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CYP3A4

Index CYP3A4

Cytochrome P450 3A4 (abbreviated CYP3A4) is an important enzyme in the body, mainly found in the liver and in the intestine. [1]

441 relations: Abemaciclib, Abiraterone, Abiraterone acetate, Adenosine diphosphate receptor inhibitor, Albendazole, Albendazole monooxygenase, Alectinib, Alfuzosin, Aliskiren, Alitretinoin, Allylestrenol, Almotriptan, Alogliptin, Alosetron, Alpha-1 blocker, Alpha-2 adrenergic receptor, Alprazolam, Amentoflavone, Amitriptyline, Amlodipine, Analgesic, Antifungal, Antipsychotic, Apalutamide, Apixaban, Apremilast, Aprepitant, Aripiprazole, Aripiprazole lauroxil, Armodafinil, Artemether, Artemether/lumefantrine, Artesunate, Astemizole, Astex, Atazanavir, Atorvastatin, Atypical antipsychotic, Axitinib, Azamulin, Barbiturate, Baricitinib, Bedaquiline, Bepridil, Bergamottin, Betamethasone, Bexarotene, Bicalutamide, Bioavailability, Bisoprolol, ..., Blonanserin, BMS-641988, Bosutinib, Brentuximab vedotin, Brexpiprazole, Bromazepam, Budesonide, Buprenorphine, Buprenorphine/naloxone, Bupropion, Buspirone, Butalbital, Cabozantinib, Caffeine, Calanolide A, Carbamazepine, Cariprazine, Chloramphenicol, Ciclosporin, Cilostazol, Cimetidine, Cinacalcet, Ciprofloxacin, Cisapride, Citalopram, Clarithromycin, Clobazam, Clonazepam, Clotrimazole, Clozapine, Cobicistat, Cobimetinib, Cocaine, Codeine, Colchicine, Corvalol, Crizotinib, Cyclobenzaprine, CYP2E1, CYP3A, CYP3A7, Cyproheptadine, Cyproterone acetate, Cytochrome P450, Daclatasvir, Dalfopristin, Danazol, Dapoxetine, Dapsone, Darifenacin, Darunavir, Delamanid, Delavirdine, Deramciclane, Desloratadine, Desmetramadol, Desogestrel, Development and discovery of SSRI drugs, Dextromethorphan, Dextromoramide, Dextropropoxyphene, Diazepam, Diclofenac, Dienogest, Dihydrocodeine, Diltiazem, Diphenhydramine, Discovery and development of cyclooxygenase 2 inhibitors, Discovery and development of proton pump inhibitors, Discovery and development of statins, Disopyramide, Docetaxel, Dofetilide, Domperidone, Double-disk diffusion test, Doxepin, Drospirenone, Drug interaction, Dutasteride, Dydrogesterone, Ebastine, Elbasvir, Elbasvir/grazoprevir, Eletriptan, Enzalutamide, Eplerenone, Epoxyeicosatetraenoic acid, Epoxyeicosatrienoic acid, Epoxygenase, Ergometrine, Erlotinib, Erythromycin breath test, Escitalopram, Eslicarbazepine acetate, Esomeprazole, Estetrol (medication), Estradiol, Estradiol (medication), Estriol, Estrogen, Eszopiclone, Ethinylestradiol, Ethosuximide, Etonogestrel, Etoposide, Etoricoxib, Etravirine, Exemestane, Felodipine, Fentanyl, Fesoterodine, Fibrate, Finasteride, Flavonols, Flibanserin, Fluconazole, Flumetasone, Flunitrazepam, Fluocinolone acetonide, Fluoxetine, Fluticasone, Fluticasone furoate, Fluticasone propionate, Fluvastatin, Fluvoxamine, Fosamprenavir, Fostamatinib, Fulvestrant, Furanocoumarin, Galantamine, Gastrointestinal tract, Gefitinib, Goldenseal, Grapefruit, Grapefruit seed extract, Grapefruit–drug interactions, Grazoprevir, Guanfacine, H2 antagonist, H3 receptor antagonist, Halofantrine, Haloperidol, Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha, Herb-drug interactions, Homosildenafil, Hydrocodone, Hydrocodone/ibuprofen, Hydrocodone/paracetamol, Hydroxychloroquine, Hydroxylation of estradiol, Hydroxyprogesterone caproate, Hydroxyzine, Hyperforin, Hypericum, Hypericum perforatum, Ibutilide, Icotinib, Idelalisib, Iloperidone, Imatinib, Indinavir, Isavuconazonium, Itraconazole, Ivabradine, Ixabepilone, Ixazomib, John David Spence, Ketamine, Lansoprazole, Lenvatinib, Lercanidipine, Lesinurad, Levocetirizine, Levomilnacipran, Levonorgestrel, Lidocaine, List of cytochrome P450 modulators, List of enzymes, Lopinavir/ritonavir, Loratadine, Losartan, Lovastatin, Loxapine, Lurasidone, Lynestrenol, Macitentan, Macrolide, MDMA, Medroxyprogesterone acetate, Meloxicam, Meta-Chlorophenylpiperazine, Metacycline, Metapristone, Methadone, Methylergometrine, Metoprolol, Mexazolam, Midazolam, Mirabegron, Mirtazapine, Mitragyna speciosa, Modafinil, Mometasone furoate, Montelukast, N-Desmethylapalutamide, N-Desmethylenzalutamide, NAPQI, Naringin, Narlaprevir, Nefazodone, Nelfinavir, Neratinib, Netupitant, Nevirapine, Nifedipine, Nilotinib, Nilutamide, Nitrazepam, Nomegestrol acetate, Nordoxepin, Norethisterone, Norhydrocodone, Norketamine, Normorphine, Noroxycodone, Norpethidine, Ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir, Omeprazole, Ondansetron, ORM-15341, Osimertinib, Oxcarbazepine, Oxycodone, Oxymorphone, Paclitaxel, Palonosetron, Panobinostat, Pantoprazole, Paracetamol, Paracetamol poisoning, Parecoxib, Paritaprevir, Paroxetine, Pazopanib, PDE5 inhibitor, Perampanel, Petasites, PGRMC1, Pharmacogenomics, Pharmacology of antidepressants, Pharmacology of bicalutamide, Phenytoin, Pimavanserin, Pimozide, Pitavastatin, Polyestradiol phosphate, Pomalidomide, Ponatinib, Pranlukast, Prasugrel, Praziquantel, Pregnane X receptor, Prochlorperazine, Progesterone, Progesterone (medication), Propranolol, Quinine, Rabeprazole, Ramelteon, Reboxetine, Repaglinide, Retapamulin, Ribociclib, Rifampicin, Rimonabant, Riociguat, Ritonavir, Rivaroxaban, Roflumilast, Rolapitant, Romidepsin, Ropinirole, Rucaparib, Ruxolitinib, Safinamide, Salmeterol, Saquinavir, Saxagliptin, Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, Semagacestat, Sertindole, Sertraline, Setipiprant, Sibutramine, Sildenafil, Silodosin, Simeprevir, Simvastatin, Simvastatin/sitagliptin, Sirolimus, Sitagliptin, Sitaxentan, Sofosbuvir/velpatasvir, Solifenacin, Sorafenib, Specialized pro-resolving mediators, Spironolactone, Statin, Steroid, Sunitinib, Synergistic enhancer (antiretroviral), Tabimorelin, Tacrolimus, Tadalafil, Tamoxifen, Tapentadol, Tasimelteon, Taurochenodeoxycholate 6α-hydroxylase, Telavancin, Telithromycin, Temazepam, Terconazole, Terfenadine, Tesmilifene, Tesofensine, Testosterone, Testosterone (medication), Tetrahydrocannabinol, Ticagrelor, Tilidine, Tinidazole, Tiotropium bromide, Tivozanib, Tocilizumab, Tofacitinib, Tofisopam, Tolcapone, Tolvaptan, Topiramate, Toremifene, TPA-023, Trabectedin, Tramadol, Transgender hormone therapy (male-to-female), Trastuzumab emtansine, Trazodone, Trifolium pratense, Triptan, Troleandomycin, Tropisetron, Udenafil, Ulipristal acetate, Valbenazine, Valdecoxib, Vandetanib, Vardenafil, Vatalanib, Vault RNA, Velpatasvir, Venetoclax, Verteporfin, Vilazodone, Vinblastine, Vincristine, Vindesine, Vinorelbine, Vismodegib, Vonoprazan, Vorapaxar, Voriconazole, Warfarin, Zafirlukast, Zaleplon, Zanoterone, Zileuton, Ziprasidone, Zolpidem, Zonisamide, Zopiclone, Zuclopenthixol, 1,3,7-Trimethyluric acid, 1,8-Cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase, 12-Hydroxyheptadecatrienoic acid, 15β-Hydroxycyproterone acetate, 16α-Hydroxyprogesterone, 2-Hydroxyestradiol, 3,4-Methylenedioxy-N-ethylamphetamine, 3-Methoxymorphinan, 4-Ipomeanol, 5-HT3 antagonist, 7α-Hydroxy-DHEA. Expand index (391 more) »

Abemaciclib

Abemaciclib (trade name Verzenio) is a drug for the treatment of advanced or metastatic breast cancers.

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Abiraterone

Abiraterone, developmental code name CB-7598, also known as 17-(3-pyridyl)androsta-5,16-dien-3β-ol, is a synthetic, steroidal CYP17A1 inhibitor.

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Abiraterone acetate

Abiraterone acetate, sold under the brand name Zytiga among others, is an antiandrogen medication which is used in the treatment of prostate cancer.

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Adenosine diphosphate receptor inhibitor

Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) receptor inhibitors are a drug class of antiplatelet agents, used in the treatment of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) or in preventive treatment for patients who are in risk of thromboembolism, myocardial infarction or a stroke.

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Albendazole

Albendazole, also known as albendazolum, is a medication used for the treatment of a variety of parasitic worm infestations.

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Albendazole monooxygenase

In enzymology, an albendazole monooxygenase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction The four substrates of this enzyme are albendazole, NADPH, H+, and O2, whereas its three products are albendazole S-oxide, NADP+, and H2O.

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Alectinib

Alectinib (INN, marketed as Alecensa) is an oral drug that blocks the activity of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) and is used to treat non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

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Alfuzosin

Alfuzosin (INN, provided as the hydrochloride salt) is a pharmaceutical drug of the α1 blocker class.

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Aliskiren

Aliskiren (trade names Tekturna and Rasilez) is the first in a class of drugs called direct renin inhibitors.

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Alitretinoin

Alitretinoin, or 9-cis-retinoic acid, is a form of vitamin A. It is also used in medicine as an antineoplastic (anti-cancer) agent developed by Ligand Pharmaceuticals.

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Allylestrenol

Allylestrenol, sold under the brand names Gestanin and Turinal among others, is a progestin medication which is used to treat recurrent and threatened miscarriage and to prevent premature labor in pregnant women.

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Almotriptan

Almotriptan (trade name Axert and others) is a triptan drug discovered and developed by Almirall for the treatment of heavy migraine headache.

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Alogliptin

Alogliptin (trade name Nesina and Vipidia) is an oral anti-diabetic drug in the DPP-4 inhibitor (gliptin) class.

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Alosetron

Alosetron (original brand name: Lotronex; originator: GSK) is a 5-HT3 antagonist used for the management of severe diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in women only.

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Alpha-1 blocker

Alpha-1 blockers (also called alpha-adrenergic blocking agents) constitute a variety of drugs that block alpha-1-adrenergic receptors in arteries, smooth muscles, and central nervous system tissues.

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Alpha-2 adrenergic receptor

The alpha-2 (α2) adrenergic receptor (or adrenoceptor) is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) associated with the Gi heterotrimeric G-protein.

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Alprazolam

Alprazolam, available under the trade name Xanax, is a potent, short-acting benzodiazepine anxiolytic—a minor tranquilizer.

