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Cell culture

Index Cell culture

Cell culture is the process by which cells are grown under controlled conditions, generally outside their natural environment. [1]

454 relations: A549 cell, A6, Abscess, Achromobacter, Acidilobus aceticus, Aciduliprofundum boonei, ADA (buffer), Adult stem cell, Aequorin, Agar, Agricultural science, Air-liquid interface cell culture, Alkaline lysis, Alpha-glucosidase, Alpha-Parinaric acid, Alternatives to animal testing, Altogen Labs CRO, Alzheimer's disease, Amanita exitialis, Aminopterin, Amphotropism, Annonacin, Antithrombin, APMonitor, Apparicine, Ascofuranone, Aseptic sampling, Aspatos, Asplenium × boydstoniae, Assay, Astraeus hygrometricus, Auger therapy, Aum Shinrikyo, Backcrossing, Baculoviridae, BeerXML, Bernhard Palsson, Bert Achong, Bimolecular fluorescence complementation, Bio-MEMS, Biologics for immunosuppression, Biomanufacturing, Biomass, Biomedical scientist, Biopharmaceutical, Bioprocess, Bioprocessor, Bioproduction, Bioreactor, Biotechnology, ..., Bismarck brown Y, Bluefin trevally, Boom method, Brain heart infusion, Brassinosteroid, BRENDA tissue ontology, C3orf58, Caco-2, Carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester, CASY cell counting technology, Cedarlane Laboratories, Celecoxib, Cell (biology), Cell counting, Cell disruption, Cell isolation, Cell migration, Cellular differentiation, Cellulitis, Centre for Applied Genomics, Cerevisterol, Charles Donovan, Chemically defined medium, Chinese hamster ovary cell, Chlamydia (genus), Chlamydia psittaci, Chlamydia trachomatis, Chloroplast, Cholamine chloride hydrochloride, Clean-in-place, Clinostat, Clonally transmissible cancer, Clostridium difficile toxin B, Collagen, Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, Colony-stimulating factor, Comet assay, Confluency, Contagion (film), Coriell Institute for Medical Research, Cover slip, COX-2 inhibitor, Cryofixation, Culture (disambiguation), Culture conversion, Cultured meat, Cultured neuronal network, CX, Cyanidioschyzon merolae, Cyclic guanosine monophosphate–adenosine monophosphate, DAPI, Darek Fidyka, David W. Murhammer, Dehydroascorbic acid, Dengue fever, Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und Zellkulturen, Dick Swaab, Digital holographic microscopy, Dipyridamole, Discovery and development of antiandrogens, Discovery and development of NS5A inhibitors, Disk diffusion test, Dizocilpine, Doxycycline, Drug design, Dundee Cell Products, Dysentery, Dysgeusia, E-SCREEN, Ebola virus disease, Echovirus, Ecotropism, Embryoid body, Emma Hwang, Environmental DNA, Epileptogenesis, Episodic ataxia, Epoetin alfa, Eppendorf (company), Erythropoietin, Ether lipid, ExoCarta, Exosome (vesicle), Explant culture, Feraviridae, Fernbach flask, Fetal bovine serum, Fibroblast, Fibronectin, Floris Kaayk, Fluidic force microscopy, Function-spacer-lipid Kode construct, GAL4/UAS system, Gamete, Ganglioside, Gastrointestinal disease, Gastrulation, Gellan gum, Gemmata obscuriglobus, Gene expression, Genetics, Genomic library, Gentamicin protection assay, George S. Middleton High School, Gerald Fischbach, Germ theory of disease, German Resource Center for Genome Research, Ginsenoside, Gleditsia sinensis, Glycinamide, Grace Bio-Labs, Granulosa cell, Growth medium, H5N1 vaccine, Hamster polyomavirus, Hanks' salts, Hayflick limit, HEK 293 cells, HeLa, HEPBS, HEPES, Herbalism, Hexadimethrine bromide, High vaginal swab, Hiroshi Tamiya, History of virology, HL23V, HL60, Homogenization (biology), Hugo Macedo, Human cytomegalovirus, Human Engineered Cardiac Tissues (hECTs), Human parainfluenza viruses, Human umbilical vein endothelial cell, Humanized antibody, Humster, Huntington Medical Research Institutes, Hydrophis belcheri, Ian Frazer, Imleria badia, Immunization, Immunocytochemistry, In vitro, Incubator (culture), Index of oncology articles, Indole-3-carbinol, Infectious pancreatic necrosis, Influenza, Influenza research, Influenza treatment, Influenza vaccine, Inland taipan, Instruments used in pathology, Interleukin 35, Interleukin 9, International Space Station, Intravital microscopy, Invitrogen, InvivoGen, Iodothyronine deiodinase, Iwaki, Japanese encephalitis, Jean-Pierre Lecocq, Jeryl Lynn, Jian Zhou, Journal of Neurophysiology, Julianna Lisziewicz, Julius Youngner, Kai Simons, KBM-7 cells, Keith R. Porter, Kiran Mazumdar-Shaw, Kitasato Shibasaburō, Koch's postulates, Kosmos 2229, KOSR, Laboratory diagnosis of viral infections, Larazotide, Large tumor antigen, Lassa fever, Leo Loeb, Leonard Hayflick, Lethal dose, Lipofectamine, List of breast cancer cell lines, List of geneticists, List of inventors, List of MeSH codes (A11), List of MeSH codes (E05), List of model organisms, List of vaccine ingredients, Logarithmic growth, Lymphocystivirus, Lymphocyte-variant hypereosinophilia, Lysis, Malabaricane, Malabsorption, Malacidin, Mammary gland, Marburg virus disease, Margaret Reed Lewis, Martin Evans, MDA-MB-468, Medical microbiology, Mesenchymal stem cell, Mesothelium, Metalloprotease inhibitor, Metaplasticity, Methyl cellulose, MIA PaCa-2, Microcarrier, Microfluidic cell culture, Micronucleus test, Microrafts, Middle tumor antigen, Miltenyi Biotec, Minusheet perfusion culture system, MMP9, Molecular genetics, Monique Adolphe, Monoclonal, Monoclonal antibody, Monolayer, MOPS, Morphogenesis, Morpholino, Mouse models of breast cancer metastasis, MRC-5, Murashige and Skoog medium, Murine polyomavirus, Mycena haematopus, Mycetoma, Mycobacterium tuberculosis sRNA, Mycoplasma, Mycoplasma laboratorium, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Myrionecta rubra, Nafion, Nanobacterium, Nanotopography, Naringenin, Nasal chondrocytes, National Institutes of Health, NERV (reactor), Neural ensemble, Neurite, Neurofibrillary tangle, Neuronal galvanotropism, Neutral red, Nicotine, Nonylphenol, Norbadione A, Nucleofection, Ocelloid, Olfactory ensheathing glia, Omalizumab, Open microfluidics, Opodiphthera eucalypti, Optaflu, Oral mucosa tissue engineering, Organ culture, Organ-on-a-chip, Outline of biology, Outline of cell biology, P-selectin, P70-S6 Kinase 1, Paclitaxel, PANC-1, Papain, Papillomaviridae, Patient derived xenograft, PC12 cell line, Penicillin, Peter Gray (bioengineer), Petri dish, Phage group, Phallus indusiatus, Pharming (genetics), Phosphodiesterase 2, Phytochemical, Piceatannol, PIM1, PIPES, Plant manufactured pharmaceuticals, Plant stem cell, Platelet lysate, Plating efficiency, PLK1, Poliomyelitis, Polyhydroxyethylmethacrylate, Polyploid, Porous silicon, Positive displacement pipette, Postzygotic mutation, Prepatellar bursitis, Progeroid syndromes, Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, Proteasome, Protein L, Q-system (genetics), QMCF Technology, Quantitative phase-contrast microscopy, Quartz crystal microbalance, Quattromed, Radiation hormesis, Recombinant antibodies, Rejuvenation (aging), Reporter gene, Rhabdastrella globostellata, Rhizina undulata, Ridge (biology), RNA interference, RNAi-Based Identification System and interference of Specific Cancer Cells, Romidepsin, Roombia truncata, Roswell Park Memorial Institute medium, Rotaviral gastroenteritis, Rotavirus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Sam Chachoua, San Diego Zoo Global, Sartorius AG, Sciclyc, Scientific technique, SCN1A (gene), Selectable marker, Sexual dimorphism, Shaf Keshavjee, Shingles, Sigma-Aldrich, Simulated body fluid, Single-use bioreactor, Sirtuin, Smittium, Spidroin, Spinner (cell culture), Stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture, Stanley Michael Gartler, STARD13, Stem cell, Stem-cell line, STIM2, STO, Strimvelis, Subculture (biology), Sulforhodamine B, Sum activity of peripheral deiodinases, SuperMeat, Synchronous culture, T98G, Tetrazole, Tetrodotoxin, Thermus aquaticus, Time-lapse microscopy, Time-resolved RNA sequencing, Timeline of Animal Liberation Front actions, 2005–present, Timeline of cellular agriculture, Timeline of senescence research, Tissue culture, Tissue engineering, Tobacco BY-2 cells, Toxin-antitoxin system, TP53-inducible glycolysis and apoptosis regulator, Transforming growth factor, Translational research, Treatment of equine lameness, Treponema socranskii, Trichoderma, Trypsinization, Ueli Schibler, Vegetative reproduction, Venomous snake, Venous ulcer, Verbascoside, Vero cell, VG-1, Viability assay, Viable count, Viral culture, Viral plaque, Viral transformation, Viral vector, Virology, Von Kossa stain, Vortex mixer, Wallerian degeneration, Walter Nelson-Rees, Warnowiaceae, Werner syndrome, Whooping cough, Wilhelm Roux, Wilton R. Earle, Xenodiagnosis, Xenophyophore, Zaragozic acid, 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 2-Hydroxy-3-morpholinopropanesulfonic acid, 2009 flu pandemic vaccine, 2010s, 2014 in science, 3-Amino-1,2,4-triazole, 3D cell culture, 3D cell culturing by magnetic levitation, 9-Methyl-β-carboline. Expand index (404 more) »

A549 cell

A549 cells are adenocarcinomic human alveolar basal epithelial cells, and constitute a cell line that was first developed in 1972 by D. J. Giard, et al.

