Getyński nom-de-guerre Sosnowiecki (January 4, 1898 – January 25, 1943) was a Major of Artillery in the Polish Army during the interwar period, and the underground resistance fighter during the Nazi German occupation of Poland.
Edward Kassner (28 February 1920 – 19 November 1996) was an Austrian-born music industry executive and songwriter who was responsible for establishing the music publisher Kassner Music and the President record label.
Edward Steinhardt (born August 16, 1961) is an American poet, journalist, editor and fiction author.
Edward Henryk Werner (23 May 1878 – 13 November 1945) was an economist, judge, industrialist, and politician.
SS-Gruppenführer Eggert Reeder (22 July 1894, Poppenbüll – 22 November 1959, Wuppertal) was a German jurist, civil servant, and district President of several regions.
Egon Ledeč (Kostelec nad Orlicí 16 March 1889 - Auschwitz, October 1944) was a Czech violinist and composer of Jewish origin.
Einar Hákonarson (born 14 January 1945, in Reykjavík, Iceland) is one of Iceland's best known artists.
Einsatzgruppen ("task forces" or "deployment groups") were Schutzstaffel (SS) paramilitary death squads of Nazi Germany that were responsible for mass killings, primarily by shooting, during World War II (1939–45).
Eintrachthütte concentration camp (in German: Arbeitslager Eintrachtshütte) was formerly a labour subcamp of the German concentration camp Auschwitz, opened in Zgoda district of Świętochłowice (Schwientochlowitz), Poland, in 1943, in operation until January 1945.
Elfriede Geiringer (née Markovits; 13 February 1905 – 2 October 1998) was a Jewish survivor of the World War II.
Rabbi Eliezer "Eli" Sadan (born December 1948) is the founder and head of the mechina Bnei David, The first pre-military preparatory program in Israel.
Elie Aron Cohen was a Dutch doctor (July 16, 1909 in Groningen – October 22, 1993 in Arnhem) who, being Jewish, was sent to the Auschwitz concentration camp.
Eliezer "Elie" Wiesel (’Ēlí‘ézer Vízēl; September 30, 1928 – July 2, 2016) was a Romanian-born American Jewish writer, professor, political activist, Nobel Laureate, and Holocaust survivor.
Eliezer Gribaum or Eliezer Gruenbaum (27 November 1908 – 22 May 1948) was a Polish Jewish communist activist.
Eliminationism is the belief that one's political opponents are "a cancer on the body politic that must be excised—either by separation from the public at large, through censorship or by outright extermination—in order to protect the purity of the nation".
Elio Morpurgo (10 October 1858 – 29 March 1944) was an Italian politician, member of the Italian Senate and of the Chambers of Deputies and mayor of Udine.
Elisabeth Blochmann (14 April 1892 in Apolda – 27 January 1972 in Marburg) was an eminent scholar of education, as well as of philosophy, and a pioneer in and researcher of women's education in Germany.
Elisabeth "Elly" Cassutto (1931–1984) was the wife of Rev.
Elisabeth Jungmann (Lady Beerbohm) (1894 – 28 December 1958) was an interpreter and the secretary, literary executor and second wife of caricaturist and parodist Sir Max Beerbohm.
Elisabeth Langgässer (23 February 1899 – 25 July 1950) was a German author and teacher.
Elisabeth Lupka (27 October 1902 – 8 January 1949) was a Nazi female guard at two camps during World War II.
Elisabeth Marschall (27 May 1886 – 3 May 1947) was the Head Nurse (Oberschwester) at the Ravensbrück concentration camp.
Elisabeth Volkenrath (née Mühlau; 5 September 1919 – 13 December 1945) was a German supervisor at several Nazi concentration camps during World War II.
Elizabeth Ester Jaranyi (née: Herczfeld) (February 19, 1918 in Nagykanizsa, Austria-Hungary – February 26, 1998 in Glenwood Springs, Colorado) is a survivor of Nazi concentration camps during the Holocaust and the memorist of The Flowers From My Mother's Garden.
Elka de Levie (21 November 1905 – 29 December 1979) was an Amsterdam-born Dutch gymnast who won the gold medal as member of the Dutch gymnastics team at the 1928 Summer Olympics in Amsterdam.
Ellen Marx (born Ellen Pinkus: 24 March 1921 – 11 September 2008) was a human rights activist.
Ellis R. Kerley (September 1, 1924 – September 3, 1998) was an American anthropologist, and pioneer in the field of Forensic anthropology, which is a field of expertise particularly useful to criminal investigators and for the identification of human remains for humanitarian purposes.
Elly Berkovits Gross (born February 14, 1929) is a Jewish Holocaust survivor and author of several Holocaust related books of poetry and prose.
Else Berg (19 February 1877, Ratibor - 19 November 1942, Auschwitz) was a German-born Dutch painter of Jewish descent; associated with the Bergense School.
Else Ury (b. 1 November 1877 in Berlin; – d. 13 January 1943 in the Auschwitz concentration camp) was a German writer and children's book author.
Elyasaf Kowner (אליסף קובנר) (born 1970) is an Israeli interdisciplinary artist who explores issues of abuse, loss, control and love for people.
Emanuel Lodewijk Elte (16 March 1881 in Amsterdam – 9 April 1943 in Sobibór) at joodsmonument.nl was a Dutch mathematician.
Emanuele (Lele) Fiano (born 13 March 1963, in Milan, Italy) is a member of the Italian Chamber of Deputies for the centre-left Partito Democratico (Democratic Party of Italy).
An emergency baptism is a baptism administered to a person in danger of death.
Emil Ludwig Fackenheim (22 June 1916 – 18 September 2003) was a noted Jewish philosopher and Reform rabbi.
Emil Grunzweig (אמיל גרינצווייג) (December 1, 1947 – February 10, 1983) was an Israeli teacher and peace activist affiliated with the Peace Now movement.
Colonel Emil Jaeger was the German territorial commander for the Greek island of Corfu during the spring of 1944.
Emil Johann Rudolf Puhl (28 August 1889 in Berlin – 30 March 1962 in Hamburg) was a Nazi economist and banking official during World War II.
Emile Shoufani, (أميل شوفاني, אמיל שופאני; born 24 May 1947 in Nazareth) is an Israeli Arab Christian theologist, educator and activist for peace, archimandrite of the Melkite Greek Catholic Church.
Emma Anna Maria Zimmer (née Mezel; 14 August 1888 – 20 September 1948) was a female overseer at the Lichtenburg concentration camp, the Ravensbrück concentration camp and the Auschwitz-Birkenau extermination/concentration camp for several years during the war.
Emmi Handke (born Emmi Christoph 30 September 1902 - 17 January 1994) was a German Communist party activist.
Endre Szervánszky (b. Kistétény, December 27, 1911 - d. Budapest, June 25, 1977) was a Hungarian composer.
An English exonym is a name in the English language for a place (a toponym), or occasionally other terms, which does not follow the local usage (the endonym).
Enrica Calabresi (10 November 1891 in Ferrara – 20 January 1944 in Castelfiorentino) was an Italian zoologist, herpetologist, and entomologist.
(אפרים קישון, August 23, 1924 – January 29, 2005) was an Israeli author, dramatist, screenwriter, and Oscar-nominated film director.
Ephraim Oshry (1914–2003), was an Orthodox rabbi, posek, and author of The Annihilation of Lithuanian Jewry.
Erfurt is the capital and largest city in the state of Thuringia, central Germany.
Erhard Eduard Wechselmann (1895–1943) was a German baritone who was murdered in Auschwitz concentration camp.
Eric Matthew Frein (born May 3, 1983) is an American domestic terrorist and murderer, convicted and sentenced to death for the 2014 Pennsylvania State Police barracks attack in which he shot and killed one State Trooper, and seriously injured another.
Eric Roozendaal (born 16 March 1962), a former Australian politician, was a member of the New South Wales Legislative Council, serving between 2004 and 2013.
Erich Adam Oskar Dinges (20 November 1911 – 23 April 1953) was an SS-Sturmmann and member of staff at Auschwitz concentration camp.
Erich Hartmann (July 29, 1922 in Münich – February 4, 1999 in New York City) was an American photographer.
Erich Kulka (18 February 1911 in Vsetín, Austria-Hungary12 July 1995 in Jerusalem Israel) was a Czech-Israeli writer, historian and journalist who survived the Holocaust.
Erich Lessing (born 13 July 1923) is an Austrian photographer.
Erich Liffmann (born 22 September 1914 Herrath, Germany, died 11 June 1987 Elwood, Victoria, Australia) was a classically trained musician who began his working career as a sign writer in Germany.
Erich Mühsfeldt, also Mussfeld, and Erich Mußfeldt, (18 February 1913 – 24 January 1948) was a German war criminal, an SS NCO who served in two extermination camps during World War II in occupied Poland - Auschwitz and Majdanek.
Sir Erich Arieh Reich (born 1935, Vienna, Austria) is an Austrian-born entrepreneur based in London, who through his charity challenges company Classic Tours has inspired over 42,000 people to raise £60million for 300+ UK charities.
Erich Salomon (28 April 1886 – 7 July 1944) was a German-born news photographer known for his pictures in the diplomatic and legal professions and the innovative methods he used to acquire them.
Erich von dem Bach-Zelewski (1 March 1899 – 8 March 1972) was a high-ranking SS commander of Nazi Germany.
(born 25 July 1943) is a German conservative politician.
Erlau (ערלוי, also spelled Erloi), is a Haredi dynasty of Hungarian origin, which follows the teachings of the Chasam Sofer and is often considered Hasidic.
Erlbach-Kirchberg is a former municipality in the district Erzgebirgskreis, in Saxony, Germany.
Erling Bauck (8 April 1924 – February 2004) was a Norwegian resistance member and writer.
Ermelo (Dutch Low Saxon: Armelo or Armel) is a municipality and a town in the Netherlands, in the province of Gelderland in the Veluwe area with a population of in.
Erna Dorn (17 July 1911 – 1 August 1953) was a victim of the politicised justice system in the German Democratic Republic (East Germany).
Ernő Tibor, originally Fischer (28 February 1885 – early 1945) was a Hungarian Impressionist and Neo-Impressionist painter of Jewish ancestry.
Ernest David Klein, (July 26, 1899, Satu Mare – February 4, 1983, Ottawa, Canada) was a Romanian-born Canadian linguist, author, and rabbi.
Ernst Julius Cohen ForMemRS (March 7, 1869 – March 6, 1944) was a Dutch Jewish chemist known for his work on the allotropy of metals.
Ernst Adolf Girzick (17 October 1911 in Vienna – date of death unknown) was an Austrian SS-Obersturmführer (1945) and an employee in the Eichmannreferat of the Reich Security Main Office (RSHA).
Ernst Heinrichsohn (13 May 1920 – 29 October 1994) was a German lawyer and member of the SS who participated in the deportation of French Jews to Auschwitz during World War II.
Ernst Kaltenbrunner (4 October 190316 October 1946) was an Austrian-born senior official of Nazi Germany during World War II.
Ernst Krankemann (19 December 1895 – 28 July 1941) was an infamous Kapo in Auschwitz concentration camp.
Ernst Lohagen (12 May 1897 - 2 November 1971) was a German politician (KPD, SED).
Ernst Moritz Hess (20 March 1890 – 14 September 1983) was a baptized German Jew who served in the Imperial German Army during the First World War.
Ernst Nolte (11 January 1923 – 18 August 2016) was a German historian and philosopher.
Ernst Heinrich Freiherr von Weizsäcker (25 May 1882 – 4 August 1951) was a German naval officer, diplomat and politician.
Heinrich Ernst WachlerRichard Frank Krummel: Nietzsche und der deutsche Geist. Bd.
Ernest Willimowski (born Ernest Otto Prandella, nicknamed "Ezi") (23 June 1916 – 30 August 1997) was a German–Polish football player, who played as a forward.
Ernst Christof Friedrich Zündel (April 24, 1939 – August 5, 2017) was a German publisher and pamphleteer known for promoting Holocaust denial.
Ernst-Heinrich Schmauser (18 January 1890 – 10 February 1945) was a commander in the SS of Nazi Germany who was the Higher SS and Police Leader in Breslau during World War II.
Eryk Lipiński (12 July 1908, Kraków - 27 September 1991) was a Polish artist.
Escape from Hell! is a speculative fiction novella by Hal Duncan, strongly inspired by the movies Jacob's Ladder and Escape from New York but also by the works of William Blake and John Milton.
The Escapees' Medal (Médaille des Évadés) is a military award bestowed by the government of France to individuals who were prisoners of war and who successfully escaped internment or died as a result of their escape attempt.
"Estadio Chile", or "Somos Cinco Mil", is the common name of an untitled poem and song credited to Víctor Jara and penned in the days prior to his death.
Estella "Stella" Agsteribbe (6 April 1909 – 17 September 1943) was a Dutch gymnast.
Estelle Skornik (born 4 July 1971 in Paris) is a French actress, known in the United Kingdom for playing "Nicole" alongside Max Douchin ("Papa") in a range of Renault Clio advertisements.
Ester Samuel-Cahn (born May 16, 1933; died November, 2015) was an Israeli statistician and educator.
Esther Béjarano (née Löwy; born 15 December 1924, Saarlouis), along with Anita Lasker Wallfisch, is one of the last survivors of the Women's Orchestra of Auschwitz.
Esther Jungreis (April 27, 1936 – August 23, 2016) was a Hungarian-born American religious leader.
Esther Shalev-Gerz (born Gilinsky) is a contemporary artist.
Esztergom (Gran, Ostrihom, known by alternative names), is a city in northern Hungary, northwest of the capital Budapest.
The ethnic cleansing of Zamojszczyzna by Nazi Germany (Aktion Zamosc, also: Operation Himmlerstadt) during World War II was carried out as part of a greater plan of forcible removal of the entire Polish populations from targeted regions of occupied Poland in preparation for the state-sponsored settlement of the ethnic German Volksdeutsche.
Esther "Etty" Hillesum (15 January 1914 – 30 November 1943) was the Dutch author of confessional letters and diaries which describe both her religious awakening and the persecutions of Jewish people in Amsterdam during the German occupation.
Etty Hillesum and the Flow of Presence: A Voegelinian Analysis is a 2008 book by Dutch philosopher Meins G. S. Coetsier, According to WorldCat, the book is held in 781 libraries.
Eugène Paul Louis Schueller (20 March 1881 – 23 August 1957) was a French pharmacist and entrepreneur who was the founder of L'Oréal, the world's leading company in cosmetics and beauty.