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Amentoflavone

Amentoflavone is a biflavonoid (bis-apigenin coupled at 8 and 3' positions, or 3′,8′′-biapigenin) constituent of a number of plants including Ginkgo biloba, Chamaecyparis obtusa (hinoki), Hypericum perforatum (St. John’s Wort) and Xerophyta plicata.

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Amitriptyline

Amitriptyline, sold under the brand name Elavil among others, is a medicine primarily used to treat a number of mental illnesses.

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Amlodipine

Amlodipine, sold under the brand name Norvasc among others, is a medication used to treat high blood pressure and coronary artery disease.

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Analgesic

An analgesic or painkiller is any member of the group of drugs used to achieve analgesia, relief from pain.

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Antifungal

An antifungal medication, also known as an antimycotic medication, is a pharmaceutical fungicide or fungistatic used to treat and prevent mycosis such as athlete's foot, ringworm, candidiasis (thrush), serious systemic infections such as cryptococcal meningitis, and others.

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Antipsychotic

Antipsychotics, also known as neuroleptics or major tranquilizers, are a class of medication primarily used to manage psychosis (including delusions, hallucinations, paranoia or disordered thought), principally in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

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Apalutamide

Apalutamide, sold under the brand name Erleada, is a nonsteroidal antiandrogen (NSAA) medication which is used in the treatment of prostate cancer.

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Apixaban

Apixaban, sold under the tradename Eliquis, is an anticoagulant for the treatment of venous thromboembolic events.

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Apremilast

Apremilast, brand name Otezla among others, is a medication for the treatment of certain types of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis.

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Aprepitant

Aprepitant (brand name: Emend (the brand name used in all English-speaking countries)) is an antiemetic chemical compound that belongs to a class of drugs called substance P antagonists (SPA).

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Aripiprazole

Aripiprazole, sold under the brand name Abilify among others, is an atypical antipsychotic. It is recommended and primarily used in the treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Other uses include as an add-on treatment in major depressive disorder, tic disorders, and irritability associated with autism. According to a Cochrane review, evidence for the oral form in schizophrenia is not sufficient to determine effects on general functioning. Additionally, because many people dropped out of the medication trials before they were completed, the overall strength of the conclusions is low. Side effects include neuroleptic malignant syndrome, a movement disorder known as tardive dyskinesia, and high blood sugar in those with diabetes. In the elderly there is an increased risk of death. It is thus not recommended for use in those with psychosis due to dementia. It is pregnancy category C in the United States and category C in Australia, meaning there is possible evidence of harm to the fetus. It is not recommended for women who are breastfeeding. It is unclear whether it is safe or effective in people less than 18 years old. It is a partial dopamine agonist. Aripiprazole was developed by Otsuka in Japan. In the United States, Otsuka America markets it jointly with Bristol-Myers Squibb. From April 2013 to March 2014, sales of Abilify amounted to almost $6.9 billion.

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Aripiprazole lauroxil

Aripiprazole lauroxil (USAN) (brand name Aristada) is a long-acting injectable atypical antipsychotic that was developed by Alkermes.

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Armodafinil

Armodafinil (trade name Nuvigil) is the enantiopure compound of the eugeroic modafinil (Provigil).

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Artemether

Artemether is a medication used for the treatment of malaria.

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Artemether/lumefantrine

Artemether/lumefantrine, sold under the trade name Coartem among others, is a combination of the two medications artemether and lumefantrine.

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Artesunate

Artesunate (AS) is a medication used to treat malaria.

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Astemizole

Astemizole (marketed under the brand name Hismanal, developmental code R43512) was a second-generation antihistamine drug that has a long duration of action.

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Astex

Astex Therapeutics is a biotechnology company focused on the discovery and development of drugs in oncology and other areas.

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Atazanavir

Atazanavir, sold under the trade name Reyataz among others, is an antiretroviral medication used to treat and prevent HIV/AIDS.

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Atorvastatin

Atorvastatin, marketed under the trade name Lipitor among others, is a member of the medication class known as statins, which are used primarily as a lipid-lowering agent and for prevention of events associated with cardiovascular disease.

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Atypical antipsychotic

The atypical antipsychotics (AAP; also known as second generation antipsychotics (SGAs)) are a group of antipsychotic drugs (antipsychotic drugs in general are also known as major tranquilizers and neuroleptics, although the latter is usually reserved for the typical antipsychotics) used to treat psychiatric conditions.

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Axitinib

Axitinib (AG013736; trade name Inlyta) is a small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor developed by Pfizer.

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Azamulin

Azamulin is a pleuromutilin antibiotic.

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Barbiturate

A barbiturate is a drug that acts as a central nervous system depressant, and can therefore produce a wide spectrum of effects, from mild sedation to death.

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Baricitinib

Baricitinib (trade name Olumiant) is a drug for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), being developed by Incyte and Eli Lilly. It acts as an inhibitor of janus kinase (JAK), blocking the subtypes JAK1 and JAK2. The drug is approved in Europe.

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Bedaquiline

Bedaquiline, sold under the brand name Sirturo, is a medication used to treat active tuberculosis.

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Bepridil

Bepridil (trade name Vascor) is an amine calcium channel blocker once used to treat angina.

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Bergamottin

Bergamottin is a natural furanocoumarin found principally in grapefruit juice.

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Betamethasone

Betamethasone is a steroid medication.

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Bexarotene

Bexarotene (brand name: Targretin) is an antineoplastic (anti-cancer) agent approved by the U.S.Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (in late 1999) and the European Medicines Agency (EMA) (early 2001) for use as a treatment for cutaneous T cell lymphoma (CTCL).

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Bicalutamide

Bicalutamide, sold under the brand name Casodex among others, is an antiandrogen medication that is primarily used to treat prostate cancer.

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Bioavailability

In pharmacology, bioavailability (BA or F) is a subcategory of absorption and is the fraction of an administered dose of unchanged drug that reaches the systemic circulation, one of the principal pharmacokinetic properties of drugs.

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Bisoprolol

Bisoprolol, marketed under the tradename Zebeta among others, is a medication most commonly used for heart diseases.

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Blonanserin

Blonanserin, sold under the brand name Lonasen, is a relatively new atypical antipsychotic (approved by PMDA in January 2008) commercialized by Dainippon Sumitomo Pharma in Japan and Korea for the treatment of schizophrenia.

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BMS-641988

BMS-641988 is a nonsteroidal antiandrogen which was developed by Bristol-Myers Squibb for the treatment of prostate cancer but was never marketed.

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Bosutinib

Bosutinib (rINN/USAN; codenamed SKI-606, marketed under the trade name Bosulif) is a small molecule BCR-ABL and src tyrosine kinase inhibitor used for the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia.

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Brentuximab vedotin

Brentuximab vedotin (INN, trade name Adcetris) is an antibody-drug conjugate medication used to treat relapsed or refractory Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and systemic anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL).

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Brexpiprazole

Brexpiprazole, sold under the brand name Rexulti, is an atypical antipsychotic.

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Bromazepam

Bromazepam (marketed under several brand names, including Lectopam, Lexotan, Lexilium, Lexaurin, Brazepam, Rekotnil, Bromaze, Somalium and Lexotanil) is a benzodiazepine derivative drug, patented by Roche in 1963 and developed clinically in the 1970s.

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Budesonide

Budesonide (BUD), sold under the brand name Pulmicort among others, is a medication of the corticosteroid type.

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Buprenorphine

Buprenorphine, sold under the brand name Subutex, among others, is an opioid used to treat opioid addiction, acute pain, and chronic pain.

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Buprenorphine/naloxone

Buprenorphine/naloxone, sold under the brand name Suboxone among others, is a combination medication that includes buprenorphine and naloxone.

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Bupropion

Bupropion, sold under the brand names Wellbutrin and Zyban among others, is a medication primarily used as an antidepressant and smoking cessation aid.

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Buspirone

Buspirone, sold under the brand name Buspar, is an anxiolytic drug that is primarily used to treat generalized anxiety disorder (GAD).

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Butalbital

Butalbital is a barbiturate with an intermediate duration of action.

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Cabozantinib

Cabozantinib, sold under the brand-name Cabometyx and Cometriq, is a medication used to treat medullary thyroid cancer and a second line treatment for renal cell carcinoma among others.

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Caffeine

Caffeine is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the methylxanthine class.

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Calanolide A

Calanolide A is an experimental non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI).

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Carbamazepine

Carbamazepine (CBZ), sold under the tradename Tegretol, among others, is a medication used primarily in the treatment of epilepsy and neuropathic pain.

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Cariprazine

Cariprazine, sold under the brand names Vraylar in the United States and Reagila in Europe, is an atypical antipsychotic which is used in the treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar mania.

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Chloramphenicol

Chloramphenicol is an antibiotic useful for the treatment of a number of bacterial infections.

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Ciclosporin

Ciclosporin, also spelled cyclosporine and cyclosporin, is an immunosuppressant medication and natural product.

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Cilostazol

Cilostazol is a quinolinone-derivative medication used in the alleviation of the symptoms of intermittent claudication in individuals with peripheral vascular disease.

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Cimetidine

Cimetidine, sold under the brand name Tagamet among others, is a histamine H2 receptor antagonist that inhibits stomach acid production.

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Cinacalcet

Cinacalcet (INN) is a drug that acts as a calcimimetic (i.e. it mimics the action of calcium on tissues) by allosteric activation of the calcium-sensing receptor that is expressed in various human organ tissues (Van Wagenen et al. (2001), U.S. Pat. 6,211,244).

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Ciprofloxacin

Ciprofloxacin is an antibiotic used to treat a number of bacterial infections.

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Cisapride

Cisapride is a gastroprokinetic agent, a drug that increases motility in the upper gastrointestinal tract.

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Citalopram

Citalopram (brand names: Celexa, Cipramil and others) is an antidepressant drug of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class.

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Clarithromycin

Clarithromycin, sold under the brand name Biaxin among others, is an antibiotic used to treat various bacterial infections.

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Clobazam

Clobazam (marketed under the brand names Frisium, Urbanol, Onfi and Tapclob) is a benzodiazepine class medication that has been marketed as an anxiolytic since 1975 and an anticonvulsant since 1984.

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Clonazepam

Clonazepam, sold under the brand name Klonopin among others, is a medication used to prevent and treat seizures, panic disorder, and for the movement disorder known as akathisia.

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Clotrimazole

Clotrimazole, sold under the brand name Canesten among others, is an antifungal medication.

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Clozapine

Clozapine, sold under the brand name Clozaril among others, is an atypical antipsychotic medication.

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Cobicistat

Cobicistat, with trade name Tybost (formerly GS-9350) is a licensed drug for use in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV/AIDS).

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Cobimetinib

Cobimetinib (trade name Cotellic) is a MEK inhibitor developed by Exelixis and Genentech (Roche).

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Cocaine

Cocaine, also known as coke, is a strong stimulant mostly used as a recreational drug.

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Codeine

Codeine is an opiate used to treat pain, as a cough medicine, and for diarrhea. It is typically used to treat mild to moderate degrees of pain. Greater benefit may occur when combined with paracetamol (acetaminophen) or a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) such as aspirin or ibuprofen. Evidence does not support its use for acute cough suppression in children or adults. In Europe it is not recommended as a cough medicine in those under twelve years of age. It is generally taken by mouth. It typically starts working after half an hour with maximum effect at two hours. The total duration of its effects last for about four to six hours. Common side effects include vomiting, constipation, itchiness, lightheadedness, and drowsiness. Serious side effects may include breathing difficulties and addiction. It is unclear if its use in pregnancy is safe. Care should be used during breastfeeding as it may result in opiate toxicity in the baby. Its use as of 2016 is not recommended in children. Codeine works following being broken down by the liver into morphine. How quickly this occurs depends on a person's genetics. Codeine was discovered in 1832 by Pierre Jean Robiquet. In 2013 about 361,000 kilograms of codeine were produced while 249,000 kilograms were used. This makes it the most commonly taken opiate. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. The wholesale cost in the developing world is between 0.04 and 0.29 USD per dose as of 2014. In the United States it costs about one dollar a dose. Codeine occurs naturally and makes up about 2% of opium.

