996 relations: A New Beginning (video game), A1 Grand Prix car, Abdul Hameed Nayyar, Abengoa, Acción Ecológica, Acciona Energy, Acer saccharinum, Acts of the 88th Minnesota Legislature, Adena Springs Ranch, Advanced Light Source, Advanced steam technology, AFM-IR, African Centre for Technology Studies, African Clean Energy, Aftermath (2010 TV series), AGA cooker, Agribusiness, Agricultural expansion, Agriculture, Agriculture in Indonesia, Agriculture in the United Kingdom, Agriculture in the United States, Agro-, Agrokor, Air pollution in British Columbia, Airbreathing jet engine, Airbus, Airline, Al Ghurair Investment, Alameda's hot springs retreat, Alaska Airlines, Alberta, Alcohol fuel, Algaculture, Algae fuel, Algae fuel in the United States, AlgaePARC, Algal mat, Algenol, Alternative energy, American Jobs Creation Act of 2004, American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, Amory Lovins, Amyris Fuels, Andrew Gotianun, Andritz AG, Ann Veneman, Antelope Range and Livestock Research Station, Anthony Weiner, Anti-nuclear movement, ..., Aphelidium, Apple Park, Applications of the Stirling engine, Applied Research Associates, Appropriate technology, Aquatic weed harvester, Archer Daniels Midland, Argentine Air Force, Argonne National Laboratory, Argus Media, Arizona State University, Armchair Science, ARPA-E, Artificial photosynthesis, Arundo donax, Ascocoryne sarcoides, Aspergillus tubingensis, ASTM D6751, Aston Martin DB6, Astrobotany, Atlantic Gateway (North West England), Attalea speciosa, Auburn University, Australian Institute for Bioengineering and Nanotechnology, Australian Renewable Energy Agency, AUTOECO, Auxenochlorella, Aventine Renewable Energy, Aviation biofuel, Avril Group, Babiniotis Dictionary, Bagasse, Bamboo, Bambusa bambos, BASF Plant Science, Basmath, Battleground Earth, Bay cat, Benguet, Bentley State Limousine, Bio fireplace, Bio Fuel Systems, Bio-energy with carbon capture and storage, Biobased economy, Biobased product, Biochar, Bioconversion of biomass to mixed alcohol fuels, Biodiesel, Biodiesel production, Biodiversity, Bioenergy, Bioenergy (corporation), Bioenergy Action Plan, Bioenergy in China, BioFields (company), Biofuel, Biofuel in Australia, Biofuel in Denmark, Biofuel in New Zealand, Biofuel in Sweden, Biofuel in the European Union, Biofuel in the United States, Biofuel policy of Malaysia, Biofuels by region, Biofuels Center of North Carolina, Biofuelwatch, Biogas, BioLite, Biomass, Biomass briquettes, Biomass to liquid, Bioplastic, Bioproducts, Bioproducts engineering, Biorefinery, Biorefining, Biosequestration, Biotechnology, Biotechnology Innovation Organization, Biotic material, BioTork, Bivalent (engine), Black carbon, Blue Flint Ethanol, BlueFire Renewables, Boškov Most Hydro Power Plant, Bob Etheridge, Boeing 787 Dreamliner, Border Counties Railway, Borlaug Dialogue, Botany, Bowling Green State University, BP, BP Biofuels Highlands, Brazil–European Union relations, Brazil–Malaysia relations, Brownfield land, Buchanan, Liberia, Bulgaria, Butanol, Butanol fuel, Caldicellulosiruptor, California Agriculture, California and Hawaiian Sugar Company, Calophyllum brasiliense, Camelina sativa, Camp for Climate Action, Canada–Democratic Republic of the Congo relations, Canadian Hydro Developers, Cannabis, Car, Carbon capture and storage, Carbon offset, Carbon Trust, Carbon-based fuel, Carbon-neutral fuel, Cargill, Cash crop, Cassava, Ceiba pentandra, Cellana (company), Cellulase, Cellulose, Cellulosic ethanol, Cellulosic ethanol commercialization, Cellulosic sugars, Celtic Renewables, Central heating, Central Institute of Agricultural Engineering, Ceres, Inc., CERETETH, Cetane number, Changing World Technologies, Charles Beigbeder, Charles E. 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Bently, Double acting ship, DuPont Experimental Station, Durham Energy Institute, Dyno Nobel, East Midlands, Ebro Foods, Eccleshall, Eco Marine Power, EcoDemonstrator, Ecological modernization, Economic policy of the Barack Obama administration, Economic Research Institute for ASEAN and East Asia, Economy of Fiji, Economy of Ghana, Economy of Guatemala, Economy of Indiana, Economy of Lethbridge, Economy of Mizoram, Economy of Punjab, India, Economy of South Sudan, Ecopetrol, Ecosystem services, Edwards (engineering company), Egypt Economic Development Conference, Elaeis, Elaeis guineensis, Electric energy consumption, Electrical energy efficiency on United States farms, Electricity sector in Armenia, Electricity sector in Ghana, Electricity sector in India, Electricity sector in New Zealand, Elements Software, Eliot Engel, Elizabeth A. Widjaja, Emīlija Gudriniece, Emily A. 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Smith, HARBEC Plastics, Harvest Power, Hawaii gubernatorial election, 2010, Hazelwood Power Station, Henry Ford, Himalayan Institute of Yoga Science and Philosophy, History of agriculture, History of the University of California, Berkeley, Holocene extinction, Home fuel cell, Human Genome Project, Human overpopulation, Hybrid electric vehicle, Hybrid vehicle, Hydrodeoxygenation, Hydrogenase, Hydrothermal carbonization, Hydrothermal liquefaction, Ibercivis, IBSA Dialogue Forum, Idemitsu Kosan, Imperium Renewables, Index of biotechnology articles, Index of electrical engineering articles, Index of environmental articles, Index of sustainability articles, Indigenous and community conserved area, Indirect land use change impacts of biofuels, Indur M. 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Romm, Kaidi Finland, Kamrun Nahar, Kazi Zulkader Siddiqui, Kenaf, King Review, Kingsnorth power station, Kluyveromyces marxianus, Koehler Instrument Company, Inc., Koenigsegg, Kombu, Koreans in the Philippines, Kudzu in the United States, Laminaria, Land footprint, Land grabbing, Land O'Lakes, Landfill gas utilization, Lard, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Le Mans Prototype, Ledcor Group of Companies, Legal Marijuana Now Party, Leidenfrost effect, Lemna minor, Lethbridge, Levulinic acid, Libra Group, Life cycle thinking, Life-cycle assessment, Light crude oil, Lignocellulosic biomass, Limnoria lignorum, List of A1 Grand Prix records, List of active coal fired power stations in the United Kingdom, List of Antarctic expeditions, List of automotive superlatives, List of biofuel companies and researchers, List of Cars characters, List of commodities exchanges, List of countries by electricity production from renewable sources, List of countries by oil production, List of documentary films about agriculture, List of energy resources, List of food additives, List of IARC Group 2A carcinogens, List of Jessie episodes, List of Mobile Suit Gundam: Iron-Blooded Orphans characters, List of Philippine laws, List of power stations in New South Wales, List of power stations in Queensland, List of power stations in Victoria (Australia), List of power stations in Western Australia, List of renewable energy topics by country, List of renewable resources produced and traded by the United Kingdom, List of sequenced plant genomes, List of United States energy acts, List of vegetable oils, Livermore, California, Living things in culture, Lotus Exige, Louis Barnett (chocolatier), Low-carbon economy, Low-carbon fuel standard, Luis Falcó, Mabilafu, Macrocystis pyrifera, Maize, Making Sweden an Oil-Free Society, Malnutrition, Marcia McNutt, Marco Rubio, Marina Silva, Marquard & Bahls, Martha Crawford Heitzmann, Mascoma Corporation, Matt Blunt, Maura O'Neill, Maverick Technologies, Medway School of Science, Mel Knight, Menlo Capital Group, Metabolomics, Metagenomics, Methane reformer, Methanol fuel, Methoxymethylfurfural, Michael Evenari, Michael Grimm (politician), Michelle Chang, Michigan Brewing Company, Microbiofuel, Mike Michaud, Millettia, Ministry of Energy, New and Renewable Energy Maharashtra, Ministry of New and Renewable Energy, Miscanthus, Miscanthus giganteus, Mitigation of peak oil, Mitsubishi Corporation, Mitsui & Co., Mixed acid fermentation, Mixing (process engineering), Mobile incinerator, Mobile source air pollution, MOL (company), Monoraphidium neglectum, Moringa oleifera, Moscow State University of Fine Chemical Technologies, Motor fuel, Munich Airport, Musim Mas, Myceliophthora thermophila, Mycoplasma laboratorium, N-Butanol, Nannochloropsis, Nannochloropsis and biofuels, NASA, Negros Island, Neochloris oleoabundans, Neocolonialism, Net energy gain, New Brunswick Innovation Foundation, New England Fuel Institute, New manufacturing economy, Nicholas Everett Hollis, Nicotiana glauca, NNFCC, Nordic energy market, North East of England Process Industry Cluster, Northern Nevada Correctional Center, Northrop Grumman MQ-8 Fire Scout, Nuclear power proposed as renewable energy, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Oil depletion, Oil mill, Oiltanking, Okra, Old-growth forest, Omarama, Open energy system models, Orthoptera, OSL Consulting, Osorno, Chile, Outline of agriculture, Outline of energy, Outline of energy development, Outline of sustainability, Oxfam, Pacific Renewable Energy, Paenibacillus, Panda Energy International, Panicum mosaic virus, Paper battery, Parthenium argentatum, Pathways out of Poverty, Patricia A. Woertz, Paul J. Crutzen, Paul Ratnasamy, Paulownia elongata, Peak wheat, Peaking power plant, Pearson Fuels, Peat, Pedro L. Marín, Pellet fuel, Pellet stove, Pete Bethune, Petrobras, Petroleum, Petroleum industry, Photohydrogen, Photosynthetic efficiency, Pierre Poujade, Pittosporum, Pittosporum resiniferum, Plant, Plant physiology, Plants in culture, Plymouth, Plymouth Marine Laboratory, Poaceae, POET, Political positions of Rick Perry, Politics of Sweden, Pongamia, Pongamia oil, Populus, Populus sect. Tacamahaca, Port of Copenhagen, Potential applications of graphene, Practical Action, Prairie, Prince Albert, Saskatchewan, Project Gaia, Propane, Proton-exchange membrane fuel cell, Psyttaleia, Pulsejet, Pycnanthus angolensis, Pyrolysis oil, Qteros, Quality Wines Produced in Specified Regions, Questions for the Future, R. James Woolsey Jr., R. Tom Baker, RADION International, Radish, Rainforest, Rajalakshmi Engineering College, Ram Rajasekharan, Reacting Gas Dynamics Laboratory, Reading Buses, Real Time with Bill Maher (season 5), Real Time with Bill Maher (season 6), Reforestation, Reliance Industries, Renault, Renew, Renewable energy, Renewable Energy Certificate (United States), Renewable energy debate, Renewable energy in Argentina, Renewable energy in Chile, Renewable energy in China, Renewable energy in Costa Rica, Renewable energy in Denmark, Renewable energy in developing countries, Renewable energy in Ethiopia, Renewable energy in Finland, Renewable energy in France, Renewable energy in Germany, Renewable energy in Italy, Renewable energy in Lithuania, Renewable energy in Russia, Renewable energy in Scotland, Renewable energy in South Dakota, Renewable energy in the European Union, Renewable energy in the Philippines, Renewable energy in the United Kingdom, Renewable energy in the United States, Renewable energy in Vietnam, Renewable energy law in Pennsylvania, Renewable Energy Programme, Renewable fuels, Renewable Fuels Agency, Renewable Fuels Regulators Club, Renewable hydrocarbon fuels via decarboxylation/decarbonylation, Renewable Identification Number, Renewable natural gas, Research and Development Institute of Ecology and the Sustainable Use of Natural Resources, Reuse of excreta, Richard Friar, Richard Lugar, Roary the Racing Car, Rob Thomas (scientist), RobecoSAM, Robert A. Martienssen, Robert H. Grubbs, Rocky Mountain Institute, Rolling bed dryer, Ronald T. Raines, Roxtec, Royal Dutch Shell, Rubber seed oil, Russell, Massachusetts, Saccharomycotina, Salicornia bigelovii, Salicornia virginica, Salix triandra, Samsø, San Francisco Municipal Railway, San José de los Arroyos, San Ramón de la Nueva Orán, Sanitation, Sapphire Energy, Saproamanita thiersii, Sardinia, Södra, Südzucker, SCA (company), SCAFCO, Scenedesmus, Schizochytrium, Schmidt Ocean Institute, Science Barge, Sea6 Energy, Second-generation biofuels, Seneca white deer, SEPCO3, Shiraz Biogas Power Plant, Silage, Simarouba glauca, Social and environmental impact of palm oil, Society of Global Health Researchers in Action, Soft energy path, Solar flower tower, Solar fuel, Solid fuel, Sonic soot blowers, Sonication, Sorbitol, Sorghum, South African Solar Challenge, Southeast Steam Plant, Southern Hemisphere, Southern Regional Research Center, Spartina pectinata, SS Sir Walter Scott, Stade, Stand-alone power system, Staphylothermus, Starch, Steen Riisgaard, Stephanie Herseth Sandlin, Sterculia foetida, Steven Chu, Stockholm Arlanda Airport, Storage heater, Stove, Straw, Subramaniam V. Iyer, Substitute natural gas, Sugarcane, Sunil Suri, SunOpta, Susan Golden, Sustainable aviation fuel, Sustainable biofuel, Sustainable development in Scotland, Sustainable energy, Sustainable fishery, Sustainable living, Sustainable Oils, Sustainable transport, Sweat diagnostics, Sweden, Sweet potato, Synechocystis, Syngas, Syngenta, Synthetic fuel, Synthetic Genomics (company), Syringol, T. B. Simon Power Plant, Tallow, Tapioca chip, Taraxacum kok-saghyz, Targray, Taxation in France, Tesco, Tetrahydrofuran, The Clean Tech Revolution, The Environment Trust (Tower Hamlets), The Environmental Institute, The Farm (Tennessee), The Glover Park Group, The Low Carbon Vehicle Partnership, The Moral Case for Fossil Fuels, The Next List, The Quest: Energy, Security, and the Remaking of the Modern World, The School for Renewable Energy Science, Thermoascus, Thomas Welton, Tidal power, Tillman Gerngross, Timeline of alcohol fuel, Timeline of Richard Branson's business ventures, Tissue paper, Titan (supercomputer), Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Tofte, Norway, Tom Price (American politician), Tony Connelly, Top Gear (series 9), Top Gear challenges, Torbanite, Tornesch, Trabbi Goes to Hollywood, Transcription activator-like effector nuclease, Transition to war, Transpetro, Transport in Antarctica, Trichoderma longibrachiatum, Tunicate, Twist Bioscience, Ulrich Eichhorn, Ulrich W. 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Stemmer, Willie Nelson, Willie Nelson Biodiesel, Willow, Willow Biomass Project, Willow Run Airport, Wind power, Wisconsin Bio Industry Alliance, Wood diesel, Wood economy, Wood fuel, Woodchips, World Bioenergy Association, World Food Prize, World Fuel Services, World population, Worldwide energy supply, Xethanol, Xplorair, Xylanase, Xylose isomerase, Yeast, Yuriko Koike, Zac Goldsmith, Zero Emission Resource Organisation, Zero-energy building, Zwijnaarde, Zygentoma, 2,5-Dimethylfuran, 2-Methyltetrahydrofuran, 2000s (decade), 2000s commodities boom, 2000s energy crisis, 2006 State of the Union Address, 2007–08 A1 Grand Prix of Nations, Australia, 2007–08 A1 Grand Prix of Nations, New Zealand, 2007–08 A1 Grand Prix season, 2007–08 world food price crisis, 2008 24 Hours of Le Mans, 2010 in aviation, 2010–12 world food price crisis, 2011 in aviation, 2012 in science, 2012 Olympic hunger summit, 2013 in science, 2015 in Lithuania, 21st century, 24 Hours of Le Mans. 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A New Beginning is a point-and-click adventure video game developed by Daedalic Entertainment and published by Lace Mamba Global for Microsoft Windows, OS X and iOS.
The A1 Grand Prix car was a vehicle designed to compete in the A1 Grand Prix.
Abdul Hameed Nayyar (Urdu: عبدلحمید نیّر) (born 9 January 1945) is a Pakistani physicist and nuclear activist.
Abengoa S.A. is a Spanish multinational corporation, which includes companies in the domains of energy, telecommunications, transportation, and the environment.
Acción Ecológica is one of the main environmental organizations based in Ecuador.
Acciona Energy, a subsidiary of Acciona based in Madrid, is a Spanish company developing renewable energy projects, including small hydro, biomass, solar energy and thermal energy, and the marketing of biofuels.
Acer saccharinum, commonly known as silver maple, creek maple, silverleaf maple, soft maple, large maple, water maple, swamp maple, or white maple—is a species of maple native to eastern and central North America in the eastern United States and Canada.
The acts of the 88th Minnesota Legislature includes all acts by the 88th Minnesota Legislature, which lasts from January 8, 2013 to January 5, 2015.
Adena Springs Ranch is the former name of a 30,000-acre cattle ranch in Florida's Marion County now known as Sleepy Creek Ranch Lands.
The Advanced Light Source (ALS) is a research facility at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley, California.
Advanced steam technology (sometimes known as Modern Steam) reflects an approach to the technical development of the steam engine intended for a wider variety of applications than has recently been the case.
AFM-IR (atomic force microscope infrared-spectroscopy) is one of a family of techniques (published online, Feb 2008) with erratum, 19(5), 14 May 2004 that are derived from a combination of two parent instrumental techniques; infrared spectroscopy and scanning probe microscopy (SPM).
African Centre for Technology Studies (ACTS) is an intergovernmental non-profit organization, founded in 1988 by Calestous Juma in Nairobi, Kenya, promoting policy-oriented research on science and technology in development that is sustainable in terms of the economy, society, and the environment.
African Clean Energy is a social enterprise that produces and distributes solar-biomass hybrid energy systems in developing countries.
