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Central bank

Index Central bank

A central bank, reserve bank, or monetary authority is an institution that manages a state's currency, money supply, and interest rates. [1]

1166 relations: A. K. N. Ahmed, ABC Bank (Uganda), Abdul Qadir Fitrat, Access Bank Zambia, Adelaide Steamship Company, Administration of the Patrimony of the Apostolic See, Adolfo Diz, Afghan afghani, AfrAsia Bank Limited, Afrasia Bank Zimbabwe Limited, Africa Research Institute, African Economic Community, African Union, Agent (economics), Agreement on Net Financial Assets, Agustín Carstens, Ahmed Naseer, Akiba Commercial Bank, Allan H. 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A. K. N. Ahmed

A.

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ABC Bank (Uganda)

ABC Bank (Uganda), whose full name is ABC Capital Bank Uganda Limited, is a commercial bank in Uganda and licensed by the Bank of Uganda, the central bank and national banking regulator.

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Abdul Qadir Fitrat

Abdul Qadir Fitrat was governor of Da Afghanistan Bank who fled to the United States and is now wanted by the Afghani government.

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Access Bank Zambia

Access Bank Zambia Limited, commonly referred to as Access Bank Zambia, is a commercial bank in Zambia.

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Adelaide Steamship Company

The Adelaide Steamship Company was formed by a group of South Australian businessmen in 1875.

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Administration of the Patrimony of the Apostolic See

The Administration of the Patrimony of the Apostolic See (Amministrazione del Patrimonio della Sede Apostolica, abbreviated APSA) is the office of the Roman Curia that deals with the "provisions owned by the Holy See in order to provide the funds necessary for the Roman Curia to function".

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Adolfo Diz

Adolfo César Diz (May 12, 1931 – October 12, 2008) was an Argentine economist who served as President of the Central Bank of Argentina from April 1976 until March 1981.

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Afghan afghani

The afghani (sign: Afs; code: AFN; Pashto: افغانۍ; Dari افغانی) is the currency of Afghanistan, issued by the central bank Da Afghanistan Bank.

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AfrAsia Bank Limited

AfrAsia Bank Limited, commonly known as AfrAsia Bank, is a Private and Corporate Bank in Mauritius.

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Afrasia Bank Zimbabwe Limited

Afrasia Bank Zimbabwe Limited, also referred to as Afrasia Bank Zimbabwe, is a commercial bank in Zimbabwe.

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Africa Research Institute

Africa Research Institute (ARI) is an independent not-for-profit think-tank that was founded in February 2007.

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African Economic Community

The African Economic Community (AEC) is an organization of African Union states establishing grounds for mutual economic development among the majority of African states.

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African Union

The African Union (AU) is a continental union consisting of all 55 countries on the African continent, extending slightly into Asia via the Sinai Peninsula in Egypt.

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Agent (economics)

In economics, an agent is an actor and more specifically a decision maker in a model of some aspect of the economy.

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Agreement on Net Financial Assets

The Agreement on Net Financial Assets (ANFA) is an agreement between European Central Bank (ECB) and national central banks (NCB) concerning the purchase of sovereign debt (financial assets) by the central banks.

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Agustín Carstens

Agustín Guillermo Carstens Carstens (born in Mexico City), is a Mexican economist who serves as the general manager of the Bank of International Settlements since.

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Ahmed Naseer

Ahmed Naseer (born October 31, 1975 Maldives) is a Maldivian economist.

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Akiba Commercial Bank

Akiba Commercial Bank (ACB) is a commercial bank in Tanzania.

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Allan H. Meltzer

Allan H. Meltzer (February 6, 1928 – May 8, 2017) was an American economist and Allan H. Meltzer Professor of Political Economy at Carnegie Mellon University's Tepper School of Business and Institute for Politics and Strategy in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

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Amana Bank (Tanzania)

Amana Bank is a commercial bank in Tanzania.

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American Jews

American Jews, or Jewish Americans, are Americans who are Jews, whether by religion, ethnicity or nationality.

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Amsterdam banking crisis of 1763

The Amsterdam banking crisis of 1763 in the Netherlands followed the end of the Seven Years' War.

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Amsterdam Wisselbank

The Bank of Amsterdam (Amsterdamsche Wisselbank or literally Amsterdam Exchange Bank) was an early bank, vouched for by the city of Amsterdam, established in 1609, the precursor to, if not the first, modern central bank.

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Andrew Brimmer

Andrew Felton Brimmer (September 13, 1926 – October 7, 2012) was a noted United States economist, academic, and business leader who was the first African American to have served as a governor of the Federal Reserve System.

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Andrew Large

Sir Andrew McLeod Brooks Large was Deputy Governor of the Bank of England, and a member of its Monetary Policy Committee from September 2002 to January 2006.

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Andrzej Sławiński

Andrzej Sławiński (born July 31, 1951 in Warsaw) is a Polish economist and Professor of Economics at the Warsaw School of Economics.

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Anwar ul-Haq Ahady

Anwar ul-Haq Ahady (August 12, 1951) is a politician in Afghanistan, formerly serving as Afghan Minister of Commerce and Industry.

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AP Macroeconomics

Advanced Placement Macroeconomics (also known as AP Macroeconomics, AP Macro, APMa, or simply Macro) is an Advanced Placement macroeconomics course and exam offered by the College Board.

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ARB Apex Bank

ARB Apex Bank is a mini central bank for the Rural & Community Banks (RCBs).

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Arend Lijphart

Arend d'Angremond Lijphart (born 17 August 1936, Apeldoorn, Netherlands) is a political scientist specializing in comparative politics, elections and voting systems, democratic institutions, and ethnicity and politics.

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Arua

Arua is a town and commercial centre within the Arua District in the Northern Region of Uganda.

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Asset and liability management

Initially pioneered by financial institutions during the 1970s as interest rates became increasingly volatile, asset and liability management (often abbreviated ALM) is the practice of managing risks that arise due to mismatches between the assets and liabilities.

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Asset price inflation

Asset price inflation is a economic phenomenon denoting a rise in price of assets, as opposed to ordinary goods and services.

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Asset-backed commercial paper program

Asset-backed commercial paper program (ABCP program, ABCP Conduit or Conduit) is set up as a program that issues short-term liabilities, commercial papers called asset-backed commercial papers (ABCPs), to finance medium- to long-term assets.

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Atlas Mara Bank Zambia Limited

Atlas Mara Bank Zambia Limited (AMBZL), commonly referred to as Atlas Mara Bank Zambia, is a commercial bank in Zambia.

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Australia–New Zealand relations

Australia–New Zealand relations, also referred to as Trans-Tasman relations ("relations across the Tasman Sea"), are extremely close.

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Austria-Hungary

Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy in English-language sources, was a constitutional union of the Austrian Empire (the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council, or Cisleithania) and the Kingdom of Hungary (Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen or Transleithania) that existed from 1867 to 1918, when it collapsed as a result of defeat in World War I. The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867.

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Austrian business cycle theory

The Austrian business cycle theory (ABCT) is an economic theory developed by the Austrian School of economics about how business cycles occur.

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Austrian School

The Austrian School is a school of economic thought that is based on methodological individualism—the concept that social phenomena result from the motivations and actions of individuals.

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Azania Bank

Azania Bank Limited, whose formal name is First Adili Bancorp Limited, and is commonly referred to as Azania Bank, is a commercial bank in Tanzania.

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Bagrat Asatryan

Bagrat A. Asatryan (Բագրատ Արտաշեսի Ասատրյան, born February 2, 1956), also transliterated Bagrat Asatrian or Assatrian, is an Armenian economist and the former Chairman of the Central Bank of Armenia from 1994 to 1998.

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Balance of payments

The balance of payments, also known as balance of international payments and abbreviated B.O.P. or BoP, of a country is the record of all economic transactions between the residents of the country and of the world in a particular period (over a quarter of a year or more commonly over a year).

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Balcerowicz Plan

The Balcerowicz Plan (plan Balcerowicza), also termed "Shock Therapy", was a method for rapidly transitioning from a communist economy, based on state ownership and central planning, to a capitalist market economy.

