542 relations: A-1 holin family, Abortive initiation, Acne, Actinobacterial phage holin family, Actinomycetales, Adaptation, Affinity magnetic separation, AFM-IR, Alfred Hershey, Amycolatopsis rifamycinica, André Michel Lwoff, Antibiotic, Antibiotic use in livestock, Antimicrobial resistance, Antitermination, Aphid, Arrowsmith (novel), Asimov's Biographical Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, Autographivirinae, Auxiliary metabolic genes, Avery–MacLeod–McCarty experiment, Édouard de Pomiane, Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus phage, Bacillus phage AP50, Bacillus phage G, Bacillus phage phi29, Bacteria, Bacterial genome, Bacterial lawn, Bacteriocin, Bacteriophage experimental evolution, Bacteriophage MS2, Bacteriophage PBC1, Bacteriophage scaffolding proteins, Bacteriophage T12, Bacteriophage T5, Bacterioplankton, Bacterioplankton counting methods, Bacteroides fragilis, Barbara McClintock, Bdellovibrio, Beet vascular necrosis, Beta helix, BIA Separations, Bioactive paper, Biology, Biopanning, BlyA holin family, ..., Botulism, BP holin family, Bruce Alberts, Budapest Treaty, Burkholderia phage phi52237, Burkholderia phage phiE12-2, Burkholderia phage phiE202, C4 antisense RNA, Campylobacter jejuni, Capsid, Carsten Bresch, Cas9, Caudovirales, Caulobacter phage holin family, CccDNA, Cell signaling, Chargaff's rules, Chemostat, Chlamydia psittaci, Cholera, Christian Cambillau, Chronic bacterial prostatitis, CII protein, Cloning vector, Clostridium difficile (bacteria), Clyde A. Hutchison III, Coliphage, Concatemer, Corticovirus, Corynebacteriophage, Corynebacterium, Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Cosmid, CPS operon, CrAssphage, Cre-Lox recombination, Crick, Brenner et al. experiment, CRISPR, CTXφ bacteriophage, Cyanophage, Cyanophage N-1, Cyanophages, Cyclic di-GMP-I riboswitch, Cystovirus, Daisy Roulland-Dussoix, Dances on the Snow, David Ian Hanauer, Dda (DNA-dependent ATPase), Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und Zellkulturen, Diphtheria, Diphtheria toxin, DNA, DNA beta-glucosyltransferase, DNA condensation, DNA ligase, DNA methylation, DNA repair, DNA replication, DNA sequencing, DNA virus, Donald A. Glaser, Double-stranded RNA viruses, Downstream-peptide motif, Dp-1 holin family, Drug resistance, Dyad symmetry, Earl Evans (scientist), Ekkehard Bautz, Emory Ellis, Endogenosymbiosis, Enterobacter virus CC31, Enterobacteria phage 186, Enterobacteria phage G4, Enterobacteria phage P22, Enterobacteria phage P4, Enterobacteria phage PsP3, Enterobacteria phage T2, Enterobacteria phage T4, Enterobacteria phage T6, Enterobacteria phage Wphi, Enterobacterial holin family, Environmental impact of pharmaceuticals and personal care products, Enzybiotics, Epimerox, Epsilon 15, Ernest Hanbury Hankin, Erythrogenic toxin, Escape and radiate coevolution, Escherichia coli, Escherichia coli in molecular biology, Escherichia phage H8, Essential gene, Esther Lederberg, Evolutionary biology, Evolving digital ecological networks, Excisionase, F1 phage, FadL outer membrane protein transport family, Far East scarlet-like fever, Félix d'Herelle, Filamentous bacteriophage, Filamentous bacteriophage fd, Food microbiology, Forest Rohwer, Frank Macfarlane Burnet, Franklin Stahl, Frederick Sanger, Frederick Twort, Geminiviridae, Gene flow, Gene transfer agent, General bacterial porin family, Genetically modified tomato, Genetically modified virus, Genome editing, Genomic library, Genomics, George Eliava, George Eliava Institute, George Hirst (virologist), GFP-cDNA, Giles (bacteriophage), GlnA RNA motif, Glossary of biology, Glycoside hydrolase family 22, Glycoside hydrolase family 24, Gram-negative bacteria, Gram-positive bacteria, Grete Kellenberger-Gujer, Group I catalytic intron, Gunther Stent, Gut flora, Hamilton O. Smith, Hans D. Ochs, Harvey Bialy, Helios Murialdo, Helmut Ruska, Hershey–Chase experiment, HHV capsid portal protein, HindIII, History of biology, History of genetics, History of molecular biology, History of RNA biology, History of virology, HK97, Hok/sok system, Hol118 family, Holin, Holliday junction, Homeobox, Homologous recombination, Horizontal gene transfer, Host–parasite coevolution, HTVC010P, Human Microbiome Project, Human microbiota, Human virome, Hyperparasite, Immune system, In vitro recombination, Index of biology articles, Index of genetics articles, Index of molecular biology articles, Innate immune system, Integrase, Interspecific competition, Intralytix, Introduction to viruses, Iron dependent repressor, Isobutanol, Isopeptide bond, J147, James A. Shapiro, James J. Bull, James Watson, Jean Finnegan, Joan A. Steitz, John Grange (medical researcher), John Howard Northrop, John Morison (bacteriologist), Jules Bordet, Kenneth Burton, KilA-N domain, Kill the Winner hypothesis, Kuppamuthu Dharmalingam, Lactobacillales, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactococcus lactis, Lambda holin family, Lambda phage, Leviviridae, Library (biology), Life history theory, Ligation (molecular biology), Lin Chao, Lipopolysaccharide, List of atheists in science and technology, List of experiments, List of geneticists, List of homing endonuclease cutting sites, List of Japanese inventions and discoveries, List of medical roots, suffixes and prefixes, List of MeSH codes (B04), List of MeSH codes (E05), List of microorganisms tested in outer space, List of multiple discoveries, List of people from Tbilisi, List of restriction enzyme cutting sites, List of The Venture Bros. characters, Lister Institute of Preventive Medicine, Listeria monocytogenes, Listeria phage A511, Listeria phage P100, Lists of organisms by population, LLHol family, Lloyd M. Kozloff, LP holin family, LSm, Lung microbiota, Luria–Delbrück experiment, Lysibody, Lysin, Lysis, Lysogen, Lysogenic cycle, Lytic cycle, M13 bacteriophage, Malolactic fermentation, Mamavirus, ManA RNA motif, Mannheimia phage phiMhaA1-PHL101, Margaret Dick, Marine bacteriophage, Marine life, Marine microorganism, Mark Geier, Marlene Belfort, Martha Chase, Mating system, Max Delbrück, Meganuclease, Membrane technology, Memetics, Metagenomics, Michaelis–Menten kinetics, Micreos, Microbial genetics, Microbiological culture, Microbiology, Microgen, Microorganism, Microsatellite, Microviridae, Milislav Demerec, Mobile genetic elements, Model organism, Molecular diagnostics, Molecular dynamics, Molecular genetics, Molecular Structure of Nucleic Acids: A Structure for Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid, Molecular virology, Moron (bacteriophage), MP4 holin family, Multicopy single-stranded DNA, Multiple drug resistance, Multiplicity of infection, Mycobacteriophage, Mycobacterium phage jeffabunny, Mycobacterium phage L5, Mycobacterium phage packman, Mycobacterium phage patience, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Mycoplasma laboratorium, Myoviridae, Myricetin, N4likevirus, Narnaviridae, Nat Sternberg, Nattō, Niche adaptation, No-SCAR (Scarless Cas9 Assisted Recombineering) Genome Editing, Non-homologous end joining, Norton Zinder, NP-holin family, Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of proteins, OBPgp279, Okazaki fragments, Oncolytic virus, Operon, Optical transfection, Optimal foraging theory, Organisms involved in water purification, Outer membrane receptor, Overlapping gene, P008, P1 phage, P35 holin family, Panspermia, Panton–Valentine leukocidin, Parasitism, Pasteur Institute, Pasteurella multocida, Pathogenicity island, Pathophysiology, PBluescript, Pelagibacter ubique, PelB leader sequence, Peplomer, Peptidomimetic, Petri dish, Phage (disambiguation), Phage display, Phage ecology, Phage group, Phage major coat protein, Phage monographs, Phage P22 Tailspike Protein, Phage therapy, Phage typing, Phage-ligand technology, Phagemid, PhagesDB, Phagoburn, Phenoptosis, Phi X 174, Phieco32likevirus, Phikmvlikevirus, Philip Levine (physician), Philippe Horvath, PhiU53 holin family, Photobacterium profundum, PhotoRC RNA motifs, Photosynthetic reaction centre protein family, Piezoelectricity, Pilus, Plant virus, Plaque hybridization, Plasmid, Plectrovirus, Pleomorphism (microbiology), POLD1, Polinton, POLRMT, Polymerase chain reaction, Polynucleobacter-1 RNA motif, Polyphage, Positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus, Predator–prey reversal, Prey (novel), Prohead, Prokaryote, Prophage, Protein production, Provirus, Pseudomonas, Pseudomonas phage 42, Pseudomonas phage Φ6, Pseudomonas phage phiCTX, Psittacosis, R/K selection theory, RadC RNA motif, Ralstonia phage RSA1, Rathayibacter toxicus, Recombinant antibodies, Recombinase-mediated cassette exchange, Recombineering, Renato Dulbecco, René Thomas (biologist), Replicon (genetics), Repressor lexA, Restriction enzyme, Restriction modification system, Rho factor, Ribonuclease III, Ribonucleotide reductase, RNA polymerase, RNA thermometer, RNA virus, Robert E. W. Hancock, Roger Stanier, Rolling circle replication, Roman Frederick Starzl, ROOL RNA motif, Roy John Britten, Roy Mackal, S-layer, Salmonella Fels-2, Salmonella SopEphi, Salvador Luria, Sankar Adhya, SaPI, Sar RNA, Scarlet fever, SEA-PHAGES, Self-replicating machines in fiction, Sensing of phage-triggered ion cascades, Serratia marcescens, Seymour Benzer, Shah M. Faruque, Shiga-like toxin, Sinorhizobium meliloti, Site-specific recombinase technology, Smallest organisms, Social history of viruses, Soil, Soil biology, Spiroplasma phage 1-R8A2B, Sputnik virophage, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus phage G1, Steffanie A. Strathdee, Stop codon, Streptococcus, Sudha Bhattacharya, Suzanne Cory, Symbiogenesis, Synthetic biology, Synthetic immunology, T-even bacteriophages, T12, T3 phage, T4 holin, T7 phage, T7 RNA polymerase, Telomerase, Temperateness (virology), Terminator (genetics), The Andromeda Strain (miniseries), The Mahabharata Quest: The Alexander Secret, The Sower (novel), Therapy, Thomas A. Bickle, Thymidine kinase, Timeline of biology and organic chemistry, Timeline of natural history, Timeline of the evolutionary history of life, Torrey C. Brown, Toxin-antitoxin system, Transduction (genetics), Transfection, Transformation (genetics), Transgene, Transposon mutagenesis, Transposon sequencing, Treponema 4 TMS holin family, Triparental mating, TxpA-RatA toxin-antitoxin system, Type VI secretion system, Ugo Fano, Ultraviolet germicidal irradiation, Valkyrien (TV series), VanY protein domain, Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio phage K139, Vibrio phage Kappa, Vibrio phage nt-1, Vidiians, Vinod Bhakuni, Viral entry, Viral plaque, Viral transformation, Viral vector, Viriome, Virology, Virology (journal), Virome, Virulence, Virulence factor, Virus, Virus classification, Virus nanotechnology, Virus-like particle, Viunalikevirus, Vividred Operation, Walter Fiers, WcaG RNA motif, Werner Arber, WO virus, XanPHol family, Yersinia pestis, Yersinia phage L-413C, Zinaida Vissarionovna Ermol'eva, Zygotic induction, 174 (number), 1873 in science, 1949 in science, 1952 in science, 2015 in science, 3-Deoxy-2-octulosonidase, 3-Hol family, 5-Hydroxymethylcytosine. Expand index (492 more) » « Shrink index
The Actinobacterial 1 TMS Holin (A-1 Holin) Family consists of proteins found in actinobacteria, their conjugative plasmids and their phage.