Eugen Filotti (July 28 (July 17 O.S.) 1896 – June 1, 1975) was a Romanian diplomat, journalist and writer.
Eugen Fraenkel (born on September 28, 1853, in Neustadt, now Prudnik, Poland, and died in Hamburg, Germany, on December 20, 1925) was a German bacteriologist.
Eugenics, the set of beliefs and practices which aims at improving the genetic quality of the human population, played a significant role in the history and culture of the United States prior to its involvement in World War II.
Eugenio Calò (July 2, 1906 – July 14, 1944) is a national hero of Italy.
A euphemism is a generally innocuous word or expression used in place of one that may be found offensive or suggest something unpleasant.
The European Jewish Congress, (EJC), was founded in 1986.
Eva is a female given name, the Latinate counterpart of English Eve, derived from a Hebrew name meaning "life" or "living one." It can also mean full of Life or mother of life.
Eva and Abraham Beem were Dutch Jewish siblings and victims of the Holocaust in the Netherlands.
Eva Brewster (December 28, 1922 – December 3, 2004) was a German-born Canadian writer.
Eva Justin (23 August 1909, Dresden – 11 September 1966, Offenbach am Main) was a German anthropologist during the Nazi era.
Eve’s Hangout was a popular after-theater club run by Polish-Jewish lesbian émigré Eva Kotchever (real name Chava Zloczower/Czlotcheber) from 1925 to 1926 at 129 Macdougal St, New York.
Eva Mozes Kor (born January 31, 1934) is a Holocaust survivor.
Eva D. Ostwalt (or Oswalt, April 2, 1902 – May 23, 2010) was a survivor of the Holocaust.
Eva Geiringer Schloss, MBE (born 11 May 1929) is a Holocaust survivor memoirist and stepdaughter of Otto Frank, the father of Margot and Anne Frank.
Evgeny Iosifovich Chubarov (Евгений Иосифович Чубаров; 11 December 1934 – 5 December 2012) was a Russian painter, sculptor, and graphic artist.
Ewell Ross McCright (4 December 1917 – 24 April 1990) of Benton, Saline County, Arkansas was a captain in the United States Air Force during World War II who was famous for maintaining secret journals detailing information about fellow prisoners of war while held captive in a German prison camp.
In an inquisitorial system of law, the examining magistrate (also called investigating magistrate, inquisitorial magistrate, or investigating judge), is a judge who carries out pre-trial investigations into allegations of crime and in some cases makes a recommendation for prosecution.
Exodus is a 1960 epic film on the founding of the modern State of Israel.
Exodus is a historical novel by American novelist Leon Uris about the founding of the State of Israel.
Expressway S1 or express road S1 is an expressway under construction in Poland with a planned length of, which is located in the Silesian and Lesser Poland voivodeships.
The Expulsion of Poles by Nazi Germany during World War II was a massive Nazi German operation consisting of the forced resettlement of over 1.7 million Poles from all territories of occupied Poland with the aim of their geopolitical Germanization (see Lebensraum) between 1939–1944.
Nazi Germany built extermination camps (also called death camps or killing centers) during the Holocaust in World War II, to systematically kill millions of Jews, Slavs, Communists, and others whom the Nazis considered "Untermenschen" ("subhumans").
Extermination through labour is a term sometimes used to describe the operation of concentration camp, death camp and forced labour systems in Nazi Germany, the Soviet Union, North Korea, and elsewhere, defined as the willful or accepted killing of forced labourers or prisoners through excessively heavy labour, malnutrition and inadequate care.
Șimleu Silvaniei (Szilágysomlyó, Schomlenmarkt) is a town in Sălaj County, Transylvania, Romania with a population of 16,066 people (2002 census).
Fałszywka (false document or forgery) is a Polish socio-political term describing counterfeit top secret files and fake police reports produced by the Ministry of Public Security in the People's Republic of Poland.
Fabián Nsue Nguema is the most prominent human-rights lawyer in Equatorial Guinea which, under Teodoro Obiang, has been referred to as one of the most repressive regimes in Africa.
Fabien Pierre Aurélien Dominique Gilot (born 27 April 1984) is a French Olympic and world champion swimmer.
The Fabrikaktion (Factory Action) is the term for the roundup of the last Jews to be deported starting 27 February 1943.
Fake news is a type of yellow journalism or propaganda that consists of deliberate misinformation or hoaxes spread via traditional print and broadcast news media or online social media.
Falling (1994) (orig. Dutch Vallen) is a novel by the Flemish author Anne Provoost.
Falstad concentration camp was situated in the village of Ekne in what was the municipality of Skogn (now in the municipality of Levanger in Trøndelag county) in Norway.
The family of Barack Obama, the 44th President of the United States, and his wife Michelle Obama is made up of people of Kenyan (Luo), African-American, and Old Stock American (including originally English, Scots-Irish, Welsh, German, and Swiss) ancestry.
Fania Fénelon (2 September 1908 – 19 December 1983) was a French pianist, composer and cabaret singer, whose survival of the Women's Orchestra of Auschwitz and the Holocaust was made into a television film, Playing For Time.
Farewells (also titled Lydia Ate the Apple and Partings in the United States) is the English title for Pożegnania, a film released in 1958, directed by Wojciech Has.
Fateless (Sorstalanság) is a Hungarian film directed by Lajos Koltai, released in 2005.
Fateless or Fatelessness (Sorstalanság, lit. "Fatelessness") is a novel by Imre Kertész, winner of the 2002 Nobel Prize for literature, written between 1969 and 1973 and first published in 1975.
Fatherland is a 1992 alternate history detective novel by English writer and journalist Robert Harris.
The Fürstengrube subcamp was organized in the summer of 1943 at the Fürstengrube hard coal mine in the town of Wesola (Wessolla) near Myslowice (Myslowitz), approximately from Auschwitz concentration camp.
The following events occurred in February 1940.
The following events occurred in February 1943.
The Federal Foreign Office (German), abbreviated AA, is the foreign ministry of the Federal Republic of Germany, a federal agency responsible for both the country's foreign policy and its relationship with the European Union.
The Federation of Expellees (Bund der Vertriebenen; BdV) is a non-profit organization formed in West Germany on 27 October 1957 to represent the interests of German nationals of all ethnicities and foreign ethnic Germans (usually naturalised as German nationals after 1949) who either fled their homes in parts of Central and Eastern Europe, or were forcibly expelled following World War II, and their families.
A feeder of lice was a job in interwar and Nazi-occupied Poland, in the city of Lwów at the Institute for Study of Typhus and Virology of Rudolf Weigl (Instytut Badań nad Tyfusem Plamistym i Wirusami prof.) in Lwów (Lviv, Ukraine).
Felice Rahel Schragenheim (March 9, 1922 – December 31, 1944) was a Jewish resistance fighter during World War II.
Felix Hausdorff (November 8, 1868 – January 26, 1942) was a German mathematician who is considered to be one of the founders of modern topology and who contributed significantly to set theory, descriptive set theory, measure theory, function theory, and functional analysis.
Felix Nussbaum (11 December 1904 – 9 August 1944) was a German-Jewish surrealist painter.
Felix Zandman (Feliks Zandman; May 7, 1928 – June 4, 2011) was a Polish-born entrepreneur and founder of Vishay Intertechnology – one of the world's largest manufacturers of electronic components.
The Aufseherinnen were female guards in Nazi concentration camps during the Holocaust.
Ferenc Karinthy (June 2, 1921 – February 29, 1992) was a novelist, playwright, journalist, editor and translator, as well as a water polo champion.
The Southern Victory Series is a series of alternate history novels written by Harry Turtledove.
Fighter is a documentary film about Arnošt Lustig (1926–2011) and Jan Wiener (1920–2010), two Jews who return to Europe to revisit the past.
Filip (Philip) Friedman (27 April 1901, Lemberg – 7 February 1960, New York City) was a Polish-Jewish historian and the author of several books on history and economics.
Filip Müller (3 January 1922 – 9 November 2013) was a Slovak man who was one of the Jewish Sonderkommando members who survived Auschwitz, the largest Nazi German extermination camp of World War II.
The Final Solution (Endlösung) or the Final Solution to the Jewish Question (die Endlösung der Judenfrage) was a Nazi plan for the extermination of the Jews during World War II.
Finchley Catholic High School is a boys' secondary school with a coeducational sixth form in North Finchley, part of the London Borough of Barnet.
Finnentrop is a Gemeinde (municipality) in Olpe district in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.
The first mass transport of prisoners by Nazi Germany to Auschwitz Concentration Camp was organized in occupied Poland on 14 June 1940 during World War II.
Five Chimneys, originally published in French as Souvenirs de l'au-delà (Memoirs from the Beyond), is the memoir of Olga Lengyel.
The flag of Germany or German Flag (Flagge Deutschlands) is a tricolour consisting of three equal horizontal bands displaying the national colours of Germany: black, red, and gold (Schwarz-Rot-Gold).
Flammen (Flames) is a one-act opera by Franz Schreker, on a libretto by Dora Leen, pseudonym of Dora Pollak (b. 23 October 1880, d. Auschwitz c.1942).
Flavio Costantini (21 September 1926 - 20 May 2013) was an Italian artist.
Flörsheim am Main is a town in the Main-Taunus district, in Hesse, Germany.
Flensburg (Danish, Low Saxon: Flensborg; North Frisian: Flansborj; South Jutlandic: Flensborre) is an independent town (kreisfreie Stadt) in the north of the German state of Schleswig-Holstein.
Floß is a municipality in the district of Neustadt (Waldnaab) in Bavaria in Germany, Europe.
Florence Jaffray "Daisy" Harriman (July 21, 1870 – August 31, 1967) was an American socialite, suffragist, social reformer, organizer, and diplomat.
Fondation pour la Mémoire de la Shoah is a Shoah Foundation that was formed in 2000, with recovered money from the property taken from French Jews during World War II.
Forbidden is a 1984 drama film directed by Anthony Page and starring Jacqueline Bisset, Jürgen Prochnow and Irene Worth.
Forced prostitution, also known as involuntary prostitution, is prostitution or sexual slavery that takes place as a result of coercion by a third party.
Forever is an American fantasy crime drama television series that aired on ABC as part of the 2014–15 fall television season.
Forget Us Not is a 2013 feature-length documentary film by Heather Connell, which follows the stories of some of the 5 million non-Jewish Holocaust survivors including artist Ceija Stojka and is narrated by actor Ron Perlman.
Fort de Romainville, (in English, Fort Romainville) was built in France in the 1830s and was used as a Nazi concentration camp in World War II.
Fort VII, officially Konzentrationslager Posen (renamed later), was a Nazi German death camp set up in Poznań in German-occupied Poland during World War II, located in one of the 19th-century forts circling the city.
Fox at the Front is a 2003 alternate history novel written by Douglas Niles and Michael Dobson.
Françoise Bettencourt Meyers is a French heiress and author of Bible commentaries and works on Jewish-Christian relations.
Françoise Frenkel (14 July 1889 - 18 January 1975) was a lifelong book lover, bookstore owner and author.
Frances Fabri, born Sárika Ladányi (22 September 1929 – 9 January 2006), was a Hungarian-born author and Holocaust survivor.
Franceska Mann (or Franciszka Mann in Polish, a.k.a. Rosenberg-Manheimer, also: Franciszka Mannówna, or Man; February 4, 1917 – October 23, 1943) was a Polish-Jewish dancer mentioned by Jewish Holocaust survivors in the context of her actions in the Auschwitz concentration camp during the Holocaust in occupied Poland.
Francis Huster (born 8 December 1947) is a French stage, film and television actor, director and scriptwriter.
The Franciscans of Life (Fratres Franciscani Vitae) is a Catholic community in the territory of the Archdiocese of Miami (Miami-Dade, Broward, and Monroe Counties).
Franciszek Blachnicki (24 March 1921 – 27 February 1987) was a Polish Roman Catholic priest and the founder of the Light-Life movement - also known as the Oasis Movement - and the Secular Institute of the Immaculate Mother of the Church.
Franciszek Gajowniczek (15 November 1901 – 13 March 1995)David Binder.
Franciszek Piper (born 1941) is a Polish scholar, historian and author.
The Francs-Tireurs et Partisans Français (FTPF), or commonly the Francs-Tireurs et Partisans (FTP), was an armed resistance organization created by leaders of the French Communist Party during World War II (1939–45).
Franjo Tuđman, also written as Franjo Tudjman (14 May 1922 – 10 December 1999) was a Croatian politician and historian.
Dr Frank Beck (born 28 December 1930) is a British computer scientist who pioneered the application of user-interface hardware including the touchscreen, the computer-controlled knob and the video wall while working at CERN during the 1970s.
Sir Frank William Lampl (6 April 1926 – 23 March 2011) was Life President of Bovis Lend Lease, the leading global construction management company that he created from the British building firm Bovis during a 15-year period as Chairman and CEO.
Sir Frank P. Lowy, (born 22 October 1930) is a Czechoslovak-born Australian-Israeli businessman and the former long-time Chairman of Westfield Corporation, a global shopping centre company with US$29.3 billion of assets under management in the United States, United Kingdom and Europe.
Frank Meisler (30 December 1925 – 24 March 2018) was an Israeli architect and sculptor.
William Francis "Frank" Murphy (April 13, 1890July 19, 1949) was a Democratic politician and jurist from Michigan.
The Frankfurt Auschwitz trials, known in German as der Auschwitz-Prozess, or der zweite Auschwitz-Prozess, (the "second Auschwitz trial") was a series of trials running from 20 December 1963 to 19 August 1965, charging 22 defendants under German criminal law for their roles in the Holocaust as mid- to lower-level officials in the Auschwitz-Birkenau death and concentration camp complex.
František Mořic Nágl (28 May 1889, Kostelní Myslová – October 1944, Auschwitz) was a Czech landscape and genre painter of Jewish ancestry.
František Zelenka (July 8, 1904 Kutná Hora – October 19, 1944 Auschwitz).
Franz Abromeit (August 8, 1907 in Tilsit – June 30, 1964) was an SS officer and an officer in the Reichssicherheitshauptamt (RSHA).
Franz Hößler, also Franz Hössler (4 February 1906 – 13 December 1945) was a Nazi German SS-Obersturmführer and Schutzhaftlagerführer at the Auschwitz-Birkenau, Dora-Mittelbau and Bergen-Belsen concentration camps during World War II.
