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Bremsstrahlung

Index Bremsstrahlung

Bremsstrahlung, from bremsen "to brake" and Strahlung "radiation"; i.e., "braking radiation" or "deceleration radiation", is electromagnetic radiation produced by the deceleration of a charged particle when deflected by another charged particle, typically an electron by an atomic nucleus. [1]

185 relations: Acute radiation syndrome, Aneutronic fusion, Arkady Migdal, Arnold Nordsieck, Astronomy, Astrophysical plasma, Astrophysical X-ray source, Astrophysics, Atomic battery, Auger therapy, Axion, Background radiation, Beamstrahlung, Bernhard Gál, Beta particle, Bethe formula, Bismuth, Bjørn Wiik, Blueshift, Bohr model, Born approximation, Bragg peak, Bruno Rossi, Bussard ramjet, Cargo scanning, Cherenkov radiation, Chien-Shiung Wu, Continuous spectrum, Coronal radiative losses, Cosmic microwave background, Crookes tube, Crystal Ball (detector), Cyclotron, Cyclotron radiation, Delta ray, DEMOnstration Power Station, Dense plasma focus, Dioxygen difluoride, Direct energy conversion, Double electron capture, Duane–Hunt law, Eddington luminosity, Electromagnetic radiation, Electron, Electron microprobe, Electron scattering, Electron wake, Ernest Titterton, Eta Carinae, Evaporation (deposition), ..., Event generator, External beam radiotherapy, Fermilab E-906/SeaQuest, Flashtube, Food irradiation, Free neutron decay, Free-electron laser, Fusion energy gain factor, Fusion power, Fusor, Galactic Emission Mapping, Galaxy cluster, Galaxy groups and clusters, Gamma ray, Gantry (medical), Gemini 10, George C. Baldwin, Germanism (linguistics), Glow discharge, Gluon, Gray (unit), HD 192685, Health threat from cosmic rays, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, High harmonic generation, High-energy X-rays, History of the philosophy of field theory, Hyperspectral imaging, IACT, Index of electronics articles, Index of physics articles (B), Index of wave articles, Industrial radiography, Inertial electrostatic confinement, Inflatable space habitat, Infraparticle, Infrared divergence, Initial and final state radiation, Intermediate polar, Intracluster medium, Iodine-125, Ionizing radiation, Isotopes of bismuth, Isotopes of phosphorus, John Madey, Kerma (physics), Kramers' law, Kramers' opacity law, Landau–Pomeranchuk–Migdal effect, Langmuir probe, Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy, Lead shielding, Levitated dipole, Light, Linear energy transfer, List of cycles, List of Dutch inventions and discoveries, List of plasma physics articles, List of space telescopes, Lorentz force, Magnetosphere of Jupiter, Margaret G. Kivelson, Mass attenuation coefficient, Mechanism of sonoluminescence, Microwave burn, Migma, Modern searches for Lorentz violation, Monochromatic wavelength dispersive x-ray fluorescence, Muon, Neptunium, Neupert effect, Neutron, Neutron bomb, Neutron source, NGC 5238, Nikola Tesla, Nuclear fuel, Nuclear fusion, Opacity (optics), Otto Scherzer, Outline of German expressions in English, Paradox of radiation of charged particles in a gravitational field, Particle shower, Particle therapy, Particle-induced X-ray emission, Peak kilovoltage, Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy, Phosphorus, PLUTO detector, Polywell, Projectional radiography, Pyroelectric fusion, Qu Qinyue, Quantum mechanical scattering of photon and nucleus, Radiation burn, Radiation length, Radiation protection, Radiation resistance, Radiative process, Radioisotope thermoelectric generator, Relativistic runaway electron avalanche, Renormalization, Scintillator, Selective internal radiation therapy, SN 1987A, Solar flare, Sombrero Galaxy, Sonoluminescence, Sound pressure, Spectral energy distribution, Spinning dust, Sterilization (microbiology), Stopping power (particle radiation), Strahl, Streamer discharge, Synchrotron radiation, TAE Technologies, Tau (particle), Technetium-99m, Terahertz radiation, Terrestrial gamma-ray flash, Thomson scattering, Tritium radioluminescence, Ultrafast laser spectroscopy, Walter Heitler, Weinberg–Witten theorem, Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe, X-ray, X-ray astronomy, X-ray crystallography, X-ray filter, X-ray fluorescence, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray transient, X-ray tube. Expand index (135 more) »

Acute radiation syndrome

Acute radiation syndrome (ARS) is a collection of health effects that are present within 24 hours of exposure to high doses of ionizing radiation.