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Colchicine

Colchicine is a medication most commonly used to treat gout.

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Corvalol

Corvalol (Корвалол, Corvalolum, Korvalol) is a mild tranquilizer based on valerian (herb) root and phenobarbital, popular in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union as a heart medication.

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Crizotinib

Crizotinib (trade name Xalkori, Pfizer) is an anti-cancer drug acting as an ALK (anaplastic lymphoma kinase) and ROS1 (c-ros oncogene 1) inhibitor, approved for treatment of some non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) in the US and some other countries, and undergoing clinical trials testing its safety and efficacy in anaplastic large cell lymphoma, neuroblastoma, and other advanced solid tumors in both adults and children.

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Cyclobenzaprine

Cyclobenzaprine, sold under the brand name Flexeril among others, is a muscle relaxer medication used to relieve skeletal muscle spasms and associated pain in acute musculoskeletal conditions.

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CYP2E1

Cytochrome P450 2E1 (abbreviated CYP2E1) is a member of the cytochrome P450 mixed-function oxidase system, which is involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics in the body.

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CYP3A

Cytochrome P450, family 3, subfamily A, also known as CYP3A, is a human gene.

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CYP3A7

CYP3A7 is an enzyme belonging to the cytochrome P450 family.

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Cyproheptadine

Cyproheptadine, sold under the brand name Periactin among others, is a first-generation antihistamine with additional anticholinergic, antiserotonergic, and local anesthetic properties.

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Cyproterone acetate

Cyproterone acetate (CPA), sold alone under the brand name Androcur or with ethinylestradiol (EE) under the brand names Diane or Diane-35 among others, is an antiandrogen and progestogen which is used in the treatment of androgen-dependent conditions like acne, excessive hair growth, early puberty, and prostate cancer, as a component of feminizing hormone therapy for transgender women, and in birth control pills.

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Cytochrome P450

Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) are proteins of the superfamily containing heme as a cofactor and, therefore, are hemoproteins.

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Daclatasvir

Daclatasvir, sold under the trade name Daklinza, is a medication used in combination with other medications to treat hepatitis C (HCV).

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Dalfopristin

Dalfopristin is a semi-synthetic streptogramin antibiotic analogue of ostreogyrcin A (virginiamycin M, pristinamycin IIA, streptogramin A).

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Danazol

Danazol, sold under the brand name Danocrine among others, is a medication which is used in the treatment of endometriosis, fibrocystic breast disease, hereditary angioedema, and other conditions.

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Dapoxetine

Dapoxetine, marketed as Priligy and Westoxetin, among and other brands, is the first compound developed specially for the treatment of premature ejaculation (PE) in men 18–64 years old.

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Dapsone

Dapsone, also known as diaminodiphenyl sulfone (DDS), is an antibiotic commonly used in combination with rifampicin and clofazimine for the treatment of leprosy.

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Darifenacin

Darifenacin (trade name Enablex in US and Canada, Emselex in Europe) is a medication used to treat urinary incontinence.

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Darunavir

Darunavir (DRV), sold under the brand name Prezista among others, is an antiretroviral medication used to treat and prevent HIV/AIDS.

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Delamanid

Delamanid, sold under the brand name Deltyba, is a medication used to treat tuberculosis.

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Delavirdine

Delavirdine (DLV) (brand name Rescriptor) is a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) marketed by ViiV Healthcare.

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Deramciclane

Deramciclane (EGIS-3886) is a non-benzodiazepine-type anxiolytic drug to treat various types of anxiety disorders.

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Desloratadine

Desloratadine (trade name Clarinex in the US and Aerius in Europe and Canada) is a tricyclic H1-antihistamine that is used to treat allergies.

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Desmetramadol

Desmetramadol, also known as O-desmethyltramadol (O-DSMT), is an opioid analgesic and the main active metabolite of tramadol.

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Desogestrel

Desogestrel, sold under the brand names Cerazette and Mircette among many others, is a progestin medication which is used in birth control pills for women.

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Development and discovery of SSRI drugs

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, or serotonin-specific re-uptake inhibitor (SSRIs), are a class of chemical compounds that have contributed to the major advances as antidepressants where they have revolutionised the treatment of depression and other psychiatric disorders.

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Dextromethorphan

Dextromethorphan (DXM or DM) is a drug of the morphinan class with sedative, dissociative, and stimulant properties (at higher doses).

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Dextromoramide

Dextromoramide (Palfium, Palphium, Jetrium, Dimorlin) is a powerful opioid analgesic approximately three times more potent than morphine but shorter acting.

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Dextropropoxyphene

Dextropropoxyphene is an analgesic in the opioid category, patented in 1955 and manufactured by Eli Lilly and Company.

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Diazepam

Diazepam, first marketed as Valium, is a medicine of the benzodiazepine family that typically produces a calming effect.

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Diclofenac

Diclofenac (sold under a number of trade names) is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) taken or applied to reduce inflammation and as an analgesic reducing pain in certain conditions.

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Dienogest

Dienogest, sold under the brand names Natazia and Qlaira among others, is a progestin medication which is used in birth control pills and in the treatment of endometriosis.

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Dihydrocodeine

Dihydrocodeine is a semi-synthetic opioid analgesic prescribed for pain or severe dyspnea, or as an antitussive, either alone or compounded with paracetamol (as in co-dydramol) or aspirin.

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Diltiazem

Diltiazem (INN) is a nondihydropyridine (non-DHP) calcium channel blocker used in the treatment of hypertension, angina pectoris, and some types of arrhythmia.

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Diphenhydramine

Diphenhydramine is an antihistamine mainly used to treat allergies.

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Discovery and development of cyclooxygenase 2 inhibitors

Cyclooxygenases are enzymes that take part in a complex biosynthetic cascade that results in the conversion of polyunsaturated fatty acids to prostaglandins and thromboxane(s).

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Discovery and development of proton pump inhibitors

Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) block the gastric hydrogen potassium ATPase (H+/K+ ATPase) and inhibit gastric acid secretion.

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Discovery and development of statins

The discovery of HMG-CoA (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA) reductase inhibitors, called statins, was a breakthrough in the prevention of hypercholesterolemia and related diseases.

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Disopyramide

Disopyramide (INN, trade names Norpace and Rythmodan) is an antiarrhythmic medication used in the treatment of ventricular tachycardia.

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Docetaxel

Docetaxel (DTX), sold under the brand name Taxotere among others, is a chemotherapy medication used to treat a number of types of cancer.

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Dofetilide

Dofetilide is a class III antiarrhythmic agent.

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Domperidone

Domperidone, sold under the brand name Motilium among others, is a peripherally selective dopamine D2 receptor antagonist that was developed by Janssen Pharmaceutica and is used as an antiemetic, gastroprokinetic agent, and galactagogue.

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Double-disk diffusion test

A double-disk diffusion test is a kind of disk diffusion test (to test for the effectiveness of an antimicrobial agent a disk infused with it is placed on a cultivated agar dish of bacteria to see if the antimicrobial agent in the disk inhibits further growth of the bacteria.) The double-disc synergy test (DDST) utilizes two of these disks on the cultivated agar solution, either infused with a different antimicrobial solution.

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Doxepin

Doxepin is a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) used as a pill to treat major depressive disorder, anxiety disorders, chronic hives, and for short-term help with trouble remaining asleep after going to bed (a form of insomnia).

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Drospirenone

Drospirenone, sold under the brand names Yasmin and Angeliq among others, is a progestin medication which is used in birth control pills and in menopausal hormone therapy. The medication is available only in combination with an estrogen. It is taken by mouth. Drospirenone is a progestin, or a synthetic progestogen, and hence is an agonist of the progesterone receptor, the biological target of progestogens like progesterone. It has additional antimineralocorticoid and antiandrogenic activity and no other important hormonal activity. Drospirenone was introduced for medical use in 2000. It is available widely throughout the world. The medication is sometimes referred to as a "fourth-generation" progestin. It is available as a generic medication.https://www.drugs.com/availability/generic-yasmin.html.

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Drug interaction

A drug interaction is a situation in which a substance (usually another drug) affects the activity of a drug when both are administered together.

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Dutasteride

Dutasteride, sold under the brand name Avodart among others, is a medication used primarily to treat enlarged prostate in men.

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Dydrogesterone

Dydrogesterone, sold under the brand name Duphaston among others, is a progestin medication which is used for a variety of indications, including threatened or recurrent miscarriage during pregnancy, dysfunctional bleeding, infertility due to luteal insufficiency, dysmenorrhea, endometriosis, secondary amenorrhea, irregular cycles, premenstrual syndrome, and as a component of menopausal hormone therapy.

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Ebastine

Ebastine (trade names Evastin, Atmos, Kestine, Ebastel, Aleva, Ebatrol) is a H1 antihistamine with low potential for causing drowsiness.

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Elbasvir

Elbasvir is a drug approved by the FDA in January 2016 for the treatment of hepatitis C. It was developed by Merck and completed Phase III trials, used in combination with the NS3/4A protease inhibitor grazoprevir under the trade name Zepatier, either with or without ribavirin.

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Elbasvir/grazoprevir

Elbasvir/grazoprevir (trade name Zepatier) is a fixed-dose two drug combination for the treatment of hepatitis C, containing elbasvir (an inhibitor of hepatitis C virus's NS5A protein) and grazoprevir (an NS3/4A inhibitor).

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Eletriptan

Eletriptan (trade name Relpax, used in the form of eletriptan hydrobromide) is a second generation triptan drug intended for treatment of migraine headaches.

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Enzalutamide

Enzalutamide, sold under the brand name Xtandi, is a nonsteroidal antiandrogen (NSAA) medication which is used in the treatment of prostate cancer.

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Eplerenone

Eplerenone is a steroidal antimineralocorticoid of the spirolactone group that is used as an adjunct in the management of chronic heart failure.

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Epoxyeicosatetraenoic acid

Epoxyeicosatetraenoic acids (EEQs or EpETEs) are a set of biologically active epoxides that various cell types make by metabolizing the omega 3 fatty acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), with certain cytochrome P450 epoxygenases.

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Epoxyeicosatrienoic acid

The epoxyeicosatrienoic acids or EETs are signaling molecules formed within various types of cells by the metabolism of arachidonic acid by a specific subset of Cytochrome P450 enzymes termed cytochrome P450 epoxygenases.

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Epoxygenase

Epoxygenases are a set of membrane-bound, heme-containing cytochrome P450 (CYP P450 or just CYP) enzymes that metabolize polyunsaturated fatty acids to epoxide products that have a range of biological activities.

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Ergometrine

Ergometrine also known as ergonovine, is a medication used to cause contractions of the uterus to treat heavy vaginal bleeding after childbirth.

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Erlotinib

Erlotinib hydrochloride (trade name Tarceva) is a drug used to treat non-small cell lung cancer, pancreatic cancer and several other types of cancer.

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Erythromycin breath test

The erythromycin breath test (ERMBT) is a method used to measure metabolism (oxidation and elimination from the system) by a part of the cytochrome P450 system.

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Escitalopram

Escitalopram, sold under the brand names Cipralex and Lexapro among others, is an antidepressant of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class.

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Eslicarbazepine acetate

Eslicarbazepine acetate (trade names Aptiom in North America, Zebinix in Europe, Exalief in Russia, Eslicarba in Egypt), abbreviated as ESL, is an anticonvulsant medication approved for use in Europe and the United States as monotherapy or adjunctive therapy (additional therapy) for partial-onset seizures epilepsy.

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Esomeprazole

Esomeprazole, sold under the brand names Nexium among others, is a proton-pump inhibitor which reduces stomach acid.

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Estetrol (medication)

Estetrol, tentative brand names Donesta (alone) and Estelle (with drospirenone), is an estrogen medication and naturally occurring steroid hormone which is under development for use as a birth control pill in combination with a progestin, in menopausal hormone therapy to treat symptoms such as vaginal atrophy, hot flashes, and bone loss, and for the treatment of breast cancer, prostate cancer, osteoarthritis, and migraine.