Aftermath is a four-part 2010 documentary television series created by History Television Canadian station, airing in the United States on the National Geographic Channel, and produced by Cream Productions.
The AGA cooker is a heat storage stove and cooker, which works on the principle that a heavy frame made of cast iron can absorb heat from a relatively low-intensity but continuously burning source, and the accumulated heat can then be used for cooking.
Agribusiness is the business of agricultural production.
Agricultural expansion describes the growth of agricultural land (arable land, pastures, etc.) in the 21st century as a direct consequence of human overpopulation with an estimated 10 to 11 billion humans by end of this century and the required food and energy security.
Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.
Agriculture is one of the key sectors within the Indonesian economy.
Agriculture in the United Kingdom uses 69% of the country's land area, employs 1.5% of its workforce (476,000 people) and contributes 0.62% of its gross value added (£9.9 billion).
Agriculture is a major industry in the United States, which is a net exporter of food.
Agro- and agri- are prefixes that usually refer to agriculture.
Agrokor is a conglomerate, largely centered in agribusiness, with headquarters in Zagreb, Croatia.
Air pollution is a concern in British Columbia, Canada because of its effects on health and visibility.
An airbreathing jet engine (or ducted jet engine) is a jet engine propelled by a jet of hot exhaust gases formed from heated and expanded air that is drawn into the engine via a compressor, typically a centrifugal or axial type.
Airbus SE is a European corporation, registered in the Netherlands and trading shares in France, Germany and Spain.
An airline is a company that provides air transport services for traveling passengers and freight.
Al Ghurair (Arabic:الغرير), also known as Al Ghurair Investment LLC,, was established in 1960.
Alameda's Hot Springs Retreat, commonly called Alameda's is a retreat and conference center in Hot Springs, MT offering lodging, massage and holistic health services and space for group retreats.
Alaska Airlines is an American airline headquartered in the Seattle metropolitan area of the state of Washington.
Alberta is a western province of Canada.
Alcohols have been used as a fuel.
Algaculture is a form of aquaculture involving the farming of species of algae.
Algae fuel, algal biofuel, or algal oil is an alternative to liquid fossil fuels that uses algae as its source of energy-rich oils.
Algae fuel in the United States, as with other countries, is under study as a source of biofuel.
Wageningen UR (University & Research centre) has constructed AlgaePARC (Algae Production And Research Centre) at the Wageningen Campus.
Algal mat is one of many types of microbial mat formed on the water surface or on the surface of rocks.
Algenol, founded in 2006, headquartered in Fort Myers, Florida, Algenol is an industrial biotechnology company that is commercializing patented algae technology for production of ethanol and other fuels.
Alternative energy is any energy source that is an alternative to fossil fuel.
The American Jobs Creation Act of 2004 was a federal tax act that repealed the export tax incentive (ETI), which had been declared illegal by the World Trade Organization several times and sparked retaliatory tariffs by the European Union.
The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA), nicknamed the Recovery Act, was a stimulus package enacted by the 111th U.S. Congress and signed into law by President Barack Obama in February 2009.
Amory Bloch Lovins (born November 13, 1947) is an American physicist, environmental scientist, writer, and Chairman/Chief Scientist of the Rocky Mountain Institute.
Amyris Fuels, LLC, is a wholly owned subsidiary of Amyris, a business unit formed to develop a network for supplying and distributing renewable fuels.
Andrew Lo Gotianun, Sr. (November 24, 1927 – March 10, 2016) was a Chinese Filipino entrepreneur from the Philippines who had a net worth of US$900 million in 2015.
Andritz AG is an Austrian plant engineering group with headquarters in Graz.
Ann Margaret Veneman (born June 29, 1949) was the Executive Director of UNICEF from 2005 to 2010.
The Antelope Range and Livestock Research Station is operated by South Dakota State University and its extension programs to improve ranching in South Dakota.
Anthony David Weiner (born September 4, 1964) is an American former Democratic congressman who represented from January 1999 until June 2011.
The anti-nuclear movement is a social movement that opposes various nuclear technologies.
Aphelidium species are endoparasites of freshwater green algae.
Apple Park is the corporate headquarters of Apple Inc., located at 1 Apple Park Way in Cupertino, California, United States.
Applications of the Stirling engine range from mechanical propulsion to heating and cooling to electrical generation systems.
Applied Research Associates, Inc is a research and engineering company headquartered in Albuquerque, New Mexico, founded in 1979.
Appropriate technology is a movement (and its manifestations) encompassing technological choice and application that is small-scale, decentralized, labor-intensive, energy-efficient, environmentally sound, and locally autonomous.
An aquatic weed harvester, also known as a water mower, mowing boat and weed cutting boat, is an aquatic machine specifically designed for inland watercourse management to cut and harvest underwater weeds, reeds and other aquatic plant life.
The Archer Daniels Midland Company (ADM) is an American global food processing and commodities trading corporation, headquartered in Chicago, Illinois.
The Argentine Air Force (Fuerza Aérea Argentina, or simply FAA) is the national aviation branch of the Armed Forces of the Argentine Republic.
Argonne National Laboratory is a science and engineering research national laboratory operated by the University of Chicago Argonne LLC for the United States Department of Energy located near Lemont, Illinois, outside Chicago.
Argus Media Ltd (formerly known as Petroleum Argus Ltd) is an independent provider of price information, consultancy services, conferences, market data and business intelligence for the global petroleum, natural gas, electricity, emissions, biofuels, biomass, LPG, metals, petrochemicals, fertilizers and coal industries.
Arizona State University (commonly referred to as ASU or Arizona State) is a public metropolitan research university on five campuses across the Phoenix metropolitan area, and four regional learning centers throughout Arizona.
Armchair Science was a British monthly journal of topical and popular science articles published from 1929 to 1940; it ceased publication because of wartime paper shortages.
ARPA-E, or Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy is a United States government agency tasked with promoting and funding research and development of advanced energy technologies.
Artificial photosynthesis is a chemical process that replicates the natural process of photosynthesis, a process that converts sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide into carbohydrates and oxygen; as an imitation of a natural process it is biomimetic.
Arundo donax, giant cane, is a tall perennial cane, is one of several so-called reed species.
Ascocoryne sarcoides is a species of fungus in the family Helotiaceae.
Aspergillus tubingensis is a darkly pigmented member of the genus Aspergillus section Nigri.
ASTM D6751 details standards and specifications for biodiesels blended with middle distillate fuels.
The Aston Martin DB6 is a grand tourer made by British car manufacturer Aston Martin.
Astrobotany is an applied sub-discipline of botany that is the study of plants in space environments.
Atlantic Gateway, sometimes referred to as Ocean Gateway, is a proposed redevelopment strategy for the North West of England, centring on the corridor between Greater Manchester and Merseyside.
Attalea speciosa (babassu, babassu palm, babaçu, cusi) is a palm native to the Amazon Rainforest region in South America.
Auburn University (AU or Auburn) is a public research university in Auburn, Alabama, United States.
The University of Queensland's Australian Institute for Bioengineering and Nanotechnology (AIBN) was established in 2003.
The Australian Renewable Energy Agency (ARENA) is an independent agency of the Australian federal government, established in 2012 to manage Australia's renewable energy programs, with the objective of increasing supply and competitiveness of Australian renewable energy sources.
AUTOECO is a vehicle show about TecnoEcology for the Automobile world, in Oval Lingotto, Turin, in September.
Auxenochlorella protothecoides, formerly known as Chlorella protothecoides, is a facultative heterotrophic green alga in the class Trebouxiophyta known for its potential application in biofuel production.
Aventine Renewable Energy Founded in 2003, was a bioethanol and biodiesel company based in Pekin, Illinois that produced and marketed these biofuels.
Aviation biofuel is a biofuel used for aircraft.
Avril is an international French agro-industrial group, specialising in human nutrition, animal nutrition, renewable chemistry, and renewable energy.
The Dictionary of Modern Greek (Λεξικό της Νέας Ελληνικής Γλώσσας, ΛΝΕΓ), more commonly known as Babiniotis Dictionary (Λεξικό Μπαμπινιώτη), is a well-known dictionary of Modern Greek published in Greece by Lexicology Centre and supervised by Greek linguist Georgios Babiniotis.
Bagasse is the fibrous matter that remains after sugarcane or sorghum stalks are crushed to extract their juice.
The bamboos are evergreen perennial flowering plants in the subfamily Bambusoideae of the grass family Poaceae.
Bambusa bambos, the giant thorny bamboo, Indian thorny bamboo, spiny bamboo, or thorny bamboo, is a species of clumping bamboo native to southern Asia (India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Assam, and Indochina).
BASF Plant Science is a subsidiary of BASF in which all plant biotechnology activities are consolidated.
Basmath or Basmat is a city and a municipal council in Hingoli district in the state of Maharashtra, India.
Battleground Earth was a 2008 television series on Planet Green hosted by rock star Tommy Lee and rapper Ludacris.
The bay cat (Catopuma badia), also known as Borneo bay cat and Bornean bay cat, is a wild cat endemic to the island of Borneo that appears to be relatively rare compared to sympatric wild cats, based on the paucity of historical, as well as recent records.
Benguet (Ibaloi: Probinsya ne Benguet; Probinsia ti Benguet; Luyag na Benguet; Lalawigan ng Benguet), is a landlocked province of the Philippines located in the southern tip of the Cordillera Administrative Region in the island of Luzon.
The Bentley State Limousine is an official state car created by Bentley for Queen Elizabeth II on the occasion of her Golden Jubilee in 2002.
A bio fireplace (also on bio-ethanol fireplace, ethanol fireplace) is a type of fireplace or furnace with combined zones generation of heat and technological process – combustion of fuel (denatured alcohol).
BFS Blue Enterprises is a wholly Spanish owned firm whose multi-patented, microalgae-based technology uses CO2 emissions to produce crude oil and analytical-grade biotech & pharmaceutical products.
Bio-energy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS) is a future greenhouse gas mitigation technology which produces negative carbon dioxide emissions by combining bioenergy (energy from biomass) use with geologic carbon capture and storage.
Biobased economy, bioeconomy or biotechonomy refers to all economic activity derived from scientific and research activity focused on biotechnology.
Biobased product, was defined by the United States Secretary of Agriculture in the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 as follows, "The term ‘‘biobased product’’ means a product determined by the Secretary to be a commercial or industrial product (other than food or feed) that is composed, in whole or in significant part, of biological products or renewable domestic agricultural materials (including plant, animal, and marine materials) or forestry materials OR an intermediate feedstock.
Biochar is charcoal used as a soil amendment.
The bioconversion of biomass to mixed alcohol fuels can be accomplished using the MixAlco process.
Biodiesel refers to a vegetable oil- or animal fat-based diesel fuel consisting of long-chain alkyl (methyl, ethyl, or propyl) esters.
Biodiesel production is the process of producing the biofuel, biodiesel, through the chemical reactions transesterification and esterification.
Biodiversity, a portmanteau of biological (life) and diversity, generally refers to the variety and variability of life on Earth.
Bioenergy is renewable energy made available from materials derived from biological sources.
Bioenergy Corporation (Russian: Корпорация "Биоэнергия") is industrial holding company in the field of fuel energy, engineering and biotechnology.
On April 25, 2006, Executive Order S-06-06, Bioenergy Action Plan was issued by the former governor of California, Arnold Schwarzenegger, outlining a set of target goals which would establish the increasing use and production of biofuels and biopower for both electricity generation and substitution of natural gas and petroleum within the state of California.
China has set the goal of attaining one percent of its renewable energy generation through bioenergy in 2020.
BioFields is a Mexican industrial group that produces biofuels from blue-green algae (cyanobacteria).
A biofuel is a fuel that is produced through contemporary biological processes, such as agriculture and anaerobic digestion, rather than a fuel produced by geological processes such as those involved in the formation of fossil fuels, such as coal and petroleum, from prehistoric biological matter.
Biofuel is fuel that is produced from organic matter (biomass), including plant materials and animal waste.
Biofuels play a major part in the renewable energy strategy of Denmark.
There are a number of biofuels used in New Zealand.
Biofuels are renewable fuels that are produced by living organisms (biomass).
Biofuels offer an alternative plant based solution to rising problems regarding geological fuel sources.
The United States produces mainly biodiesel and ethanol fuel, which uses corn as the main feedstock.
The biofuel policy of Malaysia is documented in Malaysia's National Biofuel Policy document.
The use of biofuels varies by region and with increasing oil prices there is a renewed interest in it as an energy source.
The Biofuels Center of North Carolina is a private, nonprofit corporate facility located on a Biofuels Campus in Oxford, North Carolina.
Biofuelwatch is a non-governmental environmental organization based in the United Kingdom and the United States, which works to raise awareness of the negative impacts of industrial biofuels and bioenergy, on biodiversity, human rights, food sovereignty and climate change, human rights abuses, the impoverishment and dispossession of local populations, water and soil degradation, loss of food sovereignty and loss of food security.
Biogas typically refers to a mixture of different gases produced by the breakdown of organic matter in the absence of oxygen.
BioLite, a startup based in New York City, develops and manufactures off-grid energy products for both the outdoor recreational industry and emerging markets.
Biomass is an industry term for getting energy by burning wood, and other organic matter.
Biomass briquettes are a biofuel substitute to coal and charcoal.
Biomass to liquid (BtL or BMtL) is a multi-step process of producing synthetic hydrocarbon fuels made from biomass via a thermochemical route.
Bioplastics are plastics derived from renewable biomass sources, such as vegetable fats and oils, corn starch, or microbiota.
Bioproducts or bio-based products are materials, chemicals and energy derived from renewable biological resources.
Bioproducts engineering or bioprocess engineering refers to engineering of bio-products from renewable bioresources.
A biorefinery is a facility that integrates biomass conversion processes and equipment to produce fuels, power, heat, and value-added chemicals from biomass.
Biorefining is the process of "refining" multiple products from biomass as a feedstock or raw material much like a petroleum refinery that is currently in use.
Biosequestration is the capture and storage of the atmospheric greenhouse gas carbon dioxide by biological processes.
Biotechnology is the broad area of science involving living systems and organisms to develop or make products, or "any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use" (UN Convention on Biological Diversity, Art. 2).
The Biotechnology Innovation Organization (BIO) is the largest trade organization in the world that represents the biotechnology industry.
Biotic material or biological derived material is any material that originates from living organisms.
BioTork is a biotechnology company founded in 2008 that specializes in the optimization of industrial fermentation processes.
A bivalent engine is an engine that can use two different types of fuel.
Chemically, black carbon (BC) is a component of fine particulate matter (PM ≤ 2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter).
Blue Flint Ethanol is an bioethanol producing company and a production plant with a same name, located in Underwood, North Dakota approximately north of Bismarck.
BlueFire Renewables (previously BlueFire Ethanol) is a biofuel company that produces a cellulose-to-ethanol solution using wood waste, agricultural residue and municipal waste.
Boškov Most Hydro Power Plant, hereinafter referred to as Boškov Most HPP, is planned to be built in Mala Reka valley in the southernmost part of the Mavrovo National Park.
Bobby Ray "Bob" Etheridge (born August 7, 1941) is an American politician who was the U.S. Representative for from 1997 to 2011.
The Boeing 787 Dreamliner is an American long-haul, mid-size widebody, twin-engine jet airliner made by Boeing Commercial Airplanes.
The Border Counties Railway was a railway line connecting Hexham in Northumberland, with Riccarton on the Waverley Route in Roxburghshire (now in the Borders region of Scotland).
The Norman E. Borlaug International Symposium, commonly known as the Borlaug Dialogue, is an annual international symposium tackling the topic of "global food security" organized by The World Food Prize Foundation.
Botany, also called plant science(s), plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology.
Bowling Green State University (BGSU) is a large, primarily residential, public research university located in Bowling Green, Ohio, United States.
BP plc (stylised as bp), formerly British Petroleum, is a British multinational oil and gas company headquartered in London, England.
BP Biofuels Highlands was a subsidiary of BP developing cellulosic ethanol project in Florida.
Brazil and the European Union established diplomatic relations in 1960.
Brazil–Malaysia relations are foreign relations between Brazil and Malaysia.
Brownfield land is a term used in urban planning to describe any previously developed land that is not currently in use, whether contaminated or not or, in North America, more specifically to describe land previously used for industrial or commercial purposes with known or suspected pollution including soil contamination due to hazardous waste.
Buchanan is the third largest city in Liberia, lying on Waterhouse Bay, part of the Atlantic Ocean.
Bulgaria (България, tr.), officially the Republic of Bulgaria (Република България, tr.), is a country in southeastern Europe.
Butanol (also called butyl alcohol (or βουτανόλη in Greek)) is a four-carbon alcohol with a formula of C4H9OH, which occurs in five isomeric structures, from a straight-chain primary alcohol to a branched-chain tertiary alcohol; all are a butyl or isobutyl group linked to a hydroxyl group (sometimes represented as BuOH, n-BuOH, and i-BuOH).
Butanol may be used as a fuel in an internal combustion engine.
Caldicellulosiruptor is a genus of thermophilic, anaerobic, Gram-positive, non-spore forming bacteria.
California Agriculture is a quarterly peer-reviewed, scientific journal reporting news and research on agricultural, natural, and human resources that is published by the University of California Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources.
California and Hawaiian Sugar Company (C&H Sugar) is an American sugar processing and distribution company.
Calophyllum brasiliense (guanandi) is a species of Calophyllum native to subtropical and tropical regions of Central America, South America and the Caribbean.
Camelina sativa is a flowering plant in the family Brassicaceae and is usually known in English as camelina, gold-of-pleasure, or false flax, also occasionally wild flax, linseed dodder, German sesame, and Siberian oilseed.
The Camps for Climate Action are campaign gatherings (similar to peace camps) that take place to draw attention to, and act as a base for direct action against, major carbon emitters, as well as to develop ways to create a zero-carbon society.
Canada–Democratic Republic of the Congo relations refers to the bilateral relationship between Canada and the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
Canadian Hydro Developers, Inc. was a Canadian company that operated 12 hydroelectric power sites, eight wind power sites and one biomass power site in Canada.
Cannabis is a genus of flowering plants in the family Cannabaceae.
A car (or automobile) is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transportation.
Carbon capture and storage (CCS) (or carbon capture and sequestration or carbon control and sequestration) is the process of capturing waste carbon dioxide from large point sources, such as fossil fuel power plants, transporting it to a storage site, and depositing it where it will not enter the atmosphere, normally an underground geological formation.