Abortive initiation, also known as abortive transcription, is an early process of genetic transcription in which RNA polymerase binds to a DNA promoter and enters into cycles of synthesis of short mRNA transcripts which are released before the transcription complex leaves the promoter.
Acne, also known as acne vulgaris, is a long-term skin disease that occurs when hair follicles are clogged with dead skin cells and oil from the skin.
The Actinobacterial Phage Holin (APH) Family is a fairly large family of proteins between 105 and 180 amino acyl residues in length, typically exhibiting a single transmembrane segment (TMS) near the N-terminus.
The Actinomycetales are an order of Actinobacteria.
In biology, adaptation has three related meanings.
Affinitymagnetic separation (AMS) is a laboratory tool that can efficiently isolate bacterial cells out of body fluid or cultured cells.
AFM-IR (atomic force microscope infrared-spectroscopy) is one of a family of techniques (published online, Feb 2008) with erratum, 19(5), 14 May 2004 that are derived from a combination of two parent instrumental techniques; infrared spectroscopy and scanning probe microscopy (SPM).
Alfred Day Hershey (December 4, 1908 – May 22, 1997) was an American Nobel Prize–winning bacteriologist and geneticist.
Amycolatopsis rifamycinica is a species of Gram-positive bacteria in the Amycolatopsis genus.
André Michel Lwoff (8 May 1902 – 30 September 1994) was a French microbiologist and Nobel laureate.
An antibiotic (from ancient Greek αντιβιοτικά, antibiotiká), also called an antibacterial, is a type of antimicrobial drug used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections.
Antibiotic use in livestock is the use of antibiotics for any purpose in the husbandry of livestock, which includes treatment when ill (therapeutic), treatment of a batch of animals when at least one is diagnosed as ill (metaphylaxis, similar to the way bacterial meningitis is treated in children), and preventative treatment (prophylaxis) against disease.
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR or AR) is the ability of a microbe to resist the effects of medication that once could successfully treat the microbe.
Antitermination is the prokaryotic cell's aid to fix premature termination of RNA synthesis during the transcription of RNA.
Aphids are small sap-sucking insects and members of the superfamily Aphidoidea.
Arrowsmith is a novel by American author Sinclair Lewis, first published in 1925.
Asimov's Biographical Encyclopedia of Science and Technology is a history of science by Isaac Asimov, written as the biographies of over 1500 scientists.
Autographivirinae is a subfamily of viruses in the order Caudovirales, in the family Podoviridae.
Auxiliary metabolic genes (AMGs) are found in many bacteriophages but originated in bacterial cells.
The Avery–MacLeod–McCarty experiment was an experimental demonstration, reported in 1944 by Oswald Avery, Colin MacLeod, and Maclyn McCarty, that DNA is the substance that causes bacterial transformation, in an era when it had been widely believed that it was proteins that served the function of carrying genetic information (with the very word protein itself coined to indicate a belief that its function was primary).
Édouard Alexandre de Pomiane, sometimes Édouard Pozerski (20 April 1875 in Paris – 26 January 1964 in Paris) was a French scientist, radio broadcaster and food writer.
Bacillus anthracis is the etiologic agent of anthrax—a common disease of livestock and, occasionally, of humans—and the only obligate pathogen within the genus Bacillus.
Bacillus cereus is a Gram-positive, rod-shaped, aerobic, facultatively anaerobic, motile, beta hemolytic bacterium commonly found in soil and food.
A Bacillus phage is a member of a group of bacteriophages known to have bacteria in the genus Bacillus as host species.
Bacillus phage AP50 (formerly Phage AP50) is a species of bacteriophage that infects Bacillus anthracis bacteria.
Bacillus phage G is a bacteriophage (phage) that infects Bacillus bacteria.
Bacillus phage phi29 (Φ29 phage) belongs to a family of related Bacteriophages which includes, in addition to Φ29, phages PZA, Φ15, BS32, B103, M2Y (M2), Nf and GA-1.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
Bacterial genomes are generally smaller and less variant in size among species when compared with genomes of animals and single cell eukaryotes.
Bacterial lawn is a term used by microbiologists to describe the appearance of bacterial colonies when all the individual colonies on a petri-dish agar plate merge to form a field or mat of bacteria.
Bacteriocins are proteinaceous or peptidic toxins produced by bacteria to inhibit the growth of similar or closely related bacterial strain(s).
Experimental evolution studies are a means of testing evolutionary theory under carefully designed, reproducible experiments.
The bacteriophage MS2 is an icosahedral, positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus that infects the bacterium Escherichia coli and other members of the Enterobacteriaceae.
Bacteriophage PBC1 is a bacteriophage that infects the spore-forming bacterium Bacillus cereus.
In molecular biology, bacteriophage scaffolding proteins are proteins involved in bacteriophage assembly.
Bacteriophage T12 is a bacteriophage that infects the bacterial species Streptococcus pyogenes, and converts a harmless strain of bacteria into a virulent strain.
Bacteriophage T5 is a caudal virus within the family Siphoviridae.
Bacterioplankton refers to the bacterial component of the plankton that drifts in the water column.
Bacterioplankton counting is the estimation of the abundance of bacterioplankton in a specific body of water, which is useful information to marine microbiologists.
Bacteroides fragilis is an obligately anaerobic, Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium.
Barbara McClintock (June 16, 1902 – September 2, 1992) was an American scientist and cytogeneticist who was awarded the 1983 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.
Bdellovibrio is a genus of Gram-negative, obligate aerobic bacteria.
Beet vascular necrosis and rot is a soft rot disease caused by the bacterium Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp.
A beta helix is a protein structure formed by the association of parallel beta strands in a helical pattern with either two or three faces.
BIA Separations is a biotechnology company focused on the production of methacrylate monolithic HPLC columns and developing industrial purification processes and analytical methods.
Bioactive paper is a paper-based sensor that can identify various contaminants in food and water.
Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.
Biopanning is an affinity selection technique which selects for peptides that bind to a given target.
The BlyA Holin Family is a group of holin proteins that are approximately 55-70 amino acyl residues (aas) in length and exhibit one transmembrane segment (TMS).
Botulism is a rare and potentially fatal illness caused by a toxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum.
The β-Proteobacterial Holin (BP-Hol) Family is a small family that includes members derived from a number of Burkholderia phage as well as a Poloromonas species.
Bruce Michael Alberts (born April 14, 1938 in Chicago, Illinois) is an American biochemist and the Chancellor’s Leadership Chair in Biochemistry and Biophysics for Science and Education at the University of California, San Francisco.
The Budapest Treaty on the International Recognition of the Deposit of Microorganisms for the Purposes of Patent Procedure, or Budapest Treaty, is an international treaty signed in Budapest, Hungary, on April 28, 1977.
Burkholderia phage phi52237 is a bacteriophage (a virus that infects bacteria) of the family Myoviridae, genus P2-like viruses.
Burkholderia phage phiE12-2 is a bacteriophage (a virus that infects bacteria) of the family Myoviridae, genus P2-like viruses.
Burkholderia phage phiE202 is a bacteriophage (a virus that infects bacteria) of the family Myoviridae, genus P2likevirus.
The c4 antisense RNA is a non-coding RNA used by certain phages that infect bacteria.
Campylobacter jejuni is one of the most common causes of food poisoning in the United States and in Europe.
A capsid is the protein shell of a virus.
Carsten Bresch (born September 5, 1921) is a German physicist, geneticist and professor emeritus at the University of Freiburg (Faculty of Biology).
Cas9 (CRISPR associated protein 9) is an RNA-guided DNA endonuclease enzyme associated with the CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats) adaptive immunity system in Streptococcus pyogenes, among other bacteria.
The Caudovirales are an order of viruses also known as the tailed bacteriophages (cauda is Latin for "tail").
The Caulobacter Phage Holin (CauHol) Family consists of several putative holins of 157 to 159 amino acyl residues (aas) in length that exhibit 2 transmembrane segments (TMSs).
cccDNA (covalently closed circular DNA) is a special DNA structure that arises during the propagation of some viruses in the cell nucleus and may remain permanently there.