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A6

A6, A 6 or A-6 can refer to.

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Abscess

An abscess is a collection of pus that has built up within the tissue of the body.

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Achromobacter

Achromobacter is a genus of bacteria, included in the family Alcaligenaceae in the order Burkholderiales.

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Acidilobus aceticus

Acidilobus aceticus is a thermoacidophilic (that is, both thermophilic and acidophilic) species of anaerobic archaea.

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Aciduliprofundum boonei

Aciduliprofundum boonei is an obligate thermoacidophilic archaea belonging to the phylum Euryarchaeota.

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ADA (buffer)

ADA is a zwitterionic organic chemical buffering agent; one of Good's buffers.

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Adult stem cell

Adult stem cells are undifferentiated cells, found throughout the body after development, that multiply by cell division to replenish dying cells and regenerate damaged tissues.

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Aequorin

Aequorin is a calcium-activated photoprotein isolated from the hydrozoan Aequorea victoria.

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Agar

Agar (pronounced, sometimes) or agar-agar is a jelly-like substance, obtained from algae.

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Agricultural science

Agricultural science is a broad multidisciplinary field of biology that encompasses the parts of exact, natural, economic and social sciences that are used in the practice and understanding of agriculture.

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Air-liquid interface cell culture

Air liquid interface cell culture (ALI) is a method of cell culture by which basal stem cells are grown with their basal surfaces in contact with media, and the top of the cellular layer is exposed to the air.

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Alkaline lysis

Alkaline lysis or alkaline extraction is a method used in molecular biology to isolate plasmid DNA from bacteria.

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Alpha-glucosidase

Alpha-glucosidase (maltase, glucoinvertase, glucosidosucrase, maltase-glucoamylase, alpha-glucopyranosidase, glucosidoinvertase, alpha-D-glucosidase, alpha-glucoside hydrolase, alpha-1,4-glucosidase, alpha-D-glucoside glucohydrolase) is a glucosidase located in the brush border of the small intestine that acts upon α(1→4) bonds.

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Alpha-Parinaric acid

α-Parinaric acid is a conjugated polyunsaturated fatty acid.

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Alternatives to animal testing

Alternatives to animal testing are the development and implementation of test methods that avoid the use of live animals.

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Altogen Labs CRO

Altogen Labs CRO is a contract research organization (CRO) based in Austin, Texas that is involved in pharmacological discovery and drug development.

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Alzheimer's disease

Alzheimer's disease (AD), also referred to simply as Alzheimer's, is a chronic neurodegenerative disease that usually starts slowly and worsens over time.

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Amanita exitialis

Amanita exitialis, also known as the Guangzhou destroying angel, is a mushroom of the large genus Amanita.

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Aminopterin

Aminopterin (or 4-aminopteroic acid), the 4-amino derivative of folic acid, is an antineoplastic drug with immunosuppressive properties often used in chemotherapy.

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Amphotropism

Amphotropism or amphotropic indicates that a pathogen like a virus or a bacterium has a wide host range and can infect more than one species or cell culture line.

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Annonacin

Annonacin is a chemical compound with toxic effects, especially in the nervous system, found in some fruits such as the paw paw (custard apple), soursop, and others from the family Annonaceae.

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Antithrombin

Antithrombin (AT) is a small protein molecule that inactivates several enzymes of the coagulation system.

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APMonitor

Advanced process monitor (APMonitor), is a modeling language for differential algebraic (DAE) equations.

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Apparicine

Apparicine is a monoterpenoid indole alkaloid.

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Ascofuranone

Ascofuranone is an antibiotic produced by various ascomycete fungi including Acremonium sclerotigenum that inhibits the Trypanosoma brucei alternative oxidase and is a lead compound in efforts to produce other drugs targeting this enzyme for the treatment of sleeping sickness.

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Aseptic sampling

Aseptic sampling is the process of aseptically withdrawing materials used in biopharmaceutical processes for analysis so as not contaminate or alter the sample or the source of the sample.

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Aspatos

Aspatos is the pseudonym of writer and scientist Javier Orozco, born 1970 in León, Guanajuato, Mexico.

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Asplenium × boydstoniae

Asplenium × boydstoniae, commonly known as Boydston's spleenwort, is a rare, sterile, hybrid fern.

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Assay

An assay is an investigative (analytic) procedure in laboratory medicine, pharmacology, environmental biology and molecular biology for qualitatively assessing or quantitatively measuring the presence, amount, or functional activity of a target entity (the analyte).

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Astraeus hygrometricus

Astraeus hygrometricus, commonly known as the hygroscopic earthstar, the barometer earthstar, or the false earthstar, is a species of fungus in the family Diplocystaceae.

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Auger therapy

Auger therapy (AT) is a form of radiation therapy for the treatment of cancer which relies on a large number of low-energy electrons (emitted by the Auger effect) to damage cancer cells, rather than the high-energy radiation used in traditional radiation therapy.

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Aum Shinrikyo

, formerly, is a Japanese doomsday cult founded by Shoko Asahara in 1984.

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Backcrossing

Backcrossing is a crossing of a hybrid with one of its parents or an individual genetically similar to its parent, in order to achieve offspring with a genetic identity which is closer to that of the parent.

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Baculoviridae

Baculoviridae is a family of viruses.

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BeerXML

BeerXML is a free, fully defined XML data description standard designed for the exchange of beer brewing recipes and other brewing data.

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Bernhard Palsson

Bernhard Ørn Palsson is the Galletti Professor of Bioengineering and an Adjunct Professor of Medicine at the University of California, San Diego.

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Bert Achong

Bert Geoffrey Achong (6 December 1928 - 20 November 1996) was a Trinidadian pathologist.

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Bimolecular fluorescence complementation

Bimolecular fluorescence complementation (also known as BiFC) is a technology typically used to validate protein interactions.

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Bio-MEMS

Bio-MEMS is an abbreviation for biomedical (or biological) microelectromechanical systems.

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Biologics for immunosuppression

Biologics for immunosuppression (often called "biologics" or "biological therapy") are a class of immunosuppressive drugs which chemically are biopharmaceutical treatments.

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Biomanufacturing

Biomanufacturing is a type of manufacturing or biotechnology that utilizes biological systems to produce commercially important biomaterials and biomolecules for use in medicines, food and beverage processing, and industrial applications.

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Biomass

Biomass is an industry term for getting energy by burning wood, and other organic matter.

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Biomedical scientist

A biomedical scientist is a scientist trained in biology, particularly in the context of medicine.

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Biopharmaceutical

A biopharmaceutical, also known as a biologic(al) medical product, biological, or biologic, is any pharmaceutical drug product manufactured in, extracted from, or semisynthesized from biological sources.

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Bioprocess

A bioprocess is a specific process that uses complete living cells or their components (e.g., bacteria, enzymes, chloroplasts) to obtain desired products.

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Bioprocessor

A bioprocessor is a miniaturized bioreactor capable of culturing mammalian, insect and microbial cells.

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Bioproduction

Bioproduction is the production of biologics-based therapeutic drugs including protein-based therapeutics, vaccines, gene therapies as well as cell therapies; drugs so complex they can only be made in living systems or indeed are a living system (cell therapies).

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Bioreactor

A bioreactor may refer to any manufactured or engineered device or system that supports a biologically active environment.

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Biotechnology

Biotechnology is the broad area of science involving living systems and organisms to develop or make products, or "any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use" (UN Convention on Biological Diversity, Art. 2).

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Bismarck brown Y

Bismarck brown Y is a diazo dye with the idealized formula 2C6H4.

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Bluefin trevally

The bluefin trevally, Caranx melampygus (also known as the bluefin jack, bluefin kingfish, bluefinned crevalle, blue ulua, omilu and spotted trevally), is a species of large, widely distributed marine fish classified in the jack family, Carangidae.

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Boom method

Boom method (Boom nucleic acid extraction method) is a solid phase extraction method for isolating nucleic acid from a biological sample.

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Brain heart infusion

Brain heart infusion (BHI) is a growth medium for growing microorganisms.

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Brassinosteroid

Brassinosteroids (BRs) are a class of polyhydroxysteroids that have been recognized as a sixth class of plant hormones.

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BRENDA tissue ontology

The BTOGremse, M., Chang, A., Schomburg, I., Grote, A., Scheer, M., Ebeling, C., Schomburg, D. (2011): „“, Nucleic Acids Res., 39 (Database issue): D507–D513 (BRENDA Tissue Ontology) represents a comprehensive structured encyclopedia.

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C3orf58

C3orf58 is a human gene.

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Caco-2

The Caco-2 cell line is a continuous line of heterogeneous human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma cells, developed by the Sloan-Kettering Institute for Cancer Research through research conducted by Dr.

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Carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester

Carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFDA-SE) is a cell permeable dye generally used in animal cell proliferation research.

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CASY cell counting technology

CASY technology is an electric field multi-channel cell counting system.

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Cedarlane Laboratories

Cedarlane is a Canadian private corporation headquartered in Burlington, Ontario, Canada, that manufactures and distributes life science research products.

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Celecoxib

Celecoxib, sold under the brand name Celebrex among others, is a COX-2 selective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID).