A carbon offset is a reduction in emissions of carbon dioxide or greenhouse gases made in order to compensate for or to offset an emission made elsewhere.
The Carbon Trust is a for-mission company that helps governments, organisations and companies reduce their carbon emissions and become more resource efficient.
Carbon-based fuel is any fuel principally from the oxidation or burning of carbon.
The term "carbon-neutral fuel" can refer to a variety of energy fuels or energy systems which have no net greenhouse gas emissions or carbon footprint.
Cargill, Incorporated is an American privately held global corporation based in Minnetonka, Minnesota, and incorporated in Wilmington, Delaware.
A cash crop or profit crop is an agricultural crop which is grown for sale to return a profit.
Manihot esculenta, commonly called cassava, manioc, yuca, mandioca and Brazilian arrowroot, is a woody shrub native to South America of the spurge family, Euphorbiaceae.
Ceiba pentandra is a tropical tree of the order Malvales and the family Malvaceae (previously separated in the family Bombacaceae), native to Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean, northern South America, and (as the variety C. pentandra var. guineensis) to tropical west Africa.
Cellana, Inc. is a Hawaii- and San Diego-based developer of algae-based bioproducts for high-value nutrition, ink, and bioenergy applications, including Omega-3 nutraceutical applications, sustainable ink, aquaculture and animal feeds, human food ingredients, pigments, specialty chemicals, and biofuels.
Cellulase is any of several enzymes produced chiefly by fungi, bacteria, and protozoans that catalyze cellulolysis, the decomposition of cellulose and of some related polysaccharides.
Cellulose is an organic compound with the formula, a polysaccharide consisting of a linear chain of several hundred to many thousands of β(1→4) linked D-glucose units.
Cellulosic ethanol is ethanol (ethyl alcohol) produced from cellulose (the stringy fiber of a plant) rather than from the plant's seeds or fruit.
Cellulosic ethanol commercialization is the process of building an industry out of methods of turning cellulose-containing organic matter into cellulosic ethanol for use as a biofuel.
Cellulosic sugars are derived from non-food biomass (e.g. wood, agricultural residues, municipal solid waste).
Celtic Renewables Ltd. is the first company to produce biofuel from the by-products of the scotch whisky industry.
A central heating system provides warmth to the whole interior of a building (or portion of a building) from one point to multiple rooms.
The Central Institute of Agricultural Engineering (CIAE) is a higher seat of learning, research and development in the field of agriculture, situated in the lake city of Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India.
Ceres, Inc. is a biotechnology company based in Thousand Oaks, California, United States.
The CEnter for REsearch and TEchnology THessaly, or CE.RE.TE.TH (in Greek, Κ.Ε.Τ.Ε.Α.Θ), is a legal, non profit entity organized under the auspices of the General Secretariat for Research and Technology (GSRT), of the Greek Ministry of Development.
Cetane number (cetane rating) is an indicator of the combustion speed of diesel fuel and compression needed for ignition.
Changing World Technologies (CWT), a privately held synthetic fuel company, was founded in August 1997 by Brian S. Appel, who also served as chief executive officer of CWT and its subsidiaries.
Charles Beigbeder is a French businessman.
Charles E. Wyman, also known as Charles Wyman, is a Ford Motor Company, Chair and a Distinguished Professor & Endowed Chair in Chemical & Environmental Engineering at University of California, Riverside, USA.
The National Academy of Engineering annually awards the Draper Prize, which is given for the advancement of engineering and the education of the public about engineering.
Chemrec was a Stockholm, Sweden corporation that developed technology for entrained flow gasification of black liquor and certain types brown liquor for production of biofuels from the resulting syngas.
Chevron Corporation is an American multinational energy corporation.
China Agri-Industries Holdings Limited is a leading producer and supplier of processed agricultural products (including oilseed, wheat and rice) in Mainland China.
China Foods Limited, shortly China Foods and formerly COFCO International Limited, is a listed company in the Hong Kong Stock Exchange, which is engaged in food processing and food trading, including oilseed, wineries, beverage, confectionery, wheat, brewing materials, rice, biofuel, biochemicals, edible oil and non-rice foodstuff products.
China Resources Alcohol Corporation (CRAC) is the second largest ethanol producer in China and the owner of the only cellulosic ethanol pilot demonstration plant in the world which operates continuously, 24-hours per day.
Chinook Sciences is a US and UK based technology company that specializes in waste to energy and metal recovery.
Chlorella sorokiniana is a freshwater green microalga with a characteristic emerald-green color and pleasant grass odor.
Chlorella vulgaris is a green microalgae mainly used as a medical treatment in Japan.
A Chlorosome is a photosynthetic antenna complex found in green sulfur bacteria (GSB) and some green filamentous anoxygenic phototrophs (FAP) (Chloroflexaceae, Oscillochloridaceae).
Christopher B. Field is an American scientist and researcher, who has contributed to the field of climate change.
Christopher Hills (April 9, 1926 – January 31, 1997) was an English-born author, philosopher, and scientist, popularly described as the "Father of Spirulina" for popularizing spirulina cyanobacteria as a food supplement.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a type of obstructive lung disease characterized by long-term breathing problems and poor airflow.
CHU 13 medium is a culture medium used in microbiology for the growth of certain algal species, first published by S.P. Chu in 1942.
Cinnamoyl-CoA reductase, systematically named cinnamaldehyde:NADP+ oxidoreductase (CoA-cinnamoylating) but commonly referred to by the acronym CCR, is an enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of a substituted cinnamoyl-CoA to its corresponding cinnamaldehyde, utilizing NADPH and H+ and releasing free CoA and NADP+ in the process.
Citrullus colocynthis, with many common names including colocynth, bitter apple, bitter cucumber, desert gourd, egusi, vine of Sodom, or wild gourd, is a desert viny plant native to the Mediterranean Basin and Asia, especially Turkey (especially in regions such as İzmir), and Nubia.
The City of Kwinana is a local government area of Western Australia.
Cladium (Fen-sedge, Sawgrass or Twig-sedge) is a genus of large sedges, with a nearly worldwide distribution in tropical and temperate regions.
The First Trust Clean Edge Green Energy ETF is an exchange-traded fund (ETF) that contains only US companies that produce or distribute clean energy.
Clean Energy Trends is a series of reports by Clean Edge which examine markets for solar, wind, geothermal, fuel cells, biofuels, and other clean energy technologies.
Clean technology refers to any process, product, or service that reduces negative environmental impacts through significant energy efficiency improvements, the sustainable use of resources, or environmental protection activities.
A clean-burning stove is a stove with reduced toxic emissions.
ClientEarth is a non-profit environmental law organisation, founded in 2008, with offices in London, Brussels, Warsaw, and Beijing.
The Climate Change and Sustainable Energy Act 2006 (c 19) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom which aims to boost the number of heat and electricity microgeneration installations in the United Kingdom, so helping to cut carbon emissions and reduce fuel poverty.
Climate change in Bangladesh is a pressing issue.
Because of global warming, there has been concern in the United States and internationally, that the country should reduce total greenhouse gas which is relatively high per capita and is the second largest in the world after China, as of 2014.
Climate change in the US state of Washington is a subject of study and projection today.
Climate change mitigation consists of actions to limit the magnitude or rate of long-term climate change.
The climate of Pennsylvania is diverse due to the multitude of geographic features found within the state.
Codexis, Inc. is a leading protein engineering company that applies its revolutionary CodeEvolver platform technology to deliver high-performing enzymes for improving the cost and quality of pharmaceuticals and food ingredients, to enable sequencing of minute quantities of DNA for medical diagnostics, and to create novel biotherapeutics.
Cogeneration or combined heat and power (CHP) is the use of a heat engine or power station to generate electricity and useful heat at the same time.
In electric power generation a combined cycle is an assembly of heat engines that work in tandem from the same source of heat, converting it into mechanical energy, which in turn usually drives electrical generators.
Commodity chemicals (or bulk commodities or bulk chemicals) are a group of chemicals that are made on a very large scale to satisfy global markets.
Community wind projects are locally owned by farmers, investors, businesses, schools, utilities, or other public or private entities who utilize wind energy to support and reduce energy costs to the local community.
The report A Comprehensive Assessment of Water Management in Agriculture was published in 2007 by International Water Management Institute and Earthscan in an attempt to answer the question: how can water in agriculture be developed and managed to help end poverty and hunger, ensure environmentally sustainable practices, and find the right balance between food and environmental security?.
The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station (CAES) is the Connecticut state government's agricultural experiment station, a state government component that engages in scientific research and public outreach in agriculture and related fields.
Continental Airlines was a major United States airline founded in 1934 and eventually headquartered in Houston, Texas.
Contrails (short for "condensation trails") are line-shaped clouds produced by aircraft engine exhaust or changes in air pressure, typically at aircraft cruise altitudes several miles above the Earth's surface.
Copenhagen (København; Hafnia) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark.
Renewable energy sources such as solar, wind, tidal, hydro, biomass, and geothermal have become significant sectors of the energy market.
Corn ethanol is ethanol produced from corn that is used as a biomass.
Corn kernels are the fruits of corn (called maize in many countries).
Corn stover consists of the leaves, stalks, and cobs of maize (corn) (Zea mays ssp. mays L.) plants left in a field after harvest.
A corncob, also called cob of corn, is the central core of an ear of maize (Zea mays ssp. mays).
John Craig Venter (born October 14, 1946) is an American biotechnologist, biochemist, geneticist, and businessman.
Crambe abyssinica is an annual oilseed crop of the family Brassicaceae.
CRISPR is a family of DNA sequences in bacteria and archaea.
This article addresses various criticisms of Cargill, a large, privately held, multinational corporation, based in the United States.
A crop is a plant or animal product that can be grown and harvested extensively for profit or subsistence.
In biochemistry, a cross-linked enzyme aggregate is an immobilized enzyme prepared via cross-linking of the physical enzyme aggregates with a difunctional cross-linker.
Crotalaria is a genus of flowering plants in the legume family Fabaceae (subfamily Faboideae) commonly known as rattlepods.
Croton is an extensive flowering plant genus in the spurge family, Euphorbiaceae.
Croton megalocarpus, is a plant species in the Euphorbiaceae family.
Cucurbita foetidissima is a tuberous xerophytic plant found in the central and southwestern United States and northern Mexico.
The Cullen College of Engineering, one of twelve academic colleges at the University of Houston, was established in 1941 and is accredited by the Engineering Accreditation Commission of ABET.
Microalgae or microscopic algae grow in either marine or freshwater systems.
The Center for Biotechnology, Law and Ethics is a bioethics, biotechnology, and biotechnology law research center of Cumberland School of Law located on the Samford University campus in Birmingham, Alabama.
The current solar income of the Earth, or an ecozone or ecoregion or any area, is the amount of solar energy that falls on it as sunlight.
A cyclone furnace is a type of coal combustor commonly used in large industrial boilers.
Cyperus is a large genus of about 700 species of sedges, distributed throughout all continents in both tropical and temperate regions.
Dagenham Dock is a place in the London Borough of Barking and Dagenham in London, England.
Daimler AG is a German multinational automotive corporation.
Dan Deacon (born August 28, 1981) is an American composer and electronic musician based in Baltimore, Maryland.
Danisco A/S is a Danish bio-based company with activities in food production, enzymes and other bioproducts as well as a wide variety of pharmaceutical grade excipients.
The Dassault Falcon 20 is a French business jet developed and manufactured by Dassault Aviation.
David John Matthews (born January 9, 1967) is a South African-born American singer-songwriter, musician and actor, best known as the lead vocalist, songwriter, and guitarist for the Dave Matthews Band.
David Fleischaker (born 1944) is an American businessman and lawyer who served as the Oklahoma Secretary of Energy under Governor of Oklahoma Brad Henry from 2003 to 2008.
Sir David Anthony King, FRS HonFREng (born 12 August 1939) is an Emeritus Professor in Physical Chemistry at the University of Cambridge, Director of the Collegio Carlo Alberto, Chancellor of the University of Liverpool and a senior scientific adviser to UBS.
David Wendell is an associate professor at the University of Cincinnati.
Declaration of 18th SAARC Summit was made during SAARC Summit 2014 in Nepal.The 18th SAARC summit was held in Kathmandu, Nepal from 26 to 27 November 2014.
Deploying Renewables 2011: Best and Future Policy Practice is a 2011 book by the International Energy Agency.
Destiny, Florida is a large-scale urban development project in Osceola County near Yeehaw Junction, Florida.
Dielectric heating, also known as electronic heating, RF (radio frequency) heating, and high-frequency heating, is the process in which a radio frequency alternating electric field, or radio wave or microwave electromagnetic radiation heats a dielectric material.
The diesel engine (also known as a compression-ignition or CI engine), named after Rudolf Diesel, is an internal combustion engine in which ignition of the fuel which is injected into the combustion chamber is caused by the elevated temperature of the air in the cylinder due to mechanical compression (adiabatic compression).
The Directive on the Promotion of the use of biofuels and other renewable fuels for transport, officially 2003/30/EC and popularly better known as the biofuels directive is a European Union directive for promoting the use of biofuels for EU transport.
Donald E. Bently (October 18, 1924 - October 1, 2012) was an American entrepreneur and engineer, best known as the founder and former owner of Bently Nevada Corporation where he performed pioneering work in the field of instrumentation for measuring the mechanical condition of rotating machinery.
Double acting ship is a type of icebreaking ship designed to run ahead in open water and thin ice, but turn around and proceed astern (backwards) in heavy ice conditions.
The DuPont Experimental Station is the largest research and development facility of E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company.
Durham Energy Institute (DEI) is a research institute at Durham University.
Dyno Nobel is a manufacturer of explosives.
The East Midlands is one of nine official regions of England at the first level of NUTS for statistical purposes.
Ebro Foods, S.A., formerly Ebro Puleva, is the leading company in the Spanish food processing sector.
Eccleshall is a town in Staffordshire, England.
Eco Marine Power, a company based in Fukuoka, Japan, develops and markets renewable energy based systems for ships and other vessels.
The ecoDemonstrator Program is a flight test research program of aircraft company Boeing, which has used a series of specially modified aircraft to develop and test aviation technologies designed to improve fuel economy and reduce the noise and ecological footprint of airliners.
Ecological modernization is a school of thought in the social sciences that argues that the economy benefits from moves towards environmentalism.
The economic policy of the Barack Obama administration was characterized by moderate tax increases on higher income Americans designed to fund healthcare reform, reduce the federal budget deficit, and decrease income inequality.
The Economic Research Institute for ASEAN and East Asia or is an international organization established in Jakarta, Indonesia in 2008 by a formal agreement among Leaders of 16 countries in the East Asian region to conduct research activities and make policy recommendations for further economic integration in the East Asia.
Endowed with forest, mineral, and fish resources, Fiji is one of the most developed of the Pacific island economies, though it remains a developing country with a large subsistence agriculture sector.
The economy of Ghana has a diverse and rich resource base, including the manufacturing and exportation of digital technology goods, automotive and ship construction and exportation, and the exportation of diverse and rich resources such as hydrocarbons and industrial minerals.
Guatemala is the most populous Central American country and has a GDP per capita roughly one-third of Brazil's.
The total gross state product in 2005 was US$214 billion in 2000 chained dollars.
The economy of Lethbridge is central to the commercial, distribution, financial and industrial sectors of the southern Alberta economy (although Medicine Hat plays a significant role in southeastern Alberta).
Mizoram is one of the fastest growing economies among the states of India with a per capital income of Rs 50,021.
According to the 2008 Global Hunger Index, Punjab has the lowest level of hunger in India.
The economy of South Sudan is one of the world's weakest and most underdeveloped, with South Sudan having little existing infrastructure and the highest maternal mortality and female illiteracy rates in the world as of 2011.
Ecopetrol, formerly known as Empresa Colombiana de Petróleos S.A. (Colombian Petroleum Co.), not to be confused with the US owned and operated Colombian Petroleum Co.
Ecosystem services are the many and varied benefits that humans freely gain from the natural environment and from properly-functioning ecosystems.
Edwards (formerly BOC Edwards) is a vacuum engineering company headquartered in Burgess Hill, in West Sussex in the United Kingdom.
The Egypt Economic Development Conference (EEDC) was a three-day event that took place in the Egyptian Red Sea resort of Sharm El Sheikh.
Elaeis is a genus of palms containing two species, called oil palms.
Elaeis guineensis is a species of palm commonly called African oil palm or macaw-fat.
Electric energy consumption is the form of energy consumption that uses electric energy.
Electrical energy efficiency on United States farms covers the use of electricity on farms and the methods and incentives for improving the efficiency of that use.
The electricity sector of Armenia includes several companies engaged in electricity generation and distribution.
Ghana generates electric power from hydropower, fossil-fuel (thermal energy), and renewable energy sources.
The utility electricity sector in India has one National Grid with an installed capacity of 344.00 GW as on 31 May 2018.
The electricity sector in New Zealand uses mainly renewable energy sources such as hydropower, geothermal power and increasingly wind energy.
Elements Software, formerly known as Helveta, is a supply chain management software company based in Abingdon, Oxfordshire, England.
Eliot Lance Engel (born February 18, 1947) is the U.S. Representative for.
Emīlija Gudriniece (Эмилия Юлиановна Гудриниеце; 3 August 1920 – 4 October 2004) was a Latvian chemist who specialized in organic synthesis.
Emily A. Carter (born November 28, 1960 in Los Gatos, California) is the Dean of the Princeton University School of Engineering and Applied Science and the Gerhard R. Andlinger Professor in Energy and the Environment, as well as a Professor in the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering and the Program in Applied and Computational Mathematics at Princeton University.
An endophyte is an endosymbiont, often a bacterium or fungus, that lives within a plant for at least part of its life cycle without causing apparent disease.
The Energy Biosciences Institute (EBI) is an organization dedicated to developing new sources of energy and reducing the impact of energy consumption.
Various energy conservation measures are taken in the United Kingdom.
The Energy content of biofuel is a description of the potential energy contained in a given biofuel, measured per unit mass of that fuel, as specific energy, or per unit of volume of the fuel, as energy density.
An energy crop is a plant grown as a low-cost and low-maintenance harvest used to make biofuels, such as bioethanol, or combusted for its energy content to generate electricity or heat.