Cell signaling (cell signalling in British English) is part of any communication process that governs basic activities of cells and coordinates all cell actions.
Chargaff's rules state that DNA from any cell of all organisms should have a 1:1 ratio (base Pair Rule) of pyrimidine and purine bases and, more specifically, that the amount of guanine should be equal to cytosine and the amount of adenine should be equal to thymine.
A chemostat (from chemical environment is static) is a bioreactor to which fresh medium is continuously added, while culture liquid containing left over nutrients, metabolic end products and microorganisms are continuously removed at the same rate to keep the culture volume constant.
Chlamydia psittaci is a lethal intracellular bacterial species that may cause endemic avian chlamydiosis, epizootic outbreaks in mammals, and respiratory psittacosis in humans.
Cholera is an infection of the small intestine by some strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae.
Christian Cambillau (born February 22, 1951) is a French scientist for the CNRS (French National Scientific Research Centre) in Structural Biology.
Chronic bacterial prostatitis is a bacterial infection of the prostate gland.
cII or transcriptional activator II is a DNA-binding protein and important transcription factor in the life cycle of lambda phage.
A cloning vector is a small piece of DNA, taken from a virus, a plasmid, or the cell of a higher organism, that can be stably maintained in an organism, and into which a foreign DNA fragment can be inserted for cloning purposes.
Clostridium difficile (etymology and pronunciation), also known as C. difficile, C. diff, or sometimes CDF/cdf, is a species of Gram-positive spore-forming bacterium.
Clyde A. Hutchison III is an American biochemist and microbiologist notable for his research on site-directed mutagenesis and synthetic biology.
A coliphage is a type of bacteriophage that infects Escherichia coli.
A concatemer is a long continuous DNA molecule that contains multiple copies of the same DNA sequence linked in series.
Corticovirus is a genus of viruses in the family Corticoviridae.
A corynebacteriophage is a DNA-containing bacteriophage specific for corynebacteria.
Corynebacterium is a genus of bacteria that are Gram-positive and aerobic.
Corynebacterium diphtheriae is the pathogenic bacterium that causes diphtheria.
A cosmid is a type of hybrid plasmid that contains a Lambda phage cos sequence.
The capsule biosynthesis, or CPS operon is a section of the genome present in some Escherichia coli which regulates the production of polysaccharides which make up the bacterial capsule.
CrAssphage (cross-assembly Phage) is a bacteriophage (virus that infects bacteria) that was discovered in 2014 by computational analysis of publicly accessible scientific data.
Cre-Lox recombination is a site-specific recombinase technology, used to carry out deletions, insertions, translocations and inversions at specific sites in the DNA of cells.
The Crick, Brenner et al.
CRISPR is a family of DNA sequences in bacteria and archaea.
The CTXφ bacteriophage is a filamentous bacteriophage that contains the genetic material needed by the Vibrio cholerae bacterium for the production of cholera toxin, or CT.
A cyanophage is a virus that infects cyanobacteria.
Cyanophage N-1 is a myovirus bacteriophage that infects freshwater filamentous cyanobacteria of the Nostoc genus.
Cyanophages are viruses that infect cyanobacteria, also known as Cyanophyta or blue-green algae.
Cyclic di-GMP-I riboswitches are a class of riboswitch that specifically bind cyclic di-GMP, which is a second messenger that is used in a variety of microbial processes including virulence, motility and biofilm formation.
Cystovirus is a genus of viruses, in the family Cystoviridae.
Daisy Roulland-Dussoix (1936 -2014) molecular microbiologist, was one of the discoverers of restriction enzymes during her doctoral studies, for which a Nobel prize was awarded to Werner Arber.
Dances on the Snow is a science fiction novel written by the Russian sci-fi and fantasy writer Sergey Lukyanenko.
David Ian Hanauer is Professor of Applied Linguistics/English at Indiana University of Pennsylvania and the Lead Assessment Coordinator for the SEA-PHAGES program at the University of Pittsburgh.
Dda (short for DNA-dependent ATPase; also known as Dda helicase and Dda DNA helicase) is the 439-amino acid 49,897-atomic mass unit protein coded by the Dda gene of the bacteriophage T4 phage, a virus that infects enterobacteria.
The Leibniz Institute DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH (Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und Zellkulturen GmbH) (abbreviation is DSM and DSMZ)was founded 1969 as the national culture collection in Germany.
Diphtheria is an infection caused by the bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae.
Diphtheria toxin is an exotoxin secreted by Corynebacterium diphtheriae, the pathogenic bacterium that causes diphtheria.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
In enzymology, a DNA beta-glucosyltransferase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction in which a beta-D-glucosyl residue is transferred from UDP-glucose to an hydroxymethylcytosine residue in DNA.
DNA condensation refers to the process of compacting DNA molecules in vitro or in vivo.
DNA ligase is a specific type of enzyme, a ligase, that facilitates the joining of DNA strands together by catalyzing the formation of a phosphodiester bond.
DNA methylation is a process by which methyl groups are added to the DNA molecule.
DNA repair is a collection of processes by which a cell identifies and corrects damage to the DNA molecules that encode its genome.
In molecular biology, DNA replication is the biological process of producing two identical replicas of DNA from one original DNA molecule.
DNA sequencing is the process of determining the precise order of nucleotides within a DNA molecule.
A DNA virus is a virus that has DNA as its genetic material and replicates using a DNA-dependent DNA polymerase.
Donald Arthur Glaser (September 21, 1926 – February 28, 2013) was an American physicist, neurobiologist, and the winner of the 1960 Nobel Prize in Physics for his invention of the bubble chamber used in subatomic particle physics.
Double-stranded (ds) RNA viruses are a diverse group of viruses that vary widely in host range (humans, animals, plants, fungi, and bacteria), genome segment number (one to twelve) and virion organization (T-number, capsid layers or turrets).
The Downstream-peptide motif refers to a conserved RNA structure identified by bioinformatics in the cyanobacterial genera Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus and one phage that infects such bacteria.
The Bacterophase Dp-1 Holin (Dp-1 Holin) Family is a family of proteins present in several Gram-positive bacteria (i.e., Enterococcus faecalis) and their phage.
Drug resistance is the reduction in effectiveness of a medication such as an antimicrobial or an antineoplastic in curing a disease or condition.
In genetics, dyad symmetry refers to two areas of a DNA strand whose base pair sequences are inverted repeats of each other.
Earl Alison Evans (March 11, 1910 in Baltimore, Maryland – October 5, 1999 in Chicago) was the chairman of the biochemistry department at the University of Chicago for 30 years, during which time he pioneered several techniques whose use is now widespread.
Ekkehard Karl Friedrich Bautz is a molecular biologist and chair of the Institute of Molecular Genetics at the University of Heidelberg.
Emory L Ellis (29 October 1906 - 26 October 2003) was a biochemist.
Endogenosymbiosis is an evolutionary process, proposed by the evolutionary and environmental biologist Roberto Cazzolla Gatti, in which "gene carriers" (viruses, retroviruses and bacteriophages) and symbiotic prokaryotic cells (bacteria or archaea) could share parts or all of their genomes in an endogenous symbiotic relationship with their hosts.
Enterobacter virus CC31 is a dsDNA bacteriophage of the subfamily Tevenvirinae responsible for infecting the bacteria family of ''Enterobactericeae''.
Enterobacteria phage 186 is a virus of the family Myoviridae, genus P2likevirus.
Enterobacteria phage G4 is a bacteriophage that infects ''E. Coli''.
The Enterobacteria phage P22 is a bacteriophage that infects Salmonella typhimurium.
Enterobacteria phage P4 (also known as satellite phage P4) is a temperate bacteriophage of the family Myoviridae.
Enterobacteria phage PsP3 is a virus of the family Myoviridae, genus P2likevirus.
Enterobacteria phage T2 is a virus that infects and kills E. coli.
Enterobacteria phage T4 is a bacteriophage that infects Escherichia coli bacteria.
Enterobacteria phage T6 is a bacteriophage that infects Escherichia coli bacteria.
Enterobacteria phage Wphi is a virus of the family Myoviridae, genus P2-like viruses.
The Enterobacterial Holin (EBHol) Family consists of many closely related proteins of 100 to 120 amino acyl residues (aas) in length with a single C-terminal transmembrane segment (TMS).
The environmental effect of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) is largely speculative.
Enzybiotics are an experimental antibiotic approach employing enzymes to combat pathogenic bacterial infections.
Epimerox is an experimental broad-spectrum antibiotic compound being developed by scientists at the Rockefeller University and Astex Pharmaceuticals.
Epsilon 15 (or ε15) is a virus, specifically a bacteriophage, known to infect species of Salmonella bacteria including Salmonella anatum.
Ernest Hanbury Hankin (4 February 1865 – 29 March 1939), was an English bacteriologist, aeronautical theorist and naturalist.
Erythrogenic toxins, also referred to as streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins, are secreted by strains of the bacterium Streptococcus pyogenes.
Escape and radiate coevolution is a multistep process that hypothesizes that an organism under constraints from other organisms will develop new defenses, allowing it to "escape" and then "radiate" into differing species.
Escherichia coli (also known as E. coli) is a Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, coliform bacterium of the genus Escherichia that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms).
Escherichia coli (commonly abbreviated E. coli) is a Gram-negative gammaproteobacterium commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms).
Escherichia phage H8 (or bacteriophage H8) is a bacteriophage known to infect bacterial species of the genus Escherichia and the related genus Salmonella.
Essential genes are those genes of an organism that are thought to be critical for its survival.
Esther Miriam Zimmer Lederberg (December 18, 1922 – November 11, 2006) was an American microbiologist and a pioneer of bacterial genetics.
Evolutionary biology is the subfield of biology that studies the evolutionary processes that produced the diversity of life on Earth, starting from a single common ancestor.
Evolving digital ecological networks are webs of interacting, self-replicating, and evolving computer programs (i.e., digital organisms) that experience the same major ecological interactions as biological organisms (e.g., competition, predation, parasitism, and mutualism).
In molecular biology, excisionase is a bacteriophage protein encoded by the Xis gene.