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Estradiol

Estradiol (E2), also spelled oestradiol, is an estrogen steroid hormone and the major female sex hormone.

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Estradiol (medication)

Estradiol, also spelled oestradiol, is a medication and naturally occurring steroid hormone.

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Estriol

Estriol (E3), also spelled oestriol, is a steroid, a weak estrogen, and a minor female sex hormone.

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Estrogen

Estrogen, or oestrogen, is the primary female sex hormone.

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Eszopiclone

Eszopiclone, marketed by Sunovion under the brand-name Lunesta, is a nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic agent used in the treatment of insomnia.

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Ethinylestradiol

Ethinylestradiol (EE) is an estrogen medication which is used widely in birth control pills in combination with progestins.

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Ethosuximide

Ethosuximide, sold under the brand name Zarontin among others, is a medication used to treat absence seizures.

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Etonogestrel

Etonogestrel is a progestin medication which is used as a means of birth control for women.

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Etoposide

Etoposide, sold under the brand name Etopophos among others, is a chemotherapy medication used for the treatments of a number of types of cancer.

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Etoricoxib

Etoricoxib (Arcoxia) is a selective COX-2 inhibitor from Merck & Co. Currently it is approved in more than 80 countries worldwide but not in the US, where the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has required additional safety and efficacy data for etoricoxib before it will issue approval.

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Etravirine

Etravirine (ETR, brand name Intelence, formerly known as TMC125) is a drug used for the treatment of HIV.

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Exemestane

Exemestane, sold under the brand name Aromasin among others, is a medication used to treat breast cancer.

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Felodipine

Felodipine is a medication of the calcium channel blocker type which is used to treat high blood pressure.

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Fentanyl

Fentanyl, also spelled fentanil, is an opioid which is used as a pain medication and together with other medications for anesthesia. Fentanyl is also made illegally and used as a recreational drug, often mixed with heroin or cocaine. It has a rapid onset and effects generally last less than an hour or two. Medically, fentanyl is used by injection, as a patch on the skin, as a nasal spray, or in the mouth. Common side effects include vomiting, constipation, sedation, confusion, hallucinations, and injuries related to poor coordination. Serious side effects may include decreased breathing (respiratory depression), serotonin syndrome, low blood pressure, addiction, or coma. In 2016, more than 20,000 deaths occurred in the United States due to overdoses of fentanyl and fentanyl analogues, half of all reported opioid related deaths. Fentanyl works primarily by activating μ-opioid receptors. It is around 100 times stronger than morphine, and some analogues such as carfentanil are around 10,000 times stronger. Fentanyl was first made by Paul Janssen in 1960 and approved for medical use in the United States in 1968.In 2015, were used in healthcare globally., fentanyl was the most widely used synthetic opioid in medicine. Fentanyl patches are on the WHO List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. For a 100 microgram vial, the average wholesale cost in the developing world is 0.66 (2015). and in the USA it costs 0.49 (2017).

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Fesoterodine

Fesoterodine (INN, used as the fumarate under the brand name Toviaz) is an antimuscarinic drug developed by Schwarz Pharma AG to treat overactive bladder syndrome (OAB).

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Fibrate

In pharmacology, the fibrates are a class of amphipathic carboxylic acids.

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Finasteride

Finasteride, sold under the brand names Proscar and Propecia among others, is a medication used mainly to treat an enlarged prostate or scalp hair loss in men.

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Flavonols

Flavonols are a class of flavonoids that have the 3-hydroxyflavone backbone (IUPAC name: 3-hydroxy-2-phenylchromen-4-one).

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Flibanserin

Flibanserin, sold under the trade name Addyi, is a medication approved for the treatment of pre-menopausal women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD).

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Fluconazole

Fluconazole is an antifungal medication used for a number of fungal infections.

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Flumetasone

Flumetasone (INN), also known as flumethasone (USAN), is a corticosteroid for topical use.

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Flunitrazepam

Flunitrazepam, also known as Rohypnol among other names, is an intermediate acting benzodiazepine used in some countries to treat severe insomnia and in fewer, early in anesthesia.

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Fluocinolone acetonide

Fluocinolone acetonide is a corticosteroid primarily used in dermatology to reduce skin inflammation and relieve itching.

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Fluoxetine

Fluoxetine, also known by trade names Prozac and Sarafem, among others, is an antidepressant of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class.

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Fluticasone

Fluticasone is a synthetic glucocorticoid which is used in some countries to treat nasal symptoms.

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Fluticasone furoate

Fluticasone furoate is a synthetic corticosteroid derived from fluticasone, marketed by GlaxoSmithKline as Veramyst and Flonase Sensimist (US), Allermist (Japan, アラミスト) and Avamys (Australia, Canada, EU, South Africa, South America, Mexico, Israel, Italy and South Korea) for the treatment of non-allergic and allergic rhinitis administered by a nasal spray.

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Fluticasone propionate

Fluticasone propionate belongs to a class of drugs known as corticosteroids, specifically glucocorticoids, which are hormones that predominantly affect the metabolism of carbohydrates and, to a lesser extent, fat and protein.

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Fluvastatin

Fluvastatin (INN, trade names Lescol, Canef, Vastin) is a member of the statin drug class, used to treat hypercholesterolemia and to prevent cardiovascular disease.

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Fluvoxamine

Fluvoxamine, sold under the brand name Luvox among others, is a medication which is used primarily for the treatment of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD), and is also used to treat major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders such as panic disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder.

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Fosamprenavir

Fosamprenavir (marketed by ViiV Healthcare as the calcium salt under the trade names Lexiva in the U.S. and Telzir in Europe) is a drug for the treatment of HIV infections.

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Fostamatinib

Fostamatinib, sold under the brand name Tavalisse, is a medication approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration since 2018 for the treatment of chronic immune thrombocytopenia (ITP).

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Fulvestrant

Fulvestrant, sold under the brand name Faslodex among others, is a medication used to treat hormone receptor (HR)-positive metastatic breast cancer in postmenopausal women with disease progression as well as HR-positive, HER2-negative advanced breast cancer in combination with palbociclib in women with disease progression after endocrine therapy.

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Furanocoumarin

The furanocoumarins, or furocoumarins, are a class of organic chemical compounds produced by a variety of plants.

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Galantamine

Galantamine (Nivalin, Razadyne, Razadyne ER, Reminyl, Lycoremine) is used for the treatment of cognitive decline in mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease and various other memory impairments.

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Gastrointestinal tract

The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.

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Gefitinib

Gefitinib (ZD1839) (INN,, trade name Iressa) is a drug used for certain breast, lung and other cancers.

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Goldenseal

Goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis), also called orangeroot or yellow puccoon, is a perennial herb in the buttercup family Ranunculaceae, native to southeastern Canada and the eastern United States.

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Grapefruit

The grapefruit (Citrus × paradisi) is a subtropical citrus tree known for its sour to semi-sweet, somewhat bitter fruit.

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Grapefruit seed extract

Grapefruit seed extract (GSE), also known as citrus seed extract, is a liquid extract derived from the seeds, pulp, and white membranes of grapefruit.

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Grapefruit–drug interactions

Some fruit juices and fruits can interact with numerous drugs, in many cases causing adverse effects.

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Grazoprevir

Grazoprevir is a drug approved for the treatment of hepatitis C. It was developed by Merck and completed Phase III trials, used in combination with the NS5A replication complex inhibitor elbasvir under the trade name Zepatier, either with or without ribavirin.

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Guanfacine

Guanfacine (trade names Estulic, Tenex, and, in extended release form, Intuniv) is a sympatholytic drug used to treat hypertension and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

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H2 antagonist

H2 antagonists, sometimes referred to as H2RA and also called H2 blockers, are a class of medications that block the action of histamine at the histamine H2 receptors of the parietal cells in the stomach.

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H3 receptor antagonist

An H3 receptor antagonist is a classification of drugs used to block the action of histamine at the H3 receptor.

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Halofantrine

Halofantrine is a drug used to treat malaria.

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Haloperidol

Haloperidol, marketed under the trade name Haldol among others, is a typical antipsychotic medication.

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Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha

Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha (HNF4A) also known as NR2A1 (nuclear receptor subfamily 2, group A, member 1) is a nuclear receptor that in humans is encoded by the HNF4A gene.

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Herb-drug interactions

Herb-drug interactions are drug interactions that occur between herbal medicines and conventional drugs.

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Homosildenafil

Homosildenafil (also known as methyl-sildenafil) is a synthetic drug which acts as a phosphodiesterase inhibitor.

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Hydrocodone

Hydrocodone, sold under brand names such as Vicodin and Norco among many others, is a semisynthetic opioid derived from codeine, one of the opioid alkaloids found in the opium poppy.

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Hydrocodone/ibuprofen

No description.

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Hydrocodone/paracetamol

Hydrocodone/paracetamol, also known as hydrocodone/acetaminophen or hydrocodone/APAP and marketed under the trade name Vicodin and Norco among others, is the combination of an opioid pain medication, hydrocodone, with paracetamol (acetaminophen).

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Hydroxychloroquine

Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), sold under the brand name Plaquenil among others, is a medication used for the prevention and treatment of certain types of malaria. Specifically it is used for chloroquine-sensitive malaria. Other uses include treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, and porphyria cutanea tarda. It is taken by mouth. Common side effects include vomiting, headache, changes in vision and muscle weakness. Severe side effects may include allergic reactions. It appears to be safe in pregnancy but this use has not been well studied. Hydroxychloroquine is in the antimalarial and 4-aminoquinoline families of medication. Hydroxychloroquine was approved for medical use in the United States in 1955. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. The wholesale cost in the developing world is about $5.40 to 7.44 per month. In the United Kingdom this dose costs the NHS about £5.15. In the United States a month of treatment typically costs less than $25.

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Hydroxylation of estradiol

The hydroxylation of estradiol is one of the major routes of metabolism of the estrogen steroid hormone estradiol.

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Hydroxyprogesterone caproate

Hydroxyprogesterone caproate (OHPC), sold under the brand names Proluton and Makena among others, is a progestin medication which is used to prevent preterm birth in pregnant women with a history of the condition and to treat gynecological disorders.

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Hydroxyzine

Hydroxyzine, sold under the brand names Atarax and Vistaril among others, is a first-generation antihistamine.

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Hyperforin

Hyperforin is a phytochemical produced by some of the members of the plant genus Hypericum, notably Hypericum perforatum (St John's wort).

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Hypericum

Hypericum is a genus of flowering plants in the family Hypericaceae (formerly considered a subfamily of Clusiaceae).

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Hypericum perforatum

Hypericum perforatum, known as perforate St John's-wort, common Saint John's wort and St John's wort, is a flowering plant in the family Hypericaceae.

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Ibutilide

Ibutilide is a Class III antiarrhythmic agent that is indicated for acute cardioconversion of atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter of a recent onset to sinus rhythm.

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Icotinib

Icotinib hydrochloride (BPI-2009H), or Icotinib, is a highly selective, first generation epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI).

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Idelalisib

Idelalisib (trade name Zydelig, codenamed GS-1101 or CAL-101) is a drug used for the treatment of certain hematological malignancies.

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Iloperidone

Iloperidone, also known as Fanapt, Fanapta, and previously known as Zomaril, is an atypical antipsychotic for the treatment of schizophrenia.

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Imatinib

Imatinib, sold under the brand names Gleevec among others, is a medication used to treat cancer.

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Indinavir

Indinavir (IDV; trade name Crixivan, manufactured by Merck) is a protease inhibitor used as a component of highly active antiretroviral therapy to treat HIV/AIDS.

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Isavuconazonium

Isavuconazonium sulfate (BAL8557; trade name Cresemba) is a prodrug for isavuconazole which is a triazole antifungal agent.

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Itraconazole

Itraconazole is an antifungal medication used to treat a number of fungal infections.

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Ivabradine

Ivabradine, marketed under the trade name Corlanor among others, is a medication used for the symptomatic management of stable heart-related chest pain and heart failure not fully managed by beta blockers.