Franz Hillinger (born March 30, 1895, in Nagyvárad, Hungary; died August 18, 1973, in New York) was an architect of the ''Neues Bauen'' (New Objectivity) movement in Berlin and in Turkey.
Franz Koritschoner (February 23, 1892–June 9, 1941) was an Austrian communist politician.
Franz Novak (10 January 1913 in Wolfsberg, Carinthia – 21 October 1983 in Langenzersdorf) was an Austrian SS-Hauptsturmführer.
Franz Romeikat (born October 7, 1904, date of death unknown) was an SS-Unterscharführer and staff member at Auschwitz concentration camp.
Franz Hermann Johann Maria Freiherr von Bodmann, sometimes written as Bodman (born 23 March 1908 in Zwiefaltendorf – died 25 May 1945 in Altenmarkt im Pongau) was a German SS-Obersturmführer who served as a camp physician in several Nazi concentration camps.
Franziska Schlopsnies, born Spangenthal (born on December 1, 1884 in Frankfurt am Main; deceased on December 30, 1944 in Auschwitz concentration camp) was a German fashion, poster and graphic designer.
Frédéric Brun (born 30 June 1960, Paris) is a French writer, the author of a trilogy published by Stock which earned him several literary prizes, including the prix Goncourt du premier roman for Perla, as well as the one bestowed by the "Association Écritures et Spiritualités" for Une prière pour Nacha.
Frédéric Fiebig (1885–1953) was a Latvian-born painter who lived in France.
Fred Arthur Leuchter Jr. (born February 7, 1943) is an American Holocaust denier who is best known as author of the Leuchter report, a pseudoscientific document.
Fred Henry George Gruen (14 June 192129 October 1997) was an Australian economist, an early and influential voice in favour of free trade and tariff reductions in the 1960s and 1970s.
Fred Wander (5 January 1917 – 10 July 2006) was an Austrian writer and Holocaust survivor.
Frederick "Fred" Mayer (28 October 1921 – 15 April 2016) was a German-born American spy who was an OSS agent for the United States during World War II.
James Frederick Stocken (born 1967) is a British classical composer, organist and musicologist.
Bedrich "Frederick" Tintner (15 June 1912 - 19 March 2015), born on 15 June 1912 in the town of Novy Jicin,Czechoslovakia, in the Moravian Sudetenland, escaped the Gestapo during the Second World War and served in the British, Czech and Soviet armed forces.
Alfred (Fredy) Hirsch was born in Aachen, Germany in 1916.
The Freedom Lecture is a public debate on a current social topic with outstanding personalities that has been held annually at the Masaryk University in Brno, Czech Republic on the occasion of International Students´ Day (Student Seventeen).
Freiberg is a university and mining town in the Free State of Saxony, Germany.
Freiberg was a subcamp of Flossenbürg concentration camp located in Freiberg, Saxony.
Freiburg im Breisgau (Alemannic: Friburg im Brisgau; Fribourg-en-Brisgau) is a city in Baden-Württemberg, Germany, with a population of about 220,000.
Stühlinger is a district to the west of the historic city center of Freiburg im Breisgau.
Freikorps ("Free Corps") were German volunteer units that existed from the 18th to the early 20th centuries, which effectively fought as mercenary or private armies, regardless of their own nationality.
Frederika "Friedl" Dicker-Brandeis (30 July 1898 Vienna – 9 October 1944 Auschwitz-Birkenau), was an Austrian artist and educator murdered by the Nazis in the Auschwitz-Birkenau extermination camp.
Friedrich Adler (29 April 1878 – ca. 11 July 1942) was a German academic, artist and designer.
Friedrich Dürrenmatt (5 January 1921 – 14 December 1990) was a Swiss author and dramatist.
Friedrich Bernhard Eugen "Fritz" Gutmann (15 November 1886 – 13 April 1944) was a Dutch banker and art collector.
Friedrich Rosenthal (20 July 1885 in Vienna; †21 August 1942 at the Auschwitz concentration camp) was an Austrian director and playwright.
The Friedrich-von-Raumer-Bibliothek (Friedrich von Raumer Library) is a public library in Berlin.
Friends of the Israel Defense Forces (FIDF) (in ארגון ידידי צה״ל בארה״ב) is an organization established in 1981 dedicated to the men and women serving in the Israel Defense Forces (IDF), wounded veterans, and the families of fallen soldiers.
The SS-Obersturmbannführer Fritz Arlt (Niedercunnersdorf, 12 April 1912 – 21 April 2004, Seeg) was a key figure in the implementation of Nazi German racial policy in Leipzig, before moving his operation to occupied Polish Upper Silesia region during World War II.
Vizefeldwebel Fritz Beckhardt (27 March 1889 – 13 January 1962), was a German Jewish fighter ace in World War I.Der Jude mit dem Hakenkreuz.
Fritz Bracht (18 January 1899 in Heiden, part of Lage near Detmold – 9 May 1945 in Bad Kudowa, now Kudowa Zdrój, Poland) was the Nazi Gauleiter of Upper Silesia.
Fritz Buntrock (Osnabrück, 8 March 1909 – 24 January 1948, Kraków) was a German war criminal, member of SS-Unterscharfuehrer (the SS equivalent to a corporal) serving at Auschwitz concentration camp during the Holocaust in occupied Poland.
Friedrich Hartjenstein (3 July 1905 – 20 October 1954) was a German SS functionary during the Nazi era.
Fritz Klein (24 November 1888 – 13 December 1945) was a German Nazi doctor hanged for his role in atrocities at Bergen-Belsen concentration camp during the Holocaust.
Friedrich "Fritz" Pfeffer (30 April 1889 – 20 December 1944) was a German dentist and Jewish refugee who hid with Anne Frank during the Nazi Occupation of the Netherlands, and who perished in the Neuengamme concentration camp in Northern Germany.
Fritz ter Meer (4 July 1884 – 27 October 1967) was a German chemist and a war criminal.
Fritz Weiss (Czech: Bedřich Weiss) (28 September 1919 – 28 September 1944) was a jazz musician and arranger, active in the first half of the 20th century.
The Independent Front or FI (Front de l'Indépendance, Onafhankelijkheidsfront (OF)) was a Belgian resistance movement during World War II, founded in March 1941 by Dr.
Frumka Płotnicka (Pińsk, 1914 – 3 August 1943, Będzin) was a Polish Jewish resistance fighter during World War II; activist of the Jewish Fighting Organization (ŻOB) and member of the Labour Zionist organization Dror.
Gabor S. Boritt (born 1940 in Budapest, Hungary) is an American historian.
Gabriel Allon is the main protagonist in Daniel Silva's thriller and espionage series that focuses on Israeli intelligence.
Gabriel Pomerand (c. 1926 - 1972) was a French poet, artist and a co-founder of lettrism.
Gabriela Shalev (גבריאלה שלו, born August 19, 1941) is an Israeli jurist.
Father Gaetano Piccinini (1904–1972) was a priest of the Don Orione Congregation, whose life encompassed religious activity in Rome and Latium.
Gal Gadot-Varsano (גל גדות; born 30 April 1985) is an Israeli actress and model.
Galerie Zak was an art gallery that was founded in Paris, France, in 1928 and specialised in modern European and South American art until its closure in the late 1960s.
The Galicia Jewish Museum (Polish: Żydowskie Muzeum Galicja) is located in the historic Jewish district of Kazimierz in Kraków, Poland.
Garden, Ashes (Bašta, pepeo) is a 1965 novel by Yugoslav author Danilo Kiš.
A gas chamber is an apparatus for killing humans or other animals with gas, consisting of a sealed chamber into which a poisonous or asphyxiant gas is introduced.
The Gau Upper Silesia (German: Gau Oberschlesien) was an administrative division of Nazi Germany from 1941 to 1945 in the Upper Silesia part of the Prussian Province of Silesia.
The Gaza flotilla raid was a military operation by Israel against six civilian ships of the "Gaza Freedom Flotilla" on 31 May 2010 in international waters in the Mediterranean Sea.
Gábor Nógrádi (born June 22, 1947, Nyíregyháza) is a Hungarian book author, screenwriter, playwright, essayist, publicist and poet who is best known for his children's novels, such as the Pigeon Granny and The Story of Pie (original title PetePite), a book which won the 2002 Children's Book of the Year award, was on the Honor List of the International Board on Books for Young People (IBBI) and was ranked among the 100 most popular books in Hungary in the 2005 'Big Book' competition.
Géza Röhrig (Röhrig Géza; born May 11, 1967) is a Hungarian actor and poet.
Gödöllő (Getterle; Jedľovo) is a town in Pest county, Budapest metropolitan area, Hungary, about northeast from the outskirts of Budapest.
Götz George (23 July 1938 – 19 June 2016) was a German actor, son of actor couple Berta Drews and Heinrich George.
Günther Hillmann (born 15 April 1919 in Ludwigslust, 8 May 1976 in Nuremberg) was a German biochemist.
Günther Niethammer (28 September 1908 Waldheim - 14 January 1974, Kottenforst) was a German ornithologist who served during the Second World War with the Nazi Waffen-SS at various places including the Auschwitz concentration camp where he conducted studies on birds.
Günzburg is a Große Kreisstadt and capital of the district of Günzburg in Swabia, Bavaria.
Geddy Lee Weinrib, (born Gary Lee Weinrib; July 29, 1953), known professionally as Geddy Lee, is a Canadian musician, singer, and songwriter best known as the lead vocalist, bassist, and keyboardist for the Canadian rock group Rush.
Geertruida Wijsmuller-Meijer (21 April 1896, Alkmaar – 30 August 1978, Amsterdam) was a Dutch war hero, resistance fighter, and after Raoul Wallenberg and Aristides de Sousa Mendes probably the person who directly saved the most Jews during the Holocaust.
Gena Turgel (née Goldfinger; 1 February 1923 – 7 June 2018) was a Polish author, educator and Holocaust survivor.
Gene Scheer (born April 28, 1958) is an American songwriter, librettist and lyricist.
The Generation of Columbuses (pokolenie Kolumbów) is a term denoting the generation of Poles who were born soon after Poland regained its independence in 1918, and whose adolescence was marked by the tragic times of World War II.
Generation War (Unsere Mütter, unsere Väter, literally "Our mothers, our fathers") is a German World War II TV miniseries in three parts.
Genesis Breyer P-Orridge (born Neil Andrew Megson; 22 February 1950) is an English singer-songwriter, musician, poet, performance artist, and occultist.
Genocide is a fictional character owned by DC Comics.
Genocide is the deliberate and systematic destruction, in whole or in part, of an ethnic, racial, religious or national group.
Genri Nikolaevich Koptev-Gomolov (Russian: Генри Николаевич Коптев-Гомолов; born 4 June 1926) is a Russian World War II veteran.
Geoffrey Gunther Eichholz, (June 29, 1920 – January 8, 2018) an educational leader in health physics at the Georgia Institute of Technology.
Morgen as defence witness, while prisoner at Dachau Georg Konrad Morgen (8 June 1909 – 4 February 1982) was an SS judge and lawyer who investigated crimes committed in Nazi concentration camps.
Georg Norin was a Nazi pharmacist implicated in the genocidal killings at Auschwitz.
Georg Preuß (24 April 1920 – 3 February 1991) was a mid-ranking commander in the Waffen-SS of Nazi Germany during World War II.
Georg-Hans Reinhardt (1 March 1887 – 23 November 1963) was a German general and war criminal during World War II.
George Brady, O.Ont (born February 9, 1928) is a Holocaust survivor of both Theresienstadt (Terezin) and Auschwitz (Oswiecim, Poland), who became a Canadian businessman and was awarded the Order of Ontario.
George Peter Clare (né Georg Klaar) (21 December 1920 – 26 March 2009) was a British Jewish author and Holocaust survivor who wrote Last Waltz in Vienna and Berlin Days, both autobiographies.
George Klein (Georg Klein, or Klein György, 28 July 1925 – 10 December 2016) was a Hungarian-Swedish biologist who specialized in cancer research.
George Lang (born György Deutsch; July 13, 1924 – July 5, 2011) was a Hungarian born American restaurateur, food and travel writer, critic and journalist.
George Mantello (11 December 1901 – 25 April 1992) was a Jewish diplomat who, while working for the Salvadoran consulate in Geneva, Switzerland from 1942 to 1945, saved thousands of Jews from the Holocaust by providing them with fictive Salvadoran citizenship papers.
Jorge Agustín Nicolás Ruiz de Santayana y Borrás, known in English as George Santayana (December 16, 1863September 26, 1952), was a philosopher, essayist, poet, and novelist.
George Tabori (24 May 1914 – 23 July 2007) was a Hungarian writer and theater director.
George R. Whyte (born 11 July 1933 in Budapest; died 31 August 2012 in London) was an author, composer, dramatist and art collector.
Georges André Kohn (23 April 1932 – 20 April 1945) was a distant relative of the Rothschild banking family of England.
Georges Brunschvig (21 February 1908 – 14 October 1973) was a Swiss lawyer and president of the Swiss Federation of Jewish Communities (SIG).
Georges Perec (7 March 1936 – 3 March 1982) was a French novelist, filmmaker, documentalist, and essayist.
Georges Politzer (3 May 1903 – 23 May 1942) was a French philosopher and Marxist theoretician of Hungarian Jewish origin, affectionately referred to by some as the "red-headed philosopher" (philosophe roux).
The documented ties between Georgia and Poland reach back to the 15th century, when the Georgian (Kartlian) Constantine I sent a diplomatic mission to the Polish King Alexander Jagiellon.
Gerald Fredrick Töben, more commonly known as Fredrick Töben, (born 2 June 1944) is a German-born Australian citizen who was director and founder of the Adelaide Institute, a Holocaust denial group in Australia.
Gerald Jacobs is a British author and the literary editor of The Jewish Chronicle.
Gerald Leo Posner (born May 20, 1954) is an American investigative journalist and author of twelve books, including Case Closed: Lee Harvey Oswald and the Assassination of JFK (1993), which explores the John F. Kennedy assassination, and Killing the Dream: James Earl Ray and the Assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr. (1998), about the assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr. A plagiarism scandal involving his articles and books arose in 2010.
Gerald Roberts Reitlinger (born 1900 in London, United Kingdom – died 1978 in St Leonards-on-Sea, United Kingdom) was an art historian, especially of Asian ceramics, and a scholar of historical changes in taste in art and their reflection in art prices.