Bacteriophage f1 is structurally classified as a class I filamentous phage, and is closely related to the other Ff phages, such as M13 and phage fd.
Outer membrane transport proteins (OMPP1/FadL/TodX) family includes several proteins that are involved in toluene catabolism and degradation of aromatic hydrocarbons.
Far East scarlet-like fever or scarlatinoid fever is an infectious disease caused by the gram negative bacillus Yersinia pseudotuberculosis.
Félix d'Hérelle (April 25, 1873 – February 22, 1949) was a French-Canadian microbiologist.
A filamentous bacteriophage is a type of bacteriophage, or virus of bacteria, defined by its filament-like or rod-like shape.
Filamentous bacteriophage fd is a type of filamentous bacteriophage known to infect Escherichia coli.
Food microbiology is the study of the microorganisms that inhabit, create, or contaminate food, including the study of microorganisms causing food spoilage, pathogens that may cause disease especially if food is improperly cooked or stored, those used to produce fermented foods such as cheese, yogurt, bread, beer, and wine, and those with other useful roles such as producing probiotics.
Forest Rohwer (born 1969) is an American microbial ecologist and Professor of Biology at San Diego State University.
Sir Frank Macfarlane Burnet, (3 September 1899 – 31 August 1985), usually known as Macfarlane or Mac Burnet, was an Australian virologist best known for his contributions to immunology.
Franklin (Frank) William Stahl (born October 8, 1929) is an American molecular biologist and geneticist.
Frederick Sanger (13 August 1918 – 19 November 2013) was a British biochemist who twice won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, one of only two people to have done so in the same category (the other is John Bardeen in physics), the fourth person overall with two Nobel Prizes, and the third person overall with two Nobel Prizes in the sciences.
Frederick William Twort FRS (22 October 1877 – 20 March 1950) was an English bacteriologist and was the original discoverer in 1915 of bacteriophages (viruses that infect bacteria).
Geminiviridae is a family of plant viruses.
In population genetics, gene flow (also known as gene migration or allele flow) is the transfer of genetic variation from one population to another.
A gene transfer agent (GTA) is a phage-like element produced by several bacteria and archaea that mediates horizontal gene transfer.
General bacterial porins are a family of proteins from the outer membranes of Gram-negative bacteria.
A genetically modified tomato, or transgenic tomato, is a tomato that has had its genes modified, using genetic engineering.
A genetically modified virus is a virus that has gone through genetic modification for various biomedical purposes, agricultural purposes, bio-control and technological purposes.
Genome editing, or genome engineering is a type of genetic engineering in which DNA is inserted, deleted, modified or replaced in the genome of a living organism.
A genomic library is a collection of the total genomic DNA from a single organism.
Genomics is an interdisciplinary field of science focusing on the structure, function, evolution, mapping, and editing of genomes.
George Eliava (Georgian — გიორგი ელიავა; January 13, 1892 – July 10, 1937) was a Georgian microbiologist who worked with bacteriophages (viruses that infect bacteria).
The George Eliava Institute of Bacteriophage, Microbiology and Virology (aka Tbilisi Institute) has been active since the 1930s in the field of phage therapy, which is used to combat microbial infection (cf. antibiotic-resistant strains).
George Keble Hirst, M.D. (March 2, 1909 – January 22, 1994) was an American virologist and science administrator who was among the first to study the molecular biology and genetics of animal viruses, especially influenza virus.
The GFP-cDNA project documents the localisation of proteins to subcellular compartments of the eukaryotic cell applying fluorescence microscopy.
Giles is a bacteriophage that infects Mycobacterium smegmatis bacteria.
The glnA RNA motif is a conserved RNA structure that was predicted by bioinformatics.
Most of the terms listed in Wikipedia glossaries are already defined and explained within Wikipedia itself.
In molecular biology, glycoside hydrolase family 22 is a family of glycoside hydrolases.
In molecular biology, glycoside hydrolase family 24 is a family of glycoside hydrolases.
Gram-negative bacteria are bacteria that do not retain the crystal violet stain used in the gram-staining method of bacterial differentiation.
Gram-positive bacteria are bacteria that give a positive result in the Gram stain test, which is traditionally used to quickly classify bacteria into two broad categories according to their cell wall.
Grete Kellenberger-Gujer (1919–2011) was a Swiss molecular biologist known for her discoveries on genetic recombination and restriction modification system of DNA.
Group I introns are large self-splicing ribozymes.
Gunther S. Stent (28 March 1924 – 12 June 2008) was Graduate Professor of Molecular Biology at the University of California, Berkeley.
Gut flora, or gut microbiota, or gastrointestinal microbiota, is the complex community of microorganisms that live in the digestive tracts of humans and other animals, including insects.
Hamilton Othanel Smith (born August 23, 1931) is an American microbiologist and Nobel laureate.
Hans Dieter Ochs, MD (born September 29, 1936 in Spaichingen, Germany), is an immunologist and pediatrician.
Harvey Bialy (born 1945, New York City) is an American molecular biologist and AIDS denialist.
Helios Murialdo (born Helios Murialdo Laport) is a Chilean-Canadian molecular biologist, fiction writer, and ecologist.
Helmut Ruska (June 7, 1908, Heidelberg - August 30, 1973) was a German physician and biologist from Heidelberg.
The Hershey–Chase experiments were a series of experiments conducted in 1952 by Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase that helped to confirm that DNA is genetic material.
HHV Capsid Portal Protein, or HSV-1 UL-6 protein, is the protein which forms a cylindrical portal in the capsid of Herpes simplex virus (HSV-1).
HindIII (pronounced "Hin D Three") is a type II site-specific deoxyribonuclease restriction enzyme isolated from Haemophilus influenzae that cleaves the DNA palindromic sequence AAGCTT in the presence of the cofactor Mg2+ via hydrolysis.
The history of biology traces the study of the living world from ancient to modern times.
The history of genetics dates from the classical era with contributions by Hippocrates, Aristotle and Epicurus.
The history of molecular biology begins in the 1930s with the convergence of various, previously distinct biological and physical disciplines: biochemistry, genetics, microbiology, virology and physics.
Numerous key discoveries in biology have emerged from studies of RNA (ribonucleic acid), including seminal work in the fields of biochemistry, genetics, microbiology, molecular biology, molecular evolution and structural biology.
The history of virology — the scientific study of viruses and the infections they cause – began in the closing years of the 19th century.
HK97 is a bacterial virus, bacteriophage, known to infect Escherichia coli and related bacteria.
The hok/sok system is a postsegregational killing mechanism employed by the R1 plasmid in Escherichia coli.
The Listeria Phage A118 Holin (Hol118) Family is a group of transporters belonging to the Holin Superfamily V. A representative list of proteins belonging to the Hol118 family can be found in the.
Holins are a diverse group of small proteins produced by dsDNA bacteriophages in order to trigger and control the degradation of the host's cell wall at the end of the lytic cycle.
A Holliday junction is a branched nucleic acid structure that contains four double-stranded arms joined together.
A homeobox is a DNA sequence, around 180 base pairs long, found within genes that are involved in the regulation of patterns of anatomical development (morphogenesis) in animals, fungi and plants.
Homologous recombination is a type of genetic recombination in which nucleotide sequences are exchanged between two similar or identical molecules of DNA.
Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) or lateral gene transfer (LGT) is the movement of genetic material between unicellular and/or multicellular organisms other than by the ("vertical") transmission of DNA from parent to offspring.
Host–parasite coevolution is a special case of coevolution, the reciprocal adaptive genetic change of a host and a parasite through reciprocal selective pressures.
HTVC010P is a virus which was discovered by Stephen Giovannoni and colleagues at Oregon State University.
The Human Microbiome Project (HMP) was a United States National Institutes of Health (NIH) research initiative to improve understanding of the microbial flora involved in human health and disease.
The human microbiota is the aggregate of microorganisms that resides on or within any of a number of human tissues and biofluids, including the skin, mammary glands, placenta, seminal fluid, uterus, ovarian follicles, lung, saliva, oral mucosa, conjunctiva, biliary and gastrointestinal tracts.
Human virome is the collection of viruses in and on the human body.
A hyperparasite is a parasite whose host, often an insect, is also a parasite, often specifically a parasitoid.
The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.
Recombinant DNA (rDNA), or molecular cloning, is the process by which a single gene, or segment of DNA, is isolated and amplified.
Biology is the study of life and its processes.
Genetics (from Ancient Greek γενετικός genetikos, “genite” and that from γένεσις genesis, “origin”), a discipline of biology, is the science of heredity and variation in living organisms.
This is a list of topics in molecular biology.
The innate immune system, also known as the non-specific immune system or in-born immunity system, is an important subsystem of the overall immune system that comprises the cells and mechanisms involved in the defense of the host from infection by other organisms.
Retroviral integrase (IN) is an enzyme produced by a retrovirus (such as HIV) that enables its genetic material to be integrated into the DNA of the infected cell.
Interspecific competition, in ecology, is a form of competition in which individuals of different species compete for the same resources in an ecosystem (e.g. food or living space).
Intralytix is a biotechnology company based in Baltimore, Maryland.
A virus is a biological agent that reproduces inside the cells of living hosts.
In molecular biology, the iron dependent repressors are a family of bacterial and archaeal transcriptional repressors.
Isobutanol (IUPAC nomenclature: 2-methylpropan-1-ol) is an organic compound with the formula (CH3)2CHCH2OH (sometimes represented as i-BuOH).
An isopeptide bond is an amide bond that is not present on the main chain of a protein.
J147 is an experimental drug with reported effects against both Alzheimer's disease and ageing in mouse models of accelerated aging.
James Alan Shapiro (born May 18, 1943) is an American biologist, an expert in bacterial genetics and a professor in the Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology at the University of Chicago.
James J. Bull is Johann Friedrich Miescher Regents Professor in Molecular Biology at the University of Texas at Austin.
James Dewey Watson (born April 6, 1928) is an American molecular biologist, geneticist and zoologist, best known as one of the co-discoverers of the structure of DNA in 1953 with Francis Crick and Rosalind Franklin.
Elizabeth Jean Finnegan FAA is an Australian botanist who researches plant flowering processes and epigenetic regulation in plants.