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Banca Carige

Banca Carige S.p.A. (Cassa di Risparmio di Genova e Imperia Bank) is an Italian bank based in Genoa, Italy and it comprehend more than 500 bank locations in Italy.

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Banco Central burglary at Fortaleza

The Banco Central burglary at Fortaleza was the theft of about R$160 million from the vault of the Banco Central branch located in Fortaleza, in the state of Ceará, Brazil.

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Banco Central de Timor-Leste

Banco Central de Timor-Leste (BCTL) is the central bank of East Timor located in its capital Dili.

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Banco de Portugal

The Banco de Portugal (English: Bank of Portugal) is the central bank of the Portuguese Republic.

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Banco de Venezuela

Banco de Venezuela (abbreviated: BDV) is an international universal bank based in Caracas.

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Banco Espírito Santo

Banco Espírito Santo (BES) was a Portuguese bank based in Lisbon that on 4 August 2014 was split in two banks: Novo Banco, which kept its healthy operations, and a "bad bank" to keep its toxic assets.

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Banco Mercantil

Banco Mercantil or simply Mercantil is a Venezuelan financial institution based in Caracas, the second largest bank in the country.

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Banco Nacional de Bolivia

Banco Nacional de Bolivia (abbreviated as BNB) (English: National Bank of Bolivia) is a Bolivian bank and financial institution headquartered in Sucre, Bolivia.

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Banco Nacional Ultramarino

Banco Nacional Ultramarino (National Overseas Bank) was a Portuguese bank with operations throughout the world, especially in Portugal's former overseas provinces.

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Band of fluctuation

The band of fluctuation is the range within which the market value of a national currency is permitted to fluctuate by international agreements, or by unilateral decision by the central bank.

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Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas

The Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas (commonly abbreviated as BSP in both Filipino and English) is the central bank of the Philippines.

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Bangladesh Bank

Bangladesh Bank (বাংলাদেশ ব্যাংক) is the central bank of Bangladesh and is a member of the Asian Clearing Union.

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Bank

A bank is a financial institution that accepts deposits from the public and creates credit.

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Bank (disambiguation)

A bank is a financial institution and a financial intermediary that accepts deposits and channels those deposits into lending activities.

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Bank Al-Maghrib

The Bank Al-Maghrib is the central bank of the Kingdom of Morocco.

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Bank Charter Act 1844

The Bank Charter Act 1844 (7 & 8 Vict. c. 32), sometimes referred to as the Peel Banking Act of 1844, was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, passed under the government of Robert Peel, which restricted the powers of British banks and gave exclusive note-issuing powers to the central Bank of England.

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Bank code

A bank code is a code assigned by a central bank, a bank supervisory body or a Bankers Association in a country to all its licensed member banks or financial institutions.

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Bank for International Settlements

The Bank for International Settlements (BIS) is an international financial institution owned by central banks which "fosters international monetary and financial cooperation and serves as a bank for central banks".

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Bank Indonesia

Bank Indonesia (BI) is the central bank of the Republic of Indonesia.

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Bank M

Bank M is a commercial bank in Tanzania.

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Bank Markazi v. Peterson

Bank Markazi v. Peterson, 578 U.S. ___ (2016), was a United States Supreme Court case that found that a law which only applied to a specific case, identified by docket number, and eliminated all of the defenses one party had raised does not violate the separation of powers in the United States Constitution between the legislative (Congress) and judicial branches of government.

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Bank Negara Indonesia

PT Bank Negara Indonesia (Persero) Tbk or Bank Negara Indonesia (literally means Indonesian State Bank), is an Indonesian state-owned bank.

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Bank Negara Malaysia

The Central Bank of Malaysia (BNM; Bank Negara Malaysia) is the Malaysian central bank.

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Bank of Africa Ghana Limited

Bank of Africa Ghana Limited, also referred to as BOA Ghana, is a commercial bank in Ghana. It is one of the commercial banks licensed by Bank of Ghana, the central bank of Ghana, and the national banking regulator. the bank has 33 branches in 2015. BOA Ghana is a large financial services provider in Ghana., the total asset valuation of the bank was estimated at US$300 million (GHS:735.5 million). The bank is a member of Bank of Africa Group, a multinational, Pan African bank headquartered in Bamako, Mali, with presence in fourteen African countries, including Benin, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Ghana, Kenya, Ivory Coast, Madagascar, Mali, Niger, Senegal, Tanzania and Uganda. The group also maintains an office in Paris, France.

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Bank of Africa Kenya Limited

Bank of Africa Kenya Limited (BOA Kenya), is a commercial bank in Kenya.

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Bank of Africa Uganda Limited

Bank of Africa Uganda Limited, also known as BOA Uganda (BOAU), is one of the commercial banks in Uganda that have been licensed by the Bank of Uganda, the country's central bank and national banking regulator.

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Bank of Albania

The Bank of Albania (Banka e Shqipërisë) is the central bank of Albania.

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Bank of Algeria

The Bank of Algeria (بنك الجزائر, Banque d'Algérie) is the central bank of Algeria.

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Bank of Bahawalpur

Bank of Bahawalpur was a central bank of the State of Bahawalpur, now West Pakistan.

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Bank of Bombay

Bank of Bombay was the second of the three presidency banks (others being the Bank of Calcutta and the Bank of Madras) of the Raj period.

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Bank of Botswana

The Bank of Botswana (BoB) is the central bank of Botswana.

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Bank of Canada

The Bank of Canada (or BoC) (Banque du Canada) is Canada's central bank.

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Bank of Canada Building (Toronto)

The Bank of Canada Building in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, was one of the regional offices for the central bank.

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Bank of Cape Verde

The Bank of Cape Verde (Banco de Cabo Verde) is Cape Verde's central bank.

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Bank of Central African States

The Bank of Central African States (Banque des États de l'Afrique Centrale, BEAC) is a central bank that serves six central African countries which form the Economic and Monetary Community of Central Africa.

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Bank of China (Hong Kong)

Bank of China (Hong Kong) Limited also known as its short name Bank of China (Hong Kong), BOCHK, is a subsidiary of Bank of China (via a Hong Kong-listed intermediate holding company BOC Hong Kong (Holdings)), and the second-largest commercial banking group in Hong Kong in terms of assets and customer deposits (2008 data), with around 197 branches across Hong Kong as of end 2016.

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Bank of Credit and Commerce International

The Bank of Credit and Commerce International (BCCI) was an international bank founded in 1972 by Agha Hasan Abedi, a Pakistani financier.

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Bank of England

The Bank of England, formally the Governor and Company of the Bank of England, is the central bank of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the model on which most modern central banks have been based.

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Bank of England note issues

The Bank of England, which is now the central bank of the United Kingdom, has issued banknotes since 1694.

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Bank of Eritrea

The Bank of Eritrea is the central bank of Eritrea.

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Bank of Estonia

The Bank of Estonia (Eesti Pank) is the central bank of Estonia as well as a member of the Eurosystem organisation of euro area central banks.

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Bank of Finland

The Bank of Finland (Suomen Pankki, Finlands Bank) is the central bank of Finland.

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Bank of France

The Bank of France known in French as the Banque de France, headquartered in Paris, is the central bank of France; it is linked to the European Central Bank (ECB).

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Bank of Ghana

The Bank of Ghana (BoG) is the central bank of Ghana.

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Bank of Greece

The Bank of Greece (Τράπεζα της Ελλάδος, abbreviated ΤτΕ) is the central bank of Greece.

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Bank of Guatemala

The Bank of Guatemala (Banco de Guatemala) is the central bank of Guatemala.

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Bank of Guyana

The Bank of Guyana is the central bank of Guyana.

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Bank of Isabella II

The Bank of Isabella II (Banco de Isabel II) was a financial institution in Spain, created by a Royal Decree of 25 January 1844Teodora Gómez Herrero, Diccionario-guía legislativo español: comprende todas las disposiciones legales que se han publicado durante el presente siglo xix, presentadas dentro de un orden y clasificación por artículos, de tal forma enunciados..., Volume 1, Part 1, R. Fé, 1902.

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Bank of Israel

The Bank of Israel (בנק ישראל, بنك إسرائيل) is the central bank of Israel.