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Ixabepilone

Ixabepilone (INN; also known as azaepothilone B, codenamed BMS-247550) is an epothilone B analog developed by Bristol-Myers Squibb as a chemotherapeutic medication for cancer.

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Ixazomib

Ixazomib (trade name Ninlaro) is a drug for the treatment of multiple myeloma, a type of white blood cell cancer, in combination with other drugs.

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John David Spence

John David Spence (born November 10, 1944) is a Canadian medical doctor, medical researcher and professor at the University of Western Ontario.

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Ketamine

Ketamine, sold under the brand name Ketalar among others, is a medication mainly used for starting and maintaining anesthesia.

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Lansoprazole

Lansoprazole, sold under the brand name Prevacid among others, is a medication which inhibits the stomach's production of acid.

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Lenvatinib

Lenvatinib (trade name Lenvima) is an anti-cancer drug for the treatment of certain kinds of thyroid cancer, and potentially for other cancers as well.

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Lercanidipine

Lercanidipine (trade name Zanidip, among others) is an antihypertensive (blood pressure lowering) drug.

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Lesinurad

Lesinurad (brand name Zurampic) is a urate transporter inhibitor for treating hyperuricemia associated with gout.

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Levocetirizine

Levocetirizine (as levocetirizine dihydrochloride) is a third-generation, non-sedating antihistamine, developed from the second-generation antihistamine cetirizine.

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Levomilnacipran

Levomilnacipran (brand name Fetzima) is an antidepressant which was approved in the United States in 2013 for the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD) in adults.

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Levonorgestrel

Levonorgestrel is a hormonal medication which is used in a number of birth control methods.

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Lidocaine

Lidocaine, also known as xylocaine and lignocaine, is a medication used to numb tissue in a specific area.

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List of cytochrome P450 modulators

This is a list of cytochrome P450 modulators, or inhibitors and inducers of cytochrome P450 enzymes.

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List of enzymes

This page lists enzymes by their classification in the International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology's Enzyme Commission numbering system.

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Lopinavir/ritonavir

Lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r), sold under the brand name Kaletra among others, is a fixed dose combination medication for the treatment and prevention of HIV/AIDS.

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Loratadine

Loratadine, sold under the brand name Claritin among others, is a medication used to treat allergies.

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Losartan

Losartan, sold under the trade name Cozaar among others, is a medication mainly used to treat high blood pressure.

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Lovastatin

Lovastatin (Merck's Mevacor) is a statin drug, used for lowering cholesterol in those with hypercholesterolemia to reduce risk of cardiovascular disease.

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Loxapine

Loxapine (several trade names worldwide) is a typical antipsychotic medication, used primarily in the treatment of schizophrenia.

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Lurasidone

Lurasidone (trade name Latuda) is an atypical antipsychotic developed by Dainippon Sumitomo Pharma and marketed by Sunovion in the U.S. It has been an FDA approved treatment for schizophrenia since 2010 and for treating depressive episodes in adults with bipolar I disorder since 2013.

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Lynestrenol

Lynestrenol, sold under the brand names Exluton and Ministat among others, is a progestin medication which is used in birth control pills and in the treatment of gynecological disorders.

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Macitentan

Macitentan (trade name Opsumit) is an endothelin receptor antagonist (ERA) approved for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH).

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Macrolide

The macrolides are a class of natural products that consist of a large macrocyclic lactone ring to which one or more deoxy sugars, usually cladinose and desosamine, may be attached.

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MDMA

3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), commonly known as ecstasy (E), is a psychoactive drug used primarily as a recreational drug.

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Medroxyprogesterone acetate

Medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA), sold under the brand name Depo-Provera among others, is a hormonal medication of the progestin type.

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Meloxicam

Meloxicam is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) with analgesic and anti-pyretic effects.

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Meta-Chlorophenylpiperazine

meta-Chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP) is a psychoactive drug of the phenylpiperazine class.

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Metacycline

Metacycline is a tetracycline antibiotic.

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Metapristone

Metapristone (developmental code name RU-42633; also known as desmethylmifepristone) is the major metabolite of mifepristone (RU-486, RU-38486) and a selective progesterone receptor modulator (SPRM) which itself was never marketed.

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Methadone

Methadone, sold under the brand name Dolophine among others, is an opioid used to treat pain and as maintenance therapy or to help with tapering in people with opioid dependence.

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Methylergometrine

Methylergometrine (also called methylergonovine, methylergobasin, and D-lysergic acid 1-butanolamide) is a synthetic analogue of ergonovine, a psychedelic alkaloid found in ergot, and many species of morning glory.

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Metoprolol

Metoprolol, marketed under the tradename Lopressor among others, is a medication of the selective β1 receptor blocker type.

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Mexazolam

Mexazolam (marketed under the trade names Melex and Sedoxil) is a drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative.

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Midazolam

Midazolam, marketed under the trade name Versed, among others, is a medication used for anesthesia, procedural sedation, trouble sleeping, and severe agitation.

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Mirabegron

Mirabegron (trade name Myrbetriq in the US and Betmiga in Europe and Australia) is a drug for the treatment of overactive bladder.

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Mirtazapine

Mirtazapine, sold under the brand name Remeron among others, is an atypical antidepressant which is used primarily in the treatment of depression.

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Mitragyna speciosa

Mitragyna speciosa (commonly known as kratom also ketum) is a tropical evergreen tree in the coffee family native to Southeast Asia.

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Modafinil

Modafinil, sold under the brand name Provigil among others, is a medication to treat sleepiness due to narcolepsy, shift work sleep disorder, or obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). In OSA continuous positive airway pressure is the preferred treatment. While it has seen off-label use as a purported cognitive enhancer, evidence for any benefit is lacking. It is taken by mouth. Common side effects include headache, anxiety, trouble sleeping, and nausea. Serious side effects may include allergic reactions such as anaphylaxis, Stevens–Johnson syndrome, abuse, or hallucinations. It is unclear if use during pregnancy is safe. The amount of medication used may need to be adjusted in those with kidney or liver problems. It is not recommended in those with an arrhythmia, significant hypertension, or left ventricular hypertrophy. How it works is not entirely clear. One possibility is that it may affect the areas of the brain involved with the sleep cycle. Modafinil was approved for medical use in the United States in 1998. In the United States it is classified as a schedule IV controlled substance due to concerns about addiction. In the United Kingdom it is a prescription only medication. It is avaliable as a generic medication. In the United Kingdom it costs the NHS about £105.21 a month as of 2018. In the United States the wholesale cost per month is about 34.20 USD as of 2018.

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Mometasone furoate

Mometasone furoate is a glucocorticoid or corticosteroid used topically to reduce inflammation of the skin or in the airways.

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Montelukast

Montelukast (trade name Singulair) is a leukotriene receptor antagonist (LTRA) used for the maintenance treatment of asthma and to relieve symptoms of seasonal allergies.

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N-Desmethylapalutamide

N-Desmethylapalutamide is a nonsteroidal antiandrogen (NSAA) and the major active metabolite of apalutamide, an NSAA which is used as a hormonal antineoplastic agent in the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer.

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N-Desmethylenzalutamide

N-Desmethylenzalutamide is a nonsteroidal antiandrogen (NSAA) and the major metabolite of enzalutamide, an NSAA which is used as a hormonal antineoplastic agent in the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer.

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NAPQI

NAPBQI (N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine) is a toxic byproduct produced during the xenobiotic metabolism of the analgesic paracetamol (acetaminophen).

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Naringin

Naringin is a flavanone-7-O-glycoside between the flavanone naringenin and the disaccharide neohesperidose.

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Narlaprevir

Narlaprevir (trade name Arlansa, codenamed SCH 900518), is an inhibitor of NS3/4A serine protease, intended for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C caused by genotype 1 virus) in combination with other antiviral drugs. Narlaprevir is the first Russian tableted medication for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C.

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Nefazodone

Nefazodone, sold formerly under the brand names Serzone, Dutonin, and Nefadar among others, is an atypical antidepressant which was first marketed by Bristol-Myers Squibb in 1994 but has since largely been discontinued.

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Nelfinavir

Nelfinavir (brand name Viracept) is an antiretroviral drug used in the treatment of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

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Neratinib

Neratinib (INN; trade name Nerlynx; development code HKI-272) is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor anticancer drug.

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Netupitant

Netupitant is an antiemetic drug.

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Nevirapine

Nevirapine (NVP), marketed under the trade name Viramune among others, is a medication used to treat and prevent HIV/AIDS, specifically HIV-1.

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Nifedipine

Nifedipine, sold under the brand names Adalat among others, is a medication used to manage angina, high blood pressure, Raynaud's phenomenon, and premature labor.

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Nilotinib

Nilotinib (AMN107, trade name Tasigna), in the form of the hydrochloride monohydrate salt, is a small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor approved for the treatment of imatinib-resistant chronic myelogenous leukemia.

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Nilutamide

Nilutamide, sold under the brand names Nilandron and Anandron, is a nonsteroidal antiandrogen (NSAA) which is used in the treatment of prostate cancer.

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Nitrazepam

Nitrazepam (brand names Alodorm and Mogadon, among others) is a hypnotic drug of the benzodiazepine class used for short-term relief from severe, disabling anxiety and insomnia.

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Nomegestrol acetate

Nomegestrol acetate (NOMAC), sold under the brand names Lutenyl and Zoely among others, is a progestin medication which is used in birth control pills, menopausal hormone therapy, and for the treatment of gynecological disorders.

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Nordoxepin

Nordoxepin, also known as N-desmethyldoxepin, is the major active metabolite of the tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) doxepin (Sinequan). It has been found to play a significant role in the antidepressant effects of doxepin. Nordoxepin is a mixture of (''E'') and (''Z'') stereoisomers. Whereas pharmaceutical doxepin is supplied in an approximate 85:15 ratio mixture of (E)- and (Z)-stereoisomers and plasma concentrations of doxepin remain roughly the same as this ratio with treatment, plasma levels of the (E)- and (Z)-stereoisomers of nordoxepin, due to stereoselective metabolism of doxepin by cytochrome P450 enzymes, are approximately 1:1. Nordoxepin is pharmacologically active similarly to doxepin, but relative to doxepin, is much more potent and selective as a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor. In general, the demethylated variants of tertiary amine TCAs like doxepin are much more potent inhibitors of norepinephrine reuptake, less potent inhibitors of serotonin reuptake, and less potent in their antiadrenergic, antihistamine, and anticholinergic activities. Nordoxepin is formed from doxepin mainly by CYP2C19 (>50% contribution), while CYP1A2 and CYP2C9 are involved to a lesser extent, and CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 are not involved. Hydroxylation of doxepin and nordoxepin is mediated mainly by CYP2D6. Total exposures to both doxepin and nordoxepin differ by almost 10-fold in CYP2D6 ultra-rapid versus poor metabolizers. Both doxepin and nordoxepin are also transformed into glucuronide conjugates. The elimination half-life of nordoxepin is approximately 31 hours, which is almost twice that of doxepin (mean 17 hours).

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Norethisterone

Norethisterone, also known as norethindrone and sold under the brand names Aygestin and Primolut N among many others, is a progestin medication which is used in birth control pills, menopausal hormone therapy, and for the treatment of gynecological disorders.

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Norhydrocodone

Norhydrocodone is the major metabolite of the opioid analgesic hydrocodone.

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Norketamine

Norketamine, or N-desmethylketamine, is the major active metabolite of ketamine, which is formed mainly by CYP3A4.

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Normorphine

Normorphine is an opiate analogue, the N-demethylated derivative of morphine, that was first described in the 1950s when a large group of N-substituted morphine analogues were characterized for activity.

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Noroxycodone

Noroxycodone is the major metabolite of the opioid analgesic oxycodone.

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Norpethidine

Norpethidine (normeperidine, pethidine intermediate B) is a 4-phenylpiperidine derivative that is both a precursor to, and the toxic metabolite of, pethidine (meperidine).