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Cell (biology)

The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.

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Cell counting

Cell counting is any of various methods for the counting or similar quantification of cells in the life sciences, including medical diagnosis and treatment.

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Cell disruption

Cell disruption is a method or process for releasing biological molecules from inside a cell.

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Cell isolation

Cell isolation is the process of separating individual living cells from a solid block of tissue or cell suspension. While some types of cell naturally exist in a separated form (for example blood cells), other cell types that are found in solid tissue require specific techniques to separate them into individual cells. This may be performed by using enzymes to digest the proteins that binds these cells together within the extracellular matrix.

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Cell migration

Cell migration is a central process in the development and maintenance of multicellular organisms.

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Cellular differentiation

In developmental biology, cellular differentiation is the process where a cell changes from one cell type to another.

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Cellulitis

Cellulitis is a bacterial infection involving the inner layers of the skin.

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Centre for Applied Genomics

The Centre for Applied Genomics is a genome centre in the Research Institute of The Hospital for Sick Children, and is affiliated with the University of Toronto.

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Cerevisterol

Cerevisterol (5α-ergosta-7,22-diene-3β,5,6β-triol) is a sterol.

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Charles Donovan

Charles Donovan MD (19 September 1863 – 29 October 1951) was an Irish medical officer in the Indian Medical Service.

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Chemically defined medium

A chemically defined medium is a growth medium suitable for the in vitro cell culture of human or animal cells in which all of the chemical components are known.

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Chinese hamster ovary cell

Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are an epithelial cell line derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, often used in biological and medical research and commercially in the production of therapeutic proteins.

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Chlamydia (genus)

Chlamydia is a genus of pathogenic bacteria that are obligate intracellular parasites.

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Chlamydia psittaci

Chlamydia psittaci is a lethal intracellular bacterial species that may cause endemic avian chlamydiosis, epizootic outbreaks in mammals, and respiratory psittacosis in humans.

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Chlamydia trachomatis

Chlamydia trachomatis, commonly known as chlamydia, is one of four bacterial species in the genus Chlamydia.

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Chloroplast

Chloroplasts are organelles, specialized compartments, in plant and algal cells.

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Cholamine chloride hydrochloride

Cholamine chloride hydrochloride is one of Good's buffers with a pH in the physiological range.

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Clean-in-place

Clean-in-place (CIP) is a method of cleaning the interior surfaces of pipes, vessels, process equipment, filters and associated fittings, without disassembly.

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Clinostat

A clinostat is a device which uses rotation to negate the effects of gravitational pull on plant growth (gravitropism) and development (gravimorphism).

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Clonally transmissible cancer

A transmissible cancer is a cancer cell or cluster of cancer cells that can be transferred between individuals without the involvement of an infectious agent, such as an oncovirus.

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Clostridium difficile toxin B

Clostridium difficile toxin B is a toxin produced by the bacteria Clostridium difficile.

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Collagen

Collagen is the main structural protein in the extracellular space in the various connective tissues in animal bodies.

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Colletotrichum lindemuthianum

Colletotrichum lindemuthianum is a fungus which causes anthracnose, or black spot disease, of the common bean plant (Phaseolus vulgaris).

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Colony-stimulating factor

Colony-stimulating factors (CSFs) are secreted glycoproteins that bind to receptor proteins on the surfaces of hemopoietic stem cells, thereby activating intracellular signaling pathways that can cause the cells to proliferate and differentiate into a specific kind of blood cell (usually white blood cells. For red blood cell formation, see erythropoietin).

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Comet assay

The single cell gel electrophoresis assay (SCGE, also known as comet assay) is an uncomplicated and sensitive technique for the detection of DNA damage at the level of the individual eukaryotic cell.

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Confluency

For other uses, see Confluence (disambiguation).

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Contagion (film)

Contagion is a 2011 U.S. medical thriller-disaster film directed by Steven Soderbergh.

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Coriell Institute for Medical Research

The Coriell Institute for Medical Research is an independent, non-profit research center dedicated to the study of the human genome.

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Cover slip

A cover slip, coverslip or cover glass is a thin flat piece of transparent material, usually square or rectangular, about 20 mm (4/5 in) wide and a fraction of a millimetre thick, that is placed over objects for viewing with a microscope.

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COX-2 inhibitor

Selective COX-2 inhibitors are a type of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that directly targets cyclooxygenase-2, COX-2, an enzyme responsible for inflammation and pain.

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Cryofixation

Cryofixation is a technique for fixation or stabilisation of biological materials as the first step in specimen preparation for electron microscopy and cryo-electron microscopy.

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Culture (disambiguation)

Culture is the social behavior and norms found in human societies.

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Culture conversion

Culture conversion is a diagnostic criteria indicating the point at which samples taken from a patient infected with a tuberculosis can no longer produce tuberculosis cell cultures.

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Cultured meat

Cultured meat, also called clean meat, synthetic meat or in vitro meat, is meat grown from in vitro animals cell culture instead of from slaughtered animals.

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Cultured neuronal network

A cultured neuronal network is a cell culture of neurons that is used as a model to study the central nervous system, especially the brain.

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CX

CX or Cx may refer to.

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Cyanidioschyzon merolae

Cyanidioschyzon merolae is a small (2μm), club-shaped, unicellular haploid red alga adapted to high sulfur acidic hot spring environments (pH 1.5, 45 °C).

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Cyclic guanosine monophosphate–adenosine monophosphate

Cyclic guanosine monophosphate–adenosine monophosphate (cyclic GMP-AMP, cGAMP) is the first cyclic di-nucleotide found in metazoa.

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DAPI

DAPI, or 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole, is a fluorescent stain that binds strongly to adenine–thymine rich regions in DNA.

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Darek Fidyka

Darek Fidyka (born c.1974) is a Polish firefighter and recovering paraplegic who became the first person in history to verifiably recover sensory and motor function after the complete severing of his spinal cord.

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David W. Murhammer

David W. Murhammer is Professor and former Department Chair of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering at the University of Iowa, specializing in biochemical engineering.

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Dehydroascorbic acid

Dehydroascorbic acid (DHA) is an oxidized form of ascorbic acid (vitamin C).

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Dengue fever

Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne tropical disease caused by the dengue virus.

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Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und Zellkulturen

The Leibniz Institute DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH (Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und Zellkulturen GmbH) (abbreviation is DSM and DSMZ)was founded 1969 as the national culture collection in Germany.

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Dick Swaab

Dick Frans Swaab (born 17 December 1944) is a Dutch physician and neurobiologist (brain researcher).

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Digital holographic microscopy

Digital holographic microscopy (DHM) is digital holography applied to microscopy.

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Dipyridamole

Dipyridamole (trademarked as Persantine and others) is a medication that inhibits blood clot formation when given chronically and causes blood vessel dilation when given at high doses over a short time.

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Discovery and development of antiandrogens

This article is about the discovery and development of antiandrogens, or androgen receptor (AR) antagonists.

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Discovery and development of NS5A inhibitors

Nonstructural protein 5A (NS5A) inhibitors belong to a class of antiviral drugs called protease inhibitors.

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Disk diffusion test

The disk diffusion test, or agar diffusion test, or Kirby–Bauer test (disc-diffusion antibiotic susceptibility test, disc-diffusion antibiotic sensitivity test, KB test), is a test of the antibiotic sensitivity of bacteria.

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Dizocilpine

Dizocilpine (INN), also known as MK-801, is a noncompetitive antagonist of the ''N''-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, a glutamate receptor, discovered by a team at Merck in 1982.

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Doxycycline

Doxycycline is an antibiotic that is used in the treatment of a number of types of infections caused by bacteria and protozoa.

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Drug design

Drug design, often referred to as rational drug design or simply rational design, is the inventive process of finding new medications based on the knowledge of a biological target.

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Dundee Cell Products

Dundee Cell Products (DCP) is a biotechnology company headquartered in Dundee, Scotland, United Kingdom.

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Dysentery

Dysentery is an inflammatory disease of the intestine, especially of the colon, which always results in severe diarrhea and abdominal pains.

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Dysgeusia

Dysgeusia, also known as parageusia, is a distortion of the sense of taste.

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E-SCREEN

E-SCREEN is a cell proliferation assay based on the enhanced proliferation of human breast cancer cells (MCF-7) in the presence of estrogen active substances.

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Ebola virus disease

Ebola virus disease (EVD), also known as Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) or simply Ebola, is a viral hemorrhagic fever of humans and other primates caused by ebolaviruses.

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Echovirus

An ECHO (enteric cytopathic human orphan) virus is a type of RNA virus that belongs to the species Enterovirus B, genus Enterovirus of the Picornaviridae family.

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Ecotropism

Ecotropism or ecotropic (from eco – hearth and tropic – to turn towards) indicates that a pathogen, like a virus or a bacterium, has a narrow host range and can infect one or a small group of species or cell culture lines.

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Embryoid body

Embryoid bodies (EBs) are three-dimensional aggregates of pluripotent stem cells.

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Emma Hwang

Emma Y. Hwang (born Yu-liang Hwang on July 21, 1970) is a scientist with Wyle Laboratories.

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Environmental DNA

Environmental DNA or eDNA is DNA that is collected from a variety of environmental samples such as soil, seawater, or even air rather than directly sampled from an individual organism.

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Epileptogenesis

Epileptogenesis is the gradual process by which a normal brain develops epilepsy.

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Episodic ataxia

Episodic ataxia (EA) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by sporadic bouts of ataxia (severe discoordination) with or without myokymia (continuous muscle movement).

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Epoetin alfa

Epoetin alfa (rINN) is a human erythropoietin produced in cell culture using recombinant DNA technology.

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Eppendorf (company)

Eppendorf, a company with its registered office in Germany, develops, produces and sells products and services for laboratories around the world.