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Aneutronic fusion

Aneutronic fusion is any form of fusion power in which neutrons carry no more than 1% of the total released energy.

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Arkady Migdal

Arkady Beynusovich (Benediktovich) Migdal (Арка́дий Бе́йнусович (Бенеди́ктович) Мигда́л; Lida, Russian Empire, 11 March 1911 – Princeton, United States, 9 February 1991) was a Soviet physicist and member of the USSR Academy of Sciences.

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Arnold Nordsieck

Arnold Theodore Nordsieck (5 January 1911 – 18 January 1971) was an American theoretical physicist.

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Astronomy

Astronomy (from ἀστρονομία) is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena.

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Astrophysical plasma

An astrophysical plasma is a plasma (highly ionized gas) that occurs beyond the solar system.

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Astrophysical X-ray source

Astrophysical X-ray sources are astronomical objects with physical properties which result in the emission of X-rays.

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Astrophysics

Astrophysics is the branch of astronomy that employs the principles of physics and chemistry "to ascertain the nature of the astronomical objects, rather than their positions or motions in space".

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Atomic battery

The terms atomic battery, nuclear battery, tritium battery and radioisotope generator are used to describe a device which uses energy from the decay of a radioactive isotope to generate electricity.

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Auger therapy

Auger therapy (AT) is a form of radiation therapy for the treatment of cancer which relies on a large number of low-energy electrons (emitted by the Auger effect) to damage cancer cells, rather than the high-energy radiation used in traditional radiation therapy.

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Axion

The axion is a hypothetical elementary particle postulated by the Peccei–Quinn theory in 1977 to resolve the strong CP problem in quantum chromodynamics (QCD).

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Background radiation

Background radiation is a measure of the ionizing radiation present in the environment at a particular location which is not due to deliberate introduction of radiation sources.

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Beamstrahlung

Beamstrahlung (from beam + bremsstrahlung) is the radiation from one beam of charged particles in storage rings or linear colliders caused by its interaction with the electromagnetic field of the other beam.

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Bernhard Gál

Bernhard Gál (born 1971) is an Austrian artist, composer and musicologist.

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Beta particle

A beta particle, also called beta ray or beta radiation, (symbol β) is a high-energy, high-speed electron or positron emitted by the radioactive decay of an atomic nucleus during the process of beta decay.

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Bethe formula

The Bethe formula describes the mean energy loss per distance travelled of swift charged particles (protons, alpha particles, atomic ions) traversing matter (or alternatively the stopping power of the material).

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Bismuth

Bismuth is a chemical element with symbol Bi and atomic number 83.

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Bjørn Wiik

Bjørn Håvard Wiik (born 17 February 1937 in Bruvik, Norway; died 26 February 1999 in Hamburg, Germany) was a Norwegian elementary particle physicist, noted for his role on the experiment that produced the first experimental evidence for gluons and for his influential role on later accelerator projects.

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Blueshift

A blueshift is any decrease in wavelength, with a corresponding increase in frequency, of an electromagnetic wave; the opposite effect is referred to as redshift.

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Bohr model

In atomic physics, the Rutherford–Bohr model or Bohr model or Bohr diagram, introduced by Niels Bohr and Ernest Rutherford in 1913, depicts the atom as a small, positively charged nucleus surrounded by electrons that travel in circular orbits around the nucleus—similar to the structure of the Solar System, but with attraction provided by electrostatic forces rather than gravity.

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Born approximation

Generally in scattering theory and in particular in quantum mechanics, the Born approximation consists of taking the incident field in place of the total field as the driving field at each point in the scatterer.

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Bragg peak

The Bragg peak is a pronounced peak on the Bragg curve which plots the energy loss of ionizing radiation during its travel through matter.

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Bruno Rossi

Bruno Benedetto Rossi (13 April 1905 – 21 November 1993) was an Italian experimental physicist.

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Bussard ramjet

The Bussard ramjet is a theoretical method of spacecraft propulsion proposed in 1960 by the physicist Robert W. Bussard, popularized by Poul Anderson's novel Tau Zero, Larry Niven in his Known Space series of books, Vernor Vinge in his Zones of Thought series, and referred to by Carl Sagan in the television series and book Cosmos.