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Ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir

Ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir, sold under the brand names Technivie and Viekira Pak among others, is a medication used to treat hepatitis C. It is a fixed dose combination of ombitasvir, paritaprevir, and ritonavir.

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Omeprazole

Omeprazole, sold under the brand names Prilosec and Losec among others, is a medication used in the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease, peptic ulcer disease, and Zollinger–Ellison syndrome.

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Ondansetron

Ondansetron, marketed under the brand name Zofran, is a medication used to prevent nausea and vomiting caused by cancer chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or surgery.

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ORM-15341

ORM-15341, also known as BAY-1896953, is a nonsteroidal antiandrogen (NSAA) and the major active metabolite of darolutamide (ODM-201, BAY-1841788), an NSAA which is under development as a hormonal antineoplastic agent for the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer.

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Osimertinib

Osimertinib (previously known as mereletinib; trade name Tagrisso) is a medication used to treat non-small-cell lung carcinomas with a specific mutation.

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Oxcarbazepine

Oxcarbazepine is an anticonvulsant drug primarily used in the treatment of epilepsy. There is some evidence for oxcarbazepine as a mood-stabilizing agent and thus, it can be used as add-on therapy for bipolar disorder in patients that have failed or are unable to tolerate approved treatments. Common side effects include nausea, vomiting, dizziness, drowsiness, headache, double vision and trouble with walking. Although not common, anaphylaxis may occur. Due to its structural similarities to carbamazepine there is approximately a 25–30% chance of cross-reactivity between the two medications. Oxcarbazepine is marketed as Trileptal by Novartis and available in some countries as a generic drug. There is also an extended-release formulation marketed as Oxtellar XR by Supernus Pharmaceuticals.

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Oxycodone

Oxycodone, sold under brand names such as Percocet and OxyContin among many others, is an opioid medication which is used for the relief of moderate to severe pain.

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Oxymorphone

Oxymorphone, sold under the brand names Numorphan among others, is a powerful semi-synthetic opioid analgesic (painkiller) developed in Germany in 1914.

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Paclitaxel

Paclitaxel (PTX), sold under the brand name Taxol among others, is a chemotherapy medication used to treat a number of types of cancer.

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Palonosetron

Palonosetron (INN, trade name Aloxi) is a 5-HT3 antagonist used in the prevention and treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV).

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Panobinostat

Panobinostat (trade name Farydak) is a drug by Novartis for the treatment of various cancers.

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Pantoprazole

Pantoprazole, first sold under the brand name Protonix, is used for short-term treatment of erosive esophagitis associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), maintenance of healing of erosive esophagitis, and pathological hypersecretory conditions including Zollinger–Ellison syndrome.

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Paracetamol

--> Acetanilide was the first aniline derivative serendipitously found to possess analgesic as well as antipyretic properties, and was quickly introduced into medical practice under the name of Antifebrin by A. Cahn and P. Hepp in 1886. But its unacceptable toxic effects, the most alarming being cyanosis due to methemoglobinemia, prompted the search for less toxic aniline derivatives. Harmon Northrop Morse had already synthesised paracetamol at Johns Hopkins University via the reduction of ''p''-nitrophenol with tin in glacial acetic acid in 1877, but it was not until 1887 that clinical pharmacologist Joseph von Mering tried paracetamol on humans. In 1893, von Mering published a paper reporting on the clinical results of paracetamol with phenacetin, another aniline derivative. Von Mering claimed that, unlike phenacetin, paracetamol had a slight tendency to produce methemoglobinemia. Paracetamol was then quickly discarded in favor of phenacetin. The sales of phenacetin established Bayer as a leading pharmaceutical company. Overshadowed in part by aspirin, introduced into medicine by Heinrich Dreser in 1899, phenacetin was popular for many decades, particularly in widely advertised over-the-counter "headache mixtures", usually containing phenacetin, an aminopyrine derivative of aspirin, caffeine, and sometimes a barbiturate. Paracetamol is the active metabolite of phenacetin and acetanilide, both once popular as analgesics and antipyretics in their own right. However, unlike phenacetin, acetanilide and their combinations, paracetamol is not considered carcinogenic at therapeutic doses. Von Mering's claims remained essentially unchallenged for half a century, until two teams of researchers from the United States analyzed the metabolism of acetanilide and paracetamol. In 1947 David Lester and Leon Greenberg found strong evidence that paracetamol was a major metabolite of acetanilide in human blood, and in a subsequent study they reported that large doses of paracetamol given to albino rats did not cause methemoglobinemia. In three papers published in the September 1948 issue of the Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Bernard Brodie, Julius Axelrod and Frederick Flinn confirmed using more specific methods that paracetamol was the major metabolite of acetanilide in human blood, and established that it was just as efficacious an analgesic as its precursor. They also suggested that methemoglobinemia is produced in humans mainly by another metabolite, phenylhydroxylamine. A follow-up paper by Brodie and Axelrod in 1949 established that phenacetin was also metabolised to paracetamol. This led to a "rediscovery" of paracetamol. It has been suggested that contamination of paracetamol with 4-aminophenol, the substance von Mering synthesised it from, may be the cause for his spurious findings. Paracetamol was first marketed in the United States in 1950 under the name Triagesic, a combination of paracetamol, aspirin, and caffeine. Reports in 1951 of three users stricken with the blood disease agranulocytosis led to its removal from the marketplace, and it took several years until it became clear that the disease was unconnected. Paracetamol was marketed in 1953 by Sterling-Winthrop Co. as Panadol, available only by prescription, and promoted as preferable to aspirin since it was safe for children and people with ulcers. In 1955, paracetamol was marketed as Children's Tylenol Elixir by McNeil Laboratories. In 1956, 500 mg tablets of paracetamol went on sale in the United Kingdom under the trade name Panadol, produced by Frederick Stearns & Co, a subsidiary of Sterling Drug Inc. In 1963, paracetamol was added to the British Pharmacopoeia, and has gained popularity since then as an analgesic agent with few side-effects and little interaction with other pharmaceutical agents. Concerns about paracetamol's safety delayed its widespread acceptance until the 1970s, but in the 1980s paracetamol sales exceeded those of aspirin in many countries, including the United Kingdom. This was accompanied by the commercial demise of phenacetin, blamed as the cause of analgesic nephropathy and hematological toxicity. In 1988 Sterling Winthrop was acquired by Eastman Kodak which sold the over the counter drug rights to SmithKline Beecham in 1994. Available without a prescription since 1959, it has since become a common household drug. Patents on paracetamol have long expired, and generic versions of the drug are widely available.

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Paracetamol poisoning

Paracetamol poisoning, also known as acetaminophen poisoning, is caused by excessive use of the medication paracetamol (acetaminophen).

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Parecoxib

Parecoxib is a water-soluble and injectable prodrug of valdecoxib.

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Paritaprevir

Paritaprevir (previously known as ABT-450) is an acylsulfonamide inhibitor of the NS3-4A serine protease manufactured by Abbott Laboratories that shows promising results as a treatment of hepatitis C. When given in combination with ritonavir and ribavirin for 12 weeks, the rate of sustained virologic response at 24 weeks after treatment has been estimated to be 95% for those with hepatitis C virus genotype 1.

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Paroxetine

Paroxetine, also known by trade names including Paxil and Seroxat among others, is an antidepressant of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class. It is used to treat major depressive disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, social anxiety disorder, panic disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder and premenstrual dysphoric disorder. It has also been used in the treatment of hot flashes and night sweats associated with menopause. It has a similar tolerability profile to other SSRIs. The common side effects include drowsiness, dry mouth, loss of appetite, sweating, trouble sleeping and delayed ejaculation. It may also be associated with a slightly increased risk of birth defects. The rate of withdrawal symptoms in young people may be higher with paroxetine and venlafaxine than other SSRIs and SNRIs. Several studies have associated paroxetine with suicidal thinking and behavior in children and adolescents. Marketing of the drug began in 1992 by the pharmaceutical company SmithKline Beecham, known since 2000 as GlaxoSmithKline. Generic formulations have been available since 2003 when the patent expired. The United States Department of Justice fined GlaxoSmithKline $3 billion in 2012, including a sum for withholding data on paroxetine, unlawfully promoting it for under-18s and preparing an article, following one of its clinical trials, study 329, that misleadingly reported the drug was effective in treating adolescent depression.

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Pazopanib

Pazopanib (trade name Votrient) is a potent and selective multi-targeted receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor that blocks tumour growth and inhibits angiogenesis. It has been approved for renal cell carcinoma and soft tissue sarcoma by numerous regulatory administrations worldwide.

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PDE5 inhibitor

A phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor (PDE5 inhibitor) is a drug used to block the degradative action of cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) on cyclic GMP in the smooth muscle cells lining the blood vessels supplying the corpus cavernosum of the penis.

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Perampanel

Perampanel (sold under the trade name Fycompa) is an antiepileptic drug developed by Eisai Co. that is used in addition to other drugs to treat partial seizures and generalized tonic-clonic seizures for people older than 12 years.

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Petasites

Petasites is a genus of flowering plants in the sunflower family, Asteraceae, that are commonly referred to as butterburs and coltsfoots.

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PGRMC1

Progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (abbreviated PGRMC1) is a protein which co-purifies with progesterone binding proteins in the liver and ovary.

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Pharmacogenomics

Pharmacogenomics is the study of the role of the genome in drug response.

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Pharmacology of antidepressants

The pharmacology of antidepressants is not entirely clear.

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Pharmacology of bicalutamide

The pharmacology of bicalutamide, a nonsteroidal antiandrogen (NSAA), has been well-characterized.

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Phenytoin

Phenytoin (PHT), sold under the brand name Dilantin among others, is an anti-seizure medication.

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Pimavanserin

Pimavanserin, sold under the brand name Nuplazid, is an atypical antipsychotic which is approved for the treatment of Parkinson's disease psychosis and is also under development for the treatment of schizophrenia, agitation, and major depressive disorder.

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Pimozide

Pimozide (sold under the brand name Orap) is an antipsychotic drug of the diphenylbutylpiperidine class.

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Pitavastatin

Pitavastatin (usually as a calcium salt) is a member of the blood cholesterol lowering medication class of statins, marketed in the United States under the trade name Livalo, and in European Union and Russia under the trade name Livazo.

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Polyestradiol phosphate

Polyestradiol phosphate (PEP), sold under the brand name Estradurin, is a medication which is used primarily in the treatment of prostate cancer in men.

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Pomalidomide

Pomalidomide (INN; marketed as Pomalyst in the U.S. and Imnovid in the EU and Russia) is a derivative of thalidomide marketed by Celgene.

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Ponatinib

Ponatinib (trade name Iclusig, previously AP24534) is an oral drug developed by ARIAD Pharmaceuticals for the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and Philadelphia chromosome–positive (Ph+) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).

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Pranlukast

Pranlukast (brand name Onon, オノン) is a cysteinyl leukotriene receptor-1 antagonist.

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Prasugrel

Prasugrel (trade name Effient in the US and India, and Efient in the EU) is a drug used to prevent formation of blood clots.

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Praziquantel

Praziquantel, sold under the brandname Biltricide among others, is a medication used to treat a number of types of parasitic worm infections.

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Pregnane X receptor

In the field of molecular biology, the pregnane X receptor (PXR), also known as the steroid and xenobiotic sensing nuclear receptor (SXR) or nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group I, member 2 (NR1I2) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NR1I2 (nuclear Receptor subfamily 1, group I, member 2) gene.

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Prochlorperazine

Prochlorperazine is a dopamine (D2) receptor antagonist that belongs to the phenothiazine class of antipsychotic agents that are used for the antiemetic treatment of nausea and vertigo.

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Progesterone

Progesterone (P4) is an endogenous steroid and progestogen sex hormone involved in the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and embryogenesis of humans and other species.

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Progesterone (medication)

Progesterone is a medication and naturally occurring steroid hormone.