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Erythropoietin

Erythropoietin (EPO), also known as hematopoietin or hemopoietin, is a glycoprotein cytokine secreted by the kidney in response to cellular hypoxia; it stimulates red blood cell production (erythropoiesis) in the bone marrow.

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Ether lipid

In an organic chemistry general sense, an ether lipid implies an ether bridge between an alkyl group (a lipid) and an unspecified alkyl or aryl group, not necessarily glycerol.

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ExoCarta

ExoCarta is a manually curated database of exosomal proteins, RNA and lipids.

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Exosome (vesicle)

Exosomes are cell-derived vesicles that are present in many and perhaps all eukaryotic fluids, including blood, urine, and cultured medium of cell cultures.

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Explant culture

In biology, explant culture is a technique to organotypically culture cells from a piece or pieces of tissue or organ removed from a plant or animal.

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Feraviridae

Feraviridae is a family of viruses with negative stranded RNA genomes.

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Fernbach flask

A Fernbach flask is a type of flask suited for large volume cell culture where the culture requires a large surface area to volume ratio.

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Fetal bovine serum

Fetal bovine serum (FBS) comes from the blood drawn from a bovine fetus via a closed system of collection at the slaughterhouse.

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Fibroblast

A fibroblast is a type of biological cell that synthesizes the extracellular matrix and collagen, the structural framework (stroma) for animal tissues, and plays a critical role in wound healing.

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Fibronectin

Fibronectin is a high-molecular weight (~440kDa) glycoprotein of the extracellular matrix that binds to membrane-spanning receptor proteins called integrins.

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Floris Kaayk

Floris Kaayk (born 1982) is a Dutch digital artist.

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Fluidic force microscopy

Fluidic force microscopy (FluidFM) is a type of scanning probe microscopy, and is typically used on a standard inverted light microscope.

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Function-spacer-lipid Kode construct

Function-Spacer-Lipid (FSL) Kode constructs (Kode Technology) are amphiphatic, water dispersible biosurface engineering constructs that can be used to engineer the surface of cells, viruses and organisms, or to modify solutions and non-biological surfaces with bioactives.

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GAL4/UAS system

The GAL4-UAS system is a biochemical method used to study gene expression and function in organisms such as the fruit fly.

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Gamete

A gamete (from Ancient Greek γαμετή gamete from gamein "to marry") is a haploid cell that fuses with another haploid cell during fertilization (conception) in organisms that sexually reproduce.

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Ganglioside

A ganglioside is a molecule composed of a glycosphingolipid (ceramide and oligosaccharide) with one or more sialic acids (e.g. n-acetylneuraminic acid, NANA) linked on the sugar chain.

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Gastrointestinal disease

Gastrointestinal diseases refer to diseases involving the gastrointestinal tract, namely the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine and rectum, and the accessory organs of digestion, the liver, gallbladder, and pancreas.

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Gastrulation

Gastrulation is a phase early in the embryonic development of most animals, during which the single-layered blastula is reorganized into a multilayered structure known as the gastrula.

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Gellan gum

Gellan gum is a water-soluble anionic polysaccharide produced by the bacterium Sphingomonas elodea (formerly Pseudomonas elodea).

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Gemmata obscuriglobus

Gemmata obscuriglobus is a Gram-negative, aerobic, heterotrophic, motile bacterium of the phylum Planctomycetes, first described in 1984 as the only described species in the genus Gemmata.

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Gene expression

Gene expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product.

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Genetics

Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms.

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Genomic library

A genomic library is a collection of the total genomic DNA from a single organism.

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Gentamicin protection assay

The gentamicin protection assay or survival assay or invasion assay is a method used in microbiology.

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George S. Middleton High School

Middleton High School is a public high school in Tampa, Florida named in honor of George S. Middleton, an African American businessman and civic leader who moved to Tampa from South Carolina in the late 19th century.

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Gerald Fischbach

Gerald D. Fischbach (born November 15, 1938) is an American neuroscientist.

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Germ theory of disease

The germ theory of disease is the currently accepted scientific theory of disease.

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German Resource Center for Genome Research

The German Resource Center for Genome Research (RZPD, Resourcenzentrum Primärdatenbank) was a service center for gene and genome research in Berlin-Charlottenburg and Heidelberg.

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Ginsenoside

Ginsenosides or panaxosides are a class of natural product steroid glycosides and triterpene saponins.

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Gleditsia sinensis

Gleditsia sinensis is a species of flowering plant native to Asia.

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Glycinamide

Glycinamide is a chemical compound with the molecular formula C2H6N2O.

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Grace Bio-Labs

Grace Bio-Labs is a global supplier of pharmaceutical, biomedical, and biochemical research products based in Bend, Oregon, United States.

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Granulosa cell

A granulosa cell or follicular cell is a somatic cell of the sex cord that is closely associated with the developing female gamete (called an oocyte or egg) in the ovary of mammals.

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Growth medium

A growth medium or culture medium is a solid, liquid or semi-solid designed to support the growth of microorganisms or cells, or small plants like the moss Physcomitrella patens.

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H5N1 vaccine

A H5N1 vaccine is an influenza vaccine intended to provide immunization to influenza A virus subtype H5N1.

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Hamster polyomavirus

Hamster polyomavirus (abbreviated HaPyV or HaPV,This was the historically common abbreviation; however, it is ambiguous because it is also used for hamster parvovirus. also known as Mesocricetus auratus polyomavirus 1) is an unenveloped double-stranded DNA virus of the polyomavirus family whose natural host is the hamster.

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Hanks' salts

Hanks' salts is a collective group of salts rich in bicarbonate ions, formulated in 1940 by the microbiologist John H. Hanks.

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Hayflick limit

The Hayflick limit or Hayflick phenomenon is the number of times a normal human cell population will divide before cell division stops.

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HEK 293 cells

Human embryonic kidney cells 293, also often referred to as HEK 293, HEK-293, 293 cells, or less precisely as HEK cells, are a specific cell line originally derived from human embryonic kidney cells grown in tissue culture.

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HeLa

HeLa (also Hela or hela) is a cell type in an immortal cell line used in scientific research.

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HEPBS

HEPBS (N-(2-Hydroxyethyl)piperazine-N'-(4-butanesulfonic acid)) is a zwitterionic organic chemical buffering agent; one of Good's buffers.

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HEPES

HEPES (4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazineethanesulfonic acid) is a zwitterionic organic chemical buffering agent; one of the twenty Good's buffers.

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Herbalism

Herbalism (also herbal medicine or phytotherapy) is the study of botany and use of plants intended for medicinal purposes or for supplementing a diet.

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Hexadimethrine bromide

Hexadimethrine bromide (commercial brand name Polybrene) is a cationic polymer used to increase the efficiency of transduction of certain cells with retrovirus in cell culture.

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High vaginal swab

High Vaginal Swab (HVS) is a technique used in Obstetrics and Gynaecology to obtain a sample of discharge from the vagina.

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Hiroshi Tamiya

was an important Japanese plant biochemist and microbiologist who was notable for mid-twentieth century research he did on the thermodynamics of the light-independent reactions of photosynthesis.

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History of virology

The history of virology — the scientific study of viruses and the infections they cause – began in the closing years of the 19th century.

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HL23V

HL23V was reputedly a type C RNA tumor virus first isolated in 1975 from cultured human acute myelogenous leukaemia peripheral blood leukocytes, which would have been the first cancer-causing retrovirus isolated from human sera.

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HL60

The HL-60 cell line is a human leukemia cell line that has been used for laboratory research on blood cell formation and physiology.

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Homogenization (biology)

In cell biology or molecular biology research, homogenization is a process whereby a biological sample is brought to a state such that all fractions of the sample are equal in composition.

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Hugo Macedo

Hugo Miguel Magalhães Macedo (born November 17, 1982) is a Portuguese-born Engineering technologist known as the Founder and CEO of Smart Separations Ltd.

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Human cytomegalovirus

Human cytomegalovirus is a species of the virus genus Cytomegalovirus, which in turn is a member of the viral family known as Herpesviridae or herpesviruses.

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Human Engineered Cardiac Tissues (hECTs)

Human engineered cardiac tissues (hECTs) are derived by experimental manipulation of pluripotent stem cells, such as human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and, more recently, human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) to differentiate into human cardiomyocytes.

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Human parainfluenza viruses

Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) are the viruses that cause human parainfluenza.

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Human umbilical vein endothelial cell

Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) are cells derived from the endothelium of veins from the umbilical cord.

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Humanized antibody

Humanized antibodies are antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to increase their similarity to antibody variants produced naturally in humans.

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Humster

A humster is a hybrid cell line made from hamster oocyte fertilized with human sperm.

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Huntington Medical Research Institutes

Huntington Medical Research Institutes (HMRI) is an independent, nonprofit, applied medical research organization in Pasadena, California.

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Hydrophis belcheri

Hydrophis belcheri, commonly known as the faint-banded sea snake or Belcher's sea snake, is an extremely venomous species of elapid sea snake.

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Ian Frazer

Ian Hector Frazer (born 6 January 1953) is a Scottish-born Australian immunologist, the founding CEO and Director of Research of the Translational Research Institute (Australia).

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Imleria badia

Imleria badia, commonly known as the bay bolete, is an edible, pored mushroom found in Europe and North America, where it grows in coniferous or mixed woods on the ground or on decaying tree stumps, sometimes in prolific numbers.

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Immunization

Immunization, or immunisation, is the process by which an individual's immune system becomes fortified against an agent (known as the immunogen).

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Immunocytochemistry

Immunocytochemistry (ICC) is a common laboratory technique that is used to anatomically visualize the localization of a specific protein or antigen in cells by use of a specific primary antibody that binds to it.