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Bank of Issue in Poland

Bank of Issue in Poland (Bank Emisyjny w Polsce, Emissionbank in Polen, also translated into English variously as the Bank of Issue, Issue Bank, Issuing Bank or Emitting Bank in Poland) was a bank created by the Germans in the General Government (occupied Poland) in 1940.

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Bank of Italy

Headquarters in Rome The Bank of Italy, known in Italian as Banca d'Italia, also known as Bankitalia, is the central bank of Italy and part of the European System of Central Banks.

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Bank of Jamaica

The Bank of Jamaica is the central bank of Jamaica located in Kingston.

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Bank of Japan

The is the central bank of Japan.

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Bank of Kigali

Bank of Kigali (BK) is a commercial bank in Rwanda.

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Bank of Korea

The Bank of Korea (BOK; Hangul: 한국은행) is the central bank of the Republic of Korea and issuer of South Korean won.

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Bank of Korea (1909–1950)

The Bank of Joseon (Korean: 조선은행) or Bank of Chosen (Japanese: 朝鮮銀行) was the central bank of Colonial Korea, and of South Korea.

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Bank of Latvia

The Bank of Latvia (Latvijas Banka) is the central bank of Latvia.

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Bank of Lithuania

The Bank of Lithuania (Lietuvos Bankas) is the central bank of the Republic of Lithuania.

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Bank of Madras

The Bank of Madras was one of the three Presidency Banks of British India, along with the Bank of Bengal and the Bank of Bombay.

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Bank of Mauritius

The Bank of Mauritius is the central bank of the Republic of Mauritius.

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Bank of Mexico

The Bank of Mexico (Banco de México), abbreviated BdeM or Banxico, is Mexico's central bank, monetary authority and lender of last resort.

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Bank of Mongolia

The Bank of Mongolia, or Mongolbank, is the central bank of Mongolia.

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Bank of Mozambique

The Bank of Mozambique (Banco de Moçambique) is the central bank of Mozambique.

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Bank of North America

The President, Directors, and Company, of the Bank of North America, commonly known as the Bank of North America, was a private bank first adopted on May 26, 1781 by the Confederation Congress, chartered on December 31, 1781 and opened in Philadelphia on January 7, 1782.

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Bank of Papua New Guinea

The Bank of Papua New Guinea is the central bank of Papua New Guinea.

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Bank of Poland

The Bank of Poland (Bank Polski) is the name of two former banks in Poland, each of which acted as a central bank.

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Bank of Qingdao

Bank of Qingdao (simplified Chinese: 青岛银行: Qīngdǎo yínháng, traditional Chinese: 青島銀行股份有限公司) is a provider of retail and corporate banking services in Shandong province, headquarters are in Qingdao, China.

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Bank of Sierra Leone

The Bank of Sierra Leone is the central bank of Sierra Leone.

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Bank of Slovenia

The Bank of Slovenia (Banka Slovenije) is the bank of issue and the central bank of the Republic of Slovenia.

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Bank of South Sudan

The Bank of South Sudan is the central bank of the Republic of South Sudan.

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Bank of Spain

The Bank of Spain (Banco de España), is the central bank of Spain.

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Bank of St. Helena

The Bank of St Helena is a government-owned bank based on the British overseas territory of Saint Helena.

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Bank of Taiwan

The Bank of Taiwan (BOT,, see below) is a commercial bank headquartered in Taipei, Taiwan.

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Bank of Tanzania

The Bank of Tanzania (Benki Kuu ya mTanzania) is the central bank of the United Republic of Tanzania.

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Bank of Thailand

The Bank of Thailand (BOT, ธนาคารแห่งประเทศไทย) is the central bank of Thailand.

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Bank of the Lao P.D.R.

Bank of the Lao P.D.R., located in Vientiane, is the central bank of Laos.

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Bank of the Nation (Peru)

The Bank of the Nation, known in Spanish as the Banco de la Nación, is the bank which represents the Peruvian government in financial transactions in both the public and private sectors, as well as at both domestic and international levels.

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Bank of the Republic (Colombia)

The Banco de la República (Banco de la República) is the state-run central bank of the Republic of Colombia.

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Bank of the Republic of Burundi

The Bank of the Republic of Burundi (Banque de la République du Burundi, BRB) is the central bank of Burundi.

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Bank of the Republic of Haiti

The Bank of the Republic of Haiti (French:Banque de la République d'Haïti) (BRH) is the central bank of Haiti.

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Bank of the Ryukyus

is a regional bank serving Okinawa Prefecture in Japan.

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Bank of Toronto

The Bank of Toronto was a Canadian bank that was founded in 1855 by a group of grain dealers and flour millers.

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Bank of Uganda

The Bank of Uganda (Benki Kuu ya Uganda) is the central bank of Uganda.

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Bank of Wales

The Bank of Wales (Welsh: Banc Cymru) is a trading name used by Bank of Scotland plc, a subsidiary of Lloyds Banking Group.

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Bank of Zambia

The Bank of Zambia (BoZ), is the central bank of Zambia.

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Bank Rakyat Indonesia

PT Bank Rakyat Indonesia (Persero) Tbk (People's Bank of Indonesia, commonly known as BRI or Bank BRI) is one of the largest banks in Indonesia.

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Bank rate

Bank rate, also referred to as the discount rate in American English, is the rate of interest which a central bank charges on its loans and advances to a commercial bank.

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Bank regulation

Bank regulation is a form of government regulation which subjects banks to certain requirements, restrictions and guidelines, designed to create market transparency between banking institutions and the individuals and corporations with whom they conduct business, among other things.

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Bank reserves

Bank reserves are a commercial banks' holdings of deposits in accounts with a central bank (for instance the European Central Bank or the applicable branch bank of the Federal Reserve System, in the latter case including federal funds), plus currency that is physically held in the bank's vault ("vault cash").

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Bank run

A bank run (also known as a run on the bank) occurs when a large number of people withdraw their money from a bank, because they believe the bank may cease to function in the near future.

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Bank South Pacific

Bank South Pacific (or BSP) is the largest bank in Papua New Guinea, with 35 branches throughout the country and in 6 countries.

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Bank Street, Hyderabad

Bank Street is major commercial suburb in Hyderabad, India.

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Bank Tabungan Negara

Bank Tabungan Negara, officially known as PT Bank Tabungan Negara (Persero) Tbk., is a commercial bank based in Indonesia and regulated by Bank Indonesia, the nation's central bank.

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Banking in Albania

Banking in Albania, in its present form dating from 1992, consists of the nation's central bank - the Bank of Albania - and an expanding network of secondary banks.

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Banking in Australia

Banking in Australia is dominated by four major banks: Commonwealth Bank of Australia, Westpac Banking Corporation, Australia and New Zealand Banking Group, and National Australia Bank.

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Banking in Bhutan

Banking in Bhutan is a fledgling industry that has grown slowly as the country has pursued modernization.

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Banking in China

During the 1990s and 2000s, China's banking system underwent significant changes: banks are now functioning more like western banks than before.

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Banking in Cuba

This article discusses banking in Cuba and gives an overview of the recent past.

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Banking in Eritrea

Modern banking in Eritrea started with the arrival of the Italian colonizers.

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Banking in Namibia

Banking in Namibia started in when German colonists formed the Deutsche-Afrika Bank, in June 1906, which would become the First National Bank of Namibia.

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Banking in Sierra Leone

Banking in Sierra Leone consists of a central bank, the Bank of Sierra Leone, seven commercial banks, and six community banks.

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Banking in South Sudan

Established by the Bank of South Sudan Act of 2011, the Central Bank of South Sudan is statutorily mandated to regulate the operations of all financial institutions in the country, including commercial banks.

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Banking in Switzerland

Banking in Switzerland began in the early 18th century through Switzerland's merchant trade and has, over the centuries, grown into a complex, regulated, and international industry.

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Banking in the United States

Banking in the United States began in the late 1790s along with the country's founding and has developed into highly influential and complex system of banking and financial services.

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Banking in Uganda

Before Uganda's independence in 1962, government-owned institutions dominated most banking in Uganda.

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Banknote

A banknote (often known as a bill, paper money, or simply a note) is a type of negotiable promissory note, made by a bank, payable to the bearer on demand.