Gerda Kamilla Mayer (born 9 June 1927) is an English poet born to a Jewish family in Karlsbad, Czechoslovakia.
Gerhard Jahn (10 September 1927 – 20 October 1998) was a German politician and a member of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD).
Gerhard Palitzcsh (June 17, 1913 – December 7, 1944), was a German SS non-commissioned officer, notorious for his activities in Auschwitz concentration camp.
Germaine Ribière (Limoges, Haute-Vienne 1917–1999) was a French Catholic, member of the Résistance, who saved numerous Jews during World War II, and was recognized as a Righteous Among the Nations (July 18, 1967, Yad Vashem, Jerusalem, Israel).
The AB-Aktion (Außerordentliche Befriedungsaktion), was a second stage of the Nazi German campaign of violence during World War II aimed to eliminate the intellectuals and the upper classes of Polish society across the territories slated for eventual annexation.
In World War II, Nazi Germany established brothels in the concentration camps (Lagerbordell) to create an incentive for prisoners to collaborate, although these institutions were used mostly by Kapos, "prisoner functionaries" and the criminal element, because regular inmates, penniless and emaciated, were usually too debilitated and wary of exposure to Schutzstaffel (SS) schemes.
The German camps in occupied Poland during World War II were built by the Nazis between 1939 and 1945 throughout the territory of the Polish Republic, both in the areas annexed in 1939, and in the General Government formed by Nazi Germany in the central part of the country (see map).
German Concentration Camps Factual Survey is the official British documentary film on the Nazi concentration camps, based on footage shot by the Allied forces in 1945.
An estimated 100,000 German Jewish military personnel served in the German Army during World War I, of whom 12,000 were killed in action.
The Military Administration in France (Militärverwaltung in Frankreich; Occupation de la France par l'Allemagne) was an interim occupation authority established by Nazi Germany during World War II to administer the occupied zone in areas of northern and western France.
The registered German minority in Poland at the 2011 national census consisted of 148,000 people, of whom 64,000 declared both German and Polish ethnicities and 45,000 solely German ethnicity.
During World War II, Nazi Germany engaged in a policy of deliberate maltreatment of Soviet prisoners of war (POWs), in contrast to their treatment of British and American POWs.
The German occupation of Belgium (Occupation allemande, Duitse bezetting) during World War II began on 28 May 1940 when the Belgian army surrendered to German forces and lasted until Belgium's liberation by the Western Allies between September 1944 and February 1945.
The occupation of Lithuania by Nazi Germany lasted from the German invasion of the Soviet Union on June 22, 1941 to the end of the Battle of Memel on January 28, 1945.
The German occupation of Luxembourg in World War II began in May 1940 after the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg was invaded by Nazi Germany.
The German occupation of the Channel Islands lasted for most of the Second World War, from 30 June 1940 until their liberation on 9 May 1945.
German resistance to Nazism (German: Widerstand gegen den Nationalsozialismus) was the opposition by individuals and groups in Germany to the National Socialist regime between 1933 and 1945.
German retribution against Poles who helped Jews – repressive measures taken by the German occupation authorities against non-Jewish Polish citizens who helped Jews who were persecuted and exterminated by the Third Reich from 1939 to 1945.
The governments of the German Empire and Nazi Germany ordered, organized and condoned a substantial number of war crimes in World War I and World War II respectively.
German–Polish relations have a long and complicated history.
Gerrit Kleerekoper (15 February 1897 – 2 July 1943) was a Jewish - Dutch gymnastics coach.
The Gerstein Report was written in 1945 by Kurt Gerstein, Obersturmführer of the Waffen-SS, who served as Head of Technical Disinfection Services of the SS in World War II, and in that capacity supplied the hydrogen cyanide-based pesticide Zyklon B from Degesch (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Schädlingsbekämpfung) to Rudolf Höss in Auschwitz, and conducted the negotiations with the owners.
Gert Schramm (28 November 1928 in Erfurt, Thüringia – 18 April 2016 in Erfurt) was a survivor of Buchenwald concentration camp, where he was the only black prisoner.
Gertrud Baer (1890–1981) was a German Jewish women's rights and peace activist.
Gertrud Bodenwieser (3 February 1890 – 10 November 1959), also known as "Gertrude", was a dancer, choreographer, dance teacher and pioneer of expressive dance.
Gertrud Heise (born 23 July 1921) was a female guard and later, SS overseer at several concentration camps during the Second World War.
Gertrud Käthe Chodziesner (10 December 1894 – March 1943), known by the literary pseudonym Gertrud Kolmar, was a German lyric poet and writer.
Gertruda Sekaninová-Čakrtová, born Stiassny (May 21, 1908 - December 29, 1986) was a Czech and Czechoslovak lawyer, politician and diplomat of Jewish origin, later also a dissident and signatory of the Charter 77.
Gertrude "Traute or Trude" Kleinová (born in Brno, Czechoslovakia; August 13, 1918 – April 9, 1976) was a three-time world champion table tennis player, winning the women's team world championship twice, and the world mixed doubles once.
Gertrude Pressburger (born 1927 in Vienna) is an Austrian Holocaust survivor.
Gertrude Stein (February 3, 1874 – July 27, 1946) was an American novelist, poet, playwright, and art collector.
Gheorghe Emil Ursu (known to friends as Babu; July 1, 1926 – November 17, 1985) was a Romanian construction engineer, poet, diarist and dissident.
The Ghetto Fighters' House (בית לוחמי הגטאות, Beit Lohamei Ha-Getaot), full name, Itzhak Katzenelson Holocaust and Jewish Resistance Heritage Museum, Documentation and Study Center, was founded in 1949 by members of Kibbutz Lohamei Hagetaot, a community of Holocaust survivors, among them fighters of the ghetto undergrounds and partisan units.
Gideon Greif (גדעון גרייף; born 16 March 1951) is an Israeli historian who specializes in the history of the Holocaust, especially the history of the Auschwitz concentration camp and particularly the Sonderkommando in Auschwitz.
Gideon Klein (6 December 1919 – c. January 1945) was a Czech pianist, classical music composer, and organizer of cultural life at Theresienstadt concentration camp.
Giebułtów (Gebhardsdorf) is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Mirsk within Lwówek Śląski County, Lower Silesian Voivodeship, in south-western Poland, close to the Czech border.
Gilad Margalit (גלעד מרגלית, 1959 in Haifa, Israel – 23 July 2014) was an Israeli historian and writer, and a professor in the Department of General History at the University of Haifa.
Sir Gilbert Levine, GCSG (born January 22, 1948) is an American conductor.
Gillian Rosemary Rose (née Stone; 20 September 1947 – 9 December 1995) was a British scholar who worked in the fields of philosophy and sociology.
Ginetta Sagan (June 1, 1925 – August 25, 2000) was an Italian-born American human rights activist best known for her work with Amnesty International on behalf of prisoners of conscience.
Giorgio Agamben (born 22 April 1942) is an Italian philosopher best known for his work investigating the concepts of the state of exception, form-of-life (borrowed from Ludwig Wittgenstein) and homo sacer.
Giovanni Palatucci (31 May 1909 – 10 February 1945) was an Italian police official who was long believed to have saved thousands of Jews in Fiume between 1939 and 1944 (current Rijeka in Croatia) from being deported to Nazi extermination camps.
Gisella Perl (10 December 1907 –16 December 1988) was a Romanian Jewish gynecologist deported to Auschwitz concentration camp in 1944, where she helped hundreds of women as inmate gynecologist without the bare necessities to perform her work.
Gisi Fleischmann (1894 – 18 October 1944) was a Zionist activist and co-leader of one of the best known Holocaust era Jewish rescue group: the Bratislava Working Group.
Giuditta is an operatic (German for musical comedy) in five scenes, with music by Franz Lehár and a German libretto, by and Fritz Löhner-Beda.
Giustizia e Libertà (Justice and Freedom) was an Italian anti-fascist resistance movement, active from 1929 to 1945.
Give Kids The World Village is a nonprofit resort in Kissimmee, Florida for children with life-threatening illnesses and their families.
Gliwice (Gleiwitz) is a city in Upper Silesia, southern Poland, near Katowice.
This is a list of words, terms, concepts and slogans of Nazi Germany used in the historiography covering the Nazi regime.
Gloucester Road is a London Underground station in Kensington, west London.
Gmina Stawiski is an urban-rural gmina (administrative district) in Kolno County, Podlaskie Voivodeship, in north-eastern Poland.
"Bóg się rodzi" ("God Is Born") is a Polish Christmas carol (kolęda), with lyrics written by Franciszek Karpiński in 1792.
God on Trial is a 2008 BBC/WGBH Boston television play written by Frank Cottrell Boyce, starring Antony Sher, Rupert Graves and Jack Shepherd.
Goethe University Frankfurt (Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main) is a university located in Frankfurt, Germany.
Gold teeth are a form of dental prosthesis.
The Golders Green Jewish Cemetery, also known as Hoop Lane Jewish Cemetery, is a Jewish cemetery in London.
Goleszów (Golleschau) is a village and the seat of Gmina Goleszów (an administrative district) in Cieszyn County in Silesian Voivodeship, southern Poland.
Good is a 2008 drama film based on the stage play of the same name by C. P. Taylor.
Good is an award-winning play in two acts written by British playwright Cecil Philip Taylor.
The Goralenvolk was a geopolitical term invented by the German Nazis in World War II in reference to the Goral highlander population of Podhale region in the south of Poland near the Slovak border.
Gottfried Erik Fuchs (also Godfrey Fuchs; 3 May 1889 – 25 February 1972) was a German Olympic footballer who emigrated to Canada.
The Government of National Unity (Hungarian: Nemzeti Összefogás Kormánya) existed during the occupation of Hungary by Nazi Germany between October 1944 and May 1945.
The Grafeneck Euthanasia Centre (NS-Tötungsanstalt Grafeneck) housed in Grafeneck Castle was one of Nazi Germany's killing centres as part of their forced euthanasia programme.
Grajewo is a town in north-eastern Poland with 21,499 inhabitants (2016).
The Grande synagogue de Lyon is a synagogue located at 13 quai Tilsitt in the 2nd arrondissement of Lyon.
Granville is a commune in the Manche department and region of Normandy in north-western France.
Gréco Casadesus (born 13 August 1951) is a French composer, specialized in film scores.
The Greater Romania Party (Partidul România Mare, PRM) is a Romanian nationalist political party.
Greta Ferušić Weinfeld (born) is a retired professor of architecture at the University of Sarajevo and survivor of Auschwitz and the Siege of Sarajevo.
Greta Loebl Schreyer (July 28, 1917 – October 3, 2005), born Greta Loebl, was an Austrian-American, Jewish jewelry designer and painter.
Saint Grigol Peradze (გრიგოლ ფერაძე) (St. Priest Martyr Grigol), (September 13, 1899 – December 6, 1942) was a famous Georgian ecclesiastic figure, theologian, historian, Archimandrite, PhD of History, Professor.
Grizel Rosemary Graham Niven (28 November 1906 – 28 January 2007) was an English sculptor.
Grodno or Hrodna (Гродна, Hrodna; ˈɡrodnə, see also other names) is a city in western Belarus.
The Grodno Ghetto (getto w Grodnie, עברית) was a World War II ghetto established in November 1941 by Nazi Germany in the city of Grodno for the purpose of persecution and exploitation of Polish Jews in German-occupied eastern Poland.
Grodno/Hrodna Region (Гродзенская вобласць, Hrodzienskaja vobłasć; Гродненская область, Grodnenskaya oblast) is one of the regions of Belarus.
Groningen (Gronings: Grunnen) is the main municipality as well as the capital city of the eponymous province in the Netherlands.
The Grossaktion or Gross-Aktion Warsaw (Großaktion Warschau, Great Action) was a secretive Nazi German operation of the mass extermination of Jews from the Warsaw Ghetto beginning 22 July 1942.
Grzegorz Timofiejew (11 March 1908 – 3 October 1962) was a Polish poet of distant Russian ancestry.
A guard tower is any military tower used for guarding an area.
Guenter Lewy (born August 22, 1923) is a German-born American author and political scientist who is a professor emeritus of Political Science at the University of Massachusetts Amherst.
Gunvor Hofmo (30 June 1921 – 17 October 1995) was a Norwegian writer, often considered one of Norway's most influential modernist poets.
Gurs Internment Camp was a internment camp and prisoner of war camp constructed in 1939 in Gurs, a site in southwestern France, not far from Pau.
Gustave Mark Gilbert (September 30, 1911 – February 6, 1977) was an American psychologist best known for his writings containing observations of high-ranking Nazi leaders during the Nuremberg trials.
Guy G. Stroumsa (born 27 July 1948) is Martin Buber Professor Emeritus of Comparative Religion at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem and Emeritus Professor of the Study of the Abrahamic Religions at the University of Oxford, where he is an Emeritus Fellow of Lady Margaret Hall.
Guy Edward Barham Walters (born 8 August 1971) is an English author, historian and journalist.
Gyöngyös is a town in Heves county in Hungary, east of Budapest.
György Harag (June 4, 1925, Marghita, Kingdom of Romania – July 7, 1985, Târgu Mureș, Socialist Republic of Romania) was a Hungarian director and actor from Transylvania, Romania.
György Sándor Ligeti (Ligeti György Sándor,; 28 May 1923 – 12 June 2006) was a Hungarian-Austrian composer of contemporary classical music.
Gypsies have historically been criticized and persecuted in Western countries.
Hans Günther Adler, who wrote under pseudonym H. G. Adler (July 2, 1910, in Prague – August 21, 1988, in London), was a German language poet, novelist, scholar, and Holocaust survivor.
Haczów (Гачів, Hachiv) is a village in Brzozów County, Subcarpathian Voivodeship, in south-eastern Poland.
Hadassah Lieberman (born March 28, 1948) is the second wife of former United States Senator Joe Lieberman of Connecticut.
Hadassa Bimko Rosensaft (August 26, 1912 – October 3, 1997) was a Polish holocaust survivor.
Hagenow is a German town in the southwest of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, in the district of Ludwigslust-Parchim, 30 kilometers south of Schwerin.
The Haidari concentration camp (στρατόπεδο συγκέντρωσης Χαϊδαρίου, stratópedo syngéntrosis Chaidaríou; KZ Chaidari) was a concentration camp operated by the German Schutzstaffel at the Athens suburb of Haidari during the Axis occupation of Greece in World War II.
