185 relations: Acute radiation syndrome, Aneutronic fusion, Arkady Migdal, Arnold Nordsieck, Astronomy, Astrophysical plasma, Astrophysical X-ray source, Astrophysics, Atomic battery, Auger therapy, Axion, Background radiation, Beamstrahlung, Bernhard Gál, Beta particle, Bethe formula, Bismuth, Bjørn Wiik, Blueshift, Bohr model, Born approximation, Bragg peak, Bruno Rossi, Bussard ramjet, Cargo scanning, Cherenkov radiation, Chien-Shiung Wu, Continuous spectrum, Coronal radiative losses, Cosmic microwave background, Crookes tube, Crystal Ball (detector), Cyclotron, Cyclotron radiation, Delta ray, DEMOnstration Power Station, Dense plasma focus, Dioxygen difluoride, Direct energy conversion, Double electron capture, Duane–Hunt law, Eddington luminosity, Electromagnetic radiation, Electron, Electron microprobe, Electron scattering, Electron wake, Ernest Titterton, Eta Carinae, Evaporation (deposition), ..., Event generator, External beam radiotherapy, Fermilab E-906/SeaQuest, Flashtube, Food irradiation, Free neutron decay, Free-electron laser, Fusion energy gain factor, Fusion power, Fusor, Galactic Emission Mapping, Galaxy cluster, Galaxy groups and clusters, Gamma ray, Gantry (medical), Gemini 10, George C. Baldwin, Germanism (linguistics), Glow discharge, Gluon, Gray (unit), HD 192685, Health threat from cosmic rays, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, High harmonic generation, High-energy X-rays, History of the philosophy of field theory, Hyperspectral imaging, IACT, Index of electronics articles, Index of physics articles (B), Index of wave articles, Industrial radiography, Inertial electrostatic confinement, Inflatable space habitat, Infraparticle, Infrared divergence, Initial and final state radiation, Intermediate polar, Intracluster medium, Iodine-125, Ionizing radiation, Isotopes of bismuth, Isotopes of phosphorus, John Madey, Kerma (physics), Kramers' law, Kramers' opacity law, Landau–Pomeranchuk–Migdal effect, Langmuir probe, Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy, Lead shielding, Levitated dipole, Light, Linear energy transfer, List of cycles, List of Dutch inventions and discoveries, List of plasma physics articles, List of space telescopes, Lorentz force, Magnetosphere of Jupiter, Margaret G. Kivelson, Mass attenuation coefficient, Mechanism of sonoluminescence, Microwave burn, Migma, Modern searches for Lorentz violation, Monochromatic wavelength dispersive x-ray fluorescence, Muon, Neptunium, Neupert effect, Neutron, Neutron bomb, Neutron source, NGC 5238, Nikola Tesla, Nuclear fuel, Nuclear fusion, Opacity (optics), Otto Scherzer, Outline of German expressions in English, Paradox of radiation of charged particles in a gravitational field, Particle shower, Particle therapy, Particle-induced X-ray emission, Peak kilovoltage, Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy, Phosphorus, PLUTO detector, Polywell, Projectional radiography, Pyroelectric fusion, Qu Qinyue, Quantum mechanical scattering of photon and nucleus, Radiation burn, Radiation length, Radiation protection, Radiation resistance, Radiative process, Radioisotope thermoelectric generator, Relativistic runaway electron avalanche, Renormalization, Scintillator, Selective internal radiation therapy, SN 1987A, Solar flare, Sombrero Galaxy, Sonoluminescence, Sound pressure, Spectral energy distribution, Spinning dust, Sterilization (microbiology), Stopping power (particle radiation), Strahl, Streamer discharge, Synchrotron radiation, TAE Technologies, Tau (particle), Technetium-99m, Terahertz radiation, Terrestrial gamma-ray flash, Thomson scattering, Tritium radioluminescence, Ultrafast laser spectroscopy, Walter Heitler, Weinberg–Witten theorem, Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe, X-ray, X-ray astronomy, X-ray crystallography, X-ray filter, X-ray fluorescence, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray transient, X-ray tube. Expand index (135 more) » « Shrink index
Acute radiation syndrome (ARS) is a collection of health effects that are present within 24 hours of exposure to high doses of ionizing radiation.
Aneutronic fusion is any form of fusion power in which neutrons carry no more than 1% of the total released energy.