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Cargo scanning

Cargo scanning or non-intrusive inspection (NII) refers to non-destructive methods of inspecting and identifying goods in transportation systems.

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Cherenkov radiation

Cherenkov radiation (sometimes spelled "Cerenkov") is electromagnetic radiation emitted when a charged particle (such as an electron) passes through a dielectric medium at a speed greater than the phase velocity of light in that medium.

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Chien-Shiung Wu

Chien-Shiung Wu (May 31, 1912 – February 16, 1997) was a Chinese-American experimental physicist who made significant contributions in the field of nuclear physics.

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Continuous spectrum

In physics, a continuous spectrum usually means a set of attainable values for some physical quantity (such as energy or wavelength) that is best described as an interval of real numbers, as opposed to a discrete spectrum, a set of attainable values that is discrete in the mathematical sense, where there is a positive gap between each value and the next one.

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Coronal radiative losses

In astronomy and in astrophysics, for radiative losses of the solar corona, it is meant the energy flux radiated from the external atmosphere of the Sun (traditionally divided into chromosphere, transition region and corona), and, in particular, the processes of production of the radiation coming from the solar corona and transition region, where the plasma is optically-thin.

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Cosmic microwave background

The cosmic microwave background (CMB, CMBR) is electromagnetic radiation as a remnant from an early stage of the universe in Big Bang cosmology.

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Crookes tube

A Crookes tube (also Crookes–Hittorf tube) is an early experimental electrical discharge tube, with partial vacuum, invented by English physicist William Crookes and others around 1869-1875, in which cathode rays, streams of electrons, were discovered.

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Crystal Ball (detector)

The Crystal Ball was a hermetic particle detector used initially with the SPEAR particle accelerator at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center beginning in 1979.

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Cyclotron

A cyclotron is a type of particle accelerator invented by Ernest O. Lawrence in 1929-1930 at the University of California, Berkeley, and patented in 1932.

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Cyclotron radiation

Cyclotron radiation is electromagnetic radiation emitted by accelerating charged particles deflected by a magnetic field.

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Delta ray

A delta ray is a secondary electron with enough energy to escape a significant distance away from the primary radiation beam and produce further ionization", and is sometimes used to describe any recoil particle caused by secondary ionization.

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DEMOnstration Power Station

DEMO (DEMOnstration Power Station) is a proposed nuclear fusion power station that is intended to build upon the ITER experimental nuclear fusion reactor.

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Dense plasma focus

A dense plasma focus (DPF) is a type of plasma device originally developed as a fusion power device starting in the early 1960s.

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Dioxygen difluoride

Dioxygen difluoride is a compound of fluorine and oxygen with the molecular formula.

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Direct energy conversion

Direct energy conversion (DEC) or simply direct conversion converts a charged particle's kinetic energy into a voltage.

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Double electron capture

Double electron capture is a decay mode of atomic nucleus.

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Duane–Hunt law

The Duane–Hunt law, named after the American physicists William Duane and Franklin Hunt, gives the maximum frequency of X-rays that can be emitted by Bremsstrahlung in an X-ray tube by accelerating electrons through an excitation voltage V into a metal target.

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Eddington luminosity

The Eddington luminosity, also referred to as the Eddington limit, is the maximum luminosity a body (such as a star) can achieve when there is balance between the force of radiation acting outward and the gravitational force acting inward.

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Electromagnetic radiation

In physics, electromagnetic radiation (EM radiation or EMR) refers to the waves (or their quanta, photons) of the electromagnetic field, propagating (radiating) through space-time, carrying electromagnetic radiant energy.

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Electron

The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.

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Electron microprobe

An electron microprobe (EMP), also known as an electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA) or electron micro probe analyzer (EMPA), is an analytical tool used to non-destructively determine the chemical composition of small volumes of solid materials.

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Electron scattering

Electron scattering occurs when electrons are deviated from their original trajectory.

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Electron wake

Electron wake is the disturbance left after a high-energy charged particle passes through condensed matter or plasma.

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Ernest Titterton

Sir Ernest William Titterton (4 March 1916 – 8 February 1990) was a British nuclear physicist.

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Eta Carinae

Eta Carinae (η Carinae, abbreviated to η Car), formerly known as Eta Argus, is a stellar system containing at least two stars with a combined luminosity greater than five million times that of the Sun, located around 7,500 light-years (2,300 parsecs) distant in the constellation Carina.