Hair: The American Tribal Love-Rock Musical is a rock musical with a book and lyrics by Gerome Ragni and James Rado and music by Galt MacDermot.
Hajo Meyer (12 August 1924 – 23 August 2014) was a Jewish German-Dutch physicist and an anti-Zionist political activist.
Halemba Power Station (Elektrownia Halemba) is a coal-fueled power plant in Halemba district of Ruda Śląska, Silesian Voivodeship, Poland.
Halina Birenbaum (Warsaw, 15 September 1929) is a Holocaust survivor, writer, poet, translator and activist.
Hamas (Arabic: حماس Ḥamās, an acronym of حركة المقاومة الاسلامية Ḥarakat al-Muqāwamah al-ʾIslāmiyyah Islamic Resistance Movement) is a Palestinian Sunni-Islamist fundamentalist organization.
The Hamburg Ravensbrück trials were a series of seven trials for war crimes against camp officials from the Ravensbrück concentration camp that the British authorities held in their occupation zone in Germany in Hamburg after the end of World War II.
Hana Brady, actually Hana "Hanička" Bradyová (16 May 1931 – 23 October 1944), was a Jewish girl murdered in the gas chambers at German concentration camp of Auschwitz, located in the occupied territory of Poland, during the Holocaust.
Hana Greenfield (née Lustigová; 3 November 1926 - 27 January 2014) was born in Kolín, Czechoslovakia, from where she was deported to the concentration camps of Theresienstadt, Auschwitz and Bergen Belsen.
Hana Maria Pravda (born Hana Becková on 29 January 1916 Prague − 22 May 2008 Oxford) was a Czechoslovakian-born British actress.
Hannah Moscovitch (born June 5, 1978) is a Canadian playwright who rose to national prominence in the 2000s.
Hannah Rosenthal (born 1951) served as a Special Envoy and as the head of the Office to Monitor and Combat Anti-Semitism in the Obama Administration for three years, since she was sworn into office on November 23, 2009 until October 5, 2012.
Hannah Szenes (often anglicized as Hannah Senesh or Chanah Senesh; חנה סנש; Hungarian: Szenes Anikó; July 17, 1921November 7, 1944) was a poet and Special Operations Executive (SOE) paratrooper.
Johann Baptist Albin Rauter (4 February 1895 – 24 March 1949) was a high-ranking Austrian-born SS functionary and war criminal during the Nazi era.
Hanns and Rudolf is a dual biography of Hanns Alexander and Rudolf Höss by the British-American journalist Thomas Harding.
Hans Assmann (December 9, 1923 – June 19, 1998 in Danderyd hospital in Sweden) was a German who immigrated to Finland and still later to Sweden.
Hans Aumeier (20 August 1906 – 28 January 1948) was an SS commander during the Nazi era who was the deputy commandant of Auschwitz concentration camp.
Hans Behrendt (28 September 1889 – 1942) was a German-Jewish actor, screenwriter and film director.
Hans Biebow (December 18, 1902 – June 23, 1947) was the chief of German Nazi administration of the Łódź Ghetto in occupied Poland.
SS-Hauptsturmführer Hans Bothmann or Hans Johann Bothmann (November 11, 1911 – April 4, 1946)IPN, Concentration camps' functionaries - biographical notes and witness' account. Institute of National Remembrance 2012.
Hans Delmotte (born 15 December 1917 in Liège, died 1945) was a Belgian SS doctor at the Auschwitz concentration camp in the branch of the Hygiene Institute of the Waffen SS.
Hans Tobias Erl (Warsaw or Vienna 1882 — Deported to Auschwitz, 1942?) was a German operatic bass.
Hans Fleischhacker (10 March 1912 – 30 January 1992) was a German anthropologist with the Ahnenerbe and a commander in the SS of Nazi Germany.
Hans Michael Frank (23 May 1900 – 16 October 1946) was a German war criminal and lawyer who worked for the Nazi Party during the 1920s and 1930s, and later became Adolf Hitler's personal lawyer.
Hans Frankenthal (July 15, 1926 – December 22, 1999) was a German Jew who was deported to the Auschwitz concentration camp in occupied Poland in 1943.
Hans Hoffmann (born December 2, 1919) was an SS-Rottenführer and member of staff at Auschwitz concentration camp.
Hans Jonas (10 May 1903 – 5 February 1993) was a German-born American Jewish philosopher, from 1955 to 1976 the Alvin Johnson Professor of Philosophy at the New School for Social Research in New York City.
Hans Kammler (26 August 1901 – 9 May 1945) was a German civil engineer and SS commander during the Nazi era.
Hans Alex Keilson (12 December 1909 – 31 May 2011) was a Jewish German/Dutch novelist, poet, psychoanalyst, and child psychologist.
Hans Koch (August 13, 1912 – July 14, 1955) was an SS-Unterscharführer and member of staff at Auschwitz concentration camp.
Hans Krása (30 November 1899 – 17 October 1944) was a Czech composer, murdered during the Holocaust at Auschwitz.
Hans Kronberger CBE, FRS (28 July 1920 – 29 September 1970) was a British physicist.
Hans Lipschis (November 7, 1919 – June 16, 2016) was a member of the Waffen-SS who worked at Auschwitz concentration camp during World War II.
Hans Moeser (April 7, 1906 – November 26, 1948) was a German SS functionary during the Nazi era who served at the Neuengamme, Auschwitz and Mittelbau-Dora concentration camps.
Hans Wilhelm Münch (14 May 1911 – 2001) son of the german botanic Ernst Münch, he was a German Nazi Party member who worked as an SS physician during World War II at the Auschwitz concentration camp from 1943 to 1945 in German occupied Poland.
Hans Erich Pfitzner (5 May 1869 – 22 May 1949) was a German composer and self-described anti-modernist.
Hans Schaul (13 December 1905 – 19 May 1988) was a German politician and a long-standing legally trained Party Newspaper managing-editor.
Hans Schwarz, (29 December 1922 – 28 May 2003) was a prolific Austrian artist, who spent most of his life in Britain and was notable for his portrait painting, several examples of which are held by the National Portrait Gallery in London.
Hans Stark (14 June 1921 in Darmstadt – 29 March 1991 in Darmstadt) was an SS-Untersturmführer and head of the admissions detail at Auschwitz-II Birkenau of Auschwitz concentration camp.
Hans Wilhelm König (born 13 May 1912 in Stuttgart — date of death unknown) was an SS doctor assigned to the Auschwitz concentration camp during World War II.
Hans-Jürgen Syberberg (born 8 December 1935) is a German film director, whose best known film is his lengthy feature Hitler: A Film from Germany.
Hans-Joachim Lang (born 6 August 1951) is a German journalist, historian, and Adjunct Professor of Cultural Anthropology at the Ludwig-Uhland Institute for Empirical Cultural Studies University of Tübingen.
Hans-Joachim Walter Rudolf Siegfried Marseille (13 December 1919 – 30 September 1942) was a German fighter pilot during World War II.
Hans-Joachim Schoeps (January 30, 1909 Berlin - July 8, 1980 Erlangen) was a German-Jewish historian of religion and religious philosophy.
Hans-Ulrich Rudel (2 July 1916 – 18 December 1982) was a German ground-attack pilot during World War II.
Hajnalka Brand (née Hartmann; August 26, 1912 – April 9, 2000), known as Hansi Brand, was a Hungarian-born Zionist activist who was involved in rescue efforts during the Holocaust.
Haris Silajdžić (Cyrillic: Харис Силајџић; born 1 October 1945) is a Bosnian politician and academic.
Harris Ranch, or the Harris Cattle Ranch, feedlot is California's largest beef producer and the largest ranch on the West Coast of the United States, producing 150,000,000 pounds of beef per year in 2010.
Harry Haffner (28 May 1900 – 14 October 1969) was a German lawyer and the last Judge-President of the Nazi People's Court.
Harry Haft (also known as Herschel Haft; born Hertzko or Hertzka Haft on 28 July 1925 in Bełchatów, Poland;Benjamin Knaack:. Der Spiegel 9 June 2009 died 3 November 2007) was a survivor of the Auschwitz concentration camp where he boxed fellow inmates to survive.
Harry Wald (1924-1996) was a German-born American Holocaust survivor, World War II veteran, and casino executive.
Harry Waldau (born Valentin Pinner) (1876–1943), born in Liegnitz, Germany, died in the Auschwitz concentration camp.
HASAG (also known as Hugo Schneider AG, or by its original name in Hugo Schneider Aktiengesellschaft Metallwarenfabrik) was a German metal goods manufacturer founded in 1863.
The hate speech laws in France are matters of both civil law and criminal law.
"Hatikvah" (הַתִּקְוָה,, الأمل, lit. English: "The Hope") is a Jewish poem and the national anthem of Israel.
Hédi Fried (born 15 June 1924 in Sighet) is a Jewish author and psychologist.
Hélène Berr (27 March 1921 – April 1945) was a French woman of Jewish ancestry and faith, who documented her life in a diary during the time of Nazi occupation of France.
Hélène Metzger (26 August 1889 – 7 March 1944) was a French philosopher of science and historian of science.
The Höcker Album (or Hoecker Album) is a collection of photographs believed to have been collected by Karl-Friedrich Höcker, an officer for the SS during the Nazi regime in Germany.
Heřmanův Městec (Czech pronunciation: ˈɦɛr̝manuːf ˈmɲɛstɛts; German: Hermanmiestetz, Hermannstädt(e)l) is a town in Pardubice Region of the Czech Republic.
Heda Margolius Kovály (15 September 1919 – 5 December 2010 Grimes, William (9 December 2010).. The New York Times.) was a Czech writer and translator.
Heddy Kun is an Israeli painter.
Hedy Epstein (née Wachenheimer; August 15, 1924 – May 26, 2016) was a German-born Jewish-American political activist known for her support of the Palestinian cause through the International Solidarity Movement.
Heeb is a Jewish website (and from 2001 to 2010, a quarterly magazine) aimed predominantly at young Jews.
Heimat is the title of a series of films, for a total of 32 episodes, written and directed by Edgar Reitz, which view life in Germany between 1840s to 2000 through the eyes of a family from the Hunsrück area of the Rhineland.
Heinrich August Winkler (born 19 December 1938 in Königsberg) is a German historian.
Heinrich Bütefisch (24 February 1894, Hanover5 September 1969, Essen) was a German chemist, manager at IG Farben, and Nazi war criminal.
Heinrich Berütz (12 August 1910 – 1985?) was a German-Polish Wehrmacht soldier, with rank of Gefreiter in years 1937–1942 and later a soldier in the SS with the rank of Scharführer, in 1942-1944, in Warsaw and Auschwitz.
Heinrich Luitpold Himmler (7 October 1900 – 23 May 1945) was Reichsführer of the Schutzstaffel (Protection Squadron; SS), and a leading member of the Nazi Party (NSDAP) of Germany.
Heinrich Müller (28 April 1900; date of death unknown, but evidence points to May 1945) was a German police official under both the Weimar Republic and Nazi Germany.
Heinrich Schwarz (14 June 1906 – 20 March 1947) was an SS-Hauptsturmführer (captain) and concentration camp officer who served as commandant of Auschwitz III-Monowitz in Nazi-occupied Poland and Natzweiler-Struthof in Alsace-Lorraine.
Heinz Alt (19226 January 1945) was a German composer and one of the victims of Nazi regime.
Heinz Galinski (28 November 1912 – 19 July 1992) was president of the Central Council of Jews in Germany (Zentralrat der Juden in Deutschland) from 1988 until his death in 1992.
Heinz Pehlke (October 8, 1922 – March 12, 2002) was a freelance German cinematographer in film and television.
Heinz Röthke (born 19 January 1912 in Mürow – died 14 July 1966 in Wolfsburg) was a German lawyer and SS-Obersturmführer who, together with Theodor Dannecker, was one of the persons most responsible for the deportation of French Jews, between 1940 and 1944, during the Holocaust.
Heinz Thilo (8 October 1911 in Elberfeld 13 May 1945 in Hohenelbe) was a German SS officer and a physician in the Nazi concentration camp Auschwitz.
Helen Jonas-Rosenzweig (born Helena Sternlicht; 25 April 1925) is a Holocaust survivor interned during World War II at the Kraków-Płaszów concentration camp where she was forced to work as a maid for SS camp commandant Amon Göth.
Helen Lewis MBE (née Katz, Trutnov, Bohemia, 22 June 1916 – Belfast, Northern Ireland, 31 December 2009) was a pioneer of modern dance in Northern Ireland, and made her name as a dance teacher and choreographer.
Helena Dunicz-Niwińska (July 28, 1915 – June 12, 2018) was a Polish violinist, translator and author.
Helena Wolińska-Brus (28 February 1919 – 26 November 2008) was a military prosecutor in postwar communist Poland with the rank of lieutenant-colonel (podpułkownik), involved in Stalinist regime show trials of the 1950s.
Helga Hošková-Weissová, also Helga Weiss, (born november 1929) is a Czech artist, and a Holocaust survivor.
Helmut Bischoff (March 1, 1908 – January 5, 1993) was a German SS- Obersturmbannführer and Nazi security official.
Helmut Kallmeyer (8 October 1910 in Hamburg – 27 September 2006) was a German chemist in the era of National Socialism.
Helmut Kapp (born as Konstanty Kapuścik died May 31, 1943) was a member of the Gestapo during World War II.
Helmut Roland Heinrich Pfeiffer (November 2, 1907 – April 17, 1945) was a German lawyer and SS officer who rescued people hunted by the Nazi regime.
Helmut Vetter (21 March 1910 – 2 February 1949) was an SS-Hauptsturmführer and a Nazi war criminal.
Henri Abraham (1868–1943) was a French physicist who made important contributions to the science of radio waves.
Henri Gourarier is a French Holocaust survivor.
Henri Krasucki (2 September 1924, Wołomin, Poland - 24 January 2003) was a French trade-unionist, former secretary general of the Confédération générale du travail (CGT) from 1982 to 1992.
Henri Émile Benoît Matisse (31 December 1869 – 3 November 1954) was a French artist, known for both his use of colour and his fluid and original draughtsmanship.
Naphthali ben Levi (Henri) van Praag (September 12, 1916 in Amsterdam - November 3, 1988 in Hilversum) was a Jewish-Dutch educator, philosopher and theologian (or religious historian) who also became known as a (ortho) educational therapist and writer and as a publicist at the psychological and parapsychological field.