Domestic housing in the United Kingdom presents a possible opportunity for achieving the 20% overall cut in UK carbon dioxide emissions targeted by the Government for 2010.
Energy forestry is a form of forestry in which a fast-growing species of tree or woody shrub is grown specifically to provide biomass or biofuel for heating or power generation.
Energy production in Greece is dominated by the state owned Public Power Corporation (known mostly by its acronym ΔΕΗ, or in English DEI).
Energy production in Hawaii is a difficult issue due to the islands' isolated location and lack of local resources.
Nepal had a total primary energy supply (TPES) of 10.29 Mtoe in 2012.
Senegal's major source of electricity is mostly diesel and gas, with an installed capacity of 633 MW.
Energy in Singapore describes energy related issues in Singapore.
South Korea is a major energy importer, importing nearly all of its oil needs and the second-largest importer of liquefied natural gas in the world.
The energy sector in Switzerland is, by its structure and its importance, typical of a developed country.
Taiwan lacks energy resources and highly depends on import, so it is a top priority to develop clean, sustainable, and independent energy and achieve the balance among energy security, environmental protection, and industrial competitiveness, and reduce emissions through various strategies.
Energy use in the United Kingdom stood at 2,249 TWh (193.4 million tonnes of oil equivalent) in 2014.
The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (originally named the Clean Energy Act of 2007) is an Act of Congress concerning the energy policy of the United States.
The energy industry is the totality of all of the industries involved in the production and sale of energy, including fuel extraction, manufacturing, refining and distribution.
The energy mix is a group of different primary energy sources from which secondary energy for direct use - usually electricity - is produced.
The Energy Multiplier Module (EM2 or EM squared) is a nuclear fission power reactor under development by General Atomics.
The Energy Policy Act of 2005 is a bill passed by the United States Congress on July 29, 2005, and signed into law by President George W. Bush on August 8, 2005, at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico.
The energy policy of Australia is subject to the regulatory and fiscal influence of all three levels of government in Australia, although only the State and Federal levels determine policy for primary industries such as coal.
Energy policy of Belgium describes the politics of Belgium related to energy.
Romania is the 38th largest energy consumer in the world and the largest in South Eastern Europe as well as an important producer of natural gas, oil and coal in Europe.
Energy policy in Scotland is a matter that has been specifically reserved to the UK parliament under the terms of the Scotland Act 1998 that created the devolved Scottish Parliament.
Although the European Union has legislated in the area of energy policy for many years, the concept of introducing a mandatory and comprehensive European Union energy policy was only approved at the meeting of the informal European Council on 27 October 2005 at Hampton Court.
The current energy policy of the United Kingdom is set out in the Energy White Paper of May 2007 and Low Carbon Transition Plan of July 2009, building on previous work including the 2003 Energy White Paper and the Energy Review Report in 2006.
The energy policy of the United States is determined by federal, state, and local entities in the United States, which address issues of energy production, distribution, and consumption, such as building codes and gas mileage standards.
Energy security is the association between national security and the availability of natural resources for energy consumption.
Energy storage is the capture of energy produced at one time for use at a later time.
Energy subsidies are measures that keep prices for consumers below market levels or for producers above market levels, or reduce costs for consumers and producers.
The United States Department of Defense is one of the largest single consumers of energy in the world, responsible for 93% of all US government fuel consumption in 2007 (Air Force: 52%; Navy: 33%; Army: 7%. Other DoD: 1%).
Enerkem is a Montreal-based cleantech company.
The Engines and Energy Conversion Laboratory (EECL) is a research/education program housed in the Department of Mechanical Engineering at Colorado State University (CSU).
Enron Corporation was an American energy, commodities, and services company based in Houston, Texas.
Entomophagy (from Greek ἔντομον éntomon, "insect", and φᾰγεῖν phagein, "to eat") is the human use of insects as food.
Haiti is working to implement a biofuel solution to its energy problems.
The environment of South Korea is the natural environment of the South Korean nation, which occupies the southern half of the Korean peninsula.
Located in the Southeast United States, Tennessee is a state as diverse as its landscapes.
The Environmental and Energy Study Institute (EESI) is an independent, bi-partisan 501(c)(3) non-profit organization that aims to promote environmentally sustainable societies.
Environmental governance is a concept in environmental policy that steers markets, technology and society towards achieving the goal of sustainability.
The environmental impact of aviation occurs because aircraft engines emit heat, noise, particulates, and gases which contribute to climate change and global dimming.
Electric power systems consist of generation plants of different energy sources, transmission networks, and distribution lines.
In recent years there has been a trend towards the increased commercialization of various renewable energy sources.
Environmental issues in Brazil include deforestation in the Amazon basin, illegal wildlife trade, illegal poaching, air and water pollution, land degradation and water pollution caused by mining activities, wetland degradation and severe oil spills, among others.
This page covers environmental issues in Uruguay.
An enzymatic biofuel cell is a specific type of fuel cell that uses enzymes as a catalyst to oxidize its fuel, rather than precious metals.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was established in July 1970 when the White House and the United States Congress came together due to the public's demand for cleaner natural resources.
Epichlorohydrin (abbreviated ECH) is an organochlorine compound and an epoxide.
Equinor ASA (formerly Statoil and StatoilHydro) is a Norwegian multinational energy company headquartered in Stavanger, Norway.
Erie is a city in and the county seat of Erie County, Pennsylvania, United States.
Escherichia coli (also known as E. coli) is a Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, coliform bacterium of the genus Escherichia that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms).
Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula.
Ethanol fuel is ethyl alcohol, the same type of alcohol found in alcoholic beverages, used as fuel.
Brazil is the world's second largest producer of ethanol fuel.
The Philippines Biofuels Act 2006 requires oil companies to use biofuels in all "liquid fuels for motors and engines sold in the Philippines." All gasoline sold in the country must contain at least 5 percent ethanol by February 2009, and by 2011, the mandated blend can go up to 10 percent.
The United States became the world's largest producer of ethanol fuel in 2005.
Ethyl levulinate is an organic compound with the formula CH3C(O)CH2CH2C(O)OC2H5.
Eucalyptus L'Héritier 1789 (plural eucalypti, eucalyptuses or eucalypts) is a diverse genus of flowering trees and shrubs (including a distinct group with a multiple-stem mallee growth habit) in the myrtle family, Myrtaceae.
Euphorbia tithymaloides is a perennial succulent spurge.
EurObserv'ER is a consortium dedicated to the monitoring of the development of the various sectors of renewable energies in the European Union. Created in 1999 by Observ'ER, the Observatory of renewable energies in France, it is composed of five other partners: ECN (The Energy research Centre of the Netherlands), IEO (EC BREC Institute of Renewable Energetic Ltd), RENAC (Renewables Academy AG), FS (Frankfurt School of finance and management) and IJS (Institut Jozef Stefan).
The European Algae Biomass Association, established on June 2, 2009, is the European association representing both research and industry in the field of algae technologies.
The European Biofuels Technology Platform (BiofuelsTP) is a European Seventh Framework Programme initiative to improve the competitive situation of the European Union in the field of biofuel.
The European Biomass Association (AEBIOM, from the official French name Association Européenne pour la Biomasse) is a European trade association opens to national biomass associations and bioenergy companies active in Europe.
The European Biotechnology Association (European Biotechnology Thematic Network Association- EBTNA) is an organization founded in 1996 and since presents both academic and industrial projects that help to establish connections between the biotech industry and science.
The European Federation for Transport and Environment, commonly referred to as Transport & Environment (T&E) is a European umbrella for non-governmental organisations working in the field of transport and the environment, promoting sustainable transport in Europe; which means an approach to transport that is environmentally responsible, economically sound and socially just.
The European Inventor Award or European Inventor awards (formerly European Inventor of the Year Award, renamed in 2010), are presented annually by the European Patent Office, sometimes supported by the respective Presidency of the Council of the European Union and by the European Commission, to inventors who have made a significant contribution to innovation, economy and society in Europe.
Evansville is a city and the county seat of Vanderburgh County, Indiana, United States.
Juan Evo Morales Ayma (born October 26, 1959), popularly known as Evo, is a Bolivian politician and cocalero activist who has served as President of Bolivia since 2006.
An exoenzyme, or extracellular enzyme, is an enzyme that is secreted by a cell and functions outside of that cell.
A famine is a widespread scarcity of food, caused by several factors including war, inflation, crop failure, population imbalance, or government policies.
A farm is an area of land that is devoted primarily to agricultural processes with the primary objective of producing food and other crops; it is the basic facility in food production.
Farm assurance is product certification for agricultural products that emphasises the principles of quality assurance.
Fatty acid photodecarboxylase is an enzyme that converts fatty acids to alkanes or alkenes, which can then, in principle, be used as biofuel.
Fibre modification is a research field in which researchers aim at developing and applying technologies to impart new properties to natural fibres such as those in paper, in order to increase their functionality.
Fiji–India relations refer to foreign relations between Fiji and India.
A filling station is a facility that sells fuel and engine lubricants for motor vehicles.
The Filobasidiales are an order in the fungal class Tremellomycetes.
The Finland National Renewable Energy Action Plan is the National Renewable Energy Action Plan (NREAP) for Finland.
The Fischer–Tropsch process is a collection of chemical reactions that converts a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen into liquid hydrocarbons.
Rising ocean temperatures and ocean acidification are radically altering aquatic ecosystems.
A flexible-fuel vehicle (FFV) or dual-fuel vehicle (colloquially called a flex-fuel vehicle) is an alternative fuel vehicle with an internal combustion engine designed to run on more than one fuel, usually gasoline blended with either ethanol or methanol fuel, and both fuels are stored in the same common tank.
Flometrics is a San Diego based engineering solutions company that was formed in the garage of Dr.
Fly ash, also known as "pulverised fuel ash" in the United Kingdom, is a coal combustion product that is composed of the particulates (fine particles of burned fuel) that are driven out of coal-fired boilers together with the flue gases.
The FMA IA 58 Pucará (Fortress) is an Argentine ground-attack and counter-insurgency (COIN) aircraft manufactured by the Fábrica Militar de Aviones.
Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for an organism.
The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'alimentation et l'agriculture, Organizzazione delle Nazioni Unite per l'Alimentazione e l'Agricoltura) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that leads international efforts to defeat hunger.
Tomato slices ready to be dried in a food dehydrator. In this model, multiple trays can be stacked on top of each other and warm air flows around the food. A food dehydrator is a device that removes moisture from food to aid in its preservation.
Food security is a condition related to the availability of food supply, group of people such as (ethnicities, racial, cultural and religious groups) as well as individuals' access to it.
Food versus fuel is the dilemma regarding the risk of diverting farmland or crops for biofuels production to the detriment of the food supply.
Food waste or food loss is food that is discarded or lost uneaten.
A food web (or food cycle) is a natural interconnection of food chains and a graphical representation (usually an image) of what-eats-what in an ecological community.
The Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008 (also known as the 2008 U.S. Farm Bill) was a $288 billion, five-year agricultural policy bill that was passed into law by the United States Congress on June 18, 2008.
Weymouth Fore River is a small bay or estuary in eastern Massachusetts and is part of the Massachusetts Bay watershed.
The Forest Products Laboratory (FPL) is the national research laboratory of the United States Forest Service, which is part of USDA.
Fort Dodge is a city in and the county seat of Webster County, Iowa, United States, along the Des Moines River.
Fort Drum is a U.S. Army military reservation and a census-designated place in Jefferson County, New York, United States.
Fossil fuel phase out refers to the discontinuation of the use of fossil fuels, through the decommissioning of operating fossil fuel-fired power plants, the prevention of the construction of new ones, and the use of alternative energy to replace the role of fossil fuels.
The Foundation for Ecological Security (FES) is a registered non-profit organisation based in Anand, Gujarat, India working towards the ecological restoration and conservation of land and water resources in ecologically fragile, degraded and marginalised regions of the country, through concentrated and collective efforts of village communities.
Friends of the Earth U.S. is a non-governmental environmental organization headquartered in Washington, D.C. with an office in the David Brower Center in Berkeley, California.
A fuel is any material that can be made to react with other substances so that it releases energy as heat energy or to be used for work.
A fuel dispenser is a machine at a filling station that is used to pump gasoline, petrol, diesel, CNG, CGH2, HCNG, LPG, LH2, ethanol fuel, biofuels like biodiesel, kerosene, or other types of fuel into vehicles.
Fuel efficiency is a form of thermal efficiency, meaning the ratio from effort to result of a process that converts chemical potential energy contained in a carrier (fuel) into kinetic energy or work.
The main fuel tax in Australia is an excise tax, to which is added a Goods and Services Tax ("GST").
Fulton is a small city in the western part of Oswego County, New York.
George David Tilman (born July 22, 1949) is an American ecologist.
γ-Valerolactone (GVL) is an organic compound with the formula C5H8O2.
Gasification is a process that converts organic- or fossil fuel-based carbonaceous materials into carbon monoxide, hydrogen and carbon dioxide.
A gasoline price website is a type of price comparison website that provides current fuel price information for different filling stations.
Gelidium amansii, also known as umutgasari, is an economically important species of red algae commonly found and harvested in the shallow coast (3 to 10 meters or 10 to 33 feet of depth below the water) of many east Asian countries including North and South Korea, China, Japan, Singapore, and northeast Taiwan.
Genetic engineering, also called genetic modification or genetic manipulation, is the direct manipulation of an organism's genes using biotechnology.
Genetically modified crops (GMCs, GM crops, or biotech crops) are plants used in agriculture, the DNA of which has been modified using genetic engineering methods.
A genetically modified organism (GMO) is any organism whose genetic material has been altered using genetic engineering techniques (i.e., a genetically engineered organism).
Genetically modified wheat is wheat that has been genetically engineered by the direct manipulation of its genome using biotechnology.
The geography of the European Union describes the geographic features of the European Union (EU), a multinational polity that occupies a large portion of Europe and covers 4,422,773 km2 (1,707,642 sq mi).
George Bush Intercontinental Airport is an international airport in Houston, Texas, United States, under class B airspace, serving the Greater Houston metropolitan area.
The German Climate Action Plan 2050 (Klimaschutzplan 2050) is a climate protection policy document approved by the German government on 14November 2016.
The Ghent Bio-Energy Valley is a joint initiative, started in 2005, of Ghent University, the city of Ghent, the Port of Ghent, the Development Agency East-Flanders and a number of industrial companies.
The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca, literally "black and white cat-foot";, literally "big bear cat"), also known as panda bear or simply panda, is a bear native to south central China.
Gideon John Davies (born 1964) FRS FRSC FMedSci is a in the York Structural Biology Laboratory (YSBL) at the University of York, in the UK.
Global Clean Energy Holdings (OTC:GCEH) is a Southern California-based renewable energy company focused on the production and commercialization of non-food based feedstocks used for the production of biofuels, biomass and renewable chemicals.
The Global Hunger Index (GHI) is a multidimensional statistical tool used to describe the state of countries’ hunger situation.
Hawaii Governor Linda Lingle has approved a number of energy-related bills to address climate change and promote local renewable energy production.
Global warming in Norway discusses global warming issues in Norway.
Globalization is a process that privatizing the causes, courses, and consequences of transnational and transcultural integration of human and non-human activities.
This is a glossary of environmental science.
The Glossary of fuel cell terms lists the definitions of many terms used within the fuel cell industry.
Glucose is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6.
Glycerol (also called glycerine or glycerin; see spelling differences) is a simple polyol compound.
Go Further is a 2003 documentary film by Ron Mann starring Woody Harrelson and a group of other environmental activists riding around in a large, bio-fueled bus.
The grain trade refers to the local and international trade in cereals and other food grains such as wheat, maize, and rice.
The Great Recession in South America, as it mainly consists of commodity exporters, was not directly affected by the financial turmoil, even if the bond markets of Brazil, Argentina, Colombia and Venezuela have been hit.
North America was one of the focal points of the global, Great Recession.
A Green Certificate - terminology predominantly used in Europe but now becoming more widespread globally - are a tradable commodity proving that certain electricity is generated using renewable energy sources.
Green Illusions: The Dirty Secrets of Clean Energy and the Future of Environmentalism, by Ozzie Zehner, was published in 2012 by the University of Nebraska Press.
A green vehicle, or clean vehicle, or eco-friendly vehicle or environmentally friendly vehicle is a road motor vehicle that produces less harmful impacts to the environment than comparable conventional internal combustion engine vehicles running on gasoline or diesel, or one that uses certain alternative fuels.
Green waste also called agricultural waste is supposed to be biodegradable waste that can be composed of garden or park waste, such as grass or flower cuttings and hedge trimmings, as well as domestic and commercial food waste.
Greenergy International Ltd is a British distributor of petrol and diesel for motor vehicles and has over a quarter of the UK market.
Greenfuel may refer to.
GreenFuel Technologies Corporation (GFT) was a startup that developed a process of growing algae using emissions from fossil fuels to produce biofuel from algae.
According to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the United States produced 6,587 million metric tonnes of carbon-dioxide equivalent greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in 2015.
Guarani-Kaiowás are an indigenous people of Paraguay, the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso do Sul and northeastern Argentina.
Guatemala, officially the Republic of Guatemala (República de Guatemala), is a country in Central America bordered by Mexico to the north and west, the Pacific Ocean to the southwest, Belize to the northeast, the Caribbean to the east, Honduras to the east and El Salvador to the southeast.
Gull Force 10 is a brand of E10, 98 octane fuel marketed by Gull Petroleum in New Zealand, consisting of 10% bioethanol and 90% gasoline.
Gutter oil is a term used in mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan to describe illicit cooking oil which has been recycled from waste oil collected from sources such as restaurant fryers, grease traps, slaughterhouse waste and sewage from sewer drains.
Guwahati Refinery was set up at Noonmati in Guwahati on 1 January 1962.
Guy Smith (born 12 September 1974) is a semi-retired British professional racing driver who has competed in various levels of motorsport, most notably the 24 Hours of Le Mans, which he won in 2003, and the American Le Mans Series, which he won in 2011.
Halanaerobium hydrogeninformans is alkaliphilic bacterium that capable of biohydrogen production at (pH 11 and 7% (w/v) sodium chloride salts) and 33˚c,, (2011).