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Evaporation (deposition)

Evaporation is a common method of thin-film deposition.

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Event generator

Event generators are software libraries that generate simulated high-energy particle physics events.

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External beam radiotherapy

External beam radiotherapy (EBRT) or teletherapy is the most common form of radiotherapy (radiation therapy).

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Fermilab E-906/SeaQuest

Fermilab E-906/SeaQuest is a particle physics experiment which will use Drell–Yan process to measure the contributions of antiquarks to the structure of the proton or neutron and how this structure is modified when the proton or neutron is included within an atomic nucleus.

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Flashtube

A flashtube, also called a flashlamp, is an electric arc lamp designed to produce extremely intense, incoherent, full-spectrum white light for very short durations.

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Food irradiation

Food irradiation is the process of exposing food and food packaging to ionizing radiation.

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Free neutron decay

Outside the nucleus, free neutrons are unstable and have a mean lifetime of (about 14 minutes, 42 seconds).

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Free-electron laser

A free-electron laser (FEL) is a kind of laser whose lasing medium consists of very-high-speed electrons moving freely through a magnetic structure, hence the term free electron.

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Fusion energy gain factor

The fusion energy gain factor, usually expressed with the symbol Q, is the ratio of fusion power produced in a nuclear fusion reactor to the power required to maintain the plasma in steady state.

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Fusion power

Fusion power is a form of power generation in which energy is generated by using fusion reactions to produce heat for electricity generation.

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Fusor

A fusor is a device that uses an electric field to heat ions to conditions suitable for nuclear fusion.

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Galactic Emission Mapping

The Galactic Emission Mapping survey (GEM) is an international project with the goal of making a precise map of the electromagnetic spectrum of our galaxy at low frequencies (radio and microwaves).

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Galaxy cluster

A galaxy cluster, or cluster of galaxies, is a structure that consists of anywhere from hundreds to thousands of galaxies that are bound together by gravity with typical masses ranging from 1014–1015 solar masses.

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Galaxy groups and clusters

Galaxy groups and clusters are the largest known gravitationally bound objects to have arisen thus far in the process of cosmic structure formation.

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Gamma ray

A gamma ray or gamma radiation (symbol γ or \gamma), is penetrating electromagnetic radiation arising from the radioactive decay of atomic nuclei.

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Gantry (medical)

In a medical facility, such as a hospital or clinic, a gantry holds radiation detectors and/or a radiation source used to diagnose or treat a patient's illness.

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Gemini 10

Gemini 10 (officially Gemini X) With Gemini IV, NASA changed to Roman numerals for Gemini mission designations.

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George C. Baldwin

George Curriden Baldwin (May 5, 1917 – January 23, 2010) was an American theoretical and experimental physicist.

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Germanism (linguistics)

A Germanism is a loan word or other loan element borrowed from German for use in some other language.

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Glow discharge

A glow discharge is a plasma formed by the passage of electric current through a gas.

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Gluon

A gluon is an elementary particle that acts as the exchange particle (or gauge boson) for the strong force between quarks.

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Gray (unit)

The gray (symbol: Gy) is a derived unit of ionizing radiation dose in the International System of Units (SI).

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HD 192685

HD 192685, also known as QR Vul or HR 7739, is a Be star 1,199 ly away in the Vulpecula constellation.

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Health threat from cosmic rays

The health threat from cosmic rays is the danger posed by galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar energetic particles to astronauts on interplanetary missions or any missions that venture through the Van-Allen Belts or outside the Earth's magnetosphere.

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Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf

The Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) is a German research laboratory in Dresden and member of the Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres.

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High harmonic generation

High harmonic generation (HHG) is a non-linear process during which a target (gas, plasma or solid sample) is illuminated by an intense laser pulse.

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High-energy X-rays

High-energy X-rays or HEX-rays are very hard X-rays, with typical energies of 80–1000 keV (1 MeV), about one order of magnitude higher than conventional X-rays (and well into gamma-ray energies over 120 keV).

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History of the philosophy of field theory

Field theory had its origins in the 18th century in a mathematical formulation of Newtonian mechanics, but it was seen as deficient as it implied action at a distance.

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Hyperspectral imaging

Hyperspectral imaging, like other spectral imaging, collects and processes information from across the electromagnetic spectrum.

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IACT

IACT stands for Imaging Atmospheric (or Air) Cherenkov Telescope or Technique.