Arkady Beynusovich (Benediktovich) Migdal (Арка́дий Бе́йнусович (Бенеди́ктович) Мигда́л; Lida, Russian Empire, 11 March 1911 – Princeton, United States, 9 February 1991) was a Soviet physicist and member of the USSR Academy of Sciences.
Arnold Theodore Nordsieck (5 January 1911 – 18 January 1971) was an American theoretical physicist.
Astronomy (from ἀστρονομία) is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena.
An astrophysical plasma is a plasma (highly ionized gas) that occurs beyond the solar system.
Astrophysical X-ray sources are astronomical objects with physical properties which result in the emission of X-rays.
Astrophysics is the branch of astronomy that employs the principles of physics and chemistry "to ascertain the nature of the astronomical objects, rather than their positions or motions in space".
The terms atomic battery, nuclear battery, tritium battery and radioisotope generator are used to describe a device which uses energy from the decay of a radioactive isotope to generate electricity.
Auger therapy (AT) is a form of radiation therapy for the treatment of cancer which relies on a large number of low-energy electrons (emitted by the Auger effect) to damage cancer cells, rather than the high-energy radiation used in traditional radiation therapy.
The axion is a hypothetical elementary particle postulated by the Peccei–Quinn theory in 1977 to resolve the strong CP problem in quantum chromodynamics (QCD).
Background radiation is a measure of the ionizing radiation present in the environment at a particular location which is not due to deliberate introduction of radiation sources.
Beamstrahlung (from beam + bremsstrahlung) is the radiation from one beam of charged particles in storage rings or linear colliders caused by its interaction with the electromagnetic field of the other beam.
Bernhard Gál (born 1971) is an Austrian artist, composer and musicologist.
A beta particle, also called beta ray or beta radiation, (symbol β) is a high-energy, high-speed electron or positron emitted by the radioactive decay of an atomic nucleus during the process of beta decay.
The Bethe formula describes the mean energy loss per distance travelled of swift charged particles (protons, alpha particles, atomic ions) traversing matter (or alternatively the stopping power of the material).
Bismuth is a chemical element with symbol Bi and atomic number 83.
Bjørn Håvard Wiik (born 17 February 1937 in Bruvik, Norway; died 26 February 1999 in Hamburg, Germany) was a Norwegian elementary particle physicist, noted for his role on the experiment that produced the first experimental evidence for gluons and for his influential role on later accelerator projects.
A blueshift is any decrease in wavelength, with a corresponding increase in frequency, of an electromagnetic wave; the opposite effect is referred to as redshift.
In atomic physics, the Rutherford–Bohr model or Bohr model or Bohr diagram, introduced by Niels Bohr and Ernest Rutherford in 1913, depicts the atom as a small, positively charged nucleus surrounded by electrons that travel in circular orbits around the nucleus—similar to the structure of the Solar System, but with attraction provided by electrostatic forces rather than gravity.
Generally in scattering theory and in particular in quantum mechanics, the Born approximation consists of taking the incident field in place of the total field as the driving field at each point in the scatterer.
The Bragg peak is a pronounced peak on the Bragg curve which plots the energy loss of ionizing radiation during its travel through matter.
Bruno Benedetto Rossi (13 April 1905 – 21 November 1993) was an Italian experimental physicist.
The Bussard ramjet is a theoretical method of spacecraft propulsion proposed in 1960 by the physicist Robert W. Bussard, popularized by Poul Anderson's novel Tau Zero, Larry Niven in his Known Space series of books, Vernor Vinge in his Zones of Thought series, and referred to by Carl Sagan in the television series and book Cosmos.
Cargo scanning or non-intrusive inspection (NII) refers to non-destructive methods of inspecting and identifying goods in transportation systems.
Cherenkov radiation (sometimes spelled "Cerenkov") is electromagnetic radiation emitted when a charged particle (such as an electron) passes through a dielectric medium at a speed greater than the phase velocity of light in that medium.
Chien-Shiung Wu (May 31, 1912 – February 16, 1997) was a Chinese-American experimental physicist who made significant contributions in the field of nuclear physics.
In physics, a continuous spectrum usually means a set of attainable values for some physical quantity (such as energy or wavelength) that is best described as an interval of real numbers, as opposed to a discrete spectrum, a set of attainable values that is discrete in the mathematical sense, where there is a positive gap between each value and the next one.