Hamilton Othanel Smith (born August 23, 1931) is an American microbiologist and Nobel laureate.
HARBEC Plastics, Inc. manufactures prototypes, highly toleranced tooling, machined components, and injection molded parts.
Harvest Power, Inc. is a privately held organics management company headquartered in Waltham, Massachusetts that specializes in converting food waste and yard waste into biofuel, compost, mulch and fertilizer.
The Hawaii gubernatorial election of 2010 was held on November 2, 2010 to determine the next Governor and Lieutenant Governor of Hawaii.
The Hazelwood Power Station is a decommissioned brown coal-fuelled thermal power station located in the Latrobe Valley of Victoria, Australia.
Henry Ford (July 30, 1863 – April 7, 1947) was an American captain of industry and a business magnate, the founder of the Ford Motor Company, and the sponsor of the development of the assembly line technique of mass production.
The Himalayan Institute of Yoga Science and Philosophy is an international non-profit organization, which promotes yoga and holistic health through yoga retreats, residential programs, health products and services, media publications, and humanitarian projects.
The history of agriculture records the domestication of plants and animals and the development and dissemination of techniques for raising them productively.
The history of the University of California, Berkeley can be traced to the establishment of the private College of California and its merger with the Agricultural, Mining, and Mechanical Arts College to form the University of California in 1868.
The Holocene extinction, otherwise referred to as the Sixth extinction or Anthropocene extinction, is the ongoing extinction event of species during the present Holocene epoch, mainly as a result of human activity.
A home fuel cell is a residential-scaled energy system based on fuel cell technology.
The Human Genome Project (HGP) was an international scientific research project with the goal of determining the sequence of nucleotide base pairs that make up human DNA, and of identifying and mapping all of the genes of the human genome from both a physical and a functional standpoint.
Human overpopulation (or population overshoot) occurs when the ecological footprint of a human population in a specific geographical location exceeds the carrying capacity of the place occupied by that group.
A hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) is a type of hybrid vehicle that combines a conventional internal combustion engine (ICE) system with an electric propulsion system (hybrid vehicle drivetrain).
A hybrid vehicle uses two or more distinct types of power, such as internal combustion engine to drive an electric generator that powers an electric motor, e.g. in diesel-electric trains using diesel engines to drive an electric generator that powers an electric motor, and submarines that use diesels when surfaced and batteries when submerged.
Hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) is a hydrogenolysis process for removing oxygen from oxygen containing compounds.
A hydrogenase is an enzyme that catalyses the reversible oxidation of molecular hydrogen (H2), as shown below: Hydrogen uptake is coupled to the reduction of electron acceptors such as oxygen, nitrate, sulfate, carbon dioxide, and fumarate.
Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) (also referred to as "aqueous carbonization at elevated temperature and pressure") is a chemical process for the conversion of organic compounds to structured carbons.
Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) is a thermal depolymerization process used to convert wet biomass into crude-like oil -sometimes referred to as bio-oil or biocrude- under moderate temperature and high pressure.
Ibercivis is a distributed computing platform which allows internet users to participate in scientific research by donating unused computer cycles to run scientific simulations and other tasks.
The IBSA Dialogue Forum ('''I'''ndia, '''B'''razil, '''S'''outh '''A'''frica) is an international tripartite grouping for promoting international cooperation among these countries.
is a Japanese petroleum company.
Imperium Renewables, Inc. is a renewable energy company based in Seattle, Washington.
Biotechnology is a technology based on biology, especially when used in agriculture, food science, and medicine.
This is an alphabetical list of articles pertaining specifically to electrical and electronics engineering.
The natural environment, commonly referred to simply as the environment, includes all living and non-living things occurring naturally on Earth.
This page is an index of sustainability articles.
Indigenous and community conserved areas (ICCAs), or indigenous peoples’ and community conserved territories and areas, are spaces de facto governed by indigenous peoples or local communities with evidently positive outcomes for the conservation of biological and cultural diversity.
The indirect land use change impacts of biofuels, also known as ILUC, relates to the unintended consequence of releasing more carbon emissions due to land-use changes around the world induced by the expansion of croplands for ethanol or biodiesel production in response to the increased global demand for biofuels.
Indur M. Goklany is a science and technology policy analyst for the United States Department of the Interior, where he holds the position of Assistant Director of Programs, Science and Technology Policy.
An industrial crop, also called a non-food crop, is a crop grown to produce goods for manufacturing, for example of fibre for clothing, rather than food for consumption.
Industrial enzymes are enzymes that are commercially used in a variety of industries such as pharmaceuticals, chemical production, biofuels, food & beverage, and consumer products.
Industrial enzymes are enzymes that are commercially used in a variety of industries such as pharmaceuticals, chemical production, biofuels, food & beverage, and consumer products.
Industrikraft Midt-Norge is a Norwegian energy company that holds a permit to build a thermal power plant fueled primarily by natural gas from Haltenbanken, but also partially from biofuel, at the Fiborgtangen industrial site in Levanger, Norway.
Institute for Environmental Solutions (IES) is a non-profit research organization in Latvia that utilises airborne remote sensing technologies and creates multidisciplinary teams to design and develop innovative environmental solutions.
The Institute of Paper Science and Technology (IPST) is a research institute at the Georgia Institute of Technology.
Instituto Nacional de Industria (INI, National Institute of Industry) was a Spanish state-owned financing and industrial holding company established by the Franco dictatorship following the fascist model of state-owned industry for economic an social control of the population.
Intelligen, Inc. is a provider of process simulation and production scheduling tools and services for the process industries.
Interjet (official legal name ABC Aerolíneas, S.A. de C.V.), is a Mexican airline headquartered in Mexico City, Mexico’s third largest airline after Aeroméxico and Volaris.
An internal combustion engine (ICE) is a heat engine where the combustion of a fuel occurs with an oxidizer (usually air) in a combustion chamber that is an integral part of the working fluid flow circuit.
The International IUPAC Conferences on Green Chemistry (ICGCs) gather several hundreds scientists, technologists, and experts from all over the world with the aim to exchange and disseminate new ideas, discoveries, and projects on green chemistry and a sustainable development.
The International Energy Agency (IEA) (Agence internationale de l'énergie) is a Paris-based autonomous intergovernmental organization established in the framework of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in 1974 in the wake of the 1973 oil crisis.
The International Resource Panel is a scientific panel of experts that aims to help nations use natural resources sustainably without compromising economic growth and human needs.
The objective of the International Sustainable Energy Organization for Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency (ISEO) with headquarters in Geneva is to accelerate and enlarge the worldwide contribution of clean, sustainable energy to economic and equitable social development.
The International Symposium on Alcohol Fuels (ISAF) is a non-profit international organization which gathers together specialists, technologists, executives and technical experts from alcohol, alcohol fuels, methanol, ethers and bio-fuel industries.
International University, Bamenda (IUB) is the oldest private university in Cameroon; created in 1990, incorporated No.
The Invasive Species CouncilThis article is about the Australian Invasive Species Council.
Iogen Corporation is a Canadian company founded by Patrick Foody Sr.
An ionic liquid (IL) is a salt in the liquid state.
Climate Change 2007, the Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) of the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), is the fourth in a series of reports intended to assess scientific, technical and socio-economic information concerning climate change, its potential effects, and options for adaptation and mitigation.
The iPlant Collaborative is a virtual organization created by a cooperative agreement funded by the US National Science Foundation (NSF) to create cyberinfrastructure for the plant sciences (botany).
The Ironbridge power stations (also known as the Buildwas power stations) refers to a series of two power stations which have occupied a site on the banks of the River Severn at Buildwas in Shropshire, England.
Isaac Berzin (born December 12, 1967) is an Israeli scientist and entrepreneur.
ISFuel Inc. (Integrated Synthetic Fuel Incorporated) is a United States company involved in research & development of synfuels.
Isobutanol (IUPAC nomenclature: 2-methylpropan-1-ol) is an organic compound with the formula (CH3)2CHCH2OH (sometimes represented as i-BuOH).
Isomerases are a general class of enzymes that convert a molecule from one isomer to another.
There are various social, economic, environmental and technical issues with biofuel production and use, which have been discussed in the popular media and scientific journals.
John Heddens "Jack" Kingston (born April 24, 1955) is the former U.S. representative for in southeast Georgia, serving from 1993 to 2015.
Jaguar C-X75 is a hybrid-electric, 2-seat, concept car produced by Jaguar Cars in partnership with Formula One team Williams F1 which debuted at the 2010 Paris Motor Show.
James C. Liao is the Parsons Foundation Professor and Chair of the Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering at the University of California, Los Angeles and is the co-founder and lead scientific advisor of Easel Biotechnologies, LLC.
Jane Grimwood is a British microbiologist who later moved to the United States, settling in the state of Alabama.
Biofuel development in India centres mainly around the cultivation and processing of Jatropha plant seeds which are very rich in oil (40%).
Jatropha curcas is a species of flowering plant in the spurge family, Euphorbiaceae, that is native to the American tropics, most likely Mexico and Central America.
Jean Ziegler (born April 19, 1934 as Hans Ziegler) is a former professor of sociology at the University of Geneva and the Sorbonne, Paris.
Jet fuel, aviation turbine fuel (ATF), or avtur, is a type of aviation fuel designed for use in aircraft powered by gas-turbine engines.
Jiang Gaoming is a professor and Ph.D. tutor at the Chinese Academy of Sciences’ Institute of Botany.
The Jigawa ethanol program is a program to produce ethanol from agricultural products in Jigawa, Nigeria.
Joachim W. Messing (born 1946) is a university professor of Molecular Biology and the fourth director of the Waksman Institute of Microbiology at Rutgers University.
John D. Hamaker (1914–1994), was an American mechanical engineer, ecologist, agronomist and science writer in the fields of soil regeneration, rock dusting, mineral cycles, climate cycles and glaciology.
The Joint BioEnergy Institute (JBEI) is a research institute funded by the United States Department of Energy.
José Manuel Durão Barroso (born 23 March 1956) is a Portuguese politician who is the current non-executive chairman at Goldman Sachs International.
Joseph J. Romm (born June 27, 1960) is an American author, blogger, physicist and climate expert who advocates reducing greenhouse gas emissions and global warming and increasing energy security through energy efficiency, green energy technologies and green transportation technologies.
Kaidi Finland is a Finnish energy company that specializes in renewable energy.
Kamrun Nahar is a Bangladeshi soil scientist and environmentalist.
Kazi Zulkader Siddiqui (قاضی ذوالقدر صدیقی) (born 1952) is Pakistani businessman, academician and social worker.
Kenaf, Hibiscus cannabinus, is a plant in the Malvaceae family also called Deccan hemp and Java jute.
The King Review of low-carbon cars was launched in 2007 by the British Government to examine the vehicle and fuel technologies which could help to decarbonise road transport over the next 25 years.
Kingsnorth was a dual-fired coal and oil power station on the Hoo Peninsula at Medway in Kent, South East England.
Kluyveromyces marxianus in ascomycetous yeast and member of the genus, Kluyveromyces.
Koehler Instrument, or Koehler, is a US company which provides petroleum and petrochemical testing equipment and technical support services to testing laboratories worldwide.
Koenigsegg Automotive AB is a Swedish manufacturer of high-performance sports cars, based in Ängelholm, Skåne County, Sweden.
Kombu (from konbu) is edible kelp from mostly the family Laminariaceae and is widely eaten in East Asia.
Koreans in the Philippines, largely consisting of expatriates from South Korea, form the largest Korean diaspora community in Southeast Asia and the ninth-largest in the world, after Koreans in Kazakhstan and before Koreans in Vietnam.
Kudzu is an invasive plant species in the United States.
Laminaria is a genus of 31 species of brown algae commonly called "kelp".
Land footprint is the real amount of land, wherever it is in the world, that is needed to produce a product, or used by an organisation or by a nation.
Land grabbing is the contentious issue of large-scale land acquisitions: the buying or leasing of large pieces of land by domestic and transnational companies, governments, and individuals.
Land O'Lakes, Inc. is a member-owned agricultural cooperative based in the Minneapolis-St. Paul suburb of Arden Hills, Minnesota, focusing on the dairy industry.
Landfill gas utilization is a process of gathering, processing, and treating the methane gas emitted from decomposing garbage to produce electricity, heat, fuels, and various chemical compounds.
Lard is pig fat in both its rendered and unrendered forms.
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), commonly referred to as Berkeley Lab, is a United States national laboratory located in the Berkeley Hills near Berkeley, California that conducts scientific research on behalf of the United States Department of Energy (DOE).
A Le Mans Prototype (LMP) is the type of sports prototype race car used in the 24 Hours of Le Mans, FIA World Endurance Championship, WeatherTech SportsCar Championship, European Le Mans Series and Asian Le Mans Series.
Ledcor Group of Companies is an employee-owned, diversified, and vertically-integrated construction company operating primarily in Canada and United States.
Legal Marijuana Now is a political third party in the United States established in 1998 to oppose drug prohibition.
The Leidenfrost effect is a physical phenomenon in which a liquid, in near contact with a mass significantly hotter than the liquid's boiling point, produces an insulating vapor layer keeping that liquid from boiling rapidly.
Lemna minor, the common duckweed or lesser duckweed, is an aquatic freshwater plant of the genus Lemna.
Lethbridge is a city in the province of Alberta, Canada, and the largest city in southern Alberta.
Levulinic acid, or 4-oxopentanoic acid, is an organic compound with the formula CH3C(O)CH2CH2CO2H.
The Libra Group, aka Libra Holdings, is a privately held international conglomerate operating in a variety of industries.
Life cycle thinking is an approach to becoming mindful of how everyday life affects the environment.
Life-cycle assessment (LCA, also known as life-cycle analysis, ecobalance, and cradle-to-grave analysis) is a technique to assess environmental impacts associated with all the stages of a product's life from raw material extraction through materials processing, manufacture, distribution, use, repair and maintenance, and disposal or recycling.
Light crude oil is liquid petroleum that has a low density and flows freely at room temperature.
Lignocellulose refers to plant dry matter (biomass), so called lignocellulosic biomass.
Limnoria lignorum, commonly known as the gribble, is a species of isopod in the family Limnoriidae.
This article is a list of records in the A1 Grand Prix World Cup of Motorsport, since the inaugural 2005–06 A1 Grand Prix season, and is accurate up to and including the 2008–09 A1 Grand Prix season.
There are currently 8 active coal fired power stations operating in the United Kingdom which have a total generating capacity of 14GW.
This list of Antarctic expeditions is a chronological list of expeditions involving Antarctica.
Automobiles superlatives include attributes such as the smallest, largest, fastest, lightest, best-selling, and so on.
First-generation biofuels use the edible parts of food plants as their carbon source feedstock.
This is a list of characters from the Pixar franchise Cars, as well as the Disney franchise Planes, which is set in the same fictional universe.
A commodities exchange is an exchange where various commodities and derivatives products are traded.
This article is a list of countries by electricity generation from renewable sources every year.
This is a list of countries by oil production, as compiled from the U.S. Energy Information Administration database for calendar year 2016, tabulating all countries on a comparable best-estimate basis.
This is a list of documentary films about agriculture.
These are modes of energy production, energy storage, or energy conservation, listed alphabetically.
;Acids: Food acids are added to make flavors "sharper", and also act as preservatives and antioxidants.
The agents in this list have been classified in Group 2A (probable carcinogens) by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC).
Jessie is an American comedy television series created by Pamela Eells O'Connell that aired on Disney Channel, premiering on September 30, 2011, and ending on October 16, 2015.
This is a list of fictional characters from the Japanese anime series Mobile Suit Gundam: Iron-Blooded Orphans.
This article contains a partial list of Philippine laws.
This is a list of active power stations in New South Wales, Australia.
This is a list of active power stations in Queensland, Australia.
The following page lists all active and former power stations in Victoria, Australia.
This is a list of active power stations in Western Australia.
This is a list of renewable energy topics by country.
This list of renewable resources produced and traded by the United Kingdom presents various renewable resources such as crops for food or fuel, livestock and wood with accompanying information being given on its production and trade by the United Kingdom.
This list of sequenced plant genomes contains plant species known to have publicly available complete genome sequences that have been assembled, annotated and published.
This is a list of statutes enacted by the United States Congress pertaining to the energy industry.
Vegetable oils are triglycerides extracted from plants.
Livermore (formerly Livermores, Livermore Ranch, and Nottingham) is a city in Alameda County, California, in the United States.
Living things including animals, plants, fungi and microbes play many roles in culture.
The Lotus Exige is a British two-door, two-seat sports car made by Lotus Cars since 2000.
Louis Barnett (born 2 November 1991) from Kinver, Staffordshire is a licensed chocolatier who became the youngest supplier of both the Sainsbury's and Waitrose supermarket chains at the age of 14.
A low-carbon economy (LCE), low-fossil-fuel economy (LFFE), or decarbonised economy is an economy based on low carbon power sources that therefore has a minimal output of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions into the biosphere, but specifically refers to the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide.
A low-carbon fuel standard (LCFS) is a rule enacted to reduce carbon intensity in transportation fuels as compared to conventional petroleum fuels, such as gasoline and diesel.
Luis Alberto Falcó (26 September 1949, General Roca-28 July 2007, Viedma) was an Argentine physician and politician of the Radical Civic Union (UCR).
Mabilafu is located about 110 km east of Freetown and about 30 km south-west of Makeni.
Macrocystis pyrifera, commonly known as giant kelp or giant bladder kelp, is a species of kelp (large brown algae), and one of four species in the genus Macrocystis.
Maize (Zea mays subsp. mays, from maíz after Taíno mahiz), also known as corn, is a cereal grain first domesticated by indigenous peoples in southern Mexico about 10,000 years ago.
In 2005 the government of Sweden appointed a commission to draw up a comprehensive programme to reduce Sweden's dependence on petroleum, natural gas and other ‘fossil raw materials’ by 2020.
Malnutrition is a condition that results from eating a diet in which one or more nutrients are either not enough or are too much such that the diet causes health problems.
Marcia Kemper McNutt (born February 19, 1952) is an American geophysicist and the 22nd president of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) of the United States.
Marco Antonio Rubio (born May 28, 1971) is an American politician, attorney, and the junior United States Senator for Florida.
Maria Osmarina Marina Silva Vaz de Lima (born 8 February 1958) is a Brazilian politician.