Henriëtte Henriquez Pimentel (1876–1943) was a Dutch teacher and trained nurse who during the Second World War headed a crèche in Amsterdam which cared for small children while their parents were otherwise occupied.
Henry Jolles (born Heinz-Frederic Jolles; 28 November 1902 – 16 July 1965), was a German pianist and composer.
Henry Lehmann (August 21, 1929 – February 2, 2000), was the General Manager of General Electric's military systems operations in Syracuse, New York and a philanthropist within the American Jewish Community.
Henekh "Henry" Morgentaler, (March 19, 1923 – May 29, 2013), was a Jewish Polish-born Canadian physician and pro-choice advocate who fought numerous legal battles aimed at expanding abortion rights in Canada.
Henry Wilhelm Kristiansen (12 February 1902 – 16 January 1942) was a Norwegian newspaper editor and politician for the Communist Party.
Major Henryk Dobrzański aka "Hubal" (22 June 1897 - 30 April 1940) was a Polish soldier, sportsman and partisan.
Henryk Mandelbaum (December 15, 1922 – June 17, 2008) was a Polish survivor of the Holocaust.
Henryk (Tauber) Fuchsbrunner (8 July 1917 – 3 January 2000) was a Polish Jewish prisoner at Auschwitz-Birkenau death camp during the Holocaust, who gave detailed testimony at the end of World War II.
Henryk Woliński (1901–1986) was a member of the Polish resistance movement in World War II, specifically the Armia Krajowa (AK), where he reached the rank of colonel.
Herbert Felix (1908 - 1973) was a Swedish entrepreneur of Austrian-Jewish descent and the founder of the food companies AB Felix and Felix Austria.
Herbert Herden (8 January 1915 – 11 February 2009) was a German police officer who was declared a Righteous Among the Nations on 17 March 2004.
Herbert Herz (known as Georges-Hubert Charnay by false papers) (1924-2016) is a former fighter with the French Résistance in the FTP-MOI, a member of the Carmagnole and Liberté squads of the Lyon region during World War II.
Herbert Kappler (23 September 1907 – 9 February 1978) was the head of German police and security services (Sicherheitspolizei and SD) in Rome during the Second World War.
Herbert Thomas Mandl (August 18, 1926 - February 22, 2007) was a Czechoslovak-German-Jewish author, concert violinist, professor of music, philosopher, inventor and lecturer.
Either Herman Albertus "Herman" Levij (15 April 1904, Rotterdam – 12 December 1983) or Heinz Levy (29 April 1904, Hannover - 31 March 1944 Auschwitz) was a Dutch boxer who competed in the 1924 Summer Olympics.
Herman Sachnowitz (born 13 June 1921 in Larvik, dead 5 March 1978 in Oslo) was a Norwegian merchant.
Hermann Helmut Diamanski, also Dimanski (May 4, 1909 in Danzig (Gdańsk) – August 10, 1976 in Frankfurt (Main), Germany) was a German resistance fighter against the National Socialist regime, communist, member of the International Brigade in the Spanish Civil War, and a political prisoner in the Auschwitz concentration camp.
Herman Kahan (born Chaim Hersh Kahan in 1926) is a Romanian-born Norwegian businessman, rabbi, author, and Holocaust survivor.
Hermann Langbein (18 May 1912 – 24 October 1995) was an Austrian who fought in the Spanish Civil War with the International Brigades for the Spanish Republicans against the Nationalists under Francisco Franco.
Hermann Ungar (April 20, 1893 in Boskovice – October 28, 1929 in Prague) was a Czech-Jewish writer (in the German language) and an officer in Czechoslovakia's Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
Hermann Wronker AG was a German department store chain.
Hermine Böttcher (born 26 April 1918) was a female SS auxiliary guard at several concentration camps between 1942 and 1945.
Heroes is the seventh studio album by Swedish power metal band Sabaton.
Herta Bothe (born 3 January 1921) was a Nazi concentration camp guard during World War II, imprisoned for war crimes after the capitulation of Nazi Germany.
Herta Ehlert (née Liess; 26 March 1905, Berlin – 4 April 1997) was a female guard at many Nazi concentration camps during the Holocaust.
Herta Oberheuser (15 May 1911 in Cologne, German Empire – 24 January 1978 in Linz am Rhein, West Germany) was a Nazi physician and a war criminal who worked at the Auschwitz and Ravensbrück concentration camps from 1940 until 1943.
Herzogenbusch concentration camp (Kamp Vught,, Konzentrationslager Herzogenbusch) was a Nazi concentration camp located in Vught near the city of 's-Hertogenbosch, Netherlands.
Henriëtte ("Hetty") Voûte (1918–1999) was a Dutch Resistance fighter who was declared Righteous Among the Nations by Yad Vashem on March 24, 1988 for her work rescuing Dutch Jewish children whose parents had been deported to Nazi concentration camps during World War II.
The Heuaktion (literally: harvesting of hay, or hay operation) was a Nazi German World War II operation, whereas 40,000 to 50,000 Polish children aged 10 to 14 were kidnapped by the German occupational forces and transported to Germany proper as slave labourers.
Heydebreck was a Nazi Germany village area with POW camps Arbeitskommando E711A and Bau und Arbeits (BAB, Building and Labor) camp 20 a), b) (renamed E794 in November 1944). Five km west.
Yechezkel (Hezi) Eshel (born January 4, 1931) was a lieutenant colonel in the Israel Defense Forces who served in command duties in the Givati and Golani brigades, as well as in administrative duties in the IDF headquarters ("Matkal").
Hilary Krzysztofiak (born 28 October 1926 in Szopienice, now a part of Katowice, died 30 September 1979 in Falls Church, Virginia near Washington) was a Polish painter, graphic artist and set designer.
Hildegard Frieda Albertine Knef (28 December 19251 February 2002) was a German actress, voice actress, singer, and writer.
Hildegard Martha Lächert (20 January 1920 – 1995) was a female guard, or Aufseherin, at several German World War II concentration camps.
Hildegard Neumann (born 4 May 1919) was a chief overseer at several Nazi concentration, transition and detention camps during the last year of World War II.
Throughout the history of amateur radio, amateur radio enthusiasts have made significant contributions to science, engineering, industry, and social services.
Amiens is a city and commune in northern France, north of Paris and south-west of Lille.
The history of antisemitism – defined as hostile actions or discrimination against Jews as a religious or ethnic group – goes back many centuries; antisemitism has been called "the longest hatred".
The history of Belgium predates the founding of the modern state of that name in 1830.
The history of Berlin starts with its foundation in the 13th century.
Bielsko-Biała is a city in southern Poland created after the merging of two closely situated cities, Bielsko and Biała, in 1951.
The city of Budapest was officially created on 17 November 1873 by the merging of the neighboring cities of Pest, Buda and Óbuda, with smaller outskirt towns amalgamated into Greater Budapest in 1950.
After the Russo-Turkish War, an autonomous Bulgarian state was created within the Ottoman Empire by the Treaty of Berlin in 1878.
The history of Cluj-Napoca covers the time from the Roman conquest of Dacia, when it was known as Napoca, through its flourishing as the main cultural and religious center in the historic province of Transylvania, until its modern existence as a city, the seat of Cluj County in north-western Romania.
The history of eugenics is the study of development and advocacy of ideas related to eugenics around the world.
The History of Freiburg im Breisgau can be traced back almost 900 years.
The history of Guernsey stretches back to evidence of prehistoric habitation and settlement and encompasses the development of its modern society.
Hungary is a country in Central Europe whose history under this name dates to the Early Middle Ages, when the Pannonian Basin was conquered by the Hungarians (Magyars), a semi-nomadic people who had migrated from Eastern Europe.
Kraków (Cracow) is one of the largest and oldest cities in Poland, with the urban population of 756,441 (2008).
The early history of Monaco is primarily concerned with the protective and strategic value of the Rock of Monaco, the area's chief geological landmark, which served first as a shelter for ancient peoples and later as a fortress.
The oldest traces of human occupation in Paris, discovered in 2008 near the Rue Henri-Farman in the 15th arrondissement, are human bones and evidence of an encampment of hunter-gatherers dating from about 8000 BC, during the Mesolithic period.
The history of Poland has its roots in the migrations of Slavs, who established permanent settlements in the Polish lands during the Early Middle Ages.
The history of Poland from 1939 to 1945 encompasses primarily the period from the Invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany to the end of World War II.
The history of Poland from 1945 to 1989 spans the period of Soviet dominance and communist rule imposed after the end of World War II over Poland, as reestablished within new borders.
This article covers the history of Polish Intelligence services dating back to the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
In the second half of the 2nd millennium B.C. (late Bronze Age) Silesia belonged to the Lusatian culture.
The history of the Jews during World War II is almost synonymous with the Jewish persecution and murder of unprecedented scale in modern times in political Europe inclusive of European North Africa (pro-Nazi Vichy-North Africa and Italian Libya).
Following the re-emergence of sovereign Poland after World War I and during the interwar period the number of Jews in the country grew rapidly.
Amsterdam has historically been the center of the Dutch Jewish community, and has had a continuing Jewish community for the last 370 years.
The history of the Jews in Austria probably begins with the exodus of Jews from Judea under Roman occupation.
The history of the Jews in Békés, a county in Hungary, has lasted more than two centuries.
Judaism has a long history in Belgium, from the 1st century CE until today.
The history of the Jews of Bratislava, today the capital of Slovakia reaches back the Middle Ages, the first record of the Bratislava Jewish community dates from 1251.
The last antebellum census in Hungary, 1910.
The history of the Jews in Cologne is documented from the year 321 AD, almost as long as the history of Cologne.
Eindhoven is a municipality and a city located in the province of Noord-Brabant in the south of the Netherlands, originally at the confluence of the Dommel and Gender brooks.
The history of the Jews in Florence can be traced over nine hundred years.
The Jewish Community of Gdańsk (Danzig) dates back to at least the 15th century though for many centuries it was separated from the rest of the city.
Jewish settlers founded the Ashkenazi Jewish community in the Early (5th to 10th centuries CE) and High Middle Ages (circa 1000–1299 CE).
Jews have been present in Greece since at least the fourth century BC.
Groningen has always been the largest town in the northern part of the Netherlands, resulting in a significant settlement of Jews throughout its history.
The history of the Jews in Guernsey dates back to well before the events of 1940-5.
Jews have a long history in the country now known as Hungary, with some records even predating the AD 895 Hungarian conquest of the Carpathian Basin by over 600 years.
The history of the Jews in Italy spans more than two thousand years.
The history of the Jews in Königsberg reaches back to the 1530s.
The history of the Jews in Laupheim began in the first half of the 18th century.
Leipzig, a city in the German state of Saxony, has historically been a center for Jews.
The history of the Jews in Maastricht, Netherlands, traces back to the Middle Ages.
The Jews in Norway are one of the country's smallest ethnic and religious minorities.
The history of the Jews in Poland dates back over 1,000 years.
The History of the Jews in Slovakia goes back to the 11th century, when the first Jews settled in the area.
The small Jewish community of Slovenia (Judovska skupnost Slovenije) is estimated at 400 to 600 members, with the Jewish community of Slovenia suggesting 500 to 1000 members.
The history of the Jews in Speyer reaches back over 1,000 years.
Jews in Bohemia (also known as Bohemian Jews/Czech Jews or, in some cases, Austro-Hungarian Jews), today's Czech Republic, arnise predominantly Ashkenazic Jews, and the current Jewish population is only a fraction of the pre-WWII Czechoslovakia's Jewish population.
Most history of the Jews in the Netherlands was generated between the end of the 16th century and World War II.
The history of the Jews of Thessaloniki, (Greece) reaches back two thousand years.
The history of the Jews in Tunisia extends over nearly two thousand years and goes back to the Punic era.
The history of the Jews in Turin, Italy, can be first traced to the 4th century when bishop Maximus of Turin recorded the presence of Jews in the city.
The history of the Jewish Community of Venice, which is the capital of the Veneto region of Italy has been well known since the medieval era.
Jews lived in the northern Hungarian town of Verpelét and the surrounding Heves county from the 15th century or earlier up to the late 17th century, after which they were excluded from the area.
The area around the town of Wageningen was settled as early as the 9th century.
Hitler's Children is an Israeli-German 2011 documentary film directed by Chanoch Zeevi that portrays how relatives of Hitler's inner circle deal with the burden of that relationship and the identification of their surname and family ties with the horrors of the Holocaust.
Hitler's Willing Executioners: Ordinary Germans and the Holocaust is a 1996 book by American writer Daniel Goldhagen, in which he argues that the vast majority of ordinary Germans were "willing executioners" in the Holocaust because of a unique and virulent "eliminationist antisemitism" in the German political culture, which had developed in the preceding centuries.
The term Hiwi is a German abbreviation of the word Hilfswilliger, meaning "voluntary assistant", or more literally, "willing helper".
Hlinka Guard (Hlinkova garda; Hlinka-Garde; abbreviated as HG) was the militia maintained by the Slovak People's Party in the period from 1938 to 1945; it was named after Andrej Hlinka.
HMT Empire Windrush, originally MV Monte Rosa, was a passenger liner and cruise ship launched in Germany in 1930.
Hodod (Hadad, Hungarian pronunciation:; Kriegsdorf) is a commune of 3,209 inhabitants situated in Satu Mare County, Romania.
The concentration camp in Hodonín was a World War II internment camp for Romani people (Gypsies) from the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia (which nowadays forms the larger part of the Czech Republic).
Hohenasperg, located in the federal state of Baden-Württemberg near Stuttgart, Germany, of which it is administratively part, is an ancient fortress and prison overlooking the town of Asperg.
Holocaust is a 1978 American four part television miniseries which tells the story of the Holocaust from the perspectives of the fictional Weiss family of German Jews and that of a rising member of the SS, who gradually becomes a merciless war criminal.
Holocaust denial is the act of denying the genocide of Jews in the Holocaust during World War II.
The Holocaust Educational Trust (HET) is a British charity, based in London, whose aim is to "educate young people of every background about the Holocaust and the important lessons to be learned for today." It was founded by the Labour MP Greville Janner and the former Labour Home Secretary Merlyn Rees in 1988, and is a registered charity in England & Wales and in Scotland.
Holocaust Memorial Day (HMD) (27 January) is a national commemoration day in the United Kingdom dedicated to the remembrance of those who suffered in The Holocaust, under Nazi Persecution, and in subsequent genocides in Cambodia, Rwanda, Bosnia and Darfur.