In astronomy and in astrophysics, for radiative losses of the solar corona, it is meant the energy flux radiated from the external atmosphere of the Sun (traditionally divided into chromosphere, transition region and corona), and, in particular, the processes of production of the radiation coming from the solar corona and transition region, where the plasma is optically-thin.
The cosmic microwave background (CMB, CMBR) is electromagnetic radiation as a remnant from an early stage of the universe in Big Bang cosmology.
A Crookes tube (also Crookes–Hittorf tube) is an early experimental electrical discharge tube, with partial vacuum, invented by English physicist William Crookes and others around 1869-1875, in which cathode rays, streams of electrons, were discovered.
The Crystal Ball was a hermetic particle detector used initially with the SPEAR particle accelerator at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center beginning in 1979.
A cyclotron is a type of particle accelerator invented by Ernest O. Lawrence in 1929-1930 at the University of California, Berkeley, and patented in 1932.
Cyclotron radiation is electromagnetic radiation emitted by accelerating charged particles deflected by a magnetic field.
A delta ray is a secondary electron with enough energy to escape a significant distance away from the primary radiation beam and produce further ionization", and is sometimes used to describe any recoil particle caused by secondary ionization.
DEMO (DEMOnstration Power Station) is a proposed nuclear fusion power station that is intended to build upon the ITER experimental nuclear fusion reactor.
A dense plasma focus (DPF) is a type of plasma device originally developed as a fusion power device starting in the early 1960s.
Dioxygen difluoride is a compound of fluorine and oxygen with the molecular formula.
Direct energy conversion (DEC) or simply direct conversion converts a charged particle's kinetic energy into a voltage.
Double electron capture is a decay mode of atomic nucleus.
The Duane–Hunt law, named after the American physicists William Duane and Franklin Hunt, gives the maximum frequency of X-rays that can be emitted by Bremsstrahlung in an X-ray tube by accelerating electrons through an excitation voltage V into a metal target.
The Eddington luminosity, also referred to as the Eddington limit, is the maximum luminosity a body (such as a star) can achieve when there is balance between the force of radiation acting outward and the gravitational force acting inward.
In physics, electromagnetic radiation (EM radiation or EMR) refers to the waves (or their quanta, photons) of the electromagnetic field, propagating (radiating) through space-time, carrying electromagnetic radiant energy.
The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.
An electron microprobe (EMP), also known as an electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA) or electron micro probe analyzer (EMPA), is an analytical tool used to non-destructively determine the chemical composition of small volumes of solid materials.
Electron scattering occurs when electrons are deviated from their original trajectory.
Electron wake is the disturbance left after a high-energy charged particle passes through condensed matter or plasma.
Sir Ernest William Titterton (4 March 1916 – 8 February 1990) was a British nuclear physicist.
Eta Carinae (η Carinae, abbreviated to η Car), formerly known as Eta Argus, is a stellar system containing at least two stars with a combined luminosity greater than five million times that of the Sun, located around 7,500 light-years (2,300 parsecs) distant in the constellation Carina.
Evaporation is a common method of thin-film deposition.
Event generators are software libraries that generate simulated high-energy particle physics events.
External beam radiotherapy (EBRT) or teletherapy is the most common form of radiotherapy (radiation therapy).
Fermilab E-906/SeaQuest is a particle physics experiment which will use Drell–Yan process to measure the contributions of antiquarks to the structure of the proton or neutron and how this structure is modified when the proton or neutron is included within an atomic nucleus.
A flashtube, also called a flashlamp, is an electric arc lamp designed to produce extremely intense, incoherent, full-spectrum white light for very short durations.
Food irradiation is the process of exposing food and food packaging to ionizing radiation.
Outside the nucleus, free neutrons are unstable and have a mean lifetime of (about 14 minutes, 42 seconds).
A free-electron laser (FEL) is a kind of laser whose lasing medium consists of very-high-speed electrons moving freely through a magnetic structure, hence the term free electron.
The fusion energy gain factor, usually expressed with the symbol Q, is the ratio of fusion power produced in a nuclear fusion reactor to the power required to maintain the plasma in steady state.
Fusion power is a form of power generation in which energy is generated by using fusion reactions to produce heat for electricity generation.
A fusor is a device that uses an electric field to heat ions to conditions suitable for nuclear fusion.