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In vitro

In vitro (meaning: in the glass) studies are performed with microorganisms, cells, or biological molecules outside their normal biological context.

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Incubator (culture)

In biology, an incubator is a device used to grow and maintain microbiological cultures or cell cultures.

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Index of oncology articles

This is a list of terms related to oncology.

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Indole-3-carbinol

Indole-3-carbinol (C9H9NO) is produced by the breakdown of the glucosinolate glucobrassicin, which can be found at relatively high levels in cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, brussels sprouts, collard greens and kale.

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Infectious pancreatic necrosis

Infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN) is a severe viral disease of salmonid fish.

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Influenza

Influenza, commonly known as "the flu", is an infectious disease caused by an influenza virus.

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Influenza research

Influenza research involves investigating molecular virology, pathogenesis, host immune responses, genomics, and epidemiology regarding influenza.

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Influenza treatment

Treatments for influenza include a range of medications and therapies that are used in response to disease influenza.

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Influenza vaccine

Influenza vaccines, also known as flu shots or flu jabs, are vaccines that protect against infection by Influenza viruses.

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Inland taipan

The inland taipan (Oxyuranus microlepidotus), also commonly known as the western taipan, the small-scaled snake, or the fierce snake,White, Julian (November 1991).

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Instruments used in pathology

Instruments used specially in pathology are as follows.

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Interleukin 35

Interleukin 35 (IL-35) is a recently discovered cytokine from the IL-12 family.

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Interleukin 9

Interleukin 9, also known as IL-9, is a pleiotropic cytokine (cell signalling molecule) belonging to the group of interleukins.

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International Space Station

The International Space Station (ISS) is a space station, or a habitable artificial satellite, in low Earth orbit.

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Intravital microscopy

Intravital microscopy is a form of microscopy that allows observing biological processes in live animals (in vivo) at a high resolution that makes distinguishing between individual cells of a tissue possible.

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Invitrogen

Invitrogen is one of several brands under the Thermo Fisher Scientific corporation.

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InvivoGen

Invivogen is a manufacturer of life science research products.

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Iodothyronine deiodinase

Iodothyronine deiodinases (and) are a subfamily of deiodinase enzymes important in the activation and deactivation of thyroid hormones.

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Iwaki

Iwaki (岩城、磐城) may refer to.

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Japanese encephalitis

Japanese encephalitis (JE) is an infection of the brain caused by the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV).

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Jean-Pierre Lecocq

Jean-Pierre Lecocq (17 July 1947 – 20 January 1992) was a Belgian molecular biologist and entrepreneur.

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Jeryl Lynn

Jeryl Lynn are strains of mumps virus used in the Mumpsvax mumps vaccine made by Merck.

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Jian Zhou

Jian Zhou (1957 – March 1999) was a Chinese virologist and cancer researcher, who with fellow researcher Ian Frazer, invented Gardasil and Cervarix, the vaccines for stimulating human immunological resistance to the cervical cancer-inducing human papilloma virus.

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Journal of Neurophysiology

The Journal of Neurophysiology is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal established in 1938.

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Julianna Lisziewicz

Julianna Lisziewicz (born 1959) is a Hungarian immunologist.

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Julius Youngner

Julius S. Youngner (24 October 1920 – 27 April 2017) was an American Distinguished Service Professor in the School of Medicine and Department of Microbiology & Molecular Genetics at University of Pittsburgh responsible for advances necessary for development of a vaccine for poliomyelitis and the first intranasal equine influenza vaccine.

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Kai Simons

Kai Simons (born 24 May 1938) is a Finnish professor of biochemistry and cell biology living and working in Germany.

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KBM-7 cells

KBM-7 cells are a chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) cell line used for biomedical research.

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Keith R. Porter

Keith Roberts Porter (June 11, 1912 – May 2, 1997) was a Canadian-American cell biologist.

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Kiran Mazumdar-Shaw

Kiran Mazumdar-Shaw (born 23 March 1953) is an Indian billionaire entrepreneur.

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Kitasato Shibasaburō

Baron was a Japanese physician and bacteriologist during the reign of the Empire of Japan, prior to World War 2.

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Koch's postulates

Koch's postulates are four criteria designed to establish a causative relationship between a microbe and a disease.

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Kosmos 2229

Bion 10, or Kosmos 2229, a C.I.S. spacecraft, was launched by a Soyuz-U rocket from the Plesetsk Cosmodrome.

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KOSR

KOSR, knockout serum replacement, is a defined serum-free formulation optimized to grow and maintain undifferentiated embryonic stem cells in culture.

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Laboratory diagnosis of viral infections

In the diagnostic laboratory virus infections can be confirmed by a multitude of methods.

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Larazotide

Larazotide (INN; also known as AT-1001; formulated as the salt with acetic acid, larazotide acetate) is a synthetic eight amino acid peptide that functions as a tight junction regulator and reverses leaky junctions to their normally closed state.

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Large tumor antigen

The large tumor antigen (also called the large T-antigen and abbreviated LTag or LT) is a protein encoded in the genomes of polyomaviruses, which are small double-stranded DNA viruses.

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Lassa fever

Lassa fever, also known as Lassa hemorrhagic fever (LHF), is a type of viral hemorrhagic fever caused by the Lassa virus.

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Leo Loeb

Leo Loeb (September 21, 1869 – December 28, 1959), was an American physician, educator, and experimental pathologist.

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Leonard Hayflick

Leonard Hayflick (born 20 May 1928) is a Professor of Anatomy at the UCSF School of Medicine, and was Professor of Medical Microbiology at Stanford University School of Medicine.

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Lethal dose

In toxicology, the lethal dose (LD) is an indication of the lethal toxicity of a given substance or type of radiation.

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Lipofectamine

Lipofectamine or Lipofectamine 2000 is a common transfection reagent, produced and sold by Invitrogen, used in molecular and cellular biology.

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List of breast cancer cell lines

Scientists study the behaviour of isolated cells grown in the laboratory for insights into how cells function in the body in health and disease.

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List of geneticists

This is a list of people who have made notable contributions to genetics.

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List of inventors

This is a list of notable inventors.

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List of MeSH codes (A11)

The following is a list of the "A" codes for MeSH.

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List of MeSH codes (E05)

The following is a list of the "E" codes for MeSH.

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List of model organisms

This is a list of model organisms used in scientific research.

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List of vaccine ingredients

This list of vaccine ingredients indicates the culture media used in the production of common vaccines and the excipients they contain, as published by the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Food and Drug Administration.

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Logarithmic growth

In mathematics, logarithmic growth describes a phenomenon whose size or cost can be described as a logarithm function of some input.

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Lymphocystivirus

Lymphocystivirus is a genus of viruses, in the family Iridoviridae.

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Lymphocyte-variant hypereosinophilia

Lymphocyte-variant hypereosinophila, also termed lymphocyte variant eosinophilia, is a rare disorder in which eosinophilia or hypereosinophilia (i.e. a large or extremely large increase in the number of eosinophils in the blood circulation) is caused by an aberrant population of lymphocytes.

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Lysis

Lysis (Greek λύσις lýsis, "a loosing" from λύειν lýein, "to unbind") refers to the breaking down of the membrane of a cell, often by viral, enzymic, or osmotic (that is, "lytic") mechanisms that compromise its integrity.

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Malabaricane

The molecule malabaricane and its derivatives, the malabaricanes, are triterpene and triterpenoid compounds found in various organisms.

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Malabsorption

Malabsorption is a state arising from abnormality in absorption of food nutrients across the gastrointestinal (GI) tract.

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Malacidin

Malacidins are a class of chemicals made by bacteria found in soil that can kill Gram-positive bacteria.

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Mammary gland

A mammary gland is an exocrine gland in mammals that produces milk to feed young offspring.

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Marburg virus disease

Marburg virus disease (MVD; formerly Marburg hemorrhagic fever) is a severe illness of humans and non-human primates caused by either of the two marburgviruses, Marburg virus (MARV) and Ravn virus (RAVV).

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Margaret Reed Lewis

Margaret Adaline Reed Lewis (1881–1970) was an American cell biologist and embryologist who made contributions to cancer research and cell culture techniques, and was likely the first person to successfully grow mammalian tissue in vitro.

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Martin Evans

Sir Martin John Evans (born 1 January 1941) is a British biologist who, with Matthew Kaufman, was the first to culture mice embryonic stem cells and cultivate them in a laboratory in 1981.

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MDA-MB-468

MDA-MB-468 is a cell line that was isolated from a 51-year-old female human in 1977, and is commonly used in breast cancer research.

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Medical microbiology

Medical microbiology, the large subset of microbiology that is applied to medicine, is a branch of medical science concerned with the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases.

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Mesenchymal stem cell

Mesenchymal stem cells are multipotent stromal cells that can differentiate into a variety of cell types, including osteoblasts (bone cells), chondrocytes (cartilage cells), myocytes (muscle cells) and adipocytes (fat cells which give rise to marrow adipose tissue).

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Mesothelium

The mesothelium is a membrane composed of simple squamous epithelium that forms the lining of several body cavities: the pleura (thoracic cavity), peritoneum (abdominal cavity including the mesentery), mediastinum and pericardium (heart sac).

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Metalloprotease inhibitor

Metalloprotease inhibitors are cellular inhibitors of the Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs).

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Metaplasticity

Metaplasticity is a term originally coined by W.C. Abraham and M.F. Bear to refer to the plasticity of synaptic plasticity.

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Methyl cellulose

Methyl cellulose (or methylcellulose) is a chemical compound derived from cellulose.

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MIA PaCa-2

MIA PaCa-2 is a human pancreatic cancer cell line used extensively in pancreatic cancer research and therapy development.