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Banknotes of Scotland

Banknotes of Scotland are the banknotes of the Pound Sterling that are issued by the Scottish banks and in circulation in Scotland.

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Banknotes of the Hong Kong dollar

The issue of banknotes of the Hong Kong dollar is governed in the Special Administrative Region of Hong Kong by the Hong Kong Monetary Authority (HKMA), the governmental currency board of Hong Kong.

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Banknotes of the pound sterling

Sterling banknotes are the banknotes in circulation in the United Kingdom and its related territories, denominated in pounds sterling (symbol: £; ISO 4217 currency code GBP). Sterling banknotes are official currency in the United Kingdom, Jersey, Guernsey, the Isle of Man, British Antarctic Territory, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, and Tristan da Cunha in St Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha.

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Banknotes of the Republic of Ireland

The Irish Free State, subsequently known as Ireland, resolved in the mid-1920s to design its own coins and banknotes; at the time of the first issue of the new currency, the Free State government decided to peg its value to the pound sterling.

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Banknotes of the Swiss franc

Banknotes of the Swiss franc are issued by the Swiss National Bank in denominations of 10, 20, 50, 100, 200 and 1,000 Swiss francs.

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Banque du Liban

Bank of Lebanon officially Banque du Liban (BDL, مصرف لبنان) is the central bank of Lebanon.

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Barclays Bank of Kenya

Barclays Bank of Kenya, is a commercial bank in Kenya and a subsidiary of South Africa-based Absa Group Limited.

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Barclays Bank of Tanzania

Barclays Bank of Tanzania (BBT), is a commercial bank in Tanzania and a subsidiary of South Africa-based Absa Group Limited.

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Barclays Bank of Uganda

Barclays Bank of Uganda Limited, commonly known as Barclays Bank Uganda Limited, is a commercial bank in Uganda.

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Barclays Bank of Zambia

Barclays Bank of Zambia, is a commercial bank in Zambia.

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Barclays Bank of Zimbabwe

Barclays Bank of Zimbabwe, commonly known as Barclays Bank Zimbabwe (BBZ) is a universal bank in Zimbabwe.

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Barewa College

Barewa College is a college in Zaria, Kaduna State, northern Nigeria.

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Basel

Basel (also Basle; Basel; Bâle; Basilea) is a city in northwestern Switzerland on the river Rhine.

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Basel Committee on Banking Supervision

The Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (BCBS) is a committee of banking supervisory authorities that was established by the central bank governors of the Group of Ten countries in 1974.

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Basel I

Basel I is the round of deliberations by central bankers from around the world, and in 1988, the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (BCBS) in Basel, Switzerland, published a set of minimum capital requirements for banks.

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BCA Research

BCA Research Inc. is an independent provider of global investment research and investment strategy advice.

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Beijing Financial Street

Beijing Financial Street (BFS), or Beijing Jinrong Street (BJS), is where Chinese regulatory agencies are located.

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Beirut

Beirut (بيروت, Beyrouth) is the capital and largest city of Lebanon.

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Ben Bernanke

Ben Shalom Bernanke (born December 13, 1953) is an American economist at the Brookings Institution who served two terms as Chairman of the Federal Reserve, the central bank of the United States, from 2006 to 2014.

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Benjamin Strong Jr.

Benjamin Strong Jr. (December 22, 1872 – October 16, 1928) was an American banker.

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Bermuda Monetary Authority

The Bermuda Monetary Authority (the Authority) is the integrated regulator of the financial services sector in Bermuda.

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Bermudian dollar

The Bermudian dollar (symbol: $; code: BMD; also abbreviated BD$; informally called the Bermuda dollar) is the official currency of the British Overseas Territory of Bermuda.

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Bhutanese ngultrum

The ngultrum (དངུལ་ཀྲམ, symbol: Nu., code: BTN) is the currency of the Kingdom of Bhutan.

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Big Four (banking)

The Big Four is the colloquial name for the four main banks in several countries, where the banking industry is dominated by just four institutions and where the phrase has gained currency.

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Binary economics

Binary economics, also known as Two-factor Economics, is a theory of economics that endorses both private property and a free market but proposes significant reforms to the banking system.

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Bitcoin

Bitcoin (₿) is the world's first cryptocurrency, a form of electronic cash.

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Black market

A black market, underground economy, or shadow economy is a clandestine market or transaction that has some aspect of illegality or is characterized by some form of noncompliant behavior with an institutional set of rules.

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Blockade of Germany (1939–1945)

The Blockade of Germany (1939–1945), also known as the Economic War, was carried out during World War II by the United Kingdom and France in order to restrict the supplies of minerals, metals, food and textiles needed by Nazi Germany - and later Fascist Italy - in order to sustain their war efforts.

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Blockchain

A blockchain, originally block chain, is a continuously growing list of records, called blocks, which are linked and secured using cryptography.

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Bond (finance)

In finance, a bond is an instrument of indebtedness of the bond issuer to the holders.

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Botswana

Botswana, officially the Republic of Botswana (Lefatshe la Botswana), is a landlocked country located in Southern Africa.

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Bramer Banking Corporation

Bramer Banking Corporation, commonly known as Bramer Bank, is a financial institution based in Mauritius with its head office is situated at Port Louis and currently under statutory management.

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Bretton Woods system

The Bretton Woods system of monetary management established the rules for commercial and financial relations among the United States, Canada, Western Europe, Australia, and Japan after the 1944 Bretton-Woods Agreement.

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BRICS

BRICS is the acronym for an association of five major emerging national economies: Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa.

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Bridge bank

A bridge bank is an institution created by a national regulator or central bank to operate a failed bank until a buyer can be found for its operations.

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Bridgewater Associates

Bridgewater Associates is an American investment management firm founded by Ray Dalio in 1975.

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Bruegel (institution)

Bruegel is an independent and non-doctrinal think tank devoted to policy research on international economic issues, based in Brussels.

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Build America Bonds

Build America Bonds are taxable municipal bonds that carry special tax credits and federal subsidies for either the bond issuer or the bondholder.

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Bulgarian National Bank

The Bulgarian National Bank (Българска народна банка, Balgarska narodna banka) is the central bank of the Republic of Bulgaria with its headquarters in Sofia.

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Burundi

Burundi, officially the Republic of Burundi (Republika y'Uburundi,; République du Burundi, or), is a landlocked country in the African Great Lakes region of East Africa, bordered by Rwanda to the north, Tanzania to the east and south, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the west.

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Business cycle

The business cycle, also known as the economic cycle or trade cycle, is the downward and upward movement of gross domestic product (GDP) around its long-term growth trend.

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Cairo International Bank

Cairo International Bank (CIB) is a commercial bank in Uganda.

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Canada

Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.

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Canadian Bank Note Company

The Canadian Bank Note Company is a Canadian security printing company.

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Capital account

In macroeconomics and international finance, the capital account (also known as the financial account) is one of two primary components of the balance of payments, the other being the current account.

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Capital accumulation

Capital accumulation (also termed the accumulation of capital) is the dynamic that motivates the pursuit of profit, involving the investment of money or any financial asset with the goal of increasing the initial monetary value of said asset as a financial return whether in the form of profit, rent, interest, royalties or capital gains.

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Capital market

A capital market is a financial market in which long-term debt (over a year) or equity-backed securities are bought and sold.

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Capitol Hill Babysitting Co-op

The Capitol Hill Babysitting Cooperative (CHBC) is a cooperative located in Washington D.C., whose purpose is to fairly distribute the responsibility of babysitting between its members.

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Carl E. Walsh

Carl Eugene Walsh (born June 30, 1949), is an American economist.

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Carl Swartz

Carl Johan Gustaf Swartz (5 June 1858 – 6 November 1926) was a Swedish right-wing politician who served as Prime Minister of Sweden from 30 March 1917 to 19 October 1917.

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Carroll Quigley

Carroll Quigley (November 9, 1910 – January 3, 1977) was an American historian and theorist of the evolution of civilizations.

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Cartel

A cartel is a group of apparently independent producers whose goal is to increase their collective profits by means of price fixing, limiting supply, or other restrictive practices.