Joan Elaine Argetsinger Steitz (born January 26, 1941) is Sterling Professor of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry at Yale University and Investigator at the Howard Hughes Medical Institute.
Professor John Grange (born 4 April 1943 at East Dereham, Norfolk) died 10 October 2016 was an English immunologist, epidemiologist, researcher, and academic, and was one of Europe's leading tuberculosis specialists.
John Howard Northrop (July 5, 1891 – May 27, 1987) was an American biochemist who, with James Batcheller Sumner and Wendell Meredith Stanley, won the 1946 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.
Dr John Morison FRSE CIE (1879–1971) was a 20th-century British physician prominent in the field of bacteriophage.
Jules Jean Baptiste Vincent Bordet (13 June 1870 – 6 April 1961) was a Belgian immunologist and microbiologist.
Kenneth Burton FRS (26 June 1926 – 22 November 2010) was a British biochemist, and Professor at the University of Newcastle upon Tyne.
In molecular biology, the KilA-N domain is a conserved protein domain.
The "Kill the Winner" hypothesis (KTW) is a model of population growth involving prokaryotes, viruses and protozoans.
Kuppamuthu Dharmalingam (born 1949) is an Indian proteomicist, geneticist, academic and the founder of Centre of Excellence in Bioinformatics at Madurai Kamaraj University.
Lactobacillales or lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are an order of Gram-positive, low-GC, acid-tolerant, generally nonsporulating, nonrespiring, either rod- or coccus-shaped bacteria that share common metabolic and physiological characteristics. These bacteria, usually found in decomposing plants and milk products, produce lactic acid as the major metabolic end product of carbohydrate fermentation. This trait has, throughout history, linked LAB with food fermentations, as acidification inhibits the growth of spoilage agents. Proteinaceous bacteriocins are produced by several LAB strains and provide an additional hurdle for spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. Furthermore, lactic acid and other metabolic products contribute to the organoleptic and textural profile of a food item. The industrial importance of the LAB is further evidenced by their generally recognized as safe (GRAS) status, due to their ubiquitous appearance in food and their contribution to the healthy microflora of human mucosal surfaces. The genera that comprise the LAB are at its core Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc, Pediococcus, Lactococcus, and Streptococcus, as well as the more peripheral Aerococcus, Carnobacterium, Enterococcus, Oenococcus, Sporolactobacillus, Tetragenococcus, Vagococcus, and Weissella; these belong to the order Lactobacillales.
Lactobacillus rhamnosus is a bacterium that originally was considered to be a subspecies of L. casei, but later genetic research found it to be a species of its own.
Lactococcus lactis is a Gram-positive bacterium used extensively in the production of buttermilk and cheese, but has also become famous as the first genetically modified organism to be used alive for the treatment of human disease.
The Lambda Holin S (λ Holin) Family is a group of integral membrane transporter proteins belonging to the Holin Superfamily III.
Enterobacteria phage λ (lambda phage, coliphage λ) is a bacterial virus, or bacteriophage, that infects the bacterial species Escherichia coli (E. coli).
Leviviridae is a family of viruses.
In molecular biology, a library is a collection of DNA fragments that is stored and propagated in a population of micro-organisms through the process of molecular cloning.
Life history theory is an analytical frameworkVitzthum, V. (2008).
In molecular biology, ligation is the joining of two nucleic acid fragments through the action of an enzyme.
Professor Lin Chao is a Chinese Brazilian American evolutionary biologist and geneticist.
Lipopolysaccharides (LPS), also known as lipoglycans and endotoxins, are large molecules consisting of a lipid and a polysaccharide composed of O-antigen, outer core and inner core joined by a covalent bond; they are found in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
This is a list of atheists in science and technology.
The following is a list of historically important scientific experiments and observations demonstrating something of great scientific interest, typically in an elegant or clever manner.
This is a list of people who have made notable contributions to genetics.
The homing endonucleases are a special type of restriction enzymes encoded by introns or inteins.
This is a list of Japanese inventions and discoveries.
This is a list of roots, suffixes, and prefixes used in medical terminology, their meanings, and their etymology.
The following is a list of the "B" codes for MeSH.
The following is a list of the "E" codes for MeSH.
The survival of some microorganisms exposed to outer space has been studied using both simulated facilities and low Earth orbit exposures.
Historians and sociologists have remarked the occurrence, in science, of "multiple independent discovery".
This is a list of famous people who have lived in Tbilisi, including both natives and residents.
A restriction enzyme or restriction endonuclease is a special type of biological macromolecule that functions as part of the "immune system" in bacteria.
This is a list of main and recurring fictional characters and organizations from The Venture Bros., the comic science fiction television series broadcast on Adult Swim.
The Lister Institute of Preventive Medicine, informally known as the Lister Institute, was established as a research institute (the British Institute of Preventive Medicine) in 1891, with bacteriologist Marc Armand Ruffer as its first director, using a grant of £250,000 from Edward Cecil Guinness of the Guinness family.
Listeria monocytogenes is the species of pathogenic bacteria that causes the infection listeriosis.
Listeria phage A511 is a virus of the family Myoviridae, genus Twortlikevirus.
Listeria phage P100 is a virus of the family Myoviridae, genus Twortlikevirus.
This is a collection of lists of organisms by their population.
The Putative Lactococcus lactis Holin (LLHol) Family consists of just a few proteins from Lactococcus lactis species and their phage.
Lloyd M. Kozloff (1923-2012) was an American microbiologist and virologist.
The Putative Listeria Phage Holin (LP-Hol) Family consists of several small proteins of 41 amino acyl residues (aas) and 1 transmembrane segment (TMS).
In molecular biology, LSm proteins are a family of RNA-binding proteins found in virtually every cellular organism.
The lung microbiota, is the pulmonary microbial community consisting of a complex variety of microorganisms found in the lower respiratory tract particularly on the mucous layer and the epithelial surfaces.
The Luria–Delbrück experiment (1943) (also called the Fluctuation Test) demonstrates that in bacteria, genetic mutations arise in the absence of selection, rather than being a response to selection.
A lysibody is a chimeric antibody in which the Fab region is the binding domain from a bacteriophage lysin or the binding domain from an autolysin linked to the Fc of Immunoglobulin G. The chimera forms a stable homodimer held together by disulfide bonds.
Lysins, also known as endolysins or murein hydrolases, are hydrolytic enzymes produced by bacteriophages in order to cleave the host's cell wall during the final stage of the lytic cycle.
Lysis (Greek λύσις lýsis, "a loosing" from λύειν lýein, "to unbind") refers to the breaking down of the membrane of a cell, often by viral, enzymic, or osmotic (that is, "lytic") mechanisms that compromise its integrity.
A lysogen or lysogenic bacterium is a bacterial cell in which a phage exists as DNA in its dormant state (prophage).
Lysogeny, or the lysogenic cycle, is one of two cycles of viral reproduction (the lytic cycle being the other).
The lytic cycle is one of the two cycles of viral reproduction (referring to bacterial viruses or bacteriophages), the other being the lysogenic cycle.
M13 is a virus that infects the bacterium Escherichia coli.
Malolactic fermentation (also known as malolactic conversion or MLF) is a process in winemaking in which tart-tasting malic acid, naturally present in grape must, is converted to softer-tasting lactic acid.
Mamavirus is a large and complex virus in the Group I family mimiviridae.
The manA RNA motif (also called manA) refers to a conserved RNA structure that was identified by bioinformatics.
Mannheimia phage phiMhaA1-PHL101 is a virus of the family Myoviridae, genus P2likevirus.
Margaret Isabella Brownlee Dick (14 September 191825 September 2008) was a pioneering Australian microbiologist.
Marine bacteriophages or marine phages are viruses that live as obligate parasitic agents in marine bacteria such as cyanobacteria.
Marine life, or sea life or ocean life, is the plants, animals and other organisms that live in the salt water of the sea or ocean, or the brackish water of coastal estuaries.
Marine microorganisms are defined by their habitat as the microorganisms living in a marine environment, that is, in the saltwater of a sea or ocean or the brackish water of a coastal estuary.
Mark R. Geier (born 1948 in Washington, D.C., U.S.) is a self-employed American physician and controversial professional witness who has testified in more than 90 cases regarding allegations of injury or illness caused by vaccines.
Marlene Belfort, Ph.D. (born 1945) is an American biochemist.
Martha Cowles Chase (November 30, 1927 – August 8, 2003), also known as Martha C. Epstein, was an American geneticist known for having in 1952, with Alfred Hershey, experimentally helped to confirm that DNA rather than protein is the genetic material of life.
A mating system is a way in which a group is structured in relation to sexual behaviour.
Max Ludwig Henning Delbrück (September 4, 1906 – March 9, 1981), a German–American biophysicist, helped launch the molecular biology research program in the late 1930s.
Meganucleases are endodeoxyribonucleases characterized by a large recognition site (double-stranded DNA sequences of 12 to 40 base pairs); as a result this site generally occurs only once in any given genome.
Membrane technology covers all engineering approaches for the transport of substances between two fractions with the help of permeable membranes.
Memetics is the study of information and culture based on an analogy with Darwinian evolution.
Metagenomics is the study of genetic material recovered directly from environmental samples.
Michaelis–Menten saturation curve for an enzyme reaction showing the relation between the substrate concentration and reaction rate. In biochemistry, Michaelis–Menten kinetics is one of the best-known models of enzyme kinetics.
Micreos is a Netherlands-based phage- and endolysin technology development company.
Microbial genetics is a subject area within microbiology and genetic engineering.
A microbiological culture, or microbial culture, is a method of multiplying microbial organisms by letting them reproduce in predetermined culture medium under controlled laboratory conditions.
Microbiology (from Greek μῑκρος, mīkros, "small"; βίος, bios, "life"; and -λογία, -logia) is the study of microorganisms, those being unicellular (single cell), multicellular (cell colony), or acellular (lacking cells).
Microgen (Микроген) is Russia's largest producer of immunobiological products, one of the three largest pharmaceutical companies in Russia.
A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.
A microsatellite is a tract of repetitive DNA in which certain DNA motifs (ranging in length from 1–6 or more base pairs) are repeated, typically 5–50 times.