Marquard & Bahls is a Hamburg-based, family-owned company that is active in the fields of energy supply, trading and logistics.
Martha Crawford (born September 30, 1967) is former head of research and innovation on the managing board of Areva, the French state-owned nuclear power conglomerate.
Mascoma Corporation was a U.S. biofuel company founded to produce cellulosic ethanol made from wood and switchgrass.
Matthew Roy Blunt (born November 20, 1970) is an American former naval officer and politician who served as the 54th Governor of Missouri from 2005 to 2009.
Maura O'Neill (born September 6, 1956) was named the First Chief of Innovation and was a Senior Counselor to the Administrator in January 2009 at the United States Agency for International Development.
Maverick Technologies is an industrial automation, enterprise integration, operational consulting and sustaining services provider.
The Medway School of Science is one of the schools of the University of Greenwich in South East England.
Melvin Reginald Knight (born July 30, 1944) was the Minister of Energy of Alberta and a Progressive Conservative member of the Legislative Assembly of Alberta.
Menlo Capital Group, LLC is a private real estate development company and investment firm with operations in Northern California since 1977.
Metabolomics is the scientific study of chemical processes involving metabolites, the small molecule intermediates and products of metabolism.
Metagenomics is the study of genetic material recovered directly from environmental samples.
A methane reformer is a device based on steam reforming, autothermal reforming or partial oxidation and is a type of chemical synthesis which can produce pure hydrogen gas from methane using a catalyst.
Methanol is an alternative fuel for internal combustion and other engines, either in combination with gasoline or directly ("neat").
Methoxymethylfurfural (MMF), also 5-methoxymethylfuran-2-carbaldehyde, is an organic compound derived from dehydration of sugars and subsequent etherification with methanol.
Michael Evenari (hebr.: מיכאל אבן-ארי, even-ari meaning lion's stone; born as Walter Schwarz 9/10/1904 in Metz - 15/4/1989 in Jerusalem) was an Israeli botanist originally from Germany.
Michael Gerard Grimm (born February 7, 1970) is an American businessman, convicted felon, retired Marine and politician who represented New York in the United States Congress from 2011 to 2015.
Michelle C. Y. Chang is a chemist at the department of chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, a recipient of several young scientist awards for her research in biosynthesis of biofuels and pharmaceuticals.
The Michigan Brewing Company was a brewery operating in Webberville, Michigan.
Microbiofuels are next generation biofuels produced by microorganisms like bacteria, cyanobacteria, microalgae, fungi, etc.
Michael Herman Michaud (born January 18, 1955) is an American politician from Maine.
Millettia is a genus of legume in the Fabaceae family.
Ministry of Energy, New and Renewable Energy Maharashtra or MAHAURJA is a ministry of Government of Maharashtra.
Ministry of New and Renewable Energy or MNRE is a ministry of the Government of India.
Miscanthus, silvergrass, is a genus of African, Eurasian, and Pacific Island plants in the grass family.
Miscanthus × giganteus, giant miscanthus, is a large, perennial grass hybrid of Miscanthus sinensis and Miscanthus sacchariflorus.
The mitigation of peak oil is the attempt to delay the date and minimize the social and economic effects of peak oil by reducing the consumption of and reliance on petroleum.
is Japan's largest trading company (sogo shosha) and a member of the Mitsubishi keiretsu.
is one of the largest sogo shosha (general trading companies) in Japan, and also part of the Mitsui Group.
Mixed acid fermentation is the biological process by which a six-carbon sugar e.g. glucose is converted into a complex and variable mixture of acids.
In industrial process engineering, mixing is a unit operation that involves manipulation of a heterogeneous physical system with the intent to make it more homogeneous.
The role of incineration of waste and equipment used for it has changed radically in the recent years.
Mobile source air pollution includes any air pollution emitted by motor vehicles, airplanes, locomotives, and other engines and equipment that can be moved from one location to another.
MOL Group (Magyar OLaj- és Gázipari Részvénytársaság, Hungarian Oil and Gas Public Limited Company), commonly known as MOL, is a Hungarian multinational oil and gas company headquartered in Budapest, Hungary.
Monoraphidium neglectum is a single-cell green alga of the family Selenastraceae.
Moringa oleifera is the most widely cultivated species in the genus Moringa, the only genus in the plant family Moringaceae.
Moscow State University of Fine Chemical Technologies named after M.V. Lomonosov (traditional abbreviation "MITHT") is one of the oldest universities in the country that offer training in a wide range of specialties in the field of chemical technology.
A motor fuel is a fuel that is used to provide power to motor vehicles.
Munich Airport, Flughafen München, is a major international airport near Munich, the capital of Bavaria.
Headquartered in Singapore, Musim Mas (Musim Mas Group) operates globally across the palm oil business spectrum with an operational presence in 13 countries across Asia-Pacific, Europe, North and South America.
Myceliophthora thermophila is an ascomycete fungus that grows optimally at.
Mycoplasma laboratorium is a designed, partially synthetic species of bacterium derived from the genome of Mycoplasma genitalium.
n-Butanol or n-butyl alcohol or normal butanol is a primary alcohol with a 4-carbon structure and the chemical formula C4H9OH.
Nannochloropsis is a genus of algae comprising 6 known species.
Nannochloropsis is a genus of alga within the heterokont line of eukaryotes, that is being investigated for biofuel production.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
Negros is the fourth largest island of the Philippines, with a land area of.
Neochloris oleoabundans is a microalga belonging in the class Chlorophyceae.
Neocolonialism, neo-colonialism or neo-imperialism is the practice of using capitalism, globalization and cultural imperialism to influence a developing country in lieu of direct military control (imperialism) or indirect political control (hegemony).
Net Energy Gain (NEG) is a concept used in energy economics that refers to the difference between the energy expended to harvest an energy source and the amount of energy gained from that harvest.
The New Brunswick Innovation Foundation (NBIF) is an agency that seeks to promote entrepreneurship in the Canadian province of New Brunswick by making venture capital investments in startup companies and funding applied research to developing new intellectual property.
The New England Fuel Institute (or NEFI) is a regional business and trade association headquartered in Lexington, Massachusetts that represents the home heating fuels industry in greater New England.
The new manufacturing economy (NME) describes the role of advanced manufacturing in the rise of the New Economy.
Nicholas Everett Hollis, born May 11, 1944 in Randolph, Vermont, became a leading trade expansionist over the last three decades of the twentieth century sponsoring dozens of high-level trade/investment missions and international conferences utilizing influential business and government positions in organizations, including the U.S. Chamber of Commerce, National Association of Manufacturers (NAM), Industry Center for Trade Negotiations (ICTN), U.S. Department of State/Agency for International Development (USAID), Agri-Energy Roundtable (AER), and most recently as president of The Agribusiness Council (ABC), a nonprofit organization founded by Henry Heinz II in 1967.
Nicotiana glauca is a species of wild tobacco known by the common name tree tobacco.
NNFCC is a consultancy company specialising in bioenergy, biofuels and bio-based products.
Nordic electricity market is a common market for electricity in the Nordic countries.
The North East of England Process Industry Cluster (NEPIC) is an economic cluster created following the industrial cluster ideas and strategy of Michael Porter.
Northern Nevada Correctional Center (NNCC) and Stewart Conservation Camp (SCC) are part of a prison complex located in Carson City.
The Northrop Grumman MQ-8 Fire Scout is an unmanned autonomous helicopter developed by Northrop Grumman for use by the United States Armed Forces.
Although nuclear power is considered a form of low-carbon power, its legal inclusion with renewable energy power sources has been a subject of debate and classification.
Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is an American multiprogram science and technology national laboratory sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and administered, managed, and operated by UT-Battelle as a federally funded research and development center (FFRDC) under a contract with the DOE.
The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) is an office within the United States Department of Energy.
Oil Depletion is the decline in oil production of a well, oil field, or geographic area.
An oil mill is a grinding mill designed to crush or bruise oil-bearing seeds, such as linseed or peanuts, or other oil-rich vegetable material, such as olives or the fruit of the oil palm, which can then be pressed to extract vegetable oils, which may used as foods or for cooking, as oleochemical feedstocks, as lubricants, or as biofuels.
Oiltanking is a logistics service provider of tank terminals for mineral oil products, chemicals, and gases.
Okra or okro, known in many English-speaking countries as ladies' fingers or ochro, is a flowering plant in the mallow family.
An old-growth forest — also termed primary forest, virgin forest, primeval forest, or late seral forest— is a forest that has attained great age without significant disturbance and thereby exhibits unique ecological features and might be classified as a climax community.
Omarama is a small township (population 267 at 2013 census) at the junction of State Highways 8 and 83, near the southern end of the Mackenzie Basin, in the South Island of New Zealand.
Open energy system models are energy system models that are open source.
Orthoptera is an order of insects that comprises the grasshoppers, locusts and crickets, including closely related insects such as the katydids and wetas.
OSL Consulting is an independent Gas and Oil design consultancy and engineering and project management company headquartered in Kingston upon Hull, United Kingdom.
Osorno is a city and commune in southern Chile and capital of Osorno Province in the Los Lagos Region.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to agriculture: Agriculture – cultivation of animals, plants, fungi and other life forms for food, fiber, and other products used to sustain life.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to energy: Energy – in physics, this is an indirectly observed quantity often understood as the ability of a physical system to do work on other physical systems.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to energy development: Energy development – the effort to provide sufficient primary energy sources and secondary energy forms for supply, cost, impact on air pollution and water pollution, mitigation of climate change with renewable energy.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to sustainability: Sustainability – capacity to endure.
Oxfam is a confederation of 20 independent charitable organizations focusing on the alleviation of global poverty, founded in 1942 and led by Oxfam International.
In 2003 the directors of PRE, who were the primary founders of The Australian Biodiesel Group Limited, began their search for a sustainable replacement for used cooking oil and Tallow which are currently used for biodiesel production in Australia.
Paenibacillus is a genus of facultative anaerobic, endospore-forming bacteria, originally included within the genus Bacillus and then reclassified as a separate genus in 1993.
Panda Energy International, Inc. is an American privately held company headquartered in Dallas, Texas which constructs, maintains and operates environmentally friendly power plants.
Panicum mosaic virus (PMV) is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA viral pathogen that infects plant species in the Panicoid tribe of the grass family Poaceae.
A paper battery is an electric battery engineered to use a spacer formed largely of cellulose (the major constituent of paper).
Parthenium argentatum, commonly known as the guayule (or, as in Spanish), is a flowering shrub in the aster family, Asteraceae, that is native to the southwestern United States and northern Mexico.
Pathways Out of Poverty (POP) is a national workforce development program that was established on August 14, 2009, by the Obama administration and funded by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009.
Patricia Ann Woertz, (born March 17, 1953), is a retired American businesswoman.
Paul Jozef Crutzen (born 3 December 1933) is a Dutch, Nobel Prize-winning, atmospheric chemist.
Paul Ratnasamy is an Indian catalyst scientist, INSA Srinivasa Ramanujan Research Professor and a former director of National Chemical Laboratory of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR).
Paulownia elongata is a species of tree in the family Paulowniaceae, native to Asia.
Peak wheat is the concept that agricultural production, due to its high use of water and energy inputs, is subject to the same profile as oil and other fossil fuel production.
Peaking power plants, also known as peaker plants, and occasionally just "peakers", are power plants that generally run only when there is a high demand, known as peak demand, for electricity.
Pearson Fuels is a privately held alternative fuel retailer founded in the San Diego in 2003.
Peat, also called turf, is an accumulation of partially decayed vegetation or organic matter that is unique to natural areas called peatlands, bogs, mires, moors, or muskegs.
Pedro L. Marín Uribe is a Spanish economist and professor at the Universidad Carlos III of Madrid.
Pellet fuels (or pellets) are biofuels made from compressed organic matter or biomass.
A pellet stove is a stove that burns compressed wood or biomass pellets to create a source of heat for residential and sometimes industrial spaces.
Captain Peter James Bethune (born 4 April 1965) is a New Zealand ship's captain with 500 ton master licence, published author, producer of The Operatives TV Show, and public speaker.
Petróleo Brasileiro S.A. — Petrobras, more commonly known as simply Petrobras, is a semi-public Brazilian multinational corporation in the petroleum industry headquartered in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface.
The petroleum industry, also known as the oil industry or the oil patch, includes the global processes of exploration, extraction, refining, transporting (often by oil tankers and pipelines), and marketing of petroleum products.
Photohydrogen is hydrogen produced with the help of artificial or natural light This is how the leaf of a tree splits water molecules into protons (hydrogen ions), electrons (to make carbohydrates) and oxygen (released into the air as a waste product).
The photosynthetic efficiency is the fraction of light energy converted into chemical energy during photosynthesis in plants and algae.
Pierre Poujade (1 December 1920 – 27 August 2003) was a French populist politician after whom the Poujadist movement was named.
Pittosporum is a genus of about 200 species of flowering plants in the family Pittosporaceae.
Pittosporum resiniferum, the resin cheesewood or petroleum nut, is a tree that grows in the Philippines and Malaysia, particularly in the wilderness surrounding the Mayon Volcano and in the Cordillera of the Philippines and Mount Kinabalu of Sabah, Malaysia.
Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae.
Plant physiology is a subdiscipline of botany concerned with the functioning, or physiology, of plants.
Plants serve many functions in culture.
Plymouth is a city situated on the south coast of Devon, England, approximately south-west of Exeter and west-south-west of London.
Plymouth Marine Laboratory (abbreviated as PML) in the city of Plymouth, England, is an independent collaborative centre of the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC).
Poaceae or Gramineae is a large and nearly ubiquitous family of monocotyledonous flowering plants known as grasses, commonly referred to collectively as grass.
POET LLC is a U.S. biofuel company that specializes in the creation of bioethanol.
Rick Perry is an American politician who served as the 47th Governor of Texas from 2000 to 2015.
Politics of Sweden takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic constitutional monarchy.
Pongamia is a genus of legume in the Fabaceae family.
Pongamia oil is derived from the seeds of the Millettia pinnata tree, which is native to tropical and temperate Asia.
Populus is a genus of 25–35 species of deciduous flowering plants in the family Salicaceae, native to most of the Northern Hemisphere.
The balsam poplars — also known as Populus sect.
The Port of Copenhagen (Københavns Havn) is the largest Danish seaport and one of the largest ports in the Baltic Sea basin.
Potential graphene applications include lightweight, thin, flexible, yet incredibly lightweight to, electric/photonics circuits, solar cells, and various medical, chemical and industrial processes enhanced or enabled by the use of new graphene materials.
Practical Action (previously known as the Intermediate Technology Development Group, ITDG) is a development charity registered in the United Kingdom which works directly in four regions of the developing world – Latin America, East Africa, Southern Africa and South Asia, with particular concentration on Peru, Bolivia, Kenya, Sudan, Zimbabwe, Bangladesh and Nepal.
Prairies are ecosystems considered part of the temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands biome by ecologists, based on similar temperate climates, moderate rainfall, and a composition of grasses, herbs, and shrubs, rather than trees, as the dominant vegetation type.
Project Gaia is a U.S. non-governmental, non-profit organization involved in the creation of a commercially viable household market for alcohol-based fuels in Ethiopia and other countries in the developing world.
Propane is a three-carbon alkane with the molecular formula C3H8.
Proton-exchange membrane fuel cells, also known as polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells (PEMFC), are a type of fuel cell being developed mainly for transport applications, as well as for stationary fuel-cell applications and portable fuel-cell applications.
Psyttaleia (Ψυττάλεια) is an uninhabited island in the Saronic Gulf between the harbor of Piraeus and the Kynosoura peninsula on Salamis Island, Greece.
A pulsejet engine (or pulse jet) is a type of jet engine in which combustion occurs in pulses.
Pycnanthus angolensis is a species of tree in the nutmeg family, Myristicaceae.
Pyrolysis oil, sometimes also known as biocrude or bio-oil, is a synthetic fuel under investigation as substitute for petroleum.
Qteros, Inc. is an American energy company researching the production of cellulosic ethanol from a variety of non-food feedstock sources including corn stover, corn cobs, switchgrass, and sugar cane bagasse.
Quality Wines Produced in Specified Regions (often abbreviated to QWpsr or simply "quality wines") is a quality indicator used within European Union wine regulations.
Questions for the Future is a debate television series aired periodically on financial news channels CNBC Europe, CNBC Asia and CNBC World in the US, currently focusing on the subject of energy.
Robert James "Jim" Woolsey Jr. (born September 21, 1941) is an American lawyer and diplomat who headed the Central Intelligence Agency from February 5, 1993, until January 10, 1995.
RADION International is a Christian humanitarian relief and development organisation that provides both short term as well as long-term assistance to underprivileged and marginalized communities in Asia.
The radish (Raphanus raphanistrum subsp. sativus) is an edible root vegetable of the Brassicaceae family that was domesticated in Europe in pre-Roman times.
Rainforests are forests characterized by high rainfall, with annual rainfall in the case of tropical rainforests between, and definitions varying by region for temperate rainforests.
Rajalakshmi Engineering College (R.E.C) (ராஜலட்சுமி பொறியியல் கல்லூரி), is a private engineering college located at Thandalam, Sriperumbudur near Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
Ram Rajasekharan (born December 25, 1960) is an Indian plant biologist, food technologist and a former director of the Central Food Technological Research Institute (CFTRI), a constituent laboratory of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research.
The Reacting Gas Dynamics Laboratory (RGD) is a research facility at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Reading Buses is a bus operator serving the towns of Reading, Bracknell, Newbury, Slough, Windsor, Wokingham and the surrounding area in the county of Berkshire, England, as well as parts of Greater London.
This is a list of episodes from the fifth season of Real Time with Bill Maher.
This is a list of episodes from the sixth season of Real Time with Bill Maher.
Reforestation is the natural or intentional restocking of existing forests and woodlands (forestation) that have been depleted, usually through deforestation.
Reliance Industries Limited (RIL) is an Indian conglomerate holding company headquartered in Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.
Groupe Renault is a French multinational automobile manufacturer established in 1899.
Renew is a European four-year project (2004–07) to prove different concepts of fuel production from biomass.
Renewable energy is energy that is collected from renewable resources, which are naturally replenished on a human timescale, such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves, and geothermal heat.