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Propranolol

Propranolol, sold under the brand name Inderal among others, is a medication of the beta blocker type. It is used to treat high blood pressure, a number of types of irregular heart rate, thyrotoxicosis, capillary hemangiomas, performance anxiety, and essential tremors. It is used to prevent migraine headaches, and to prevent further heart problems in those with angina or previous heart attacks. It can be taken by mouth or by injection into a vein. The formulation that is taken by mouth comes in short-acting and long-acting versions. Propranolol appears in the blood after 30 minutes and has a maximum effect between 60 and 90 minutes when taken by mouth. Common side effects include nausea, abdominal pain, and constipation. It should not be used in those with an already slow heart rate and most of those with heart failure. Quickly stopping the medication in those with coronary artery disease may worsen symptoms. It may worsen the symptoms of asthma. Caution is recommended in those with liver or kidney problems. Propranolol may cause harmful effects in the baby if taken during pregnancy. Its use during breastfeeding is probably safe, but the baby should be monitored for side effects. It is a non-selective beta blocker which works by blocking β-adrenergic receptors. Propranolol was discovered in 1964. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. Propranolol is available as a generic medication. The wholesale cost in the developing world is between 0.24 and 2.16 per month as of 2014. In the United States it costs about $15 per month at a typical dose.

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Quinine

Quinine is a medication used to treat malaria and babesiosis.

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Rabeprazole

Rabeprazole is a proton pump inhibitor that suppresses gastric acid production in the stomach.

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Ramelteon

Ramelteon, marketed as Rozerem among others, is a sleep agent that selectively binds to the MT1 and MT2 receptors in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), instead of binding to GABAA receptors, such as with drugs like zolpidem.

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Reboxetine

Reboxetine, sold under the brand name Edronax among others, is a drug of the norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (NRI) class, marketed as an antidepressant by Pfizer for use in the treatment of major depression, although it has also been used off-label for panic disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

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Repaglinide

Repaglinide is an antidiabetic drug in the class of medications known as meglitinides, and was invented in 1983.

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Retapamulin

Retapamulin is a topical antibiotic developed by GlaxoSmithKline.

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Ribociclib

Ribociclib (trade name Kisqali) is an inhibitor of cyclin D1/CDK4 and CDK6, and is used for the treatment of certain kinds of breast cancer.

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Rifampicin

Rifampicin, also known as rifampin, is an antibiotic used to treat several types of bacterial infections, including tuberculosis, leprosy, and Legionnaire's disease.

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Rimonabant

Rimonabant (also known as SR141716; trade names Acomplia, Zimulti) is an anorectic antiobesity drug that was first approved in Europe in 2006 but was withdrawn worldwide in 2008 due to serious psychiatric side effects; it was never approved in the United States.

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Riociguat

Riociguat (trade name Adempas) is a drug by Bayer that is a stimulator of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC).

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Ritonavir

Ritonavir, sold under the trade name Norvir, is an antiretroviral medication used along with other medications to treat HIV/AIDS.

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Rivaroxaban

Rivaroxaban, sold under the brand name Xarelto, among others, is an oral anticoagulant medication (blood thinner).

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Roflumilast

Roflumilast (trade names Daxas, Daliresp) is a drug that acts as a selective, long-acting inhibitor of the enzyme phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE-4).

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Rolapitant

Rolapitant (INN, trade name Varubi in the US and Varuby in Europe) is a drug originally developed by Schering-Plough and licensed for clinical development by Tesaro, which acts as a selective NK1 receptor antagonist (antagonist for the NK1 receptor).

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Romidepsin

Romidepsin, also known as Istodax, is an anticancer agent used in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) and other peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCLs).

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Ropinirole

Ropinirole (INN; trade names Requip, Repreve, Ronirol, Adartrel) is a dopamine agonist of the non-ergoline class of medications.

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Rucaparib

Rucaparib (brand name Rubraca) is a PARP inhibitor used as an anti-cancer agent.

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Ruxolitinib

Ruxolitinib (trade names Jakafi and Jakavi) is a drug for the treatment of intermediate or high-risk myelofibrosis, a type of myeloproliferative disorder that affects the bone marrow, and for polycythemia vera (PCV) when there has been an inadequate response to or intolerance of hydroxyurea.

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Safinamide

Safinamide (INN; brand name Xadago) is a drug used as an add-on treatment for Parkinson's disease during "off" episodes; it has multiple modes of action, including the inhibition of monoamine oxidase B. See for updates.

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Salmeterol

Salmeterol is a long-acting β2 adrenergic receptor agonist (LABA) used in the maintenance and prevention of asthma symptoms and maintenance of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) symptoms.

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Saquinavir

Saquinavir, sold under the brand names Invirase and Fortovase, is an antiretroviral drug used together with other medications to treat or prevent HIV/AIDS.

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Saxagliptin

Saxagliptin, sold under the brand name Onglyza, is an oral hypoglycemic (anti-diabetic drug) of the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor class.

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Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are a class of drugs that are typically used as antidepressants in the treatment of major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders.

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Semagacestat

Semagacestat (LY-450139) was a candidate drug for a causal therapy against Alzheimer's disease.

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Sertindole

Sertindole (brand names: Serdolect and Serlect) is an antipsychotic medication.

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Sertraline

Sertraline, sold under the trade names Zoloft among others, is an antidepressant of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class.

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Setipiprant

Setipiprant (INN) (developmental code names ACT-129968, KYTH-105) is an investigational drug developed for the treatment of asthma and scalp hair loss.

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Sibutramine

Sibutramine, formerly sold under the brand name Meridia among others, is an appetite suppressant which has been discontinued in many countries.

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Sildenafil

Sildenafil, sold as the brand name Viagra among others, is a medication used to treat erectile dysfunction and pulmonary arterial hypertension.

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Silodosin

No description.

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Simeprevir

Simeprevir, sold under the trade names Olysio among others, is a medication used in combination with other medications for the treatment of hepatitis C. It is specifically used for hepatitis C genotype 1 and 4. Medications it is used with include sofosbuvir or ribavirin and peginterferon-alfa. Cure rates are in 80s to 90s percent. It may be used in those who also have HIV/AIDS. It is taken by mouth once daily for typically 12 weeks. Common side effects include feeling tired, headache, rash, itchiness, and sensitivity to sunlight. In those with previous hepatitis B infection, active disease may recur. It is not recommended in those with significant liver problems. During pregnancy when used with ribavirin it may cause harm to the baby while when used with sofosbuvir its safety is unclear. Simeprevir is a HCV protease inhibitor. Simeprevir was developed by Medivir AB and Janssen Pharmaceutica. It was approved for medical use in the United States in 2013. Simeprevir is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. It is not available as a generic medication as of 2015. In the United Kingdom a course of treatment with ribavirin and peginterferon-alfa cost about £29,700 in 2015. In the United States a course of treatment with sofosbuvir was more than 171,000 in 2015 with the simeprevir component costing 66,360.

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Simvastatin

Simvastatin, marketed under the trade name Zocor among others, is a lipid-lowering medication.

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Simvastatin/sitagliptin

Simvastatin/sitagliptin (brand name Juvisync) is a fixed-dose combination drug consisting of sitagliptin and simvastatin.

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Sirolimus

Sirolimus, also known as rapamycin, is a macrolide compound that is used to coat coronary stents, prevent organ transplant rejection and to treat a rare lung disease called lymphangioleiomyomatosis.

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Sitagliptin

Sitagliptin (INN;, previously identified as MK-0431 and marketed as the phosphate salt under the trade name Januvia) is an oral antihyperglycemic (antidiabetic drug) of the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor class.

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Sitaxentan

Sitaxentan sodium (TBC-11251) is a medication for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH).

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Sofosbuvir/velpatasvir

Sofosbuvir/velpatasvir, sold under the brand name Epclusa among others, is a fixed dose combination medication for the treatment of hepatitis C. It combines sofosbuvir and velpatasvir.

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Solifenacin

Solifenacin (INN, trade name Vesicare) is a medicine of the antimuscarinic class and was developed for treating contraction of overactive bladder with associated problems such as increased urination frequency and urge incontinence.

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Sorafenib

Sorafenib (co-developed and co-marketed by Bayer and Onyx Pharmaceuticals as Nexavar), is a kinase inhibitor drug approved for the treatment of primary kidney cancer (advanced renal cell carcinoma), advanced primary liver cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma), and radioactive iodine resistant advanced thyroid carcinoma.

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Specialized pro-resolving mediators

Specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPM, also termed specialized proresolving mediators) are a large and growing class of cell signaling molecules formed in cells by the metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) by one or a combination of lipoxygenase, cyclooxygenase, and cytochrome P450 monooxygenase enzymes.

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Spironolactone

Spironolactone, sold under the brand name Aldactone among others, is a medication that is primarily used to treat fluid build-up due to heart failure, liver scarring, or kidney disease.

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Statin

Statins, also known as HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, are a class of lipid-lowering medications.

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Steroid

A steroid is a biologically active organic compound with four rings arranged in a specific molecular configuration.

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Sunitinib

Sunitinib (marketed as Sutent by Pfizer, and previously known as SU11248) is an oral, small-molecule, multi-targeted receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) inhibitor that was approved by the FDA for the treatment of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and imatinib-resistant gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) on January 26, 2006.

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Synergistic enhancer (antiretroviral)

Synergistic enhancers of antiretrovirals usually do not possess any antiretroviral properties alone, but when they are taken concurrently with antiretroviral drugs they enhance the effect of that drug.

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Tabimorelin

Tabimorelin (INN) (developmental code name NN-703) is a drug which acts as a potent, orally-active agonist of the ghrelin/growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR) and growth hormone secretagogue, mimicking the effects of the endogenous peptide agonist ghrelin as a stimulator of growth hormone (GH) release.

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Tacrolimus

No description.

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Tadalafil

Tadalafil (INN) is a PDE5 inhibitor marketed in pill form for treating erectile dysfunction (ED) under the name Cialis, and under the name Adcirca for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension.

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Tamoxifen

Tamoxifen (TMX), sold under the brand name Nolvadex among others, is a medication that is used to prevent breast cancer in women and treat breast cancer in women and men.

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Tapentadol

Tapentadol (brand names: Nucynta, Palexia and Tapal) is a centrally acting opioid analgesic of the benzenoid class with a dual mode of action as an agonist of the μ-opioid receptor and as a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (NRI).

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Tasimelteon

Tasimelteon (trade name Hetlioz) is a drug approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in January 2014 for the treatment of non-24-hour sleep–wake disorder (also called Non-24, N24 and N24HSWD).

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Taurochenodeoxycholate 6α-hydroxylase

Taurochenodeoxycholate 6alpha-hydroxylase (CYP3A4, CYP4A21, taurochenodeoxycholate 6alpha-monooxygenase) is an enzyme with systematic name taurochenodeoxycholate,NADPH:oxygen oxidoreductase (6alpha-hydroxylating).

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Telavancin

Telavancin (trade name Vibativ) is a bactericidal lipoglycopeptide for use in MRSA or other Gram-positive infections.

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Telithromycin

Telithromycin is the first ketolide antibiotic to enter clinical use and is sold under the brand name of Ketek.

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Temazepam

Temazepam (brand names Restoril and Normison, among others) is an intermediate-acting 3-hydroxy hypnotic of the benzodiazepine class of psychoactive drugs.

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Terconazole

Terconazole is an antifungal drug used to treat vaginal yeast infection.

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Terfenadine

Terfenadine is an antihistamine formerly used for the treatment of allergic conditions.

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Tesmilifene

Tesmilifene (INN; developmental code names YMB-1002, BMS-217380-01), also known as N,N-diethyl-2-(4-phenylmethyl)ethanamine (DPPE), is a small-molecule antineoplastic drug and chemopotentiator that was under development by YM BioSciences for the treatment of breast cancer in the 2000s but was never marketed.

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Tesofensine

Tesofensine (NS2330) is a serotonin–noradrenaline–dopamine reuptake inhibitor from the phenyltropane family of drugs, which is being developed for the treatment of obesity.