Microviridae is a family of bacteriophages with a single-stranded DNA genome.
Milislav Demerec (January 11, 1895 – April 12, 1966) was a Croatian-American geneticist, and the director of the Department of Genetics, Carnegie Institution of Washington, now Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory (CSHL) from 1941 to 1960, recruiting Barbara McClintock and Alfred Hershey.
Mobile genetic elements (MGEs) are a type of genetic materials that can move around within a genome, or that can be transferred from one species or replicon to another.
A model organism is a non-human species that is extensively studied to understand particular biological phenomena, with the expectation that discoveries made in the organism model will provide insight into the workings of other organisms.
Molecular diagnostics is a collection of techniques used to analyse biological markers in the genome and proteomethe individual's genetic code and how their cells express their genes as proteinsby applying molecular biology to medical testing.
Molecular dynamics (MD) is a computer simulation method for studying the physical movements of atoms and molecules.
Molecular genetics is the field of biology that studies the structure and function of genes at a molecular level and thus employs methods of both molecular biology and genetics.
"Molecular Structure of Nucleic Acids: A Structure for Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid" was the first article published to describe the discovery of the double helix structure of DNA, using X-ray diffraction and the mathematics of a helix transform.
Molecular virology is the study of viruses on a molecular level.
A moron, in the context of bacteriophage genetics, is an extra gene in a prophage genome without a function in the phage's lysogenic cycle.
The Mycobacterial 4 TMS Phage Holin (MP4 Holin) Family is a group of transporters belonging to Holin superfamily IV.
Multicopy single-stranded DNA (msDNA) is a type of extrachromosomal satellite DNA that consists of a single-stranded DNA molecule covalently linked via a 2'-5'phosphodiester bond to an internal guanosine of an RNA molecule.
Multiple drug resistance (MDR), multidrug resistance or multiresistance is antimicrobial resistance shown by a species of microorganism to multiple antimicrobial drugs.
In microbiology, the multiplicity of infection or MOI is the ratio of agents (e.g. phage or more generally virus, bacteria) to infection targets (e.g. cell).
A mycobacteriophage is a member of a group of bacteriophages known to have mycobacteria as host bacterial species.
Mycobacterium phage jeffabunny is a bacteriophage known to infect bacterial species of the genus Mycobacterium.
Mycobacterium phage L5 is a bacteriophage known to infect bacterial species of the genus Mycobacterium.
Mycobacterium phage packman is a bacteriophage known to infect bacterial species of the genus Mycobacterium.
Mycobacterium phage patience, also called Patience, is a bacteriophage that infects Mycobacterium smegmatis bacteria.
Mycobacterium smegmatis is an acid-fast bacterial species in the phylum Actinobacteria and the genus Mycobacterium.
Mycoplasma laboratorium is a designed, partially synthetic species of bacterium derived from the genome of Mycoplasma genitalium.
The Myoviridae is a family of bacteriophages in the order Caudovirales.
Myricetin is a member of the flavonoid class of polyphenolic compounds, with antioxidant properties.
N4likevirus is a genus of bacteriophages in the order Caudovirales, in the family Podoviridae.
Narnaviridae is a family of positive single stranded RNA viruses.
Nat L. Sternberg (August 2, 1942 – September 26, 1995) was an American molecular biologist and bacteriophage researcher, particularly known for his work on DNA recombination and the phage P1.
is a traditional Japanese food made from soybeans fermented with Bacillus subtilis var. natto.
Niche adaptation refers to the ability of some organisms to adapt to changing environments, or niches.
SCAR-less genome editing Scarless Cas9 Assisted Recombineering (no-SCAR) is an editing method that is able to manipulate the Escherichia coli (E. coli) genome.
Non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) is a pathway that repairs double-strand breaks in DNA.
Norton David Zinder (November 7, 1928 – February 3, 2012) was an American biologist famous for his discovery of genetic transduction.
The Neisserial Phage-associated Holin (NP-Holin) Family is a family of small proteins, between 47 - 53 amino acyl residues in length, that exhibit a single N-terminal transmembrane segment (TMS).
Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of proteins (usually abbreviated protein NMR) is a field of structural biology in which NMR spectroscopy is used to obtain information about the structure and dynamics of proteins, and also nucleic acids, and their complexes.
OBPgp279 is an endolysin that hydrolyzes peptidoglycan, a major constituent in bacterial membrane.
Okazaki fragments are short, newly synthesized DNA fragments that are formed on the lagging template strand during DNA replication.
An oncolytic virus is a virus that preferentially infects and kills cancer cells.
In genetics, an operon is a functioning unit of DNA containing a cluster of genes under the control of a single promoter.
Optical transfection is the process of introducing nucleic acids into cells using light.
Optimal foraging theory (OFT) is a model that helps predict how an animal behaves when searching for food.
Most organisms involved in water purification originate from the waste, wastewater or water stream itself or arrive as resting spore of some form from the atmosphere.
Outer membrane receptors, also known as TonB-dependent receptors, are a family of beta barrel proteins named for their localization in the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria.
An overlapping gene is a gene whose expressible nucleotide sequence partially overlaps with the expressible nucleotide sequence of another gene.
P008 is a phage specific to Lactococcus lactis, an acid lactic bacterium used in the first stage of making cheese.
P1 is a temperate bacteriophage that infects Escherichia coli and some other bacteria.
The PRD1 Phage P35 Holin (P35 Holin) Family is a member of Holin Superfamily III.
Panspermia is the hypothesis that life exists throughout the Universe, distributed by space dust, meteoroids, asteroids, comets, planetoids, and also by spacecraft carrying unintended contamination by microorganisms.
Panton–Valentine leukocidin (PVL) is a cytotoxin—one of the β-pore-forming toxins.
In evolutionary biology, parasitism is a relationship between species, where one organism, the parasite, lives on or in another organism, the host, causing it some harm, and is adapted structurally to this way of life.
The Pasteur Institute (Institut Pasteur) is a French non-profit private foundation dedicated to the study of biology, micro-organisms, diseases, and vaccines.
Pasteurella multocida is a Gram-negative, nonmotile, penicillin-sensitive coccobacillus belonging to the Pasteurellaceae family.
Pathogenicity islands (PAIs), as termed in 1990, are a distinct class of genomic islands acquired by microorganisms through horizontal gene transfer.
Pathophysiology or physiopathology is a convergence of pathology with physiology.
In genetics, pBluescript (pBS) or pBluescript II is a commercially available phagemid containing several useful sequences for use in cloning with bacteriophage.
Pelagibacter, with the single species P. ubique, was isolated in 2002 and given a specific name, although it has not yet been described as required by the bacteriological code.
The pelB leader sequence is a sequence of amino acids which when attached to a protein, directs the protein to the bacterial periplasm, where the sequence is removed by a signal peptidase.
A peplomer is a glycoprotein spike on a viral capsid or viral envelope.
A peptidomimetic is a small protein-like chain designed to mimic a peptide.
A Petri dish (sometimes spelled "Petrie Dish" and alternatively known as a Petri plate or cell-culture dish), named after the German bacteriologist Julius Richard Petri, is a shallow cylindrical glass or plastic lidded dish that biologists use to culture cellssuch as bacteriaor small mosses.
Phage is the shortened form of bacteriophage, a virus that infects bacteria.
Phage display is a laboratory technique for the study of protein–protein, protein–peptide, and protein–DNA interactions that uses bacteriophages (viruses that infect bacteria) to connect proteins with the genetic information that encodes them.
Bacteriophages (phages), potentially the most numerous "organisms" on Earth, are the viruses of bacteria (more generally, of prokaryotesThe term "prokaryotes" is useful to mean the sum of the bacteria and archaea but otherwise can be controversial, as discussed by; see also pp. 103–4 of provides a history.). Phage ecology is the study of the interaction of bacteriophages with their environments.
The phage group (sometimes called the American Phage Group) was an informal network of biologists centered on Max Delbrück that contributed heavily to bacterial genetics and the origins of molecular biology in the mid-20th century.
In molecular biology, a phage major coat protein is an alpha-helical protein that forms a viral envelope of filamentous bacteriophages.
Bacteriophage (phage) are viruses of bacteria and arguably are the most numerous "organisms" on Earth.
The tailspike protein (P22TSP) of Enterobacteria phage P22 mediates the recognition and adhesion between the bacteriophage and the surface of Salmonella enterica cells.
Phage therapy or viral phage therapy is the therapeutic use of bacteriophages to treat pathogenic bacterial infections.
Phage typing is a method used for detecting single strains of bacteria.
The Phage-ligand technology is a technology to detect, bind and remove bacteria and bacterial toxins by using highly specific bacteriophage derived proteins.
A phagemid or phasmid is a DNA-based cloning vector, which has both bacteriophage and plasmid properties.
The Actinobacteriophage database, more commonly known as PhagesDB, is a database-backed website that gathers and shares information related to the discovery, characterization and genomics of viruses that prefer to infect Actinobacterial hosts.
Phagoburn is a current European Union financed clinical study focused on testing the medical uses of bacteriophage for treating wounds.
Phenoptosis (pheno – showing or demonstrating, ptosis – programmed death), designated by V.P. Skulachev in 1999, signifies the phenomenon of programmed death of an organism, i.e. that an organism's genes include features that under certain circumstances will cause the organism to rapidly degenerate and die off.
The phi X 174 (or ΦX174) bacteriophage is a single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) virus and the first DNA-based genome to be sequenced.
Phieco32likevirus is a genus within the Podoviridae family.
Phikmvlikevirus is a genus of viruses that infect bacteria.
Philip Levine (August 10, 1900 – October 18, 1987) was an imuno-hematologist whose clinical research advanced knowledge on the Rhesus factor, Hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN) and blood transfusion.
Philippe Horvath is a French scientist working for DuPont Nutrition and Health.
The Firmicute Phage φU53 Holin (φU53 Holin) Family consists of putative holins that range in size from 117 to 124 amino acyl residues (aas) in length and exhibit 3 transmembrane segments (TMSs) found in Firmicute phage.
Photobacterium profundum is a deep sea Gammaproteobacterium, belonging to the family Vibrionaceae and genus Photobacterium.