Renewable Energy Certificates (RECs), also known as Green tags, Renewable Energy Credits, Renewable Electricity Certificates, or Tradable Renewable Certificates (TRCs), are tradable, non-tangible energy commodities in the United States that represent proof that 1 megawatt-hour (MWh) of electricity was generated from an eligible renewable energy resource (renewable electricity) and was fed into the shared system of power lines which transport energy.
There is a renewable energy debate about the constraints and opportunities associated with the use of renewable energy.
Renewable energy in Argentina ranges from biofuel, biogas, biomass, geothermal, hydroelectric, solar and wind energy in Argentina.
Renewable energy in Chile is classified as Conventional and Non Conventional Renewable Energy (NCRE), and includes biomass, hydro-power, geothermal, wind and solar among other energy sources.
China is the world's leading country in electricity production from renewable energy sources, with over double the generation of the second-ranking country, the United States.
Renewable energy in Costa Rica supplied about 98.1 percent of its electrical energy in 2016.
Renewable energy technology has sometimes been seen as a costly luxury item by critics, and affordable only in the affluent developed world.
Ethiopia generates most of its electricity from renewable energy, mainly hydropower.
Renewable energy in Finland grew to 38.7% of total final energy consumption by year end 2014 (it was just 29.2% in 2005), achieving joint second position with Latvia in terms of renewable energy consumption by share amongst the EU-28 countries, behind its neighbour Sweden in first position on a 52.6% share.
Under its commitment to the EU renewable energy directive of 2009, France has a target of producing 23% of its total energy needs from renewable energy by 2020.
Germany has been called "the world's first major renewable energy economy".
Renewable energy has developed rapidly in Italy over the past decade and provided the country a means of diversifying from its historical dependency on imported fuels.
In 2016 Renewable energy in Lithuania constituted 27.9% of the country's overall electricity generation.
Renewable energy in Russia mainly consists of hydroelectric energy.
The production of renewable energy in Scotland is an issue that has come to the fore in technical, economic, and political terms during the opening years of the 21st century.
Renewable energy in South Dakota involves production of biofuels and generation of electricity from renewable sources of energy such as wind and hydropower.
The share of energy from renewable sources in gross final consumption of energy continued rising to reach 17% in the European Union in 2016, a doubling of the share attained in 2004 at just 8.5%.
In 2013, renewable energy provided 26.44 percent of the total energy needs of the Philippines and 19,903 gigawatt-hours (GWh) of electrical energy out of a total demand of 75,266 gigawatt-hours.
Renewable energy in the United Kingdom can be divided into the generation of renewable electricity, the generation of renewable heat and renewable energy use in the transport sector.
Renewable energy accounted for 12.2 % of total primary energy consumption and 14.94 % of the domestically produced electricity in the United States in 2016.
Renewable energy in Vietnam is dominated by hydroelectricity, which supplied over 38% of the country's electricity in 2016.
Pennsylvania approved a bill that establishes a $500 million fund to support renewable energy projects.
The Renewable Energy Programme (REP) is Nigeria's contribution to the African strategy on voluntary emission reduction in response to United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC) The Federal Ministry of Environment’s Renewable Energy Programme is targeted at stimulating the energy sector by attracting capital as well as promoting the development of initiatives and technologies in Nigeria.
Renewable fuels are fuels produced from renewable resources.
The Renewable Fuels Agency (or RFA) was a UK Government non-departmental public body, created by the Department for Transport to implement the Renewable Transport Fuel Obligation or RTFO.
The Renewable Fuels Regulators Club (or REFUREC) is a network of governmental institutions that offers a pan-European platform for discussion, information exchange and tackling cross-border issues relating to the biofuels market in the European Union and beyond.
Renewable hydrocarbon fuels via decarboxylation/decarbonylation.
A Renewable Identification Number (or RIN) is a serial number assigned to a batch of biofuel for the purpose of tracking its production, use, and trading as required by the United States Environmental Protection Agency's Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) implemented according to the Energy Policy Act of 2005 and the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007.
Renewable Natural Gas (RNG), also known as Sustainable Natural Gas (SNG) or biomethane, is a biogas which has been upgraded to a quality similar to fossil natural gas and having a methane concentration of 90% or greater.
The Research and Development Institute of Ecology and the Sustainable Use of Natural Resources, LLC, or Research institute of Ecology, the abbreviation is the RSI — a company from Tyumen (Tyumen Oblast, Russia) specializes in development of innovation technologies in the field of environmental protection and nature conservation.
Reuse of excreta (or re-use or use of excreta) refers to the safe, beneficial use of animal or human excreta, i.e. feces (or faeces in British English) and urine.
Richard "Ric" Friar is an English-Australian big wave surfer, artist, peace activist, film-maker and horticulturist.
Richard Green Lugar (born April 4, 1932) is an American politician who served as a United States Senator from Indiana from 1977 to 2013 as a member of the Republican Party.
Roary the Racing Car is a British stop-motion children's television series created by David Jenkins and produced by Chapman Entertainment.
Rob Thomas is a prominent senior South Australian environmental scientist.
RobecoSAM is an international investment company with a specific focus on sustainability investments.
Robert Anthony Martienssen is a plant biologist, Howard Hughes Medical Institute–Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation investigator and Professor at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory in the United States.
Robert Howard Grubbs (born February 27, 1942) is an American chemist and the Victor and Elizabeth Atkins Professor of Chemistry at the California Institute of Technology in Southern California.
Rocky Mountain Institute (RMI) is an organization in the United States dedicated to research, publication, consulting, and lecturing in the general field of sustainability, with a special focus on profitable innovations for energy and resource efficiency.
Rolling bed dryers are used for efficiently processing large amounts of material that need their respective moisture levels reduced.
Ronald T. Raines is an American chemical biologist.
Roxtec is a company specialising in the development and manufacture of cable and pipe seals (sometimes known as multi cable transits).
Royal Dutch Shell plc, commonly known as Shell, is a British–Dutch multinational oil and gas company headquartered in the Netherlands and incorporated in the United Kingdom.
Rubber seed oil is oil extracted from the seeds of rubber trees.
Russell is a town in Hampden County, Massachusetts, United States.
Saccharomycotina is a subdivision (subphylum) of the division (phylum) Ascomycota in the Kingdom Fungi.
Salicornia bigelovii is a species of flowering plant in the amaranth family known by the common names dwarf saltwort and dwarf glasswort.
Salicornia virginica (American glasswort, pickleweed) is a halophytic perennial dicot which grows in various zones of intertidal salt marshes and can be found in alkaline flats.
Salix triandra, with the common names almond willow or almond-leaved willow, is a species of willow native to Europe and Western and Central Asia.
Samsø (Anglicized: "Samso" or "Samsoe") is a Danish island in the Kattegat off the Jutland Peninsula.
The San Francisco Municipal Railway (SF Muni or Muni) is the public transit system for the city and county of San Francisco, California.
San José de los Arroyos is a town in the Caaguazú Department of Paraguay.
San Ramón de la Nueva Orán (usually referred to simply as Orán) is a city in northwest, about from the provincial capital, Salta.
Sanitation refers to public health conditions related to clean drinking water and adequate treatment and disposal of human excreta and sewage.
Sapphire Energy is a San Diego-based American energy company that produces crude oil made from algae.
Amanita thiersii or Saproamanita thiersii, commonly called Thiers' lepidella, is a North-American saprotrophic basidiomycete fungus in the genus Amanita.
Södra Skogsägarna, trading as Södra, is a forestry cooperative based in Växjö, Sweden.
Südzucker AG is a German company, the largest sugar producer in Europe with an annual production of around 4.8 million tonnes.
Svenska Cellulosa AB (SCA, English: Swedish Cellulose Company) is a Swedish timber, pulp and paper manufacturer with headquarters in Sundsvall.
Founded in 1954 by Ben G. Stone, SCAFCO Corporation (now the Stone Group of Companies) is a privately held company headquartered in Spokane, Washington.
Scenedesmus is a genus of green algae, in the class Chlorophyceae.
Schizochytrium is a genus of unicellular eukaryotes in the family Thraustochytriaceae, which are found in coastal marine habitats.
The Schmidt Ocean Institute is a non-profit private foundation focused on oceanography, founded in March 2009 by Eric Schmidt and Wendy Schmidt.
The Science Barge is a floating urban farm and environmental education center that has been docked in Yonkers, New York, USA since late 2008.
Sea6 Energy is a biofuel company based in Bangalore, India that focuses on the "macroalgal" fuel source of seaweed.
Second-generation biofuels, also known as advanced biofuels, are fuels that can be manufactured from various types of non-food biomass.
The Seneca white deer are a rare herd of deer living within the confines of the former Seneca Army Depot in Seneca County, New York.
SEPCO3 (Shandong Electric Power Construction Corporation III or SEPCO III) (simplified Chinese: 山东电力建设第三工程公司) is a Chinese construction and engineering company that designs, builds, operates and owns power plants.
Shiraz Biogas Power Plant is a biogas powerplant situated in Shiraz, Iran.
Silage is fermented, high-moisture stored fodder which can be fed to cattle, sheep and other such ruminants (cud-chewing animals) or used as a biofuel feedstock for anaerobic digesters.
Simarouba glauca is a species of flowering tree that is native to Florida, South America, and the Lesser Antilles.
Palm oil, produced from the oil palm, is a basic source of income for many farmers in South East Asia, Central and West Africa, and Central America.
The Society of Global Health Researchers in Action (SOGHR) is a student-run not-for-profit organization dedicated to the support of student and early career researchers in the global health sciences.
In 1976 energy policy analyst Amory Lovins coined the term soft energy path to describe an alternative future where energy efficiency and appropriate renewable energy sources steadily replace a centralized energy system based on fossil and nuclear fuels.
AORA's Solar Flower Tower is a hybrid power generator that utilizes solar and alternative fuels, including diesel fuel, natural gas, liquefied natural gas, biogas, and other biofuels, to provide a constant green power source targeted for community-sized production.
A solar fuel is a synthetic chemical fuel produced directly/indirectly from solar energy sunlight/solar heat through photochemical/photobiological (i.e., artificial photosynthesis, experimental as of 2013), thermochemical(i.e. through the use of solar heat supplied by), and electrochemical reaction.
Solid fuel refers to various forms of solid material that can be burnt to release energy, providing heat and light through the process of combustion.
Sonic soot blower Sonic soot blowers offer a cost-effective and non-destructive means of preventing ash and particulate build-up within the power generation industry.
A sonicator at the Weizmann Institute of Science during sonicationSonication is the act of applying sound energy to agitate particles in a sample, for various purposes such as the extraction of multiple compounds from plants, microalgae and seaweeds.
Sorbitol, less commonly known as glucitol, is a sugar alcohol with a sweet taste which the human body metabolizes slowly.
Sorghum is a genus of flowering plants in the grass family Poaceae.
The South African Solar Challenge is an alternative fuel vehicle auto racing challenge in South Africa, with classes for hybrid vehicles, electric vehicles, solar vehicles, and biofuel-powered vehicles.
The Southeast Steam Plant, formerly known as the Twin City Rapid Transit Company Steam Power Plant, is a combined heat and power plant on the Mississippi River in the city of Minneapolis, Minnesota in the United States owned by the University of Minnesota.
The Southern Hemisphere is the half of Earth that is south of the Equator.
The United States Department of Agriculture Southern Regional Research Center (SRRC) is one of four regional laboratories within the United States Department of Agriculture's Agricultural Research Service.
Spartina pectinata is a species of cordgrass known by the common names prairie cordgrass, freshwater cordgrass, tall marshgrass, and sloughgrass.
SS Sir Walter Scott is a small steamship that has provided pleasure cruises and a ferry service on Loch Katrine in the scenic Trossachs of Scotland for more than a century, and is the only surviving screw steamer in regular passenger service in Scotland.
Stade is a city in Lower Saxony in northern Germany.
A stand-alone power system (SAPS or SPS), also known as remote area power supply (RAPS), is an off-the-grid electricity system for locations that are not fitted with an electricity distribution system.
In taxonomy, Staphylothermus is a genus of the Desulfurococcaceae.
Starch or amylum is a polymeric carbohydrate consisting of a large number of glucose units joined by glycosidic bonds.
Steen Riisgaard (born 22 March 1951) is the former president and CEO of the Denmark-based biotech company Novozymes, the world’s largest producer of industrial enzymes.
Stephanie Marie Herseth Sandlin (born December 3, 1970) is an American attorney and university administrator who served as the U.S. Representative for from 2004 until 2011.
Sterculia foetida is a soft wooded tree that can grow up to 35 metres (115 ft.) tall.
Steven Chu in atomic physics and laser spectroscopy, including the first observation of parity non-conservation in atoms, excitation and precision spectroscopy of positronium, and the optical confinement and cooling of atoms.
Stockholm Arlanda Airport, is an international airport located in the Sigtuna Municipality of Sweden, near the town of Märsta, north of Stockholm and nearly south-east of Uppsala.
A storage heater or heat bank (Australia) is an electrical heater which stores thermal energy during the evening, or at night when base load electricity is available at lower cost, and releases the heat during the day as required.
A stove is an enclosed space in which fuel is burned to heat either the space in which the stove is situated, or items placed on the heated stove itself.
Straw is an agricultural by-product, the dry stalks of cereal plants, after the grain and chaff have been removed.
Subramaniam Vishwanathan Iyer, (S. "Vijay" Iyer, born 25 December 1957), is currently the Vice President and Chief Operating Officer of the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency, the former Managing Director of Rio Tinto India, and had previously served as Director of Energy and Sustainable Development at the World Bank Group.
Substitute natural gas (SNG), or synthetic natural gas, is a fuel gas that can be produced from fossil fuels such as lignite coal, oil shale, or from biofuels (when it is named bio-SNG) or from renewable electrical energy.
Sugarcane, or sugar cane, are several species of tall perennial true grasses of the genus Saccharum, tribe Andropogoneae, native to the warm temperate to tropical regions of South and Southeast Asia, Polynesia and Melanesia, and used for sugar production.
Sunil Suri is the Principal and Managing Member of San Francisco based Menlo Capital Group, a Bay Area development firm specializing in commercial and residential real estate.
SunOpta, Inc. is a multi-national food and mineral company headquartered in Canada and founded in 1973.
Susan Golden (née Stephens) was born in Pine Bluff, Arkansas in 1957.
Sustainable aviation fuel (SAF) is the name given to advanced aviation biofuel types used in jet aircraft and certified as being sustainable by a reputable independent third-party, such as the Roundtable on Sustainable Biomaterials (RSB).
Sustainable biofuel is biofuel produced in a sustainable manner.
Sustainable development in Scotland has a number of distinct strands.
Sustainable energy is energy that is consumed at insignificant rates compared to its supply and with manageable collateral effects, especially environmental effects.
A conventional idea of a sustainable fishery is that it is one that is harvested at a sustainable rate, where the fish population does not decline over time because of fishing practices.
Sustainable living is a lifestyle that attempts to reduce an individual's or society's use of the Earth's natural resources and personal resources.
Sustainable Oils is a Seattle-based renewable fuels company specializing in the research and production of Camelina, the only advanced biofuels feedstock with United States Department of Agriculture, Environmental Protection Agency, and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulatory approvals.
Sustainable transport refers to the broad subject of transport that is sustainable in the senses of social, environmental and climate impacts and the ability to, in the global scope, supply the source energy indefinitely.
Sweat diagnostics is an emerging non-invasive technique used to provide insights to the health of the human body.
Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
The sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) is a dicotyledonous plant that belongs to the bindweed or morning glory family, Convolvulaceae.
Synechocystis is a genus of unicellular, freshwater cyanobacteria primarily represented by the strain Synechocystis sp.
Syngas, or synthesis gas, is a fuel gas mixture consisting primarily of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and very often some carbon dioxide.
Syngenta AG is a global company agribusiness that produces agrochemicals and seeds.
Synthetic fuel or synfuel is a liquid fuel, or sometimes gaseous fuel, obtained from syngas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, in which the syngas was derived from gasification of solid feedstocks such as coal or biomass or by reforming of natural gas.
Synthetic Genomics Inc. (SGI), is a private company located in La Jolla, California that is focused on the field of synthetic biology.
Syringol is a naturally occurring aromatic organic compound.
T.B. Simon Power Plant is a multi-fuel cogeneration facility located on the East Lansing campus of Michigan State University.
Tallow is a rendered form of beef or mutton fat, and is primarily made up of triglycerides.
Tapioca chips is a snack food made from thin wafers of deep fried cassava root.
Taraxacum kok-saghyz, often abbreviated as TKS and commonly referred to as the Kazakh dandelion, rubber root, or Russian dandelion, is a species of dandelion native to Kazakhstan that is notable for its production of high quality rubber.
Targray Technology International Inc., commonly referred to as Targray, is a Canadian multinational chemical and electronic materials corporation headquartered in Kirkland, Quebec that supplies advanced materials and supply chain solutions to the international biofuel, lithium-ion battery, energy storage, and photovoltaics industries.
Taxation in France is determined by the yearly budget vote by the French Parliament, which determines which kinds of taxes can be levied and which rates can be applied.
Tesco plc, trading as Tesco, is a British multinational groceries and general merchandise retailer with headquarters in Welwyn Garden City, Hertfordshire, England, United Kingdom.
Tetrahydrofuran (THF) is an organic compound with the formula (CH2)4O.
The Clean Tech Revolution: The Next Big Growth and Investment Opportunity is a 2007 book by Ron Pernick and Clint Wilder, who say that commercializing clean technologies is a profitable enterprise that is moving steadily into mainstream business.
The Environment Trust was a registered charity and development trust which, from 1979 until its closure in 2008, was based in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets.
The Environmental Institute (O Instituto Ambiental (OIA)) is a non-profit organization devoted exclusively to building and managing Integrated Biosystems that purify sewagewater in urban areas and for small farms and agro-industries in South America.
The Farm is an intentional community in Lewis County, Tennessee, near the town of Summertown, Tennessee, based on principles of nonviolence and respect for the Earth.
The Glover Park Group is an American communications consulting firm headquartered in Washington, D.C. The company was founded in 2001 by former White House and Democratic campaign officials Carter Eskew, Michael Feldman, Joe Lockhart and Chip Smith.
The Low Carbon Vehicle Partnership (LowCVP) was announced by the UK Government in 2002 as an element of its Powering Future Vehicles Strategy.