The Galactic Emission Mapping survey (GEM) is an international project with the goal of making a precise map of the electromagnetic spectrum of our galaxy at low frequencies (radio and microwaves).
A galaxy cluster, or cluster of galaxies, is a structure that consists of anywhere from hundreds to thousands of galaxies that are bound together by gravity with typical masses ranging from 1014–1015 solar masses.
Galaxy groups and clusters are the largest known gravitationally bound objects to have arisen thus far in the process of cosmic structure formation.
A gamma ray or gamma radiation (symbol γ or \gamma), is penetrating electromagnetic radiation arising from the radioactive decay of atomic nuclei.
In a medical facility, such as a hospital or clinic, a gantry holds radiation detectors and/or a radiation source used to diagnose or treat a patient's illness.
Gemini 10 (officially Gemini X) With Gemini IV, NASA changed to Roman numerals for Gemini mission designations.
George Curriden Baldwin (May 5, 1917 – January 23, 2010) was an American theoretical and experimental physicist.
A Germanism is a loan word or other loan element borrowed from German for use in some other language.
A glow discharge is a plasma formed by the passage of electric current through a gas.
A gluon is an elementary particle that acts as the exchange particle (or gauge boson) for the strong force between quarks.
The gray (symbol: Gy) is a derived unit of ionizing radiation dose in the International System of Units (SI).
HD 192685, also known as QR Vul or HR 7739, is a Be star 1,199 ly away in the Vulpecula constellation.
The health threat from cosmic rays is the danger posed by galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar energetic particles to astronauts on interplanetary missions or any missions that venture through the Van-Allen Belts or outside the Earth's magnetosphere.
The Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) is a German research laboratory in Dresden and member of the Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres.
High harmonic generation (HHG) is a non-linear process during which a target (gas, plasma or solid sample) is illuminated by an intense laser pulse.
High-energy X-rays or HEX-rays are very hard X-rays, with typical energies of 80–1000 keV (1 MeV), about one order of magnitude higher than conventional X-rays (and well into gamma-ray energies over 120 keV).
Field theory had its origins in the 18th century in a mathematical formulation of Newtonian mechanics, but it was seen as deficient as it implied action at a distance.
Hyperspectral imaging, like other spectral imaging, collects and processes information from across the electromagnetic spectrum.
IACT stands for Imaging Atmospheric (or Air) Cherenkov Telescope or Technique.
This is an index of articles relating to electronics and electricity or natural electricity and things that run on electricity and things that use or conduct electricity.
The index of physics articles is split into multiple pages due to its size.
This is a list of Wave topics.
Industrial radiography is a method of non-destructive testing where many types of manufactured components can be examined to verify the internal structure and integrity of the specimen.
Inertial electrostatic confinement is a branch of fusion research that uses an electric field to elevate a plasma to fusion conditions.
Inflatable habitats or expandable habitats are pressurized structures capable of supporting life in outer space whose internal volume increases after launch.
An infraparticle is an electrically charged particle and its surrounding cloud of soft photons—of which there are infinite number, by virtue of the infrared divergence of quantum electrodynamics.
In physics, an infrared divergence (also IR divergence or infrared catastrophe) is a situation in which an integral, for example a Feynman diagram, diverges because of contributions of objects with very small energy approaching zero, or, equivalently, because of physical phenomena at very long distances.
In particle physics, initial and final state radiation refers to certain kinds of radiative emissions that are not due to particle annihilation.
An Intermediate Polar (also called a DQ Herculis Star) is a type of cataclysmic variable binary star system with a white dwarf and a cool main-sequence secondary star.
In astronomy, the intracluster medium (ICM) is the superheated plasma that permeates a galaxy cluster.
Iodine-125 (125I) is a radioisotope of iodine which has uses in biological assays, nuclear medicine imaging and in radiation therapy as brachytherapy to treat a number of conditions, including prostate cancer, uveal melanomas, and brain tumors.
Ionizing radiation (ionising radiation) is radiation that carries enough energy to liberate electrons from atoms or molecules, thereby ionizing them.
Bismuth (83Bi) has no stable isotopes, but does have one very long-lived isotope; thus, the standard atomic weight can be given as.
Although phosphorus (15P) has 23 isotopes from 24P to 46P, only one of these isotopes is stable 31P; as such, it is considered a monoisotopic element.