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Index of electronics articles

This is an index of articles relating to electronics and electricity or natural electricity and things that run on electricity and things that use or conduct electricity.

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Index of physics articles (B)

The index of physics articles is split into multiple pages due to its size.

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Index of wave articles

This is a list of Wave topics.

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Industrial radiography

Industrial radiography is a method of non-destructive testing where many types of manufactured components can be examined to verify the internal structure and integrity of the specimen.

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Inertial electrostatic confinement

Inertial electrostatic confinement is a branch of fusion research that uses an electric field to elevate a plasma to fusion conditions.

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Inflatable space habitat

Inflatable habitats or expandable habitats are pressurized structures capable of supporting life in outer space whose internal volume increases after launch.

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Infraparticle

An infraparticle is an electrically charged particle and its surrounding cloud of soft photons—of which there are infinite number, by virtue of the infrared divergence of quantum electrodynamics.

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Infrared divergence

In physics, an infrared divergence (also IR divergence or infrared catastrophe) is a situation in which an integral, for example a Feynman diagram, diverges because of contributions of objects with very small energy approaching zero, or, equivalently, because of physical phenomena at very long distances.

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Initial and final state radiation

In particle physics, initial and final state radiation refers to certain kinds of radiative emissions that are not due to particle annihilation.

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Intermediate polar

An Intermediate Polar (also called a DQ Herculis Star) is a type of cataclysmic variable binary star system with a white dwarf and a cool main-sequence secondary star.

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Intracluster medium

In astronomy, the intracluster medium (ICM) is the superheated plasma that permeates a galaxy cluster.

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Iodine-125

Iodine-125 (125I) is a radioisotope of iodine which has uses in biological assays, nuclear medicine imaging and in radiation therapy as brachytherapy to treat a number of conditions, including prostate cancer, uveal melanomas, and brain tumors.

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Ionizing radiation

Ionizing radiation (ionising radiation) is radiation that carries enough energy to liberate electrons from atoms or molecules, thereby ionizing them.

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Isotopes of bismuth

Bismuth (83Bi) has no stable isotopes, but does have one very long-lived isotope; thus, the standard atomic weight can be given as.

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Isotopes of phosphorus

Although phosphorus (15P) has 23 isotopes from 24P to 46P, only one of these isotopes is stable 31P; as such, it is considered a monoisotopic element.

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John Madey

John M. J. Madey (1943 - 5 July 2016) was a professor of Physics at the University of Hawaii at Manoa, a former director of the Free Electron Laser Laboratory at Duke University, and formerly a professor (research) at Stanford University.

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Kerma (physics)

Kerma is an acronym for "kinetic energy released per unit mass", defined as the sum of the initial kinetic energies of all the charged particles liberated by uncharged ionizing radiation (i.e., indirectly ionizing radiation such as photons and neutrons) in a sample of matter, divided by the mass of the sample.

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Kramers' law

Kramers' law is a formula for the spectral distribution of X-rays produced by an electron hitting a solid target.

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Kramers' opacity law

Kramers' opacity law describes the opacity of a medium in terms of the ambient density and temperature, assuming that the opacity is dominated by bound-free absorption (the absorption of light during ionization of a bound electron) or free-free absorption (the absorption of light when scattering a free ion, also called bremsstrahlung).

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Landau–Pomeranchuk–Migdal effect

In high-energy physics, the Landau–Pomeranchuk–Migdal effect, also known as the Landau–Pomeranchuk effect and the Pomeranchuk effect, or simply LPM effect, is a reduction of the bremsstrahlung and pair production cross sections at high energies or high matter densities.

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Langmuir probe

A Langmuir probe is a device used to determine the electron temperature, electron density, and electric potential of a plasma.

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Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is a type of atomic emission spectroscopy which uses a highly energetic laser pulse as the excitation source.

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Lead shielding

Lead shielding refers to the use of lead as a form of radiation protection to shield people or objects from radiation so as to reduce the effective dose.

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Levitated dipole

A levitated dipole is a type of nuclear fusion reactor design using a superconducting torus which is magnetically levitated inside the reactor chamber.

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Light

Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.

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Linear energy transfer

In dosimetry, linear energy transfer (LET) is the amount of energy that an ionizing particle transfers to the material traversed per unit distance.

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List of cycles

This is a list of recurring cycles.

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List of Dutch inventions and discoveries

The Netherlands had a considerable part in the making of modern society.

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List of plasma physics articles

This is a list of plasma physics topics.