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Microcarrier

A microcarrier is a support matrix allowing for the growth of adherent cells in bioreactors.

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Microfluidic cell culture

Microfluidic cell culture integrates knowledge from biology, biochemistry, engineering, and physics to develop devices and techniques for culturing, maintaining, analyzing, and experimenting with cells at the microscale.

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Micronucleus test

A micronucleus test is a test used in toxicological screening for potential genotoxic compounds.

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Microrafts

Microrafts, or IsoRafts, are arrays of microwells which provide a method for sorting cells, isolating cells, analyzing cells over time, and generating clonal populations.

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Middle tumor antigen

The middle tumor antigen (also called the middle T-antigen and abbreviated MTag or MT) is a protein encoded in the genomes of some polyomaviruses, which are small double-stranded DNA viruses.

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Miltenyi Biotec

Miltenyi Biotec is a global biotechnology company headquartered near Cologne in Bergisch Gladbach, Germany.

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Minusheet perfusion culture system

Minusheet perfusion culture system is used for advanced cell culture experiments in combination with adherent cells and to generate specialized tissues in combination with selected biomaterials, special tissue carriers and compatible perfusion culture containers.

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MMP9

Matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP-9), also known as 92 kDa type IV collagenase, 92 kDa gelatinase or gelatinase B (GELB), is a matrixin, a class of enzymes that belong to the zinc-metalloproteinases family involved in the degradation of the extracellular matrix.

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Molecular genetics

Molecular genetics is the field of biology that studies the structure and function of genes at a molecular level and thus employs methods of both molecular biology and genetics.

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Monique Adolphe

Monique Adolphe (born 23 July 1932 in Paris, France) is a French scientist and researcher into the field of cell biology.

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Monoclonal

Monoclonal cells are a group of cells produced from a single ancestral cell by repeated cellular replication.

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Monoclonal antibody

Monoclonal antibodies (mAb or moAb) are antibodies that are made by identical immune cells that are all clones of a unique parent cell.

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Monolayer

A monolayer is a single, closely packed layer of atoms, molecules, or cells.

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MOPS

MOPS (3-(N-morpholino)propanesulfonic acid) is a buffer introduced by Good et al.

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Morphogenesis

Morphogenesis (from the Greek morphê shape and genesis creation, literally, "beginning of the shape") is the biological process that causes an organism to develop its shape.

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Morpholino

A Morpholino, also known as a Morpholino oligomer and as a phosphorodiamidate Morpholino oligomer (PMO), is a type of oligomer molecule (colloquially, an oligo) used in molecular biology to modify gene expression.

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Mouse models of breast cancer metastasis

Breast cancer metastatic mouse models are experimental approaches in which mice are genetically manipulated to develop a mammary tumor leading to distant focal lesions of mammary epithelium.

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MRC-5

MRC-5 (Medical Research Council cell strain 5) is a diploid human cell culture line composed of fibroblasts derived from lung tissue of a 14 week old aborted caucasian male fetus.

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Murashige and Skoog medium

Murashige and Skoog medium (or MSO or MS0 (MS-zero)) is a plant growth medium used in the laboratories for cultivation of plant cell culture.

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Murine polyomavirus

Murine polyomavirus (also known as mouse polyomavirus, Polyomavirus muris, or Mus musculus polyomavirus 1, and in older literature as SE polyoma or parotid tumor virus; abbreviated MPyV) is an unenveloped double-stranded DNA virus of the polyomavirus family.

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Mycena haematopus

Mycena haematopus, commonly known as the bleeding fairy helmet, the burgundydrop bonnet, or the bleeding Mycena, is a species of fungus in the Mycenaceae family, of the order Agaricales.

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Mycetoma

Mycetoma is a term for a chronic subcutaneous infection caused by aerobic actinomycetic bacteria (actinomycetoma) or fungi (eumycetoma).

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Mycobacterium tuberculosis sRNA

Mycobacterium tuberculosis contains at least nine small RNA families in its genome.

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Mycoplasma

Mycoplasma is a genus of bacteria that lack a cell wall around their cell membrane.

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Mycoplasma laboratorium

Mycoplasma laboratorium is a designed, partially synthetic species of bacterium derived from the genome of Mycoplasma genitalium.

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Mycoplasma pneumoniae

Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a very small bacterium in the class Mollicutes.

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Myrionecta rubra

Myrionecta rubra (or Mesodinium rubrum) is a species of ciliates.

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Nafion

Nafion is a sulfonated tetrafluoroethylene based fluoropolymer-copolymer discovered in the late 1960s by Walther Grot of DuPont.

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Nanobacterium

Nanobacterium (pl. nanobacteria) is the unit or member name of a proposed class of living organisms, specifically cell-walled microorganisms with a size much smaller than the generally accepted lower limit for life (about 200 nm for bacteria, like mycoplasma).

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Nanotopography

Nanotopography refers to specific surface features which form or are generated at the nanoscopic scale.

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Naringenin

Naringenin is a bitter, colourless flavanone, a type of flavonoid.

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Nasal chondrocytes

Nasal chondrocytes (NC) are present in the hyaline cartilage of the nasal septum, and in fact are the only cell type within the tissue.

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National Institutes of Health

The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is the primary agency of the United States government responsible for biomedical and public health research, founded in the late 1870s.

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NERV (reactor)

The NERV (natural endogenous respiration vessel) is a specialised bioreactor, designed to operate under high and varying load and flow conditions.

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Neural ensemble

A neural ensemble is a population of nervous system cells (or cultured neurons) involved in a particular neural computation.

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Neurite

A neurite or neuronal process refers to any projection from the cell body of a neuron.

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Neurofibrillary tangle

Neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) are aggregates of hyperphosphorylated tau protein that are most commonly known as a primary marker of Alzheimer's disease.

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Neuronal galvanotropism

Neuronal galvanotropism is the ability to direct the outgrowth of neuronal processes through the use of an extracellular electric field.

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Neutral red

Neutral red (toluylene red, Basic Red 5, or C.I. 50040) is a eurhodin dye used for staining in histology.

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Nicotine

Nicotine is a potent parasympathomimetic stimulant and an alkaloid found in the nightshade family of plants.

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Nonylphenol

Nonylphenols, from the Latin nōnus (number 9) and phenol, are a family of closely related organic compounds composed of phenol bearing a 9 carbon-tail.

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Norbadione A

Norbadione A is a pigment found in the bay bolete mushroom (Boletus badius).

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Nucleofection

Nucleofection is an electroporation-based transfection method which enables transfer of nucleic acids such as DNA and RNA into cells by applying a specific voltage and reagents.

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Ocelloid

An ocelloid is a subcellular structure found in the family Warnowiaceae (warnowiids), which are a members of a group of unicellular organisms known as dinoflagellates.

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Olfactory ensheathing glia

Olfactory ensheathing glia (OEG), also known as olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) or olfactory ensheathing glial cells, are a type of macroglia (radial glia) found in the nervous system.

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Omalizumab

Omalizumab, sold under the trade name Xolair, is a medication originally designed to reduce sensitivity to allergens.

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Open microfluidics

Microfluidics refers to the flow of fluid in channels or networks with at least one dimension on the micron scale.

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Opodiphthera eucalypti

Opodiphthera eucalypti, the emperor gum moth, is a species of moth in the family Saturniidae native to Australia.

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Optaflu

Optaflu is a cell culture derived influenza vaccine manufactured by Novartis.

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Oral mucosa tissue engineering

Tissue engineering of oral mucosa combines cells, materials and engineering to produce a three-dimensional reconstruction of oral mucosa.

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Organ culture

Organ culture is a development from tissue culture methods of research, the organ culture is able to accurately model functions of an organ in various states and conditions by the use of the actual in vitro organ itself.

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Organ-on-a-chip

An organ-on-a-chip (OOC) is a multi-channel 3-D microfluidic cell culture chip that simulates the activities, mechanics and physiological response of entire organs and organ systems, a type of artificial organ.

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Outline of biology

Biology – The natural science that involves the study of life and living organisms, including their structure, function, growth, origin, evolution, distribution, and taxonomy.

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Outline of cell biology

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to cell biology: Cell biology – A branch of biology that includes study of cells regarding their physiological properties, structure, and function; the organelles they contain; interactions with their environment; and their life cycle, division, and death.

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P-selectin

P-selectin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SELP gene.

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P70-S6 Kinase 1

Ribosomal protein S6 kinase beta-1 (S6K1), also known as p70S6 kinase (p70S6K, p70-S6K), is an enzyme (specifically, a protein kinase) that in humans is encoded by the RPS6KB1 gene.

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Paclitaxel

Paclitaxel (PTX), sold under the brand name Taxol among others, is a chemotherapy medication used to treat a number of types of cancer.

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PANC-1

PANC-1 is a human pancreatic cancer cell line isolated from a pancreatic carcinoma of ductal cell origin.

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Papain

Papain, also known as papaya proteinase I, is a cysteine protease enzyme present in papaya (Carica papaya) and mountain papaya (Vasconcellea cundinamarcensis).

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Papillomaviridae

Papillomaviridae is an ancient taxonomic family of non-enveloped DNA viruses, collectively known as papillomaviruses.

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Patient derived xenograft

Patient derived xenografts (PDX) are models of cancer where the tissue or cells from a patient's tumor are implanted into an immunodeficient or humanized mouse.

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PC12 cell line

PC12 is a cell line derived from a pheochromocytoma of the rat adrenal medulla, that have an embryonic origin from the neural crest that has a mixture of neuroblastic cells and eosinophilic cells.

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Penicillin

Penicillin (PCN or pen) is a group of antibiotics which include penicillin G (intravenous use), penicillin V (use by mouth), procaine penicillin, and benzathine penicillin (intramuscular use).