Holocaust Memorial Day or Holocaust Remembrance Day refers to various countries' designated annual day of commemoration honoring the victims, survivors and rescuers of the Holocaust during the Nazi regime As of 2004, twelve countries observed January 27, the day of the liberation of the Auschwitz concentration camp, including Germany, Britain, France, Italy and Scandinavian countries.
Holocaust studies (less often, Holocaust research) is a scholarly discipline that encompasses the historical research and study of the Holocaust.
Holocaust theology is a body of theological and philosophical debate concerning the role of God in the universe in light of the Holocaust of the late 1930s and 1940s.
The Holocaust tourism is a term used by the media in relation to round-trip travel to destinations connected with the extermination of Jews during the Holocaust in World War II, including visits to sites of Jewish martyrology such as former Nazi death camps and concentration camps turned into state museums.
Holocaust trains were railway transports run by the Deutsche Reichsbahn national railway system under the strict supervision of the German Nazis and their allies, for the purpose of forcible deportation of the Jews, as well as other victims of the Holocaust, to the German Nazi concentration, forced labour, and extermination camps.
Holocaust victims were people who were targeted by the government of Nazi Germany for various discriminatory practices due to their ethnicity, religion, political beliefs, or sexual orientation. These institutionalized practices came to be called The Holocaust, and they began with legalized social discrimination against specific groups, and involuntary hospitalization, euthanasia, and forced sterilization of those considered physically or mentally unfit for society. These practices escalated during World War II to include non-judicial incarceration, confiscation of property, forced labor, sexual slavery, medical experimentation, and death through overwork, undernourishment, and execution through a variety of methods, with the genocide of different groups as the primary goal. According to the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum (USHMM), the country's official memorial to the Holocaust, "The Holocaust was the murder of six million Jews and millions of others by the Nazis and their collaborators during World War II." Of those murdered for being Jewish, more than half were Ashkenazi Polish Jews.
The Home Army (Armia Krajowa;, abbreviated AK) was the dominant Polish resistance movement in Poland, occupied by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union, during World War II.
Homotopia is an international LGBT festival held annually in Liverpool, England and across various parts of Europe.
Hoppstädten-Weiersbach is an Ortsgemeinde – a municipality belonging to a Verbandsgemeinde, a kind of collective municipality – in the Birkenfeld district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.
Horneburg is a municipality southwest of Hamburg (Germany) in the district of Stade in Lower Saxony.
Horst Paul Silvester Fischer (December 31, 1912 – July 8, 1966) was a German doctor and member of the SS, executed in East Germany for crimes committed at Auschwitz-Birkenau concentration camp during World War II.
Horst Mahler (born 23 January 1936) is a German former lawyer and political activist.
Horst Schumann (1 May 1906 – 5 May 1983), SS-Sturmbannführer (major) and medical doctor, conducted sterilization and castration experiments at Auschwitz and was particularly interested in the mass sterilization of Jews by means of X-rays.
Hotel Polski (Polish Hotel), opened in 1808, was a hotel in Warsaw, Poland, at 29 Długa street.
Hour of the Assassins is the first spy thriller novel by author Andrew Kaplan, originally published by Dell Publishing.
Peščanik is a 1972 novel by Yugoslav novelist Danilo Kiš, translated as Hourglass by Ralph Manheim (1990).
The Camondo family was a prominent European family of Jewish financiers and philanthropists.
House of Dolls is a 1955 novella by Ka-tzetnik 135633.
Hugh O'Flaherty CBE (28 February 1898 – 30 October 1963), was an Irish Catholic priest and senior official of the Roman Curia, and significant figure in Catholic resistance to Nazism.
Hugo Gabriel Gryn (25 June 1930 – 18 August 1996) was a British Reform rabbi and a regular broadcaster and a leading voice in interfaith dialogue.
Hugo Haas (18 February 1901 – 1 December 1968) was a Czech film actor, director and writer.
Hugo Adolf Höllenreiner (15 September 1933 in Munich, Germany – 10 June 2015 in Ingolstadt) was a Sinti survivor of the Porajmos during the Nazi dictatorship.
Hugo Princz (1923 – Jul 31, 2001) was a Holocaust survivor who was imprisoned in Auschwitz concentration camp in Oswiecim, Poland.
Human rights in Austria are generally respected by the government; however, there were problems in some areas.
Humboldt Park, one of 77 designated community areas, is on the West Side of Chicago, Illinois.
The Hungarian Gold Train was the German-operated train during World War II that carried stolen valuables, mostly Hungarian Jewish persons' property, from Hungary towards Berlin in 1945.
The Hungarian occupation of Yugoslav territories consisted of the military occupation, then annexation, of the Bačka, Baranja, Međimurje and Prekmurje regions of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia by the Kingdom of Hungary during World War II.
Hungary (Magyarország) is a country in Central Europe that covers an area of in the Carpathian Basin, bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, and Slovenia to the west.
During World War II, the Kingdom of Hungary was a member of the Axis powers.
I Never Saw Another Butterfly is a collection of works of art and poetry by Jewish children who lived in the concentration camp Theresienstadt.
I Was a Child of Holocaust Survivors is a 2010 animated film by Ann Marie Fleming based on a 2006 autobiographical graphic novel by Bernice Eisenstein.
Sir Ian Kershaw, FBA (born 29 April 1943) is an English historian and author whose work has chiefly focused on the social history of 20th-century Germany.
IBM and the Holocaust: The Strategic Alliance between Nazi Germany and America's Most Powerful Corporation is a book by investigative journalist Edwin Black which details the business dealings of the American-based multinational corporation International Business Machines (IBM) and its German and other European subsidiaries with the government of Adolf Hitler during the 1930s and the years of World War II.
Ibolya Grossman (December 11, 1916 – 2005) is a Hungarian-born Canadian writer.
Ichenhausen is a town in the district of Günzburg, in Bavaria, Germany.
Ida Haendel, CBE (born 15 December 1928) is a Polish-British violinist.
IDEA Office is an American architectural practice based in downtown Los Angeles.
Identification of inmates in German concentration camps was performed mostly with identification numbers marked on clothing, or later, tattooed on the skin.
If Not Now, When? is a novel by the Italian author Primo Levi, first published in 1982 under the title Se non ora, quando?.
If This Is a Man (Italian: Se questo è un uomo; United States title: Survival in Auschwitz) is a memoir by Italian Jewish writer Primo Levi, first published in 1947.
IG Farben was a German chemical and pharmaceutical industry conglomerate.
The United States of America vs.
Ignacy Oziewicz (pseudonyms: Czesław, Czesławski, Netta, Jenczewski;7 May 1887 – 10 January 1966) was a Polish military colonel.
Ignatz Bubis (12 January 1927 – 13 August 1999), German Jewish leader, was the influential chairman (and later president) of the Central Council of Jews in Germany (Zentralrat der Juden in Deutschland) from 1992 to 1999.
Ignaz Maybaum (2 March 1897, Vienna - 1976) was a rabbi and 20th century liberal Jewish theologian.
Karol Juliusz "Igo" Sym (July 3, 1896 – March 7, 1941) was an Austrian-born Polish actor and collaborator with Nazi Germany.
Igor Newerly or Igor Abramow-Newerly (24 March 1903, Białowieża – 19 October 1987, Warsaw, Poland) was a Polish novelist and educator.
Ilan Ramon (אילן רמון,, born Ilan Wolferman; June 20, 1954 – February 1, 2003) was an Israeli fighter pilot and later the first Israeli astronaut for NASA.
Ileanda (Nagyilonda) is a commune located in Sălaj County, Romania.
Ilium/Olympos is a series of two science fiction novels by Dan Simmons.
Ilja Zeljenka (21 December 1932 – 13 July 2007) was a Slovak composer.
Ilona Sojda (born 26 May 1987, Kielce), Polish singer whose work has its origin in sung poetry, an imprecise, unspecific music genre that merges lyrical ballads with written poetry.
Ilse Blumenthal-Weiss (14 October 1899 – 10 August 1987) was a German poet.
Ilse Weber (11 January 1903 – 6 October 1944) née Herlinger, was born in Witkowitz near Mährisch-Ostrau.
Ilya Isidorovich Fondaminsky (Илья′ Исидо′рович Фондами′нский, February 17, 1880, Moscow, Russia — November 19, 1942, Auschwitz, (Oświęcim, Nazi-occupied Lesser Poland) was a Jewish Russian author (writing under the pseudonym Bunakov) and political activist, in 1910s one of the leaders of the ultra left Esers party, in 1917 a senior member of the Alexander Kerensky's Provisional government. In 1918 Fondaminsky took part in the Jassy Conference. In France where he was living since immigration in 1919, Fondaminsky veered off from the left and became an influential newspaper editor (Sovremennye Zapisky, among others), author of philosophical essays and in the later years — much admired philanthropist, supporting Christian magazines and charity funds. Facing the Nazi occupation, Fondaminsky refused to leave Paris, saying he was willing to accept his destiny whatever it may be. Arrested in July 1941 and sent to the concentration camp, he adopted Christianity and was christened a Russian Orthodox not long before being sent to Auschwitz. Ilya Fondaminsky died there on November 19, 1942. In 2003 he was officially pronounced a Russian Orthodox saintly martyr by the Patriarch of Constantinople.
Immigration Control Platform (ICP) (An Feachtas um Smacht ar Inimirce) is a political group which seeks to restrict immigration to Ireland.
Imre Hercz (10 March 1929 – 24 July 2011) was a Jewish Hungarian-Norwegian physician and public debater.
Imre Kertész (9 November 192931 March 2016) was a Hungarian author and recipient of the 2002 Nobel Prize in Literature, "for writing that upholds the fragile experience of the individual against the barbaric arbitrariness of history".
Imre Lakatos (Lakatos Imre; November 9, 1922 – February 2, 1974) was a Hungarian philosopher of mathematics and science, known for his thesis of the fallibility of mathematics and its 'methodology of proofs and refutations' in its pre-axiomatic stages of development, and also for introducing the concept of the 'research programme' in his methodology of scientific research programmes.
Imre Tóth (also Toth) was born in 1921, in Satu Mare, a few years after the Treaty of Trianon recognized it as a part of Romania, to a very religious Jewish family that had fled from the 1920 pogroms.
Zadok · ZAKA · Zealot · Zebah · Zechariah (Hebrew prophet) · Zechariah Ben Jehoiada · Zechariah of Israel · Zefat · Zephaniah · Zikhron Ya'akov · Zion · Zion Mule Corps · Zionism · Zionology · Zohar Jewish history Jewish history topics Category:Judaism-related lists.
Industrial music is a fusion genre of electronic and experimental music which draws on harsh, transgressive or provocative sounds and themes.
Inge Auerbacher (born December 31, 1934 in Kippenheim) is an American chemist of German origin.
Inside the Third Reich (Erinnerungen, "Memories") is a memoir written by Albert Speer, the Nazi Minister of Armaments from 1942 to 1945, serving as Adolf Hitler's main architect before this period.
The Institute for Historical Review (IHR), founded in 1978, is an American organization best known for publishing articles and books promoting Holocaust denial, a practice which attracted notoriety to the IHR.
The Institute of European Studies is a unit of the Jagiellonian University, having its roots in the Inter-Faculty Department for European Studies which was founded in 1993.
The International Auschwitz Committee was formed by survivors of the Auschwitz death camp in 1952 for the support of the survivors and to fight racism and anti-Semitism.
The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) is a humanitarian institution based in Geneva, Switzerland, and a three-time Nobel Prize Laureate.
International concentration camp committees are organizations composed of former inmates of the various Nazi concentration camps, formed at various times, primarily after the Second World War.
The International Holocaust Remembrance Alliance (IHRA) is an intergovernmental organization founded in 1998 which unites governments and experts to strengthen, advance and promote Holocaust education, research and remembrance worldwide and to uphold the commitments of the Declaration of the Stockholm International Forum on the Holocaust.
International Holocaust Remembrance Day, is an international memorial day on 27 January commemorating the tragedy of the Holocaust that occurred during the Second World War.
The International Jewish Anti-Zionist Network (IJAN) is a network of anti-Zionist Jews pledged to "Oppose Zionism and the State of Israel".
In the decades since the Holocaust, some national governments, international bodies and world leaders have been criticized for their failure to take appropriate action to save the millions of European Jews, Roma, and other victims of the Holocaust.
The International Youth Meeting Center in Oświęcim/Auschwitz is an educational institution whose campus lies between the center of the Polish city of Oświęcim and the former German concentration camp of Auschwitz.
There were internment camps and concentration camps in France before, during and after World War II.
The Invasion of Poland, known in Poland as the September Campaign (Kampania wrześniowa) or the 1939 Defensive War (Wojna obronna 1939 roku), and in Germany as the Poland Campaign (Polenfeldzug) or Fall Weiss ("Case White"), was a joint invasion of Poland by Germany, the Soviet Union, the Free City of Danzig, and a small Slovak contingent that marked the beginning of World War II.
Involuntary euthanasia occurs when euthanasia is performed on a person who would be able to provide informed consent, but does not, either because they do not want to die, or because they were not asked.
Ioannina (Ιωάννινα), often called Yannena (Γιάννενα) within Greece, is the capital and largest city of the Ioannina regional unit and of Epirus, an administrative region in north-western Greece.
Irène Némirovsky (24 February 1903 – 17 August 1942) was a novelist of Ukrainian Jewish origin born in Kiev Ukraine under the Russian Empire; she lived more than half her life in France, and wrote in French, but was denied French citizenship.
Irena Bobowska (3 September 1920 - 27 September 1942) was a Polish poet and member of the Polish resistance.
Irene Capek (28 December 1924 – 19 November 2006) was a Jewish holocaust survivor, humanitarian and local Australian politician.
Irene Zisblatt, born Irene Zegelstein in 1929, is a Hungarian-born American Holocaust survivor.
Irma Ida Ilse Grese (7 October 1923 – 13 December 1945) was a female SS guard at the Nazi concentration camps of Ravensbrück and Auschwitz, and served as warden of the women's section of Bergen-Belsen.
Irma Schwager (31 May 1920 - 22 June 2015) was an Austrian-Jewsish anti-fascist resistance fighter and politician.
Ironic precision is a literary style utilized by authors such as Gustave FlaubertNabokov (1980), p.256 and poet Wisława Szymborska, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Literature.
In 2005, the British author David Irving was arrested for Holocaust denial in Austria.