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List of space telescopes

This list of space telescopes (astronomical space observatories) is grouped by major frequency ranges: gamma ray, x-ray, ultraviolet, visible, infrared, microwave and radio.

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Lorentz force

In physics (particularly in electromagnetism) the Lorentz force is the combination of electric and magnetic force on a point charge due to electromagnetic fields.

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Magnetosphere of Jupiter

The magnetosphere of Jupiter is the cavity created in the solar wind by the planet's magnetic field.

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Margaret G. Kivelson

Margaret G. Kivelson (October 21, 1928) is an American space physicist, planetary scientist, and Distinguished Professor Emerita of Space Physics at the University of California, Los Angeles.

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Mass attenuation coefficient

The mass attenuation coefficient, mass extinction coefficient, or mass narrow beam attenuation coefficient of the volume of a material characterizes how easily it can be penetrated by a beam of light, sound, particles, or other energy or matter.

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Mechanism of sonoluminescence

Sonoluminescence is a phenomenon that occurs when a small gas bubble is acoustically suspended and periodically driven in a liquid solution at ultrasonic frequencies, resulting in bubble collapse, cavitation, and light emission.

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Microwave burn

Microwave burns are burn injuries caused by thermal effects of microwave radiation absorbed in a living organism.

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Migma

Migma, sometimes migmatron or migmacell, was a proposed colliding beam fusion reactor designed by Bogdan Maglich in 1969.

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Modern searches for Lorentz violation

Modern searches for Lorentz violation are scientific studies that look for deviations from Lorentz invariance or symmetry, a set of fundamental frameworks that underpin modern science and fundamental physics in particular.

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Monochromatic wavelength dispersive x-ray fluorescence

Monochromatic wavelength dispersive x-ray fluorescence (MWD XRF) is an enhanced version of conventional wavelength-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (WDXRF) elemental analysis.

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Muon

The muon (from the Greek letter mu (μ) used to represent it) is an elementary particle similar to the electron, with an electric charge of −1 e and a spin of 1/2, but with a much greater mass.

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Neptunium

Neptunium is a chemical element with symbol Np and atomic number 93.

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Neupert effect

The Neupert Effect refers to an empirical tendency for high-energy ('hard') X-ray emission to coincide temporally with the rate of rise of lower-energy ('soft') X-ray emission of a solar flare.

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Neutron

| magnetic_moment.

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Neutron bomb

A neutron bomb, officially defined as a type of enhanced radiation weapon (ERW), is a low yield thermonuclear weapon designed to maximize lethal neutron radiation in the immediate vicinity of the blast while minimizing the physical power of the blast itself.

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Neutron source

A neutron source is any device that emits neutrons, irrespective of the mechanism used to produce the neutrons.

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NGC 5238

NGC 5238 is an irregular galaxy in the constellation Canes Venatici.

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Nikola Tesla

Nikola Tesla (Никола Тесла; 10 July 1856 – 7 January 1943) was a Serbian-American inventor, electrical engineer, mechanical engineer, physicist, and futurist who is best known for his contributions to the design of the modern alternating current (AC) electricity supply system.

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Nuclear fuel

Nuclear fuel is a substance that is used in nuclear power stations to produce heat to power turbines.

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Nuclear fusion

In nuclear physics, nuclear fusion is a reaction in which two or more atomic nuclei come close enough to form one or more different atomic nuclei and subatomic particles (neutrons or protons).

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Opacity (optics)

Opacity is the measure of impenetrability to electromagnetic or other kinds of radiation, especially visible light.

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Otto Scherzer

Otto Scherzer (9 March 1909 – 15 November 1982) was a German theoretical physicist who made contributions to electron microscopy.

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Outline of German expressions in English

The following outline is presented as an overview of and topical guide to German expressions in English: A German expression in English is a German loanword, term, phrase, or quotation incorporated into the English language.

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Paradox of radiation of charged particles in a gravitational field

The paradox of a charge in a gravitational field is an apparent physical paradox in the context of general relativity.

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Particle shower

In particle physics, a shower is a cascade of secondary particles produced as the result of a high-energy particle interacting with dense matter.

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Particle therapy

Particle therapy is a form of external beam radiotherapy using beams of energetic protons, neutrons, or positive ions for cancer treatment.

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Particle-induced X-ray emission

Particle-induced X-ray emission or proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) is a technique used in the determining of the elemental make-up of a material or sample.