PhotoRC RNA motifs refer to conserved RNA structures that are associated with genes acting in the photosynthetic reaction centre of photosynthetic bacteria.
Photosynthetic reaction centre proteins are main protein components of photosynthetic reaction centres of bacteria and plants.
Piezoelectricity is the electric charge that accumulates in certain solid materials (such as crystals, certain ceramics, and biological matter such as bone, DNA and various proteins) in response to applied mechanical stress.
A pilus (Latin for 'hair'; plural: pili) is a hair-like appendage found on the surface of many bacteria.
Plant viruses are viruses that affect plants.
Plaque hybridization is a technique used in Molecular biology for the identification of recombinant phages.
A plasmid is a small DNA molecule within a cell that is physically separated from a chromosomal DNA and can replicate independently.
Plectrovirus is a genus of viruses, in the family Inoviridae.
In microbiology, pleomorphism (from greek πλέω- more, and -μορφή form) is the ability of some micro-organisms to alter their shape or size in response to environmental conditions.
The gene polymerase delta 1 (POLD1) encodes the large, POLD1/p125, catalytic subunit of the DNA polymerase delta (Polδ) complex.
Polintons (also called Mavericks) are large DNA transposons which contain genes with homology to viral proteins and which are often found in eukaryotic genomes.
DNA-directed RNA polymerase, mitochondrial is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the POLRMT gene.
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a technique used in molecular biology to amplify a single copy or a few copies of a segment of DNA across several orders of magnitude, generating thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence.
The Polynucleobacter-1 RNA motif is a conserved RNA structure that was identified by bioinformatics.
Polyphage are genomic multimers of bacteriophage in which multiple viral particles are all encapsulated, one after the other, within the same set of coat proteins.
A positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus (or (+)ssRNA virus) is a virus that uses positive sense, single-stranded RNA as its genetic material.
Predator–prey reversal is a biological interaction where an organism that is typically prey in the predation interaction instead acts as the predator.
Prey is a novel by Michael Crichton, first published in November 2002.
A prohead or procapsid is an immature viral capsid structure formed in the early stages of self-assembly of some bacteriophages, including the Caudovirales or tailed bacteriophages.
A prokaryote is a unicellular organism that lacks a membrane-bound nucleus, mitochondria, or any other membrane-bound organelle.
A prophage is a bacteriophage (often shortened to "phage") genome inserted and integrated into the circular bacterial DNA chromosome or existing as an extrachromosomal plasmid.
Protein production is the biotechnological process of generating a specific protein.
A provirus is a virus genome that is integrated into the DNA of a host cell.
Pseudomonas is a genus of Gram-negative, Gammaproteobacteria, belonging to the family Pseudomonadaceae and containing 191 validly described species.
Pseudomonas phage 42 is a bacteriophage known to infect Pseudomonas bacteria.
Φ6 (Phi 6) is the best-studied bacteriophage of the virus family Cystoviridae.
Pseudomonas phage phiCTX is a virus of the family Myoviridae, genus P2like virus.
Psittacosis—also known as parrot fever, and ornithosis—is a zoonotic infectious disease caused by a bacterium called Chlamydia psittaci and contracted from infected parrots, such as macaws, cockatiels and budgerigars, and pigeons, sparrows, ducks, hens, gulls and many other species of bird.
In ecology, r/K selection theory relates to the selection of combinations of traits in an organism that trade off between quantity and quality of offspring.
The radC RNA motif is a conserved RNA structure identified by bioinformatics.
Ralstonia phage RSA1 is a virus of the family Myoviridae, genus P2likevirus.
Rathayibacter toxicus is a phytopathogenic bacterium known for causing annual ryegrass toxicity (ARGT) commonly found in South and Western Australia.
Recombinant antibodies are antibody fragments produced by using recombinant antibody coding genes.
In the field of reverse genetics RMCE (recombinase-mediated cassette exchange) is of increasing relevance.
Recombineering (recombination-mediated genetic engineering) is a genetic and molecular biology technique based on homologous recombination systems, as opposed to the older/more common method of using restriction enzymes and ligases to combine DNA sequences in a specified order.
Renato Dulbecco (February 22, 1914 – February 19, 2012) was an Italian American, who won the 1975 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his work on oncoviruses, which are viruses that can cause cancer when they infect animal cells.
René Thomas (14 May 1928 (Ixelles) - 9 January 2017 (Rixensart) was a Belgian scientist. From DNA biochemistry and biophysics to genetics, mathematical biology, and finally to dynamical systems, the research path of René Thomas is at the same time diverse, rich and coherent. He devoted his life to the deciphering of key logical principles at the basis of the behaviour of biological systems, and more generally to the generation of complex dynamical behaviour. Professor and Laboratory head at the Université Libre de Bruxelles, René Thomas trained and inspired several generations of researchers.
A replicon is a DNA molecule or RNA molecule, or a region of DNA or RNA, that replicates from a single origin of replication.
Repressor LexA or LexA is a transcriptional repressor that represses SOS response genes coding primarily for error-prone DNA polymerases, DNA repair enzymes and cell division inhibitors.
A restriction enzyme or restriction endonuclease is an enzyme that cleaves DNA into fragments at or near specific recognition sites within the molecule known as restriction sites.
The restriction modification system (RM system) is found in bacteria and other prokaryotic organisms, and provides a defense against foreign DNA, such as that borne by bacteriophages.
A ρ factor (Rho factor) is a prokaryotic protein involved in the termination of transcription.
Ribonuclease III (RNase III or RNase C)(BRENDA) is a type of ribonuclease that recognizes dsRNA and cleaves it at specific targeted locations to transform them into mature RNAs.
Ribonucleotide reductase (RNR), also known as ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase (rNDP), is an enzyme that catalyzes the formation of deoxyribonucleotides from ribonucleotides.
RNA polymerase (ribonucleic acid polymerase), both abbreviated RNAP or RNApol, official name DNA-directed RNA polymerase, is a member of a family of enzymes that are essential to life: they are found in all organisms (-species) and many viruses.
An RNA thermometer (or RNA thermosensor) is a temperature-sensitive non-coding RNA molecule which regulates gene expression.
An RNA virus is a virus that has RNA (ribonucleic acid) as its genetic material.
Robert E. W. Hancock (born March 23, 1949) is a Canadian microbiologist and University of British Columbia, (UBC) Killam Professor of Microbiology and Immunology, an Associate Faculty Member of the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute and a Canada Research Chair in Health and Genomics.
Roger Yate Stanier (22 October 1916 – 29 January 1982) was a Canadian microbiologist who was influential in the development of modern microbiology.
Rolling circle replication describes a process of unidirectional nucleic acid replication that can rapidly synthesize multiple copies of circular molecules of DNA or RNA, such as plasmids, the genomes of bacteriophages, and the circular RNA genome of viroids.
Roman Frederick Starzl (1899–1976) was an American author.
The Rumen-Originating, Ornate, Large (ROOL) RNA motif was originally discovered by bioinformatics by analyzing metagenomic sequences from cow rumen.
Roy John Britten (1 October 1919 – 21 January 2012) was an American molecular biologist known for his discovery of repeated DNA sequences in the genomes of eukaryotic organisms, and later on the evolution of the genome.
Roy P. Mackal (August 1, 1925 – September 14, 2013) was a University of Chicago biologist best known to the general public for his interest in cryptozoology, a pseudoscience.
An S-layer (surface layer) is a part of the cell envelope found in almost all archaea, as well as in many types of bacteria.
Salmonella Fels-2 is a virus of the family Myoviridae, genus P2likevirus.
Salmonella SopEphi is a virus of the family Myoviridae, genus P2likevirus.
Salvador Edward Luria (August 13, 1912 – February 6, 1991) was an Italian microbiologist, later a naturalized U.S. citizen.
Sankar Adhya is a molecular biologist and geneticist at the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and a member of the National Academy of Sciences.
SaPIs (Staphylococcus aureus or superantigen pathogenicity islands) are a family of mobile genetic elements resident in the genome of some strains of Staphylococcus aureus.
Sar RNA is an antisense non-coding RNA that is partly responsible for the negative regulation of antirepressor synthesis during development of bacteriophage P22.
Scarlet fever is a disease which can occur as a result of a group A ''streptococcus'' (group A strep) infection.
SEA-PHAGES stands for Science Education Alliance-Phages Hunters Advancing Genomics and Evolutionary Science; it was formerly called the National Genomics Research Initiative.
A self-replicating machine is a type of autonomous robot that is capable of reproducing itself autonomously using raw materials found in the environment, thus exhibiting self-replication in a way analogous to that found in nature.
Sensing of phage-triggered ion cascades (SEPTIC) is a prompt bacterium identification method based on fluctuation-enhanced sensing in fluid medium.
Serratia marcescens is a species of rod-shaped gram-negative bacteria in the family Enterobacteriaceae.
Seymour Benzer (October 15, 1921 – November 30, 2007) was an American physicist, molecular biologist and behavioral geneticist.
Shah Mohammad Faruque (born c. 1956) is a Professor of Microbiology and Biotechnology at BRAC University, and a renown scientist.
Shiga-like toxin, also known as verotoxin and verocytotoxin, is a toxin generated by some strains of Escherichia coli (but see below).
Sinorhizobium meliloti is a Gram-negative nitrogen-fixing bacterium (rhizobium).
Site-specific recombinase technologies are genome engineering tools that depend on recombinase enzymes to replace targeted sections of DNA.
The smallest organisms found on Earth can be determined according to various aspects of organism size; including volume, mass, height, length, or genome size.
The social history of viruses describes the influence of viruses and viral infections on human history.
Soil is a mixture of organic matter, minerals, gases, liquids, and organisms that together support life.
Soil biology is the study of microbial and faunal activity and ecology in soil.
Spiroplasma phage 1-R8A2B is a filamentous bacteriophage in the genus Plectrovirus of the family Inoviridae, part of the group of single-stranded DNA viruses.
Sputnik virophage (from Russian cпутник "satellite", Latin "virus" and Greek φάγειν phagein "to eat") is a subviral agent that reproduces in amoeba cells that are already infected by a certain helper virus; Sputnik uses the helper virus's machinery for reproduction and inhibits replication of the helper virus.
Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive, round-shaped bacterium that is a member of the Firmicutes, and it is a member of the normal flora of the body, frequently found in the nose, respiratory tract, and on the skin.
Staphylococcus phage G1 is a virus of the family Myoviridae, genus Twortlikevirus.
Steffanie A. Strathdee (born May 28, 1966) is the associate dean of global health sciences, Harold Simon Professor at the University of California San Diego School of Medicine.
In the genetic code, a stop codon (or termination codon) is a nucleotide triplet within messenger RNA that signals a termination of translation into proteins.
Streptococcus (term coined by Viennese surgeon Albert Theodor Billroth (1829-1894) from strepto- "twisted" + Modern Latin coccus "spherical bacterium," from Greek kokkos meaning "berry") is a genus of coccus (spherical) Gram-positive bacteria belonging to the phylum Firmicutes and the order Lactobacillales (lactic acid bacteria).
Sudha Bhattacharya (born 7 March 1952) is an Indian academic, scientist and a writer.
Suzanne Cory, AC, FAA, FRS (born 11 March 1942) is an Australian molecular biologist.
Symbiogenesis, or endosymbiotic theory, is an evolutionary theory of the origin of eukaryotic cells from prokaryotic organisms, first articulated in 1905 and 1910 by the Russian botanist Konstantin Mereschkowski, and advanced and substantiated with microbiological evidence by Lynn Margulis in 1967.
Synthetic biology is an interdisciplinary branch of biology and engineering.
Synthetic immunology is the rational design and construction of synthetic systems that perform complex immunological functions.
T-even phages, also known as the E. coli phages, are a group of double-stranded DNA bacteriophages from the family Myoviridae.
T12 may refer to.
Bacteriophage T3, or T3 phage, is a bacteriophage capable of infecting susceptible bacterial cells, including strains of Escherichia coli.
The T4 Holin Family is a group of putative pore-forming proteins that does not belong to one of the seven holin superfamilies.
Bacteriophage T7 (or the T7 phage) is a bacteriophage, a virus that infects susceptible bacterial cells, that is composed of DNA and infects most strains of Escherichia coli.
T7 RNA Polymerase is an RNA polymerase from the T7 bacteriophage that catalyzes the formation of RNA from DNA in the 5'→ 3' direction.
Telomerase, also called terminal transferase, is a ribonucleoprotein that adds a species-dependent telomere repeat sequence to the 3' end of telomeres.
In virology, temperate refers to the ability of some bacteriophages (notably coliphage λ) to display a lysogenic life cycle.
In genetics, a transcription terminator is a section of nucleic acid sequence that marks the end of a gene or operon in genomic DNA during transcription.
The Andromeda Strain is a 2008 science fiction miniseries, based on the 1969 novel of the same name written by Michael Crichton about a team of scientists who investigate a deadly disease of extraterrestrial origin.
The Mahabharata Quest: The Alexander Secret is the second novel by Indian author Christopher C. Doyle and was released on 9 October 2014 by Westland Publishers.
The Sower (2009) is the second novel by American author Kemble Scott, pen name of Scott James, writer of a weekly column about the San Francisco Bay Area published in both The Bay Citizen and The New York Times.
Therapy (often abbreviated tx, Tx, or Tx) is the attempted remediation of a health problem, usually following a diagnosis.
Thomas Anthony Bickle is a British/Swiss microbiologist.
Thymidine kinase is an enzyme, a phosphotransferase (a kinase): 2'-deoxythymidine kinase, ATP-thymidine 5'-phosphotransferase, EC 126.96.36.199.
Significant events in biology and organic chemistry.
This timeline of natural history summarizes significant geological and biological events from the formation of the Earth to the arrival of modern humans.
This timeline of the evolutionary history of life represents the current scientific theory outlining the major events during the development of life on planet Earth.
Torrey C. Brown (February 28, 1937 – April 20, 2014) was an American politician who served in the Maryland House of Delegates and was the Secretary of the Maryland Department of Natural Resources.
A toxin-antitoxin system is a set of two or more closely linked genes that together encode both a protein 'poison' and a corresponding 'antidote'.
Transduction is the process by which foreign DNA is introduced into a cell by a virus or viral vector.
Transfection is the process of deliberately introducing naked or purified nucleic acids into eukaryotic cells.
In molecular biology, transformation is the genetic alteration of a cell resulting from the direct uptake and incorporation of exogenous genetic material from its surroundings through the cell membrane(s).
A transgene is a gene or genetic material that has been transferred naturally, or by any of a number of genetic engineering techniques from one organism to another.
Transposon mutagenesis, or transposition mutagenesis, is a biological process that allows genes to be transferred to a host organism's chromosome, interrupting or modifying the function of an extant gene on the chromosome and causing mutation.
Transposon sequencing (Tn-seq) combines transposon insertional mutagenesis with massively parallel sequencing (MPS) of the transposon insertion sites to identify genes contributing to a function of interest in bacteria.
The Putative Treponema 4 TMS Holin (Tre4Hol) Family consists of several proteins from Treponema species.
Triparental mating is a form of Bacterial conjugation where a conjugative plasmid present in one bacterial strain assists the transfer of a mobilizable plasmid present in a second bacterial strain into a third bacterial strain.
The TxpA/RatA toxin-antitoxin system was first identified in Bacillus subtilis.
The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is molecular machine used by a wide range of Gram-negative bacterial species to transport proteins from the interior (cytoplasm or cytosol) of a bacterial cell across the cellular envelope into an adjacent target cell.
Ugo Fano (July 28, 1912 – February 13, 2001) was an Italian American physicist, notable for contributions to theoretical physics.
Ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) is a disinfection method that uses short-wavelength ultraviolet (UV-C) light to kill or inactivate microorganisms by destroying nucleic acids and disrupting their DNA, leaving them unable to perform vital cellular functions.
Valkyrien (English: Valkyrie) is a 2017 Norwegian TV series first broadcast by NRK1.
In molecular biology, VanY are protein domains found in enzymes named metallopeptidases.
Vibrio cholerae is a Gram-negative, comma-shaped bacterium.
Vibrio phage K139 is a bacteriophage (a virus that infects bacteria) of the family Myoviridae, genus Hpunalikevirus.
Vibrio phage Kappa is a bacteriophage (a virus that infects bacteria) of the family Myoviridae, genus Hpunalikevirus.
Vibrio phage nt-1 is a bacteriophage known to infect Vibrio bacteria.
The Vidiians are a fictional alien race in the Star Trek franchise.
Vinod Bhakuni (1962–2011) was an Indian molecular biophysicist and the head of the Molecular and Structural Biology Division of the Central Drug Research Institute (CDRI).
Viral entry is the earliest stage of infection in the viral life cycle, as the virus comes into contact with the host cell and introduces viral material into the cell.
A viral plaque is a visible structure formed within a cell culture, such as bacterial cultures within some nutrient medium (e.g. agar).
Viral transformation is the change in growth, phenotype, or indefinite reproduction of cells caused by the introduction of inheritable material.
Viral vectors are tools commonly used by molecular biologists to deliver genetic material into cells.
The viriome of a habitat or environment is the total virus content within it.
Virology is the study of viruses – submicroscopic, parasitic particles of genetic material contained in a protein coat – and virus-like agents.
Virology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal in virology.
Virome refers to the collection of nucleic acids, both RNA and DNA, that make up the viral community associated with a particular ecosystem or holobiont.
Virulence is a pathogen's or microbe's ability to infect or damage a host.
Virulence factors are molecules produced by bacteria, viruses, fungi, and protozoa that add to their effectiveness and enable them to achieve the following.
A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms.
Virus classification is the process of naming viruses and placing them into a taxonomic system.
Viruses consist of a genome and a capsid; and some viruses are enveloped.
Virus-like particles resemble viruses, but are non-infectious because they contain no viral genetic material.
Viunalikevirus is a genus of bacteriophages in the Myoviridae family.
is a Japanese anime television series produced by A-1 Pictures and directed by Kazuhiro Takamura.
Walter Fiers (born 1931 in Ypres, West Flanders) is a Belgian molecular biologist.
The wcaG RNA motif is an RNA structure conserved in some bacteria that was detected by bioinformatics.
Werner Arber (born 3 June 1929 in Gränichen, Aargau) is a Swiss microbiologist and geneticist.
WO virus is bacteriophage virus affecting bacteria of the Wolbachia genus, hence its name.
The Xanthomonas Phage Holin (XanPHol) Family consists of a single protein (Putative holin) of 64 amino acyl residues (aas) in length with 2 transmembrane segments (TMSs).
Yersinia pestis (formerly Pasteurella pestis) is a Gram-negative, non-motile rod-shaped coccobacillus, with no spores.
Yersinia phage L-413C is a virus of the family Myoviridae, genus P2likevirus.
Zinaida Vissarionovna Ermol'eva (Зинаида Виссарионовна Ермольева) (– December 2, 1974) was a microbiologist most notable for independently synthesizing penicillin for the Soviet military during World War II.
Zygotic induction occurs when a bacterial cell carrying the silenced DNA of a bacterial virus in its chromosome transfers the viral DNA along with its own DNA to another bacterial cell lacking the virus, causing the recipient of the DNA to break open.
174 (one hundred seventy-four) is the natural number following 173 and preceding 175.
The year 1873 in science and technology involved some significant events, listed below.
The year 1949 in science and technology involved some significant events, listed below.
The year 1952 in science and technology involved some significant events, listed below.
A number of significant scientific events occurred in 2015.
3-Deoxy-2-octulosonidase (2-keto-3-deoxyoctonate hydrolase, octulosylono hydrolase, octulofuranosylono hydrolase, octulopyranosylonohydrolase) is an enzyme with systematic name capsular-polysaccharide 3-deoxy-D-manno-2-octulosonohydrolase.
The Putative 3 TMS Holin (3-Hol) Family is large, consisting of many members derived from proteobacteria and their phage, all of small size (85-105 amino acyl residues in length) and usually with 3 transmembrane segments (TMSs).
5-Hydroxymethylcytosine is a DNA pyrimidine nitrogen base derived from cytosine.