David Irving v Penguin Books and Deborah Lipstadt is a case in English law against American author Deborah Lipstadt and her publisher Penguin Books, filed in an English court by the British author David Irving in 1996, asserting that Lipstadt had libelled him in her book Denying the Holocaust.
Isaac Schneersohn (1879 or 18811969) was a French rabbi, industrialist, and the founder of the first Holocaust Archives and Memorial.
Isaac Zelig Zieman (May 6, 1920 – April 2, 2007) was a survivor of both the Holocaust and Stalin's gulag (labor camps) who went on to devote his life to helping people as a psychoanalyst and an advocate for peace between Germans and Jews, Israelis and Palestinians, and other groups with a history of antagonism.
Islam and antisemitism relates to Islamic theological teaching against Jews and Judaism and the treatment of Jews in Muslim communities.
Isobel Pravda is an English actress and the granddaughter of Czech actors George Pravda and Hana Maria Pravda.
Israel Gutman (ישראל גוטמן; 20 May 1923 – 1 October 2013) was a Polish-born Israeli historian and a survivor of the Holocaust.
Israel Shamir (Russian: Исраэль Шамир; born 1947), also known by the names Robert David, Vassili Krasevsky, Jöran Jermas and Adam Ermash, is a Russian-born Swedish writer and journalist.
The Israelitische Kultusgemeinde Wien (IKG) (Vienna Israelite Community) is the body that represents Vienna’s Orthodox Jewish community.
Isser Harel (איסר הראל, 1912 – 18 February 2003) was spymaster of the intelligence and the security services of Israel and the Director of the Mossad (1952–1963).
István Farkas (October 20, 1887 in Budapest; died on July 1944 in the concentration camp Auschwitz-Birkenau) was a Hungarian painter, publisher and victim of the Holocaust.
István Kertész (28 August 192916 April 1973) was an internationally acclaimed Jewish Hungarian orchestral and operatic conductor who, throughout his brief but distinguished career led many of the world's great orchestras, including the Cleveland, Chicago, Philadelphia, New York, Los Angeles, Pittsburgh, Detroit, San Francisco and Minnesota Orchestras in the United States, as well as the London Symphony, Vienna Philharmonic, Berlin Philharmonic, Royal Concertgebouw Orchestra, Israel Philharmonic, and L'Orchestre de la Suisse Romande.
Italian literature is written in the Italian language, particularly within Italy.
Itay Tiran (איתי טיראן; born March 23, 1980) is an Israeli stage and screen actor, known for his roles in Forgiveness (2006), Beaufort (2007), The Debt (2007), Homeland (2008), Lebanon (2009), The Promise (2011), Anleitung zum Ungluecklichsein (2012), Die Lebenden (2012), Lauf, Junge, lauf (2013) and Demon.
Itzhak Katzenelson (יצחק קצנלסון, (יצחק קאַצ(ע)נעלסאָן(זון; also transcribed Icchak-Lejb Kacenelson, Jizchak Katzenelson; Yitzhok Katznelson) (1 July 1886 – 1 May 1944) was a Polish Jew, a teacher, poet and dramatist.
Ivan Ivanji (born 24 January 1929) is a Jewish-Serbian author of many internationally renowned novels.
Ivan Jandl (24 January 1937 – 21 November 1987) was a Czech child actor.
Ivan Klíma (born 14 September 1931 in Prague, as Ivan Kauders) is a Czech novelist and playwright.
Ivan Moscovich is a designer and commercial developer of puzzles, games, toys, and educational aids.
Ivan Reitman, (born October 27, 1946) is a Slovak-Canadian film producer and director, best known for his comedy work, especially in the 1980s and 1990s.
Ivana Hirschmann (5 May 18668 May 1943) was first female physical education teacher and professor of gymnastics in Croatia.
Iván Erőd, also Iván Eröd (Erőd Iván; born 2 January 1936, Budapest) is a Hungarian-Austrian composer and pianist.
Iwo Cyprian Pogonowski (3 September 1921 – 21 July 2016) was a Polish-born polymath and inventor with 50 patents to his credit.
Iyar (אִייָר or אִיָּר, Standard Iyyar Tiberian ʾIyyār; from Akkadian ayyaru, meaning "Rosette; blossom") is the eighth month of the civil year (which starts on 1 Tishrei) and the second month of the ecclesiastical year (which starts on 1 Nisan) on the Hebrew calendar.
Izieu is a commune in the Ain department in eastern France.
Izrael Kanał, also known as Mietek and Jehuda, was a Jewish resistance soldier in the Warsaw Ghetto and a participant of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising in 1943.
Jaap van Praag (10 July 1910 – 7 August 1987) was a Dutch football administrator and chairman for local football club Ajax Amsterdam.
Jacek Proszyk (born 7 May 1973) is Polish historian and religious scholar.
Jack Tramiel (born Idek Trzmiel; December 13, 1928 – April 8, 2012) was a Polish American businessman, best known for founding Commodore International.
Jacob Bronowski (18 January 1908 – 22 August 1974) was a Polish-born British mathematician, historian of science, theatre author, poet and inventor.
Jacob G. Rosenberg (1922–2008) was an author and Holocaust survivor.
Jacques Charles Noel Dugé de Bernonville (December 20, 1897 – April 26, 1972) was a French collaborationist and senior police officer in the Milice of the Vichy regime in France.
Jacques Feldbau was a French mathematician, born on 22 October 1914 in Strasbourg, of an Alsatian Jewish traditionalist family.
Jacques Helbronner (1873-1943) was a French jurist, civil servant and Jewish official.
Jacques Lazarus (September 2, 1916, Payerne, Switzerland – January 7, 2014, Paris, France) was a French military officer who was a leader of the Jewish resistance in France during World War II.
Jacob (Jacques) Presser (24 February 1899 in Amsterdam – 30 April 1970 in Amsterdam) was a Dutch historian, writer and poet, known for his book Ashes in the wind (The destruction of the Dutch Jews) on the history of the persecution of the Jews in the Netherlands during World War II.
Jacques Solomon (4 February 1908 – 23 May 1942) was a French physicist and Marxist who played a central role in the debate over quantum mechanics in France in the 1930s and 1940s.
Jadwiga Apostoł-Staniszewska (22 December 1913 – 2 February 1990) was a Polish teacher in the interwar period, an underground activist during World War II, and a writer in postwar Poland.
Jadwiga Barańska (born 21 October 1935) is a Polish actress and screenwriter.
Jadwiga Dzido (1918–1985) was a Polish resistance worker and pharmacy student who was arrested by the Gestapo in 1941 and deported to the Ravensbrück concentration camp where she was subjected to forced operations.
Jadwiga Staniszkis (born April 26, 1942 in Warsaw) is a Polish sociologist and political scientist, essayist, a former professor at the University of Warsaw and the Wyższa Szkoła Biznesu (Business School), a Polish campus of National-Louis University.
Jake Heggie (born March 31, 1961) is an American composer of opera, vocal, orchestral, and chamber music.
Michael "Jakko" Jakszyk (born Michael Lee Curran, 8 June 1958) is an English musician, record producer, and actor.
Jakob Frank Denzinger (June 29, 1924 – February 11, 2016) was a concentration camp and extermination-death camp guard during the Holocaust in Nazi Germany at five separate concentration camps across three countries, as well as a member of the SS-Totenkopfverbände.
Jakob Edelstein (AKA Yacov, Yaakov, Jakub Edelstein or Edlstein), (Horodenka (Galicia), 25 July 1903 – 20 June 1944 Auschwitz) was a Czechoslovak Zionist, social democrat and the first Jewish Elder in the Theresienstadt ghetto.
Jakob Segal (17 April 1911 – 30 September 1995) was a Russian-born German biology professor at Humboldt University of Berlin in the former East Germany.
Jan and Anna Puchalski were the Polish husband and wife who lived in the village of Łosośna in north-eastern Poland on the outskirts of Grodno (now 20 km into Belarus) during the Nazi German occupation of Poland.
Jan Karcz (16 October 1892, in Modlica near Kraków – 25 January 1943, in Auschwitz) was a Polish Army Colonel, posthumously promoted to the rank of a Brigadier General.
Jan Karski (24 June 1914 – 13 July 2000) was a Polish World War II resistance-movement soldier, and later a professor at Georgetown University.
Jan Kobylański (born 21 July 1923 in Rowne, Poland) is a Polish-Paraguayan businessman.
Janick "Jan" Krugier (May 12, 1928 in Radom, Poland. - November 16, 2008 in Geneva, Switzerland) was a Polish born Swiss dealer in modern art most known for his relationship to the works of Pablo Picasso and a survivor of the Holocaust.
Jan Liwacz (born 4 October 1898 in Dukla, died 22 April 1980 in Bystrzyca Kłodzka) was a master blacksmith and prisoner of Auschwitz concentration camp best known for the infamous "Arbeit macht frei" slogan over the camp's main entrance gate that he made.
Jan Maria Gisges (born January 15, 1914 in Nisko, died December 17, 1983 in Warsaw) was a Polish poet, prose writer and dramatist.
Jan Mosdorf (30 May 1904, Warsaw - 11 October 1943, Auschwitz), was a Polish right-wing politician, director of the nationalist organization All-Polish Youth (Młodzież Wszechpolska, MW) and member of the far-right political party National Radical Camp (ONR).
Jan Rodowicz (7 March 1923 – 7 January 1949), alias "Anoda", was a scout, soldier of the Grey Ranks, the Home Army and of the Armed Forces' Delegation, lieutenant.
Jan Rubczak (18 January 1882, Stanisławów – 27 May 1942, Auschwitz) was a Polish Postimpressionist painter and engraver of Greek ancestry.
Jan Sehn (April 22, 1909 – December 12, 1965), was a Polish lawyer, 1945-47 investigating magistrate, and professor at Jagiellonian University since 1961.
Jan Stanisław Olbrycht (1886–1968) was a Polish medic, university professor and one of the most renowned specialists in forensics of the early 20th century.
Jan Sviták (23 December 1898 – 11 May 1945) was a Czech actor and film director.
Jan Hendrik Wolkers (Oegstgeest, 26 October 1925 – Texel, 19 October 2007) was a Dutch author, sculptor and painter.
Jane Haining (6 June 1897 – 16 August 1944) was a Church of Scotland missionary.
Janina Turek, (21 November 1921 - 12 November 2000) was the author of one of the longest life accounts, also known as factologies.
Marianne "Janny" (or "Jannie") Brandes-Brilleslijper (24 October 1916 – 15 August 2003) was a Dutch Holocaust survivor and one of the last people to see Anne Frank.
Janowska concentration camp (Janowska, Янов or "Yanov", Янівський табір) was a Nazi German labor, transit and extermination camp established in September 1941 in occupied Poland on the outskirts of Lwów (Second Polish Republic, today Lviv, Ukraine).
January is the first month of the year in the Julian and Gregorian calendars and the first of seven months to have a length of 31 days.
The following events occurred in January 1945.
During the early years of World War II, Japanese Americans were forcibly relocated from their homes in the Pacific Coast states because military leaders and public opinion combined to fan unproven fears of sabotage.
Jarmila Novotná (September 23, 1907, in Prague – February 9, 1994, in New York City) was a celebrated Czech soprano and actress and, from 1940 to 1956, a star of the Metropolitan Opera.
Jasenovac – istina (English: Jasenovac – The Truth) is a 2016 documentary film by Croatian filmmaker Jakov Sedlar.
The Jasenovac concentration camp (Logor Jasenovac/Логор Јасеновац,; יאסענאוואץ) was an extermination camp established in Slavonia by the authorities of the Independent State of Croatia (NDH) during World War II.
Jawiszowice is a village in Oświęcim County, Lesser Poland Voivodeship in southern Poland.
Jaworzno is a city in southern Poland, near Katowice.
The Jaworzno concentration camp was a concentration camp in WW2 German-occupied Poland, first established by the Nazis in 1943 amidst the Second World War and then used briefly by the Soviets and by the post-war communist Polish government until 1956.
Ján Kadár (1 April 1918 – 1 June 1979) was a Jewish-Slovak Hungarian-born film writer and director.
János Nyíri (November 9, 1932October 23, 2002) was a theatre director, journalist and writer.
Józef Berger (14 March 1901 in Orłowa - 11 June 1962 in Bratislava) was a Polish Lutheran pastor, theologian and politician from the region of Zaolzie, Czechoslovakia.
Józef Celmajster (later Józef Niemirski) (born 27 December 1901 - 7 December 1968 in Warsaw, Poland) was a Polish physician of Jewish descent, first lieutenant of the Polish Army, chief of medical department of the Jewish Military Union (ŻZW) in the Warsaw Ghetto and OW-KB.
Józef Chaciński (13 March 1889 – 6 May 1954) was a Polish lawyer and politician.
Józef Cyrankiewicz (April 23, 1911 – January 20, 1989) was a Polish Socialist (PPS) and after 1948 Communist politician.
Józef Cyrek (born 13 September 1904 in Bysina; d. 2 September 1940 at Auschwitz) was a Polish writer and Roman Catholic clergyman, member of the Society of Jesus involved in the religious publishing industry, who shortly after the Nazi invasion of Poland was arrested by the Gestapo, imprisoned at several places of detention, and lastly deported to the Auschwitz concentration camp where he was murdered.
Józef Garliński (14 October 1913, Kiev - 29 November 2005, London) was a Polish historian and prose writer.
Józef Gosławski (24 April 1908 – 23 January 1963) was a Polish sculptor and medallic artist.
Józef Franciszek Korbas (November 11, 1914 in Kraków – October 2, 1981 in Katowice) was an interwar Polish football player, forward of Cracovia (Champion of Poland 1937) and Polish National Team.
Józef Kowalski (March 13, 1911 – July 4, 1942) was a Polish Roman Catholic priest from the Salesian Society killed at the Auschwitz concentration camp during World War II.
Józef Noji (8 September 1909 – 15 February 1943) was a Polish long-distance runner.
Józef Paczyński (20 January 1920 – 26 April 2015) was a Polish man who was known for having been the personal barber of Rudolf Hoss during the time he spent as a prisoner in the Auschwitz concentration camp.
Józef Pukowiec codename: Chmura, Pukoc (September 14, 1904 in Świętochłowice – August 14, 1942 in Katowice) was a Polish teacher, scoutmaster, and Polish resistance activist during the Second World War.
Józef Siemieński (born March 2, 1882 in Skrzydłów near Radomsko – October 14, 1941 in Auschwitz) was a Polish archivist, historian of law.