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Peak kilovoltage

Peak kilovoltage (kVp) refers to the maximum high voltage applied across an X-ray tube during the creation of x-rays within it.

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Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy

Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) is a type of unsealed source radiotherapy, using a radiopharmaceutical which targets peptide receptors to deliver localised treatment, typically for neuroendocrine tumours (NETs).

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Phosphorus

Phosphorus is a chemical element with symbol P and atomic number 15.

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PLUTO detector

PLUTO, constructed at DESY laboratories in Hamburg in 1973-1974 and substantially upgraded in 1977-1978, was an experimental detector for high energy particle physics.

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Polywell

The polywell is a type of nuclear fusion reactor that uses an electric field to heat ions to fusion conditions.

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Projectional radiography

Projectional radiography is a form of radiography and medical imaging that produces two-dimensional images by x-ray radiation.

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Pyroelectric fusion

Pyroelectric fusion refers to the technique of using pyroelectric crystals to generate high strength electrostatic fields to accelerate deuterium ions (tritium might also be used someday) into a metal hydride target also containing deuterium (or tritium) with sufficient kinetic energy to cause these ions to undergo nuclear fusion.

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Qu Qinyue

Qu Qinyue (born 21 May 1935) is a Chinese astrophysicist and educator.

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Quantum mechanical scattering of photon and nucleus

In pair production, a photon creates an electron positron pair.

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Radiation burn

A radiation burn is damage to the skin or other biological tissue as an effect of radiation.

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Radiation length

In physics, the radiation length is a characteristic of a material, related to the energy loss of high energy, electromagnetic-interacting particles with it.

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Radiation protection

Radiation protection, sometimes known as radiological protection, is defined by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) as "The protection of people from harmful effects of exposure to ionizing radiation, and the means for achieving this".

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Radiation resistance

Radiation resistance is that part of an antenna's feedpoint resistance that is caused by the radiation of electromagnetic waves from the antenna, as opposed to loss resistance (also called ohmic resistance) which generally causes the antenna to heat up.

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Radiative process

In particle physics, a radiative process refers to one elementary particle emitting another and continuing to exist.

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Radioisotope thermoelectric generator

A Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG, RITEG) is an electrical generator that uses an array of thermocouples to convert the heat released by the decay of a suitable radioactive material into electricity by the Seebeck effect.

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Relativistic runaway electron avalanche

A relativistic runaway electron avalanche (RREA) is an avalanche growth of a population of relativistic electrons driven through a material (typically air) by an electric field.

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Renormalization

Renormalization is a collection of techniques in quantum field theory, the statistical mechanics of fields, and the theory of self-similar geometric structures, that are used to treat infinities arising in calculated quantities by altering values of quantities to compensate for effects of their self-interactions.

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Scintillator

A scintillator is a material that exhibits scintillation—the property of luminescence, when excited by ionizing radiation.

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Selective internal radiation therapy

Selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT), also known as transarterial radioembolization (TARE), radioembolization or intra-arterial microbrachytherapy is a form of radiation therapy used in interventional radiology to treat cancer.

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SN 1987A

SN 1987A was a peculiar type II supernova in the Large Magellanic Cloud, a dwarf galaxy satellite of the Milky Way.

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Solar flare

A solar flare is a sudden flash of increased Sun's brightness, usually observed near its surface.

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Sombrero Galaxy

The Sombrero Galaxy (also known as Messier Object 104, M104 or NGC 4594) is a spiral galaxy in the constellation Virgo located from Earth.

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Sonoluminescence

Sonoluminescence is the emission of short bursts of light from imploding bubbles in a liquid when excited by sound.

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Sound pressure

Sound pressure or acoustic pressure is the local pressure deviation from the ambient (average or equilibrium) atmospheric pressure, caused by a sound wave.

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Spectral energy distribution

A spectral energy distribution (SED) is a plot of energy versus frequency or wavelength of light (not to be confused with a 'spectrum' of flux density vs frequency or wavelength).

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Spinning dust

In astronomy, spinning dust is a mechanism proposed to explain anomalous microwave emission from the Milky Way.

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Sterilization (microbiology)

Sterilization (or sterilisation) refers to any process that eliminates, removes, kills, or deactivates all forms of life and other biological agents (such as fungi, bacteria, viruses, spore forms, prions, unicellular eukaryotic organisms such as Plasmodium, etc.) present in a specified region, such as a surface, a volume of fluid, medication, or in a compound such as biological culture media.