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Carter Glass

Carter Glass (January 4, 1858 – May 28, 1946) was an American newspaper publisher and Democratic politician from Lynchburg, Virginia.

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Causes of the Great Depression

The causes of the Great Depression in the early 20th century have been extensively discussed by economists and remain a matter of active debate.

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Causes of the Great Recession

Many factors directly and indirectly caused the Great Recession (which started in 2007 with the US subprime mortgage crisis), with experts and economists placing different weights on particular causes.

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Cavmont Bank

Cavmont Bank Limited is a commercial bank in Zambia.

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CBZ Bank Limited

CBZ Bank Limited, also CBZ Bank, is a commercial bank in Zimbabwe.

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CDH Investment Bank

CDH Investment Bank (CDHIB), is an investment bank in Malawi.

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Centenary Bank

Centenary Bank is a commercial bank in Uganda.

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Central bank

A central bank, reserve bank, or monetary authority is an institution that manages a state's currency, money supply, and interest rates.

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Central Bank Counterfeit Deterrence Group

The mission of the Central Bank Counterfeit Deterrence Group (CBCDG) (originally designated as Special Study Group 2 or SSG-2 of the G10) is to investigate emerging threats to the security of banknotes and to propose solutions for implementation by issuing authorities.

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Central bank governor

No description.

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Central bank liquidity swap

Central bank liquidity swap is a type of currency swap used by a country's central bank to provide liquidity of its currency to another country's central bank.

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Central Bank of Argentina

The Central Bank of the Argentine Republic (Banco Central de la República Argentina, BCRA) is the central bank of Argentina.

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Central Bank of Armenia

The Central Bank of Armenia (Հայաստանի Հանրապետության Կենտրոնական Բանկ) is the central bank of Armenia with its headquarters in Yerevan.

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Central Bank of Aruba

The Central Bank of Aruba (Centrale Bank van Aruba) is the central bank in Aruba responsible for implementation of monetary policy of the Aruban florin.

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Central Bank of Azerbaijan

The Central Bank of Azerbaijan (CBA, Azərbaycan Mərkəzi Bankı) is the central bank of Azerbaijan Republic.

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Central Bank of Belize

The Central Bank of Belize is the central bank of Belize, established in 1982.

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Central Bank of Bolivia

The Central Bank of Bolivia (Banco Central de Bolivia) is the central bank of Bolivia, responsible for monetary policy and the issuance of banknotes.

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Central Bank of Bosnia and Herzegovina

The Central Bank of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bosnian, Croatian and Serbian: Centralna banka Bosne i Hercegovine / Централна банка Босне и Херцеговине) is the central bank of Bosnia and Herzegovina, located in the capital city, Sarajevo.

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Central Bank of Brazil

The Central Bank of Brazil (Banco Central do Brasil) is Brazil's central bank.

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Central Bank of Chile

The Central Bank of Chile (Banco Central de Chile) is the central bank of Chile.

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Central Bank of Costa Rica

The Central Bank of Costa Rica (Banco Central de Costa Rica) is the central bank of Costa Rica.

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Central Bank of Cuba

The Central Bank of Cuba (Banco Central de Cuba, BCC) is the central bank of Cuba.

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Central Bank of Curaçao and Sint Maarten

The Central Bank of Curaçao and Sint Maarten (Centrale Bank van Curaçao en Sint Maarten, previously the Bank of the Netherlands Antilles) is the central bank for the Netherlands Antillean guilder and administers the monetary policy of Curaçao and Sint Maarten.

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Central Bank of Cyprus

The Central Bank of Cyprus (Kεντρική Τράπεζα της Κύπρου Kıbrıs Merkez Bankası), is the central bank of the Republic of Cyprus, located in Nicosia.

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Central Bank of Ecuador

The Central Bank of Ecuador (Banco Central del Ecuador (BCE)) is the central bank of Ecuador.

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Central Bank of Egypt

The Central Bank of Egypt (البنك المركزي المصري, CBE) is the Central bank and monetary authority of Arab Republic of Egypt.

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Central Bank of Honduras

The Central Bank of Honduras (Banco Central de Honduras) is the central bank of Honduras.

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Central Bank of Iceland

The Central Bank of Iceland (Seðlabanki Íslands) is the central bank or reserve bank of Iceland.

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Central Bank of Iraq

The Central Bank of Iraq (CBI) (البنك المركزي العراقي) is the central bank of Iraq.

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Central Bank of Ireland

The Central Bank of Ireland (Banc Ceannais na hÉireann) is Ireland's central bank, and as such part of the European System of Central Banks (ESCB).

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Central Bank of Jordan

The Central Bank of Jordan is the central bank of Jordan whose main duties include the release and distribution of the Jordanian currency and the maintenance of a national reserve of gold and foreign currencies.

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Central Bank of Lesotho

The Central Bank of Lesotho is the central bank of Lesotho, in southern Africa.

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Central Bank of Liberia

The Central Bank of Liberia is Liberia's central bank.

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Central Bank of Libya

The Central Bank of Libya (CBL) is the monetary authority in Libya.

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Central Bank of Madagascar

The Central Bank of Madagascar (Banky Foiben'i Madagasikara; Banque Centrale de Madagascar, BCM) is the central bank of Madagascar.

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Central Bank of Malta

The Central Bank of Malta (Bank Ċentrali ta’ Malta) is the central bank of the Republic of Malta.

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Central Bank of Manchou

The Central Bank of Manchou (Japanese Hepburn: Manshū Chūō Ginkō), was the central bank of the Japan-sponsored state of Manchukuo.

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Central Bank of Montenegro

The Central Bank of Montenegro (Montenegrin: Centralna Banka Crne Gore) is the central bank of Montenegro.

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Central Bank of Myanmar

The Central Bank of Myanmar (abbreviated CBM) is the central bank of Myanmar (formerly Burma).

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Central Bank of Nicaragua

The Central Bank of Nicaragua (Banco Central de Nicaragua) is the central bank of Nicaragua.

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Central Bank of Nigeria

The Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) is the Central bank and apex monetary authority of Nigeria established by the CBN Act of 1958 and commenced operations on July 1, 1959.

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Central Bank of Russia

The Central Bank of the Russian Federation (Центральный банк Российской Федерации Tsentral'nyy bank Rossiyskoy Federatsii) also known as the Bank of Russia (Банк России Bank Rossii) is the central bank of the Russian Federation, founded in 1860 as The State Bank of the Russian Empire, headquartered on Neglinnaya Street in Moscow.

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Central Bank of San Marino

The Central Bank of the Republic of San Marino (CBSM), (Italian "Banca Centrale della Repubblica di San Marino"), is the central bank of San Marino.

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Central Bank of São Tomé and Príncipe

The Central Bank of São Tomé and Príncipe (Banco Central de São Tomé e Príncipe or BCSTP) is the central bank of São Tomé and Príncipe, a Portuguese-speaking island nation off the western equatorial coast of Central Africa.

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Central Bank of Seychelles

The Central Bank of Seychelles is the central bank of Seychelles.

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Central Bank of Solomon Islands

The Central Bank of Solomon Islands is the central bank of the Solomon Islands located in capital city of Honiara.

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Central Bank of Somalia

The Central Bank of Somalia (CBS) (Bankiga Dhexe ee Soomaaliya, البنك المركزي الصومالي) is the monetary authority of Somalia.

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Central Bank of Sudan

The Central Bank of Sudan is the central bank of Sudan.

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Central Bank of Swaziland

The Central Bank of Swaziland (Swazi: Umntsholi Wemaswati), is the central bank of Swaziland.

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Central Bank of Syria

The Central Bank of Syria (مصرف سورية المركزي, Masrif Suriat Almarkazi) is the central bank of Syria.

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Central Bank of The Bahamas

The Central Bank of the Bahamas is the central bank of the Bahamas, established on 1 June 1974.

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Central Bank of the Comoros

The Central Bank of the Comros (Banque Centrale des Comores, BCC) is the central bank of the Comoros, a group of islands in the Indian Ocean.

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Central Bank of the Congo

The Central Bank of the Congo (Banque Centrale du Congo) is the central bank of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

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Central Bank of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea

The Central Bank of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea is North Korea's central bank.