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Testosterone

Testosterone is the primary male sex hormone and an anabolic steroid.

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Testosterone (medication)

Testosterone is a medication and naturally occurring steroid hormone.

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Tetrahydrocannabinol

Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is one of at least 113 cannabinoids identified in cannabis.

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Ticagrelor

Ticagrelor (trade name Brilinta, Brilique, and Possia) is a platelet aggregation inhibitor produced by AstraZeneca.

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Tilidine

Tilidine, or tilidate (brand names: Tilidin, Valoron and Valtran) is a synthetic opioid painkiller, used mainly in Germany, Switzerland, South Africa and Belgium for treatment of moderate to severe pain, both acute and chronic.

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Tinidazole

Tinidazole is a drug used against protozoan infections.

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Tiotropium bromide

Tiotropium bromide, originally marketed as Spiriva, is a long-acting, 24-hour, anticholinergic bronchodilator used in the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

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Tivozanib

Tivozanib (trade name Fotivda) is an oral VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor.

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Tocilizumab

Tocilizumab, also known as atlizumab, is an immunosuppressive drug, mainly for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis, a severe form of arthritis in children.

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Tofacitinib

Tofacitinib, sold under the brand Xeljanz among others, is a medication used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, and ulcerative colitis.

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Tofisopam

Tofisopam (Emandaxin, Grandaxin, Sériel) is an anxiolytic that is marketed in several European countries.

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Tolcapone

Tolcapone (brand name Tasmar) is a drug used to treat Parkinson's disease (PD).

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Tolvaptan

Tolvaptan (INN, trade names Samsca and Jinarc) is an aquaretic drug that functions as a selective, competitive vasopressin receptor 2 antagonist used to treat hyponatremia (low blood sodium levels) associated with congestive heart failure, cirrhosis, and the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH).

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Topiramate

Topiramate (brand name Topamax) is an anticonvulsant (antiepilepsy) drug.

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Toremifene

Toremifene, sold under the brand name Fareston among others, is a medication which is used in the treatment of advanced breast cancer in postmenopausal women.

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TPA-023

TPA-023 is an anxiolytic drug with a novel chemical structure, which is used in scientific research.

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Trabectedin

Trabectedin (also known as ecteinascidin 743 or ET-743) is an antitumor chemotherapy drug sold by Pharma Mar S.A. and Johnson and Johnson under the brand name Yondelis.

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Tramadol

Tramadol, sold under the brand name Ultram among others, is an opioid pain medication used to treat moderate to moderately severe pain.

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Transgender hormone therapy (male-to-female)

Transgender hormone therapy of the male-to-female (MTF) type, also known as feminizing hormone therapy, is a form of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and sex reassignment therapy which is used to change the secondary sexual characteristics of transgender people from masculine (or androgynous) to feminine.

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Trastuzumab emtansine

Trastuzumab emtansine also known as ado-trastuzumab emtansine and sold under the trade name Kadcyla, is an antibody-drug conjugate consisting of the monoclonal antibody trastuzumab (Herceptin) linked to the cytotoxic agent emtansine (DM1).

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Trazodone

Trazodone, sold under many brand names worldwide, Page accessed Feb 10, 2016 is an antidepressant medication.

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Trifolium pratense

Trifolium pratense, the red clover, is a herbaceous species of flowering plant in the bean family Fabaceae, native to Europe, Western Asia and northwest Africa, but planted and naturalised in many other regions.

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Triptan

Triptans are a family of tryptamine-based drugs used as abortive medication in the treatment of migraines and cluster headaches.

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Troleandomycin

Troleandomycin (TAO for short) is a macrolide antibiotic.

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Tropisetron

Tropisetron (INN) is a serotonin 5-HT3 receptor antagonist used mainly as an antiemetic to treat nausea and vomiting following chemotherapy, although it has been used experimentally as an analgesic in cases of fibromyalgia.

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Udenafil

The drug udenafil is marketed under the trade name Zydena.

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Ulipristal acetate

Ulipristal acetate, sold under the brand name Ella among others, is a medication used for emergency birth control and uterine fibroids.

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Valbenazine

Valbenazine, sold under the trade name Ingrezza, is a medication used to treat tardive dyskinesia.

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Valdecoxib

Valdecoxib is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) used in the treatment of osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and painful menstruation and menstrual symptoms.

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Vandetanib

Vandetanib (INN, trade name Caprelsa) is an anti-cancer drug that is used for the treatment of certain tumours of the thyroid gland.

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Vardenafil

Vardenafil (INN) is a PDE5 inhibitor used for treating erectile dysfunction that is sold under the trade names Levitra (Bayer AG, GSK, and SP), Staxyn in India, and Vivanza in Italy.

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Vatalanib

Vatalanib (INN, codenamed PTK787 or PTK/ZK) is a small molecule protein kinase inhibitor that inhibits angiogenesis.

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Vault RNA

Many eukaryotic cells contain large ribonucleoprotein particles in the cytoplasm known as vaults.

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Velpatasvir

Velpatasvir is an NS5A inhibitor (by Gilead) which is used together with sofosbuvir in the treatment of hepatitis C infection of all six major genotypes.

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Venetoclax

Venetoclax (INN, trade name Venclexta in the US and Venclyxto in Europe) is a small molecule oral drug that treats chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) in those with a specific chromosomal abnormality.

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Verteporfin

Verteporfin (trade name Visudyne), a benzoporphyrin derivative, is a medication used as a photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy to eliminate the abnormal blood vessels in the eye associated with conditions such as the wet form of macular degeneration.

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Vilazodone

Vilazodone (United States trade name Viibryd) is a serotonergic antidepressant developed by Merck KGaA and licensed by Clinical Data, a biotech company purchased by Forest Laboratories in 2011.

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Vinblastine

Vinblastine is a chemotherapy medication, typically used with other medications, to treat a number of types of cancer.

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Vincristine

Vincristine, also known as leurocristine and marketed under the brandname Oncovin among others, is a chemotherapy medication used to treat a number of types of cancer. This includes acute lymphocytic leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia, Hodgkin's disease, neuroblastoma, and small cell lung cancer among others. It is given intravenously. Most people experience some side effects from vincristine treatment. Commonly it causes a change in sensation, hair loss, constipation, difficulty walking, and headaches. Serious side effects may include neuropathic pain, lung damage, or low blood white cells. It will likely cause harm to the baby if given during pregnancy. It works by stopping cells from dividing properly. Vincristine was first isolated in 1961. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. The wholesale cost in the developing world is between 1.80 and 42.60 USD per dose. It is a vinca alkaloid that can be obtained from the Madagascar periwinkle Catharanthus roseus.

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Vindesine

Vindesine is an anti-mitotic vinca alkaloid used in chemotherapy.

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Vinorelbine

Vinorelbine (NVB), sold under the brand name Navelbine among others, is a chemotherapy medication used to treat a number of types of cancer.

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Vismodegib

Vismodegib (trade name Erivedge) is a drug for the treatment of basal-cell carcinoma (BCC).

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Vonoprazan

Vonoprazan fumarate is a first-in-class potassium-competitive acid blocker.

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Vorapaxar

Vorapaxar (brand name Zontivity, formerly known as SCH 530348) is a thrombin receptor (protease-activated receptor, PAR-1) antagonist based on the natural product himbacine, discovered by Schering-Plough and developed by Merck & Co.

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Voriconazole

Voriconazole, sold under the brand name Vfend among others, is an antifungal medication used to treat a number of fungal infections.

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Warfarin

Warfarin, sold under the brand name Coumadin among others, is a medication that is used as an anticoagulant (blood thinner).

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Zafirlukast

Zafirlukast is an orally administered leukotriene receptor antagonist (LTRA) used for the chronic treatment of asthma.

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Zaleplon

Zaleplon (marketed under the brand names Sonata, Starnoc, and Andante) is a sedative-hypnotic, almost entirely used for the management/treatment of insomnia.

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Zanoterone

Zanoterone (former developmental code name WIN-49596), also known as (5α,17α)-1'-(methylsulfonyl)-1'-H-pregn-20-ynopyrazol-17-ol, is a steroidal antiandrogen which was never marketed.

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Zileuton

Zileuton (trade name ZYFLO) is an orally active inhibitor of 5-lipoxygenase, and thus inhibits leukotrienes (LTB4, LTC4, LTD4, and LTE4) formation, used for the maintenance treatment of asthma.

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Ziprasidone

Ziprasidone, sold under the brand name Geodon among others, is an atypical antipsychotic which is used for the treatment of schizophrenia as well as acute mania and mixed states associated with bipolar disorder.

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Zolpidem

Zolpidem, sold under the brand name Ambien, among others, is a sedative primarily used for the treatment of trouble sleeping.

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Zonisamide

Zonisamide is a medication used to treat the symptoms of epilepsy and Parkinson's disease.

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Zopiclone

--> Zopiclone (brand names Imovane, Zimovane, Dopareel) is a nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic agent used in the treatment of insomnia.

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Zuclopenthixol

Zuclopenthixol (brand names Cisordinol, Clopixol, Acuphase), also known as zuclopentixol, is a medication used to treat schizophrenia and other psychoses.

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1,3,7-Trimethyluric acid

1,3,7-Trimethyluric acid, also referred to as trimethyluric acid and 8-oxy-caffeine, is a purine alkaloid that is produced in some plants and occurs as a minor metabolite of caffeine in humans.

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1,8-Cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase

1,8-Cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase (CYP3A4) is an enzyme with systematic name 1,8-cineole,NADPH:oxygen oxidoreductase (2-exo-hydroxylating).

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12-Hydroxyheptadecatrienoic acid

12-Hydroxyheptadecatrenoic acid (also termed 12-HHT, 12(S)-hydroxyheptadeca-5Z,8E,10E-trienoic acid, or 12(S)-HHTrE) is a 17 carbon metabolite of the 20 carbon polyunsaturated fatty acid, arachidonic acid.

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15β-Hydroxycyproterone acetate

15β-Hydroxycyproterone acetate (15β-OH-CPA) is a steroidal antiandrogen and the major metabolite of cyproterone acetate which is formed from it in the liver by hydroxylation via the cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP3A4.

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16α-Hydroxyprogesterone

16α-Hydroxyprogesterone (16α-OHP), also known as 16α-hydroxypregn-4-ene-3,20-dione, is a minor endogenous progestogen steroid hormone and a metabolite of progesterone that is formed in lower amounts than 17α-hydroxyprogesterone (17α-OHP).

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2-Hydroxyestradiol

2-Hydroxyestradiol (2-OHE2), also known as estra-1,3,5(10)-triene-2,3,17β-triol, is an endogenous steroid, catechol estrogen, and metabolite of estradiol, as well as a positional isomer of estriol.

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3,4-Methylenedioxy-N-ethylamphetamine

3,4-Methylenedioxy-N-ethylamphetamine ("MDEA"; also called "MDE" and colloquially, "Eve") is an empathogenic psychoactive drug.

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3-Methoxymorphinan

3-Methoxymorphinan is a levomethorphan metabolite that has been shown to produce local anesthetic effects.

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4-Ipomeanol

4-Ipomeanol (4-IPO) is a pulmonary pre-toxin isolated from sweet potatoes infected with the fungus Fusarium solani.

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5-HT3 antagonist

The 5-HT3 antagonists, informally known as "setrons", are a class of drugs that act as receptor antagonists at the 5-HT3 receptor, a subtype of serotonin receptor found in terminals of the vagus nerve and in certain areas of the brain.

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7α-Hydroxy-DHEA

7α-Hydroxydehydroepiandrosterone (7α-hydroxy-DHEA; 7α-OH-DHEA), also known as 3β,7α-dihydroxyandrost-4-ene-17-one, is an endogenous, naturally occurring steroid and a major metabolite of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) that is formed by CYP7B1 (steroid 7α-hydroxylase) in tissues such as the prostate gland and by CYP3A4 in the liver.

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Redirects here:

CYP3A3, CYP3A4 (gene), Cyp3a4, Cytochrome P450 3A4.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CYP3A4

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