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Peter Gray (bioengineer)

Professor Peter Gray (born in Sydney in 1946) is a bioengineer who has played a key role in the development of modern industrial biotechnology in Australia.

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Petri dish

A Petri dish (sometimes spelled "Petrie Dish" and alternatively known as a Petri plate or cell-culture dish), named after the German bacteriologist Julius Richard Petri, is a shallow cylindrical glass or plastic lidded dish that biologists use to culture cellssuch as bacteriaor small mosses.

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Phage group

The phage group (sometimes called the American Phage Group) was an informal network of biologists centered on Max Delbrück that contributed heavily to bacterial genetics and the origins of molecular biology in the mid-20th century.

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Phallus indusiatus

Phallus indusiatus, commonly called the bamboo fungus, bamboo pith, long net stinkhorn, crinoline stinkhorn or veiled lady, is a fungus in the family Phallaceae, or stinkhorns.

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Pharming (genetics)

Pharming, a portmanteau of "farming" and "pharmaceutical", refers to the use of genetic engineering to insert genes that code for useful pharmaceuticals into host animals or plants that would otherwise not express those genes, thus creating a genetically modified organism (GMO).

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Phosphodiesterase 2

The PDE2 (phosphodiesterase 2) enzyme is one of 21 different phosphodiesterases (PDE) found in mammals.

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Phytochemical

Phytochemicals are chemical compounds produced by plants, generally to help them thrive or thwart competitors, predators, or pathogens.

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Piceatannol

Piceatannol is a stilbenoid, a type of phenolic compound.

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PIM1

Proto-oncogene serine/threonine-protein kinase Pim-1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PIM1 gene.

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PIPES

PIPES is the common name for piperazine-N,N′-bis(2-ethanesulfonic acid), and frequently used buffering agent in biochemistry.

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Plant manufactured pharmaceuticals

Plant Manufactured Pharmaceuticals are pharmaceuticals derived from genetically modified plants used as therapeutic compounds.

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Plant stem cell

Plant stem cells are innately undifferentiated cells located in the meristems of plants.

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Platelet lysate

Human platelet lysate (or hPL) is a substitute supplement for fetal bovine serum (FBS) in experimental and clinical cell culture.

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Plating efficiency

Plating efficiency ("PE") is a measure of the number of colonies originating from single cells.

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PLK1

Serine/threonine-protein kinase PLK1, also known as polo-like kinase 1 (PLK-1) or serine/threonine-protein kinase 13 (STPK13), is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PLK1 (polo-like kinase 1) gene.

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Poliomyelitis

Poliomyelitis, often called polio or infantile paralysis, is an infectious disease caused by the poliovirus.

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Polyhydroxyethylmethacrylate

Poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (pHEMA) is a polymer that forms a hydrogel in water.

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Polyploid

Polyploid cells and organisms are those containing more than two paired (homologous) sets of chromosomes.

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Porous silicon

Porous silicon (abbreviated as "PS" or "pSi") is a form of the chemical element silicon that has introduced nanopores in its microstructure, rendering a large surface to volume ratio in the order of 500 m2/cm3.

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Positive displacement pipette

Positive displacement pipettes are a type of pipette that operates via piston-driven displacement.

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Postzygotic mutation

A post- zygotic mutation is a change in an organism's genome that is acquired during its lifespan, instead of being inherited from its parent(s) through fusion of two haploid gametes.

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Prepatellar bursitis

Prepatellar bursitis is an inflammation of the prepatellar bursa at the front of the knee.

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Progeroid syndromes

Progeroid syndromes (PS) are a group of rare genetic disorders which mimic physiological aging, making affected individuals appear to be older than they are.

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Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy

Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a rare and usually fatal viral disease characterized by progressive damage (-pathy) or inflammation of the white matter (leuko-) of the brain (-encephalo-) at multiple locations (multifocal).

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Proteasome

Proteasomes are protein complexes which degrade unneeded or damaged proteins by proteolysis, a chemical reaction that breaks peptide bonds.

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Protein L

Protein L was first isolated from the surface of bacterial species Peptostreptococcus magnus and was found to bind immunoglobulins through L chain interaction, from which the name was suggested.

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Q-system (genetics)

Q-system is a genetic tool that allows to express transgenes in a living organism.

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QMCF Technology

QMCF Technology is an episomal protein production system that uses genetically modified mammalian cells and specially designed plasmids.

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Quantitative phase-contrast microscopy

Quantitative phase contrast microscopy is the collective name for a group of microscopy methods that quantify the phase shift that occurs when light waves pass through a more optically dense object.

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Quartz crystal microbalance

A quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) measures a mass variation per unit area by measuring the change in frequency of a quartz crystal resonator.

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Quattromed

Icosagen is a biotechnology company in Estonia providing medical diagnostics services and performing custom research programs for the biopharmaceutical industry.

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Radiation hormesis

Radiation hormesis is the hypothesis that low doses of ionizing radiation (within the region of and just above natural background levels) are beneficial, stimulating the activation of repair mechanisms that protect against disease, that are not activated in absence of ionizing radiation.

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Recombinant antibodies

Recombinant antibodies are antibody fragments produced by using recombinant antibody coding genes.

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Rejuvenation (aging)

Rejuvenation is a medical discipline focused on the practical reversal of the aging process.

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Reporter gene

In molecular biology, a reporter gene (often simply reporter) is a gene that researchers attach to a regulatory sequence of another gene of interest in bacteria, cell culture, animals or plants.

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Rhabdastrella globostellata

Rhabdastrella globostellata, also known as yellow pot sponge, is a marine sponge of the order Astrophorida.

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Rhizina undulata

Rhizina undulata, commonly known as the doughnut fungus or the pine firefungus, is a species of fungus in the family Rhizinaceae.

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Ridge (biology)

Ridges (regions of increased gene expression) are domains of the genome with a high gene expression; the opposite of ridges are antiridges.

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RNA interference

RNA interference (RNAi) is a biological process in which RNA molecules inhibit gene expression or translation, by neutralizing targeted mRNA molecules.

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RNAi-Based Identification System and interference of Specific Cancer Cells

A “classifier” was created to classify cells by identifying specific characteristics of Cervical Cancer.

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Romidepsin

Romidepsin, also known as Istodax, is an anticancer agent used in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) and other peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCLs).

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Roombia truncata

Roombia truncata is a species of katablepharids, which are heterotrophic single-celled organisms.

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Roswell Park Memorial Institute medium

Roswell Park Memorial Institute medium, commonly referred to as RPMI medium or RPMI 1640, is a form of medium used in cell culture and tissue culture used for growing a variety of mammalian cell lines.

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Rotaviral gastroenteritis

Rotavirus enteritis is the most common cause of severe diarrhoea among infants and young children.

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Rotavirus

Rotavirus is the most common cause of diarrhoeal disease among infants and young children.

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Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a species of yeast.

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Sam Chachoua

Samir "Sam" Chachoua is an Australian alternative medicine practitioner, trained as a medical doctor.

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San Diego Zoo Global

San Diego Zoo Global is a not-for-profit organization headquartered in San Diego that operates the San Diego Zoo, the San Diego Zoo Safari Park, the San Diego Zoo Institute for Conservation Research, and the San Diego Zoo Global Wildlife Conservancy.

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Sartorius AG

The Sartorius group is an international pharmaceutical and laboratory equipment supplier, covering the segments of Bioprocess Solutions and Lab Products & Services.

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Sciclyc

SciClyc is a biological database website built for biomedical scientists in academia and the biomedical industry.

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Scientific technique

A scientific technique is any systematic way of obtaining information about a scientific nature or to obtain a desired material or product.

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SCN1A (gene)

The SCN1A gene is located on chromosome 2 of humans, and is made up of 26 exons spanning a total length of 6030 nucleotide base pairs (bp).

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Selectable marker

A selectable marker is a gene introduced into a cell, especially a bacterium or to cells in culture, that confers a trait suitable for artificial selection.

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Sexual dimorphism

Sexual dimorphism is the condition where the two sexes of the same species exhibit different characteristics beyond the differences in their sexual organs.

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Shaf Keshavjee

Dr.

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Shingles

Shingles, also known as herpes zoster, is a viral disease characterized by a painful skin rash with blisters in a localized area.

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Sigma-Aldrich

Sigma-Aldrich Corporation is an American chemical, life science and biotechnology company owned by Merck KGaA.

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Simulated body fluid

A simulated body fluid (SBF) is a solution with an ion concentration close to that of human blood plasma, kept under mild conditions of pH and identical physiological temperature.

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Single-use bioreactor

A single-use bioreactor or disposable bioreactor is a bioreactor with a disposable bag instead of a culture vessel.

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Sirtuin

Sirtuins are a class of proteins that possess either mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase, or deacylase activity, including deacetylase, desuccinylase, demalonylase, demyristoylase and depalmitoylase activity.

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Smittium

Smittium is a genus of fungi in the order Harpellales.

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Spidroin

Spidroin is the main protein in a spider's dragline silk.

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Spinner (cell culture)

A Spinner is a type of bioreactor which features an impeller, stirrer or similar device to agitate the contents (usually a mixture of cells, medium and products like proteins that can be harvested).

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Stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture

Stable Isotope Labeling by/with Amino acids in Cell culture (SILAC) is a technique based on mass spectrometry that detects differences in protein abundance among samples using non-radioactive isotopic labeling.

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Stanley Michael Gartler

Stanley Michael Gartler (born June 9, 1923) is a cell and molecular biologist and human geneticist.

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STARD13

StAR-related lipid transfer domain protein 13 (STARD13) also known as deleted in liver cancer 2 protein (DLC-2) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the STARD13 gene and a member of the DLC family of proteins.