John M. J. Madey (1943 - 5 July 2016) was a professor of Physics at the University of Hawaii at Manoa, a former director of the Free Electron Laser Laboratory at Duke University, and formerly a professor (research) at Stanford University.
Kerma is an acronym for "kinetic energy released per unit mass", defined as the sum of the initial kinetic energies of all the charged particles liberated by uncharged ionizing radiation (i.e., indirectly ionizing radiation such as photons and neutrons) in a sample of matter, divided by the mass of the sample.
Kramers' law is a formula for the spectral distribution of X-rays produced by an electron hitting a solid target.
Kramers' opacity law describes the opacity of a medium in terms of the ambient density and temperature, assuming that the opacity is dominated by bound-free absorption (the absorption of light during ionization of a bound electron) or free-free absorption (the absorption of light when scattering a free ion, also called bremsstrahlung).
In high-energy physics, the Landau–Pomeranchuk–Migdal effect, also known as the Landau–Pomeranchuk effect and the Pomeranchuk effect, or simply LPM effect, is a reduction of the bremsstrahlung and pair production cross sections at high energies or high matter densities.
A Langmuir probe is a device used to determine the electron temperature, electron density, and electric potential of a plasma.
Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is a type of atomic emission spectroscopy which uses a highly energetic laser pulse as the excitation source.
Lead shielding refers to the use of lead as a form of radiation protection to shield people or objects from radiation so as to reduce the effective dose.
A levitated dipole is a type of nuclear fusion reactor design using a superconducting torus which is magnetically levitated inside the reactor chamber.
Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.
In dosimetry, linear energy transfer (LET) is the amount of energy that an ionizing particle transfers to the material traversed per unit distance.
This is a list of recurring cycles.
The Netherlands had a considerable part in the making of modern society.
This is a list of plasma physics topics.
This list of space telescopes (astronomical space observatories) is grouped by major frequency ranges: gamma ray, x-ray, ultraviolet, visible, infrared, microwave and radio.
In physics (particularly in electromagnetism) the Lorentz force is the combination of electric and magnetic force on a point charge due to electromagnetic fields.
The magnetosphere of Jupiter is the cavity created in the solar wind by the planet's magnetic field.
Margaret G. Kivelson (October 21, 1928) is an American space physicist, planetary scientist, and Distinguished Professor Emerita of Space Physics at the University of California, Los Angeles.
The mass attenuation coefficient, mass extinction coefficient, or mass narrow beam attenuation coefficient of the volume of a material characterizes how easily it can be penetrated by a beam of light, sound, particles, or other energy or matter.
Sonoluminescence is a phenomenon that occurs when a small gas bubble is acoustically suspended and periodically driven in a liquid solution at ultrasonic frequencies, resulting in bubble collapse, cavitation, and light emission.
Microwave burns are burn injuries caused by thermal effects of microwave radiation absorbed in a living organism.
Migma, sometimes migmatron or migmacell, was a proposed colliding beam fusion reactor designed by Bogdan Maglich in 1969.
Modern searches for Lorentz violation are scientific studies that look for deviations from Lorentz invariance or symmetry, a set of fundamental frameworks that underpin modern science and fundamental physics in particular.
Monochromatic wavelength dispersive x-ray fluorescence (MWD XRF) is an enhanced version of conventional wavelength-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (WDXRF) elemental analysis.
The muon (from the Greek letter mu (μ) used to represent it) is an elementary particle similar to the electron, with an electric charge of −1 e and a spin of 1/2, but with a much greater mass.
Neptunium is a chemical element with symbol Np and atomic number 93.
The Neupert Effect refers to an empirical tendency for high-energy ('hard') X-ray emission to coincide temporally with the rate of rise of lower-energy ('soft') X-ray emission of a solar flare.
A neutron bomb, officially defined as a type of enhanced radiation weapon (ERW), is a low yield thermonuclear weapon designed to maximize lethal neutron radiation in the immediate vicinity of the blast while minimizing the physical power of the blast itself.
A neutron source is any device that emits neutrons, irrespective of the mechanism used to produce the neutrons.
NGC 5238 is an irregular galaxy in the constellation Canes Venatici.
Nikola Tesla (Никола Тесла; 10 July 1856 – 7 January 1943) was a Serbian-American inventor, electrical engineer, mechanical engineer, physicist, and futurist who is best known for his contributions to the design of the modern alternating current (AC) electricity supply system.