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Stopping power (particle radiation)

Stopping power in nuclear physics is defined as the retarding force acting on charged particles, typically alpha and beta particles, due to interaction with matter, resulting in loss of particle energy.

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Strahl

Strahl is a German word that means 'ray' or 'beam'.

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Streamer discharge

A streamer discharge, also known as filamentary discharge, is a type of transient electrical discharge.

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Synchrotron radiation

Synchrotron radiation (also known as magnetobremsstrahlung radiation) is the electromagnetic radiation emitted when charged particles are accelerated radially, i.e., when they are subject to an acceleration perpendicular to their velocity.

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TAE Technologies

TAE Technologies (formerly Tri Alpha Energy) is an American company based in Foothill Ranch, California, created for the development of aneutronic fusion power.

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Tau (particle)

The tau (τ), also called the tau lepton, tau particle, or tauon, is an elementary particle similar to the electron, with negative electric charge and a 2.

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Technetium-99m

Technetium-99m is a metastable nuclear isomer of technetium-99 (itself an isotope of technetium), symbolized as 99mTc, that is used in tens of millions of medical diagnostic procedures annually, making it the most commonly used medical radioisotope.

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Terahertz radiation

Terahertz radiation – also known as submillimeter radiation, terahertz waves, tremendously high frequency (THF), T-rays, T-waves, T-light, T-lux or THz – consists of electromagnetic waves within the ITU-designated band of frequencies from 0.3 to 3 terahertz (THz; 1012 Hz).

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Terrestrial gamma-ray flash

A terrestrial gamma-ray flash (TGF) is a burst of gamma rays produced in Earth's atmosphere.

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Thomson scattering

Thomson scattering is the elastic scattering of electromagnetic radiation by a free charged particle, as described by classical electromagnetism.

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Tritium radioluminescence

Tritium lumination is the use of gaseous tritium, a radioactive isotope of hydrogen, to create visible light.

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Ultrafast laser spectroscopy

Ultrafast laser spectroscopy is a spectroscopic technique that uses ultrashort pulse lasers for the study of dynamics on extremely short time scales (attoseconds to nanoseconds).

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Walter Heitler

Walter Heinrich Heitler (2 January 1904 – 15 November 1981) was a German physicist who made contributions to quantum electrodynamics and quantum field theory.

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Weinberg–Witten theorem

In theoretical physics, the Weinberg–Witten (WW) theorem, proved by Steven Weinberg and Edward Witten, states that massless particles (either composite or elementary) with spin j > 1/2 cannot carry a Lorentz-covariant current, while massless particles with spin j > 1 cannot carry a Lorentz-covariant stress-energy.

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Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe

The Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP), originally known as the Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP), was a spacecraft operating from 2001 to 2010 which measured temperature differences across the sky in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) – the radiant heat remaining from the Big Bang.

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X-ray

X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation.

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X-ray astronomy

X-ray astronomy is an observational branch of astronomy which deals with the study of X-ray observation and detection from astronomical objects.

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X-ray crystallography

X-ray crystallography is a technique used for determining the atomic and molecular structure of a crystal, in which the crystalline atoms cause a beam of incident X-rays to diffract into many specific directions.

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X-ray filter

An X-ray filter is a material placed in front of an X-ray source in order to reduce the intensity of particular wavelengths from its spectrum and selectively alter the distribution of X-ray wavelengths within a given beam.

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X-ray fluorescence

X-ray fluorescence (XRF) is the emission of characteristic "secondary" (or fluorescent) X-rays from a material that has been excited by bombarding with high-energy X-rays or gamma rays.

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X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is a surface-sensitive quantitative spectroscopic technique that measures the elemental composition at the parts per thousand range, empirical formula, chemical state and electronic state of the elements that exist within a material.

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X-ray transient

X-ray emission occurs from many celestial objects.

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X-ray tube

An X-ray tube is a vacuum tube that converts electrical input power into X-rays.

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Braking radiation, Breaking radiation, Brehmsstrahlung, Brehmstrahlung, Brehmstralung, Bremsstrahlung Effect, Bremsstrahlung effect, Bremsstrahlung radiation, Bremsstralung, Bremstrahlung, Bremstralung radiation, Continuous x-ray, Free-free, Free-free absorption, Free-free emission, Free-free radiation, Free-free transition, Free–free transition, Thermal bremsstrahlung.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bremsstrahlung

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