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Central Bank of the Dominican Republic

The Central Bank of the Dominican Republic (Banco Central de la República Dominicana, BCRD) was established by the Monetary and Banking Law of 1947 as the central bank of the Dominican Republic, responsible for regulating the country's monetary and banking system.The Banks headquarter is in Santo Domingo and current governor is Héctor Valdez Albizu.

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Central Bank of The Gambia

The Central Bank of The Gambia is the central bank of The Gambia.

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Central Bank of the Islamic Republic of Iran

The Central Bank of the Islamic Republic of Iran (CBI; Bank Markazi-ye Jomhuri-ye Eslāmi-ye Irān, also known as Bank Markazi) is the central bank of Iran.

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Central Bank of the Republic of China (Taiwan)

The Central Bank of the Republic of China (CBC), known in English from 1924 to 2007 as the Central Bank of China, is the central bank of the Republic of China, now commonly known as Taiwan.

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Central Bank of the Republic of Guinea

The Central Bank of the Republic of Guinea (Banque Centrale de la République de Guinée, BCRG) is the central bank of Guinea.

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Central Bank of the United Arab Emirates

The Central Bank of the United Arab Emirates (مصرف الإمارات العربية المتحدة المركزي) is the state institution responsible for managing the currency, monetary policy and banking regulation in the United Arab Emirates (UAE).

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Central Bank of Trinidad and Tobago

The Central Bank of Trinidad and Tobago is the Central Bank of Trinidad and Tobago.

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Central Bank of Tunisia

The Central Bank of Tunisia (البنك المركزي التونسي, Banque Centrale de Tunisie, BCT) is the central bank of Tunisia.

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Central Bank of Uruguay

The Central Bank of the Uruguay (BCU) (Banco Central del Uruguay) is the central bank of the Uruguay.

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Central Bank of Uzbekistan

The Central Bank of Uzbekistan, officially the Central Bank of the Republic of Uzbekistan (O'zbekiston Respublikasi Markaziy banki / Ўзбекистон Республикаси Марказий Банки), is the country's national bank.

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Central Bank of Venezuela

The Central Bank of Venezuela (Banco Central de Venezuela, BCV) is the central bank of Venezuela.

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Central Bank of West African States

The Central Bank of West African States (Banque Centrale des États de l'Afrique de l'Ouest, BCEAO) is a central bank serving the eight west African countries which share the common West African CFA franc currency and comprise the West African Economic and Monetary Union (UEMOA).

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Central Bank of Yemen

The Central Bank of Yemen is the central bank of Yemen.

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Central banks and currencies of Asia-Pacific

This is a list of central banks and currencies of Asia-Pacific.

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Central banks and currencies of the Americas

This is a list of central banks and currencies of the Americas (Central America and South America and North America).

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Central banks and currencies of the Caribbean

This is a list of the central banks and currencies of the Caribbean.

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Central Reserve Bank of El Salvador

The Central Reserve Bank of El Salvador (Spanish: Banco Central de El Salvador) is the central bank of El Salvador, which controls the currency rate and regulates certain economic activities within El Salvador.

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Central Reserve Bank of Peru

The Central Reserve Bank of Peru (Banco Central de Reserva del Perú; BCRP) is the Peruvian central bank.

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Centre for Economic Policy Research

The Centre for Economic Policy Research (CEPR) is a network of over 1100 researchers who are based mainly in universities throughout Europe and collaborate through CEPR in research and its dissemination.

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CFA franc

The CFA franc (in French: franc CFA, or colloquially franc) is the name of two currencies used in parts of West and Central African countries which are guaranteed by the French treasury.

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Chair of the Federal Reserve

The Chair of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System is the head of the Federal Reserve, which is the central banking system of the United States.

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Challenges in Islamic finance

Islamic banking and finance — the industry built around avoiding interest and other financial practices found in violation of sharia (Islamic law) — has been both praised and criticized by observers.

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Chase Bank Kenya Limited

Chase Bank Kenya Limited (CBK), commonly referred to as Chase Bank, was a commercial bank in Kenya, licensed by the Central Bank of Kenya, the central bank and national banking regulator.

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Chile

Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west.

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Chronic inflation

Chronic inflation is an economic phenomenon occurring when a country experiences high inflation for a prolonged period of time (several years or decades) due to undue expansion or increase of the money supply.

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Circulation (currency)

In monetary economics, circulation is the continuing use of individual units of a currency for transactions.

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Clearing House Association

The Clearing House Association, L.L.C. is a New York-headquartered trade group and the nation’s first and oldest banking association representing 24 of the world's largest commercial banks, which collectively employ over two million people and hold more than half of all U.S. deposits.

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Clearing House Automated Transfer System

The Clearing House Automated Transfer System, or CHATS, is a real-time gross settlement (RTGS) system for the transfer of funds in Hong Kong.

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Clearstream

Clearstream is a post-trade services provider owned by Deutsche Börse AG.

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CLS Group

CLS (originally Continuous Linked Settlement) is a specialist US financial institution that provides settlement services to its members in the foreign exchange market (FX).

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Co-operative Bank of Kenya

Co-operative Bank of Kenya is a commercial bank in Kenya, the largest economy in the East African Community.

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Coin collecting

Coin collecting is the collecting of coins or other forms of minted legal tender.

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Coins of the Republic of Ireland

There have been three sets of coins in Ireland since independence.

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Collateralized mortgage obligation

A collateralized mortgage obligation (CMO) is a type of complex debt security that repackages and directs the payments of principal and interest from a collateral pool to different types and maturities of securities, thereby meeting investor needs.

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Commemorative coins of Costa Rica

Commemorative coins of Costa Rica have been designed by the Central Bank of Costa Rica to celebrate special events.

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Commercial bank

A commercial bank is an institution that provides services such as accepting deposits, providing business loans, and offering basic investment products.

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Commercial Bank of Africa

Commercial Bank of Africa (CBA) is a financial services provider headquartered in Nairobi, Kenya, the largest economy in the East African Community.

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Commercial Bank of Africa (Tanzania)

Commercial Bank of Africa (Tanzania) (CBAT) is a commercial bank in Tanzania.

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Commercial Bank of Africa (Uganda)

The Commercial Bank of Africa (Uganda) (CBAU) is a commercial bank in Uganda.

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Commission de Supervision Bancaire et Financaire

The Commission de Supervision Bancaire et Financière (CSBF), or Commission for the Supervision of Banking and Finance, is a Madagascar government agency that is responsible for directing the course of affairs of banking and finance in Madagascar.

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Committee of European Banking Supervisors

The Committee of European Banking Supervisors (CEBS) was an independent advisory group on banking supervision in the European Union (EU).

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Committee On Public Enterprises (Sri Lanka)

The Committee On Public Enterprises (COPE) is a parliamentary committee established on July 21, 1979 by the Parliament of Sri Lanka.

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Commonwealth Bank

The Commonwealth Bank of Australia (abbreviated CBA or Commbank) is an Australian multinational bank with businesses across New Zealand, Asia, the United States and the United Kingdom.

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Commonwealth Trading Bank Building

The Commonwealth Trading Bank Building, also known as the Commonwealth Bank Building, is an historically significant building in the Sydney central business district, New South Wales, Australia, located on the corner of Pitt Street and Martin Place.

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Comorian franc

The franc (franc comorien; فرنك قمري) (ISO 4217 currency code KMF) is the official currency of Comoros.

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Compliance Ireland

Compliance Ireland was formally established in January 2004, but informally commenced in mid-2003.

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Consociationalism

Consociationalism is often viewed as synonymous with power-sharing, although it is technically only one form of power-sharing.

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Consolidated Bank of Kenya

Consolidated Bank of Kenya commonly known as Consolidated Bank, is a commercial bank in Nairobi, Kenya, East Africa's largest economy.

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Constitution of the Czech Republic

The Constitution of the Czech Republic (Ústava České republiky) is the supreme law of the Czech Republic.

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Convertibility plan

The Argentine Currency Board pegged the Argentine peso to the U.S. dollar between 1991 and 2002 in an attempt to eliminate hyperinflation and stimulate economic growth.