The Moral Case for Fossil Fuels is a 2014 book by American energy theorist Alex Epstein, in which the author argues that, although sometimes labeled as "immoral," the use of fossil fuels dramatically improves the overall progress of humanity, and improves life expectancy and income.
The Next List is a 30-minute weekend television program on CNN.
The Quest: Energy, Security, and the Remaking of the Modern World is an international bestselling book by energy expert Daniel Yergin.
RES - The School for Renewable Energy Science (Icelandic: RES - Orkuskólinn) is a private, non-profit, international graduate school located in the city of Akureyri in northern Iceland and shares its facilities with the University of Akureyri.
Thermoascus is a genus of soil fungi in the family Trichocomaceae.
Thomas Welton OBE CChem FRSC (born 1964) is a Professor of Sustainable Chemistry at Imperial College London who became the Dean of the Faculty of Natural Sciences in 2015 following his resignation as head of the chemistry department in 2014.
Tidal power or tidal energy is a form of hydropower that converts the energy obtained from tides into useful forms of power, mainly electricity.
Tillman Gerngross is an American scientist.
Ethanol, an alcohol fuel, is an important fuel for the operation of internal combustion engines that are used in cars, trucks, and other kinds of machinery.
This is a list of Sir Richard Branson's business ventures from the 1960s to today.
Tissue paper or simply tissue is a lightweight paper or, light crêpe paper.
Titan or OLCF-3 is a supercomputer built by Cray at Oak Ridge National Laboratory for use in a variety of science projects. Titan is an upgrade of Jaguar, a previous supercomputer at Oak Ridge, that uses graphics processing units (GPUs) in addition to conventional central processing units (CPUs). Titan is the first such hybrid to perform over 10 petaFLOPS. The upgrade began in October 2011, commenced stability testing in October 2012 and it became available to researchers in early 2013. The initial cost of the upgrade was US$60 million, funded primarily by the United States Department of Energy. Titan is due to be eclipsed at Oak Ridge by Summit in 2019, which is being built by IBM and features fewer nodes with much greater GPU capability per node as well as local per-node non-volatile caching of file data from the system's parallel file system. Titan employs AMD Opteron CPUs in conjunction with Nvidia Tesla GPUs to improve energy efficiency while providing an order of magnitude increase in computational power over Jaguar. It uses 18,688 CPUs paired with an equal number of GPUs to perform at a theoretical peak of 27 petaFLOPS; in the LINPACK benchmark used to rank supercomputers' speed, it performed at 17.59 petaFLOPS. This was enough to take first place in the November 2012 list by the TOP500 organization, but Tianhe-2 overtook it on the June 2013 list. Titan is available for any scientific purpose; access depends on the importance of the project and its potential to exploit the hybrid architecture. Any selected programs must also be executable on other supercomputers to avoid sole dependence on Titan. Six vanguard programs were the first selected. They dealt mostly with molecular scale physics or climate models, while 25 others were queued behind them. The inclusion of GPUs compelled authors to alter their programs. The modifications typically increased the degree of parallelism, given that GPUs offer many more simultaneous threads than CPUs. The changes often yield greater performance even on CPU-only machines.
Title 40 is a part of the United States Code of Federal Regulations.
Statkraft Hurum saltkraftverk Tofte is a village in the Hurum municipality in Buskerud, Norway.
Thomas Edmunds Price (born October 8, 1954) is an American physician and politician who served as the United States Secretary of Health and Human Services in the administration of Donald Trump in 2017, and who was the U.S. Representative for, encompassing the northern suburbs of Atlanta, from 2005 to 2017.
Tony Connelly (born 1964, County Antrim) is a journalist and author.
The ninth series of Top Gear aired during 2007 and consisted of six episodes, beginning on 28 January and concluding on 4 March.
Top Gear challenges are a segment of the Top Gear television programme where the presenters are tasked by the producers, or each other, to prove or do various things related to vehicles.
Torbanite, also known as boghead coal, is a variety of fine-grained black oil shale.
Tornesch is a town in the district of Pinneberg, in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany.
Trabbi Goes to Hollywood (English title: Driving Me Crazy) is a 1991 US comedy film directed by Jon Turteltaub, starring Thomas Gottschalk, Billy Dee Williams, Dom DeLuise, and James Tolkan.
Transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALEN) are restriction enzymes that can be engineered to cut specific sequences of DNA.
Transition to war (TTW) is a North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) military term referring to a period of international tension during which government and society move to an open (but not necessarily declared) war footing.
Petrobras Transporte S.A. (Transpetro) is the largest oil and gas transportation company of Brazil.
Transport in Antarctica has transformed from explorers crossing the isolated remote area of Antarctica by foot to a more open area due to human technologies enabling more convenient and faster transport, predominantly by air and water, as well as land.
Trichoderma longibrachiatum is a fungus in the genus Trichoderma.
A tunicate is a marine invertebrate animal, a member of the subphylum Tunicata, which is part of the Chordata, a phylum which includes all animals with dorsal nerve cords and notochords.
Twist Bioscience is a privately held company based in San Francisco that manufactures synthetic DNA for clients in the biotechnology industry.
Ulrich Eichhorn is an engineer and manager.
Ulrich W. Schiefer (born 5 November 1958 in Stuttgart) Ulrich W. Schiefer is a graduated engineer and Master of Business Administration.
Ultracargo is Brazil's largest bulk liquids storage company, primarily operating in the storage of chemicals, petrochemicals, biofuel, and vegetable oil.
Ulupono Initiative (Ulupono) is an impact investment firm focusing on sustaining Hawai‘i through large-scale for-profit and non-profit investments that produce more local food; increase clean, renewable energy; and reduce waste.
Underfloor heating and cooling is a form of central heating and cooling which achieves indoor climate control for thermal comfort using conduction, radiation and convection.
United States policy in regard to biofuels, such as ethanol fuel and biodiesel, began in the early 1990s as the government began looking more intensely at biofuels as a way to reduce dependence on foreign oil and increase the nation's overall sustainability.
The 2006 United States elections were held on Tuesday, November 7, 2006 in the middle of Republican President George W. Bush's second term.
In the United States, the farm bill is the primary agricultural and food policy tool of the federal government.
The University of California, Berkeley (UC Berkeley, Berkeley, Cal, or California) is a public research university in Berkeley, California.
The University of the Philippines Los Baños (also referred to as UPLB, UP Los Baños, or colloquially, Elbi) is a public university located in the towns of Los Baños and Bay in the province of Laguna, some 64 kilometers southeast of Manila.
The College of Engineering and Agro-Industrial Technology (also known as CEAT) is one of the eleven degree-granting units of the University of the Philippines Los Baños.
The University of the Philippines Los Baños College of Forestry and Natural Resources (also referred to as CFNR) is one of the 11 degree-granting units of the University of the Philippines Los Baños (UPLB).
UPM-Kymmene Oyj is a Finnish forest industry company.
USNS Henry J. Kaiser (T-AO-187) is a United States Navy replenishment oiler and the lead ship of her class.
UVO (all caps) is an acronym.
A value chain is a set of activities that a firm operating in a specific industry performs in order to deliver a valuable product or service for the market.
Value-added agriculture refers most generally to manufacturing processes that increase the value of primary agricultural commodities.
Variable renewable energy (VRE) is a renewable energy source that is non-dispatchable due to its fluctuating nature, like wind power and solar power, as opposed to a controllable renewable energy source such as hydroelectricity, or biomass, or a relatively constant source such as geothermal power or run-of-the-river hydroelectricity.
Vegetable oils, or vegetable fats, are fats extracted from seeds, or less often, from other parts of fruits.
Vegetable oil is a liquid derived from plants.
Vegetable oil recycling is increasingly being carried out to produce a vegetable oil fuel.
Vegetable oil refining is a process to transform vegetable oil into biofuel by hydrocracking or hydrogenation.
Vegetable oils are increasingly used as a substitute for fossil fuels.
The 2010 Commonwealth Games, officially known as the XIX Commonwealth Games, were held in Delhi, India, from 3 to 14 October 2010.
Verbio - Vereinigte Bioenergie AG - is a German manufacturer and supplier of biofuels.
Verenium Corporation was a San Diego, California-based industrial biotechnology company founded in 2007 as the result of a merger between Diversa (San Diego) and Celunol (Cambridge, MA).
Virgin Atlantic, a trading name of Virgin Atlantic Airways Limited and Virgin Atlantic International Limited, is a British airline with its head office in Crawley, United Kingdom.
State Route 267 is a primary state highway in the US state of Virginia.
Volkswagen Bio Runner is a concept car presented by Volkswagen at 2008 LA Design Challenge.
Air Test and Evaluation Squadron 23 (VX-23) is an aviation unit of the United States Navy based at Naval Air Station Patuxent River, Maryland, United States.
Walmart Inc. (formerly branded as Wal-Mart Stores, Inc.) is an American multinational retail corporation that operates a chain of hypermarkets, discount department stores, and grocery stores.
Washington State University (WSU) is a public research university in Pullman, Washington, in the Palouse region of the northwest United States. Founded in 1890, WSU (colloquially "Wazzu") is a land-grant university with programs in a broad range of academic disciplines. It is ranked in the top 140 universities in America with high research activity, as determined by U.S. News & World Report. With an undergraduate enrollment of 24,470 and a total enrollment of 29,686, it is the second largest institution of higher education in Washington state behind the University of Washington. The university also operates campuses across Washington known as WSU Spokane, WSU Tri-Cities, WSU Everett and WSU Vancouver, all founded in 1989. In 2012, WSU launched an Internet-based Global Campus, which includes its online degree program, WSU Online. These campuses award primarily bachelor's and master's degrees. Freshmen and sophomores were first admitted to the Vancouver campus in 2006 and to the Tri-Cities campus in 2007. Enrollment for the four campuses and WSU Online exceeds 29,686 students. This includes 1,751 international students. WSU's athletic teams are called the Cougars and the school colors are crimson and gray. Six men's and nine women's varsity teams compete in NCAA Division I in the Pac-12 Conference. Both men's and women's indoor track teams compete in the Mountain Pacific Sports Federation.
A waste converter is a machine used for the treatment and recycling of solid and liquid refuse material.
Continuous generation and accumulation of waste, including hazardous waste (Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs), medical waste, etc.). Almost one third of industrial waste in the country is accumulated in Karaganda region - more than 8.5 billion tons by the end of 2012.
Waste-to-energy (WtE) or energy-from-waste (EfW) is the process of generating energy in the form of electricity and/or heat from the primary treatment of waste, or the processing of waste into a fuel source.
Water resource management is the activity of planning, developing, distributing and managing the optimum use of water resources.
The water, energy and food security nexus means that water security, energy security and food security are inextricably linked and that actions in any one area usually have impacts in one or both of the others.
A wave farm – or wave power farm or wave energy park – is a collection of machines in the same location and used for the generation of wave power electricity.
Wärtsilä is a Finnish corporation which manufactures and services power sources and other equipment in the marine and energy markets.
The Western Regional Research Center (WRRC), located in Albany, California, is one of four regional laboratories within the Agricultural Research Service of the United States Department of Agriculture.
Westfalen corporate headquarters, Industrieweg, Münster Westfalen AG, headquartered in Münster, Westphalia operates as a retailer in the liquefied petroleum gas (Westfalengas) and fuel sectors and as a manufacturer of industrial gases.
Westport Innovations is a company that develops alternative fuel, low-emissions technologies to allow engines to operate on clean-burning fuels such as compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied natural gas (LNG), hydrogen and biofuels such as landfill gas.
Wheat middlings (also known as millfeed, wheat mill run, or wheat midds) are the product of the wheat milling process that is not flour.
Willem P. C.
Willie Hugh Nelson (born April 29, 1933) is an American musician, singer, songwriter, author, poet, actor, and activist.
Willie Nelson Biodiesel is an American company started by singer-songwriter Willie Nelson, that produces biofuel under the brand name BioWillie.
Willows, also called sallows, and osiers, form the genus Salix, around 400 speciesMabberley, D.J. 1997.
The Willow Biomass Project is a collaborative effort by members of the Salix Consortium to grow willow and other sustainable woody crops in upstate New York.
Willow Run Airport is an airport in Van Buren Charter Township and Ypsilanti Township, near Ypsilanti, Michigan, United States, and serves freight, corporate, and general aviation.
Wind power is the use of air flow through wind turbines to mechanically power generators for electricity.
The Wisconsin Bio Industry Alliance (WBIA) is a non-profit membership organization intended to promote biofuels, biopower, and bioproducts in Wisconsin.
Wood diesel is a new biofuel which was developed by the University of Georgia from woodchips.
The existence of a wood economy, or more broadly, a forest economy (since in many countries a bamboo economy predominates), is a prominent matter in many developing countries as well as in many other nations with temperate climate and especially in those with low temperatures.
Wood fuel (or fuelwood) is a fuel, such as firewood, charcoal, chips, sheets, pellets, and sawdust.
Woodchips are small to medium sized pieces of wood formed by cutting or chipping larger pieces of wood such as trees, branches, logging residues, stumps, roots, and wood waste.
The World Bioenergy Association (WBA) is an international NGO and non-profit association that represents the bioenergy sector globally.
The World Food Prize is an international award recognizing the achievements of individuals who have advanced human development by improving the quality, quantity, or availability of food in the world.
World Fuel Services Corporation is a Fortune 500 company that is based in Miami, Florida.
In demographics, the world population is the total number of humans currently living, and was estimated to have reached 7.6 billion people as of May 2018.
Worldwide energy supply is the global production and preparation of fuel, generation of electricity, and energy transport.
Xethanol was one of the smaller producers of corn ethanol in the United States, and one of the few publicly traded companies developing technology for producing cellulose ethanol.
The Xplorair is a project of compact VTOL aircraft without rotating airfoil from aerospace engineer Michel Aguilar, funded by the French Armed Forces procurement agency DGA and supported by various European aeronautics firms such as Dassault Systèmes, EADS Innovation Works, MBDA, Altran Technologies, Sogeti, Turbomeca, COMAT Aerospace and the Institut Pprime.
Xylanase (endo-(1->4)-beta-xylan 4-xylanohydrolase, endo-1,4-xylanase, endo-1,4-beta-xylanase, beta-1,4-xylanase, endo-1,4-beta-D-xylanase, 1,4-beta-xylan xylanohydrolase, beta-xylanase, beta-1,4-xylan xylanohydrolase, beta-D-xylanase) is the name given to a class of enzymes which degrade the linear polysaccharide beta-1,4-xylan into xylose, thus breaking down hemicellulose, one of the major components of plant cell walls.
In enzymology, a xylose isomerase is an enzyme that catalyzes the interconversion of D-xylose and D-xylulose.
Yeasts are eukaryotic, single-celled microorganisms classified as members of the fungus kingdom.
is a Japanese politician who currently serves as the governor of Tokyo.
Frank Zacharias Robin Goldsmith (born 20 January 1975) is a British politician and journalist serving as the Member of Parliament for Richmond Park since 2017, after previously holding the seat between 2010 and 2016.
Zero Emission Resource Organisation or ZERO is a Norwegian environmental organisation that was founded in 2002 to work with reduction of greenhouse gases, primarily in Norway.
A zero-energy building, also known as a zero net energy (ZNE) building, net-zero energy building (NZEB), or net zero building, is a building with zero net energy consumption, meaning the total amount of energy used by the building on an annual basis is roughly equal to the amount of renewable energy created on the site, or in other definitions by renewable energy sources elsewhere.
Zwijnaarde is a village in the municipality of Ghent, Belgium.
Zygentoma are an order in the class insecta.
2,5-Dimethylfuran is a heterocyclic compound with the formula (CH3)2C4H2O.
2-Methyltetrahydrofuran is an organic compound with the molecular formula CH3C4H7O.
The 2000s was a decade of the Gregorian calendar that began on January 1, 2000, and ended on December 31, 2009.
The 2000s commodities boom or the commodities super cycle was the rise, and fall, of many physical commodity prices (such as those of food, oil, metals, chemicals, fuels and the like) during the early 21st century (2000–2014), following the Great Commodities Depression of the 1980s and 1990s.
From the mid-1980s to September 2003, the inflation-adjusted price of a barrel of crude oil on NYMEX was generally under US$25/barrel.
The 2006 State of the Union Address was delivered by United States President George W. Bush at 9 p.m. EST (0200 UTC) on Tuesday, January 31, 2006 to a joint session of the U.S. Congress.
The 2007–08 A1 Grand Prix of Nations, Australia is an A1 Grand Prix race, to be held on 3 February 2008 at the Eastern Creek Raceway, New South Wales, Australia.
The 2007–08 A1 Grand Prix of Nations, New Zealand is an A1 Grand Prix race, to be held on 20 January 2008 at the Taupo Motorsport Park, New Zealand.
The 2007–08 A1 Grand Prix season was the third in the relatively short history of the championship.
World food prices increased dramatically in 2007 and the first and second quarter of 2008, creating a global crisis and causing political and economic instability and social unrest in both poor and developed nations.
The 2008 24 Hours of Le Mans was the 76th Grand Prix of Endurance, taking place on 14–15 June 2008 at the Circuit de la Sarthe, Le Mans, France, organised by the Automobile Club de l'Ouest (ACO).
This is a list of aviation-related events from 2010.
Following the 2007–2008 world food price crisis and a short lull in high prices during 2009, food prices around the world again started to rise in 2010.
This is a list of aviation-related events from 2011.
The year 2012 involved many significant scientific events and discoveries, including the first orbital rendezvous by a commercial spacecraft, the discovery of a particle highly similar to the long-sought Higgs boson, and the near-eradication of guinea worm disease.
The 2012 Olympic hunger summit was an international gathering on 12 August, the closing day of the 2012 Summer Olympics, held at 10 Downing Street London.
A number of significant scientific events occurred in 2013, including the discovery of numerous Earthlike exoplanets, the development of viable lab-grown ears, teeth, livers and blood vessels, and the atmospheric entry of the most destructive meteor since 1908.
Events in the year 2015 in Lithuania.
The 21st century is the current century of the Anno Domini era or Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar.
The 24 Hours of Le Mans (24 Heures du Mans) is the world's oldest active sports car race in endurance racing, held annually since near the town of Le Mans, France.
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