Nuclear fuel is a substance that is used in nuclear power stations to produce heat to power turbines.
In nuclear physics, nuclear fusion is a reaction in which two or more atomic nuclei come close enough to form one or more different atomic nuclei and subatomic particles (neutrons or protons).
Opacity is the measure of impenetrability to electromagnetic or other kinds of radiation, especially visible light.
Otto Scherzer (9 March 1909 – 15 November 1982) was a German theoretical physicist who made contributions to electron microscopy.
The following outline is presented as an overview of and topical guide to German expressions in English: A German expression in English is a German loanword, term, phrase, or quotation incorporated into the English language.
The paradox of a charge in a gravitational field is an apparent physical paradox in the context of general relativity.
In particle physics, a shower is a cascade of secondary particles produced as the result of a high-energy particle interacting with dense matter.
Particle therapy is a form of external beam radiotherapy using beams of energetic protons, neutrons, or positive ions for cancer treatment.
Particle-induced X-ray emission or proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) is a technique used in the determining of the elemental make-up of a material or sample.
Peak kilovoltage (kVp) refers to the maximum high voltage applied across an X-ray tube during the creation of x-rays within it.
Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) is a type of unsealed source radiotherapy, using a radiopharmaceutical which targets peptide receptors to deliver localised treatment, typically for neuroendocrine tumours (NETs).
Phosphorus is a chemical element with symbol P and atomic number 15.
PLUTO, constructed at DESY laboratories in Hamburg in 1973-1974 and substantially upgraded in 1977-1978, was an experimental detector for high energy particle physics.
The polywell is a type of nuclear fusion reactor that uses an electric field to heat ions to fusion conditions.
Projectional radiography is a form of radiography and medical imaging that produces two-dimensional images by x-ray radiation.
Pyroelectric fusion refers to the technique of using pyroelectric crystals to generate high strength electrostatic fields to accelerate deuterium ions (tritium might also be used someday) into a metal hydride target also containing deuterium (or tritium) with sufficient kinetic energy to cause these ions to undergo nuclear fusion.
Qu Qinyue (born 21 May 1935) is a Chinese astrophysicist and educator.
In pair production, a photon creates an electron positron pair.
A radiation burn is damage to the skin or other biological tissue as an effect of radiation.
In physics, the radiation length is a characteristic of a material, related to the energy loss of high energy, electromagnetic-interacting particles with it.
Radiation protection, sometimes known as radiological protection, is defined by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) as "The protection of people from harmful effects of exposure to ionizing radiation, and the means for achieving this".
Radiation resistance is that part of an antenna's feedpoint resistance that is caused by the radiation of electromagnetic waves from the antenna, as opposed to loss resistance (also called ohmic resistance) which generally causes the antenna to heat up.
In particle physics, a radiative process refers to one elementary particle emitting another and continuing to exist.
A Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG, RITEG) is an electrical generator that uses an array of thermocouples to convert the heat released by the decay of a suitable radioactive material into electricity by the Seebeck effect.
A relativistic runaway electron avalanche (RREA) is an avalanche growth of a population of relativistic electrons driven through a material (typically air) by an electric field.
Renormalization is a collection of techniques in quantum field theory, the statistical mechanics of fields, and the theory of self-similar geometric structures, that are used to treat infinities arising in calculated quantities by altering values of quantities to compensate for effects of their self-interactions.
A scintillator is a material that exhibits scintillation—the property of luminescence, when excited by ionizing radiation.
Selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT), also known as transarterial radioembolization (TARE), radioembolization or intra-arterial microbrachytherapy is a form of radiation therapy used in interventional radiology to treat cancer.
SN 1987A was a peculiar type II supernova in the Large Magellanic Cloud, a dwarf galaxy satellite of the Milky Way.
A solar flare is a sudden flash of increased Sun's brightness, usually observed near its surface.
The Sombrero Galaxy (also known as Messier Object 104, M104 or NGC 4594) is a spiral galaxy in the constellation Virgo located from Earth.
Sonoluminescence is the emission of short bursts of light from imploding bubbles in a liquid when excited by sound.
Sound pressure or acoustic pressure is the local pressure deviation from the ambient (average or equilibrium) atmospheric pressure, caused by a sound wave.