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Cooperative Bank of South Sudan

Cooperative Bank of South Sudan is a commercial bank in South Sudan.

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Costs in English law

In English civil litigation, costs are the lawyers' fees and disbursements of the parties.

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Count room

A count room or counting room is a room that is designed and equipped for the purpose of counting large volumes of currency.

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Crane Bank Rwanda

Crane Bank Rwanda was a commercial bank in Rwanda, licensed by National Bank of Rwanda, the central bank and national banking regulator.

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Crawling peg

Crawling peg is an exchange rate regime that allows depreciation or appreciation to happen gradually.

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CRDB Bank

CRDB Bank Plc is a commercial bank in Tanzania.

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Credit Bank

Credit Bank Limited (CBL), commonly referred to as Credit Bank, is a commercial bank in Kenya, the largest economy in the East African Community.

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Credit control in India

Credit control is an important tool used by Reserve Bank of India, a major weapon of the monetary policy used to control the demand and supply of money (liquidity) in the economy.

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Credit crunch

A credit crunch (also known as a credit squeeze or credit crisis) is a sudden reduction in the general availability of loans (or credit) or a sudden tightening of the conditions required to obtain a loan from banks.

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Credit history

A credit history is a record of a borrower's responsible repayment of debts.

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Credit rating agency

A credit rating agency (CRA, also called a ratings service) is a company that assigns credit ratings, which rate a debtor's ability to pay back debt by making timely interest payments and the likelihood of default.

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Credit theory of money

Credit theories of money (also called debt theories of money) are theories concerning the relationship between credit and money.

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Criticism of the Federal Reserve

The Federal Reserve System (also known as "the Federal Reserve", and informally as "the Fed") has faced various criticisms.

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Croatian National Bank

The Croatian National Bank (Hrvatska narodna banka or HNB) is the central bank of the Republic of Croatia.

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Cryptocurrency

A cryptocurrency (or crypto currency) is digital asset designed to work as a medium of exchange that uses strong cryptography to secure financial transactions, control the creation of additional units, and verify the transfer of assets.

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Curaçao

Curaçao (Curaçao,; Kòrsou) is a Lesser Antilles island in the southern Caribbean Sea and the Dutch Caribbean region, about north of the Venezuelan coast.

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Currency

A currency (from curraunt, "in circulation", from currens, -entis), in the most specific use of the word, refers to money in any form when in actual use or circulation as a medium of exchange, especially circulating banknotes and coins.

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Currency band

A currency band is a range of values for the exchange rate for a country’s currency which the country’s central bank acts to keep the exchange rate within.

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Currency board

A currency board is a monetary authority which is required to maintain a fixed exchange rate with a foreign currency.

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Currency crisis

A currency crisis is a situation in which serious doubt exists as to whether a country's central bank has sufficient foreign exchange reserves to maintain the country's fixed exchange rate.

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Currency intervention

Currency intervention, also known as foreign exchange market intervention or currency manipulation is a monetary policy operation.

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Currency transaction tax

A currency transaction tax is a tax placed on the use of currency for various types of transactions.

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Currency union

A currency union (also known as monetary union) involves two or more states sharing the same currency without them necessarily having any further integration (such as an economic and monetary union, which would have, in addition, a customs union and a single market).

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Currency war

Currency war, also known as competitive devaluations, is a condition in international affairs where countries seek to gain a trade advantage over other countries by causing the exchange rate of their currency to fall in relation to other currencies.

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Currency Wars

Currency Wars by Song Hongbing, also known as The Currency War, is a bestseller in China, reportedly selling over 200,000 copies in addition to an estimated 400,000 unlicensed copies in circulation and is reportedly being read by many senior level government and business leaders in China.

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Cyba Audi

Cyba Audi (Arabic: صبا عودة, b. 1965 in Beirut, Lebanon) is a communication strategist and entrepreneur based in Dubai, United Arab Emirates (UAE).

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Czech National Bank

The Czech National Bank, (Česká národní banka, ČNB) is the central bank and financial market supervisor in the Czech Republic with its headquarters in Prague, and a member of the European System of Central Banks.

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Czech Republic and the euro

The Czech Republic is bound to adopt the euro in the future and to join the eurozone once it has satisfied the euro convergence criteria by the Treaty of Accession since it joined the European Union (EU) in 2004.

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Da Afghanistan Bank

Da Afghanistan Bank (Pashto:د افغانستان بانک; Dari: بانک مرکزی افغانستان) is the central bank of Afghanistan.

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Dag Hammarskjöld

Dag Hjalmar Agne Carl Hammarskjöld (29 July 1905 – 18 September 1961) was a Swedish economist and diplomat who served as the second Secretary-General of the United Nations.

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Dai-Ichi Kangyo Bank

, abbreviated as, was one of the largest banks in the world during the latter half of the 20th century.

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Danmarks Nationalbank

Danmarks Nationalbank (National Bank of Denmark; in Danish often simply Nationalbanken) is the central bank of the Kingdom of Denmark.

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Dar es Salaam Community Bank

Dar es Salaam Community Bank (DCB), whose official name is DCB Commercial Bank, but is commonly referred to as DCB Bank, is a commercial bank in Tanzania. It is licensed by the Bank of Tanzania, the central bank and national banking regulator. DCB is a private, publicly traded, microfinance bank, initially established to serve the banking needs of the poorest of the poor in the city of Dar-es-Salaam and its suburbs. In 2012, DCB was issued a national banking license, to extends its services nationwide. The stock of the bank is listed on the Dar es Salaam Stock Exchange., the total asset base of DCB was valued at approximately US$85.7 million (TZS:143.97 billion). At that time, the bank's shareholders' equity was valued at about US$19 million (TZS:31.98 billion) Customer deposits at 31 December 2013 totaled TZS:80.3 billion (approximately US$47.8 million).

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David Daokui Li

David Daokui Li (born 1963) is the Mansfield Freeman Professor of Economics and Director of the Center for China in the World Economy (CCWE) at Tsinghua University's School of Economics and Management (SEM).

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David McCormick

David Harold McCormick is an American business executive.

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De Nederlandsche Bank

De Nederlandsche Bank (DNB) is the central bank of the Netherlands.

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Debt

Debt is when something, usually money, is owed by one party, the borrower or debtor, to a second party, the lender or creditor.

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December 1913

The following events occurred in December 1913.

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Deficit spending

Deficit spending is the amount by which spending exceeds revenue over a particular period of time, also called simply deficit, or budget deficit; the opposite of budget surplus.

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Demand for money

In monetary economics, the demand for money is the desired holding of financial assets in the form of money: that is, cash or bank deposits rather than investments.

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Demand management

Demand management is a planning methodology used to forecast, plan for and manage the demand for products and services.

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Democratic globalization

Democratic globalisation is a social movement towards an institutional system of global democracy.

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Demurrage (currency)

Demurrage is the cost associated with owning or holding currency over a given period.

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Deposit insurance

Explicit deposit insurance is a measure implemented in many countries to protect bank depositors, in full or in part, from losses caused by a bank's inability to pay its debts when due.

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Derick Milton Latibeaudiere

Hon.

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Deutsche Bundesbank

The Deutsche Bundesbank is the central bank of the Federal Republic of Germany and as such part of the European System of Central Banks (ESCB).

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Devaluation

In modern monetary policy, a devaluation is an official lowering of the value of a country's currency within a fixed exchange rate system, by which the monetary authority formally sets a new fixed rate with respect to a foreign reference currency or currency basket.

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Development Bank of Kenya

Development Bank of Kenya (DBK), is a commercial bank in Kenya, the largest economy in the East African Community. It is licensed by the Central Bank of Kenya, the central bank and national banking regulator.

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Development Bank of the Central African States

The Development Bank of the Central African States, usually known for its French initials, BDEAC, is a multilateral development bank that is charged with financing the development of the member states of Economic and Monetary Community of Central Africa (CEMAC).

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DFCU Bank

DFCU Bank, registered as the Development Finance Company of Uganda Bank Limited and commonly known as DFCU, is a commercial bank in Uganda.

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Diamond Trust Bank (Uganda)

Diamond Trust Bank Uganda Limited (DTBUL), is a commercial bank in Uganda.