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Stem cell

Stem cells are biological cells that can differentiate into other types of cells and can divide to produce more of the same type of stem cells.

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Stem-cell line

A stem cell line is a group of stem cells that is cultured in vitro and can be propagated indefinitely.

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STIM2

Stromal interaction molecule 2 (STIM2) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the STIM2 gene.

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STO

STO may refer to.

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Strimvelis

Strimvelis is the first ex-vivo stem cell gene therapy to treat patients with a very rare disease called ADA-SCID (Severe Combined Immunodeficiency due to Adenosine Deaminase deficiency), a rare disorder caused by the absence of an essential protein called adenosine deaminase (ADA), which is required for the production of lymphocytes.

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Subculture (biology)

In biology, a subculture is a new cell or microbiological culture made by transferring some or all cells from a previous culture to fresh growth medium.

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Sulforhodamine B

Sulforhodamine B or Kiton Red 620 (C27H30N2O7S2) is a fluorescent dye with uses spanning from laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) to the quantification of cellular proteins of cultured cells.

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Sum activity of peripheral deiodinases

The sum activity of peripheral deiodinases (GD, also referred to as deiodination capacity, total deiodinase activity or SPINA-GD) is the maximum amount of triiodothyronine produced per time-unit under conditions of substrate saturation.

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SuperMeat

SuperMeat is an Israeli startup company working to develop a "meal-ready" chicken cultured meat product created through the use of cell culture.

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Synchronous culture

A synchronous or synchronized culture is a microbiological culture or a cell culture that contains cells that are all in the same growth stage.

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T98G

T98G is a glioblastoma cell line used in brain cancer research and drug development.

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Tetrazole

Tetrazoles are a class of synthetic organic heterocyclic compound, consisting of a 5-member ring of four nitrogen atoms and one carbon atom.

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Tetrodotoxin

Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is a potent neurotoxin.

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Thermus aquaticus

Thermus aquaticus is a species of bacteria that can tolerate high temperatures, one of several thermophilic bacteria that belong to the Deinococcus–Thermus group.

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Time-lapse microscopy

Time-lapse microscopy is time-lapse photography applied to microscopy.

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Time-resolved RNA sequencing

Time-resolved RNA sequencing methods are applications of RNA-seq that allow for observations of RNA abundances over time in a biological sample or samples.

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Timeline of Animal Liberation Front actions, 2005–present

This is a time line of Animal Liberation Front (ALF) actions since 2005.

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Timeline of cellular agriculture

This page is a timeline of major events in the history of cellular agriculture.

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Timeline of senescence research

This page is a timeline of senescence research, including major theories, breakthroughs and organizations.

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Tissue culture

Tissue culture is the growth of tissues or cells separate from the organism.

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Tissue engineering

Tissue engineering is the use of a combination of cells, engineering and materials methods, and suitable biochemical and physicochemical factors to improve or replace biological tissues.

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Tobacco BY-2 cells

Tobacco BY-2 cells is a cell line of plant cells, which was established from a callus induced on a seedling of Nicotiana tabacum cv.

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Toxin-antitoxin system

A toxin-antitoxin system is a set of two or more closely linked genes that together encode both a protein 'poison' and a corresponding 'antidote'.

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TP53-inducible glycolysis and apoptosis regulator

The TP53-inducible glycolysis and apoptosis regulator (TIGAR) also known as fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase TIGAR is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the C12orf5 gene.

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Transforming growth factor

Transforming growth factor (sometimes referred to as Tumor growth factor, or TGF) is used to describe two classes of polypeptide growth factors, TGFα and TGFβ.

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Translational research

Translational research – often used interchangeably with translational medicine or translational science or bench to bedside – is an effort to build on basic scientific research to create new therapies, medical procedures, or diagnostics.

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Treatment of equine lameness

The treatment of equine lameness is a complex subject.

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Treponema socranskii

Treponema socranskii was isolated from gum swabs of people with periodontitis and clinically-induced periodontitis.

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Trichoderma

Trichoderma is a genus of fungi that is present in all soils, where they are the most prevalent culturable fungi.

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Trypsinization

Trypsinization is the process of cell dissociation using trypsin, a proteolytic enzyme which breaks down proteins, to dissociate adherent cells from the vessel in which they are being cultured.

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Ueli Schibler

Ueli Schibler (born June 16, 1947) is a Swiss biologist, chronobiologist and a professor at the University of Geneva.

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Vegetative reproduction

Vegetative reproduction (also known as vegetative propagation, vegetative multiplication or vegetative cloning) is any form of asexual reproduction occurring in plants in which a new plant grows from a fragment of the parent plant or grows from a specialized reproductive structure.

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Venomous snake

Venomous snakes are species of the suborder Serpentes that are capable of producing venom, which is used primarily for immobilizing prey and defense mostly via mechanical injection by fangs.

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Venous ulcer

Venous ulcers (venous insufficiency ulceration, stasis ulcers, stasis dermatitis, varicose ulcers, or ulcus cruris) are wounds that are thought to occur due to improper functioning of venous valves, usually of the legs (hence leg ulcers).

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Verbascoside

Verbascoside is a caffeoyl phenylethanoid glycoside in which the phenylpropanoid caffeic acid and the phenylethanoid hydroxytyrosol form an ester and an ether bond respectively, to the rhamnose part of a disaccharide, namely β-(3′,4′-dihydroxyphenyl)ethyl-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1→3)-β-D-(4-O-caffeoyl)-glucopyranoside.

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Vero cell

Vero cells are a lineage of cells used in cell cultures.

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VG-1

VG-1 is a B cell line which was derived from primary effusion lymphoma (PEL).

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Viability assay

A viability assay is an assay to determine the ability of organs, cells or tissues to maintain or recover viability.

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Viable count

Viable count is a method used in cell culture to determine the number of living cells in a culture.

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Viral culture

Viral culture is a laboratory test in which samples are placed with a cell type that the virus being tested for is able to infect.

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Viral plaque

A viral plaque is a visible structure formed within a cell culture, such as bacterial cultures within some nutrient medium (e.g. agar).

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Viral transformation

Viral transformation is the change in growth, phenotype, or indefinite reproduction of cells caused by the introduction of inheritable material.

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Viral vector

Viral vectors are tools commonly used by molecular biologists to deliver genetic material into cells.

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Virology

Virology is the study of viruses – submicroscopic, parasitic particles of genetic material contained in a protein coat – and virus-like agents.

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Von Kossa stain

The von Kossa stain is used to quantify mineralization in cell culture and tissue sections.

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Vortex mixer

A vortex mixer, or vortexer, is a simple device used commonly in laboratories to mix small vials of liquid.

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Wallerian degeneration

Wallerian degeneration is a process that results when a nerve fiber is cut or crushed and the part of the axon distal to the injury (i.e. farther from the neuron's cell body) degenerates.

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Walter Nelson-Rees

Walter Nelson-Rees (11 January 1929 – 23 January 2009) was a cell culture worker and cytogeneticist who helped expose the problem of cross-contamination of cell lines.

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Warnowiaceae

The Warnowiaceae are a family of athecate dinoflagellates (a diverse group of unicellular eukaryotes).

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Werner syndrome

Werner syndrome (WS), also known as "adult progeria",James, William; Berger, Timothy; Elston, Dirk (2005).

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Whooping cough

Whooping cough (also known as pertussis or 100-day cough) is a highly contagious bacterial disease.

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Wilhelm Roux

Wilhelm Roux (9 June 1850 – 15 September 1924) was a German zoologist and pioneer of experimental embryology.

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Wilton R. Earle

Wilton Robinson Earle (June 22, 1902 – May 30, 1964) was an American cell biologist known for his research in cell culture techniques and carcinogenesis.

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Xenodiagnosis

Xenodiagnosis is a diagnostic method used to document the presence of infectious disease microorganisms or pathogens by exposing possibly infected tissue to a vector and then examining the vector for the presence of the microorganisms or pathogens it may have ingested.

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Xenophyophore

Xenophyophores are multinucleate unicellular organisms found on the ocean floor throughout the world's oceans, at depths of 500 to 10,600 meters (1,640 feet to 6.6 miles).

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Zaragozic acid

Zaragozic acids are a family of natural products produced by fungi.

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2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid

2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (usually called 2,4-D) is an organic compound with the chemical formula C8H6Cl2O3.

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2-Hydroxy-3-morpholinopropanesulfonic acid

MOPSO is a zwitterionic organic chemical buffering agent; one of Good's buffers.

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2009 flu pandemic vaccine

The 2009 flu pandemic vaccines are the set of influenza vaccines that have been developed to protect against the pandemic H1N1/09 virus.

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2010s

The 2010s (pronounced "twenty-tens" or "two thousand (and) tens").

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2014 in science

A number of significant scientific events occurred in 2014, including the first robotic landing on a comet and the first complete stem-cell-assisted recovery from paraplegia.

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3-Amino-1,2,4-triazole

3-Amino-1,2,4-triazole (3-AT) is a heterocyclic organic compound that consists of a 1,2,4-triazole substituted with an amino group.

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3D cell culture

A 3D cell culture is an artificially created environment in which biological cells are permitted to grow or interact with their surroundings in all three dimensions.

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3D cell culturing by magnetic levitation

3D cell culture by the magnetic levitation method (MLM) is the application of growing 3D tissue by inducing cells treated with magnetic nanoparticle assemblies in spatially varying magnetic fields using neodymium magnetic drivers and promoting cell to cell interactions by levitating the cells up to the air/liquid interface of a standard petri dish.

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9-Methyl-β-carboline

9-Methyl-β-carboline (9-Me-BC) is a heterocyclic amine of the beta-carboline family, and a research chemical.

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References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cell_culture

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