A spectral energy distribution (SED) is a plot of energy versus frequency or wavelength of light (not to be confused with a 'spectrum' of flux density vs frequency or wavelength).
In astronomy, spinning dust is a mechanism proposed to explain anomalous microwave emission from the Milky Way.
Sterilization (or sterilisation) refers to any process that eliminates, removes, kills, or deactivates all forms of life and other biological agents (such as fungi, bacteria, viruses, spore forms, prions, unicellular eukaryotic organisms such as Plasmodium, etc.) present in a specified region, such as a surface, a volume of fluid, medication, or in a compound such as biological culture media.
Stopping power in nuclear physics is defined as the retarding force acting on charged particles, typically alpha and beta particles, due to interaction with matter, resulting in loss of particle energy.
Strahl is a German word that means 'ray' or 'beam'.
A streamer discharge, also known as filamentary discharge, is a type of transient electrical discharge.
Synchrotron radiation (also known as magnetobremsstrahlung radiation) is the electromagnetic radiation emitted when charged particles are accelerated radially, i.e., when they are subject to an acceleration perpendicular to their velocity.
TAE Technologies (formerly Tri Alpha Energy) is an American company based in Foothill Ranch, California, created for the development of aneutronic fusion power.
The tau (τ), also called the tau lepton, tau particle, or tauon, is an elementary particle similar to the electron, with negative electric charge and a 2.
Technetium-99m is a metastable nuclear isomer of technetium-99 (itself an isotope of technetium), symbolized as 99mTc, that is used in tens of millions of medical diagnostic procedures annually, making it the most commonly used medical radioisotope.
Terahertz radiation – also known as submillimeter radiation, terahertz waves, tremendously high frequency (THF), T-rays, T-waves, T-light, T-lux or THz – consists of electromagnetic waves within the ITU-designated band of frequencies from 0.3 to 3 terahertz (THz; 1012 Hz).
A terrestrial gamma-ray flash (TGF) is a burst of gamma rays produced in Earth's atmosphere.
Thomson scattering is the elastic scattering of electromagnetic radiation by a free charged particle, as described by classical electromagnetism.
Tritium lumination is the use of gaseous tritium, a radioactive isotope of hydrogen, to create visible light.
Ultrafast laser spectroscopy is a spectroscopic technique that uses ultrashort pulse lasers for the study of dynamics on extremely short time scales (attoseconds to nanoseconds).
Walter Heinrich Heitler (2 January 1904 – 15 November 1981) was a German physicist who made contributions to quantum electrodynamics and quantum field theory.
In theoretical physics, the Weinberg–Witten (WW) theorem, proved by Steven Weinberg and Edward Witten, states that massless particles (either composite or elementary) with spin j > 1/2 cannot carry a Lorentz-covariant current, while massless particles with spin j > 1 cannot carry a Lorentz-covariant stress-energy.
The Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP), originally known as the Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP), was a spacecraft operating from 2001 to 2010 which measured temperature differences across the sky in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) – the radiant heat remaining from the Big Bang.
X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation.
X-ray astronomy is an observational branch of astronomy which deals with the study of X-ray observation and detection from astronomical objects.
X-ray crystallography is a technique used for determining the atomic and molecular structure of a crystal, in which the crystalline atoms cause a beam of incident X-rays to diffract into many specific directions.
An X-ray filter is a material placed in front of an X-ray source in order to reduce the intensity of particular wavelengths from its spectrum and selectively alter the distribution of X-ray wavelengths within a given beam.
X-ray fluorescence (XRF) is the emission of characteristic "secondary" (or fluorescent) X-rays from a material that has been excited by bombarding with high-energy X-rays or gamma rays.
X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is a surface-sensitive quantitative spectroscopic technique that measures the elemental composition at the parts per thousand range, empirical formula, chemical state and electronic state of the elements that exist within a material.
X-ray emission occurs from many celestial objects.
An X-ray tube is a vacuum tube that converts electrical input power into X-rays.
Braking radiation, Breaking radiation, Brehmsstrahlung, Brehmstrahlung, Brehmstralung, Bremsstrahlung Effect, Bremsstrahlung effect, Bremsstrahlung radiation, Bremsstralung, Bremstrahlung, Bremstralung radiation, Continuous x-ray, Free-free, Free-free absorption, Free-free emission, Free-free radiation, Free-free transition, Free–free transition, Thermal bremsstrahlung.