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Diamond Trust Bank Group

Diamond Trust Bank Group (DTB Group) is a major banking group in East Africa, active in Burundi, Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda.

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Diamond–Dybvig model

The Diamond–Dybvig model is an influential model of bank runs and related financial crises.

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Digital currency

Digital currency (digital money or electronic money or electronic currency) is a type of currency available only in digital form, not in physical (such as banknotes and coins).

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Direct operations

Direct operations is the term for when a central bank purchases bonds directly from its government.

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Directo a México

Directo a México is a program launched in 2005 and operated by the Federal Reserve and Banco de Mexico, the central banks of the United States and Mexico, respectively.

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Discount policy

Discount policy is policy taken by the central bank to increase and decrease the money circulation by raising or lowering bank rates.

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Discount window

The discount window is an instrument of monetary policy (usually controlled by central banks) that allows eligible institutions to borrow money from the central bank, usually on a short-term basis, to meet temporary shortages of liquidity caused by internal or external disruptions.

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Discretionary policy

In macroeconomics, discretionary policy is an economic policy based on the ad hoc judgment of policymakers as opposed to policy set by predetermined rules.

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Dishoarding

In economics dishoarding is the opposite of hoarding.

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Divisia monetary aggregates index

In econometrics and official statistics, and particularly in banking, the Divisia monetary aggregates index is an index of money supply.

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Dubai Bank Kenya

Dubai Bank Kenya (DBK), whose complete name is Dubai Bank Kenya Limited, but is often referred to as Dubai Bank, was a commercial bank in Kenya, the largest economy in the East African Community.

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Dutch East India Company

The United East India Company, sometimes known as the United East Indies Company (Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie; or Verenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie in modern spelling; abbreviated to VOC), better known to the English-speaking world as the Dutch East India Company or sometimes as the Dutch East Indies Company, was a multinational corporation that was founded in 1602 from a government-backed consolidation of several rival Dutch trading companies.

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Dutch Golden Age

The Dutch Golden Age (Gouden Eeuw) was a period in the history of the Netherlands, roughly spanning the 17th century, in which Dutch trade, science, military, and art were among the most acclaimed in the world.

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Dynamic inconsistency

In economics, dynamic inconsistency or time inconsistency is a situation in which a decision-maker's preferences change over time in such a way that a preference can become inconsistent at another point in time.

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Dynamic stochastic general equilibrium

Dynamic stochastic general equilibrium modeling (abbreviated as DSGE, or DGE, or sometimes SDGE) is a method in macroeconomics that attempts to explain economic phenomena, such as economic growth and business cycles, and the effects of economic policy, through econometric models based on applied general equilibrium theory and microeconomic principles.

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Early 1990s recession

The early 1990s recession describes the period of economic downturn affecting much of the Western world in the early 1990s.

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Early Canadian banking system

The early Canadian banking system (British North America and New France until 1763; then renamed Upper and Lower Canada) was regulated entirely by the colonial government.

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Easy money policy

An easy money policy is a monetary policy that increases the money supply usually by lowering interest rates.

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Ecobank Ghana

Ecobank Ghana is a commercial bank in Ghana.

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Ecobank Kenya

Ecobank Kenya is a commercial bank in Kenya.

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Ecobank Uganda

Ecobank Uganda is a bank in Uganda that operates as a commercial bank under a license granted by the Bank of Uganda, the central bank and national banking regulator.

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Econometric model

Econometric models are statistical models used in econometrics.

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Economic Consultative Committee

Informal meeting with the chairman of the worlds 18 biggest central banks Category:Central banks.

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Economic data

Economic data or economic statistics are data (quantitative measures) describing an actual economy, past or present.

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Economic history of Argentina

The economic history of Argentina is one of the most studied, owing to the "Argentine paradox", its unique condition as a country that had achieved advanced development in the early 20th century but experienced a reversal, which inspired an enormous wealth of literature and diverse analysis on the causes of this decline.

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Economic history of Chile

The economy of Chile has shifted substantially over time from the heterogeneous economies of the diverse indigenous peoples to an early husbandry-oriented economy and finally to one of raw material export and a large service sector.

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Economic history of Germany

Germany before 1800 was heavily rural, with some urban trade centers.

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Economic statistics

Economic statistics is a topic in applied statistics that concerns the collection, processing, compilation, dissemination, and analysis of economic data.

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Economic transparency

Economic transparency refers to banks and other financial institutions that have made data available about their financial position and condition.

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Economics

Economics is the social science that studies the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.

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Economics of bitcoin

Bitcoin is a digital asset designed by its inventor, Satoshi Nakamoto, to work as a currency.

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Economy of Africa

The economy of Africa consists of the trade, industry, agriculture, and human resources of the continent.

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Economy of Argentina

The economy of Argentina is an upper-middle income economy for fiscal year 2016 according to World Bank Latin America's third largest, and the second largest in South America behind Brazil.

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Economy of Azerbaijan

Azerbaijan has an economy that has completed its post-Soviet transition into a major oil based economy (with the completion of the Baku–Tbilisi–Ceyhan pipeline), from one where the state played the major role.

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Economy of Belarus

The economy of Belarus is world's 72nd largest economy by GDP based on purchasing power parity (PPP), which in 2017 stood at $175.9 billion, or $18,600 per capita.

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Economy of Bermuda

Bermuda is a British Overseas Territory comprising a number of islands, with an area of, located in the North Atlantic Ocean, which in 2016 had a population of 65,331.

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Economy of Bolivia

The economy of Bolivia is the 95th largest economy in the world in nominal terms and the 87th economy in terms of purchasing power parity.

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Economy of China

The socialist market economy of the People's Republic of China is the world's second largest economy by nominal GDP and the world's largest economy by purchasing power parity according to the International Monetary Fund (IMF), although China's National Bureau of Statistics denies the latter assessment.

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Economy of communist Czechoslovakia

In the mid-1980s, Czechoslovakia was prosperous by the standards of the Eastern Bloc, and did quite well in comparison to many richer western countries.

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Economy of Estonia

Estonian economy is an advanced economy and a member of the European Union and of the eurozone.

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Economy of Europe

The economy of Europe comprises more than 740 million people in 50 different countries.

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Economy of India

The economy of India is a developing mixed economy.

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Economy of Karachi

Karachi is the financial and industrial capital of Pakistan.

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Economy of Kenya

Kenya's economy is market-based with a few state-owned infrastructure enterprises and maintains a liberalised external trade system.

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Economy of Madrid

After it became the capital of Spain in the 16th century, Madrid was more a centre of consumption than of production or trade.

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Economy of Manchukuo

This article looks at the economies of Manchukuo and Mengjiang, in the period 1931-1945.

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Economy of Mexico

The economy of Mexico is the 15th largest in the world in nominal terms and the 11th largest by purchasing power parity, according to the International Monetary Fund. Since the 1994 crisis, administrations have improved the country's macroeconomic fundamentals. Mexico was not significantly influenced by the 2002 South American crisis, and maintained positive, although low, rates of growth after a brief period of stagnation in 2001. However, Mexico was one of the Latin American nations most affected by the 2008 recession with its Gross Domestic Product contracting by more than 6% in that year. The Mexican economy has had an unprecedented macroeconomic stability, which has reduced inflation and interest rates to record lows and has increased per capita income. In spite of this, enormous gaps remain between the urban and the rural population, the northern and southern states, and the rich and the poor. Some of the unresolved issues include the upgrade of infrastructure, the modernization of the tax system and labor laws, and the reduction of income inequality. Tax revenues, all together 19.6 percent of GDP in 2013, are the lowest among the 34 OECD countries. The economy contains rapidly developing modern industrial and service sectors, with increasing private ownership. Recent administrations have expanded competition in ports, railroads, telecommunications, electricity generation, natural gas distribution and airports, with the aim of upgrading infrastructure. As an export-oriented economy, more than 90% of Mexican trade is under free trade agreements (FTAs) with more than 40 countries, including the European Union, Japan, Israel, and much of Central and South America. The most influential FTA is the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), which came into effect in 1994, and was signed in 1992 by the governments of the United States, Canada and Mexico. In 2006, trade with Mexico's two northern partners accounted for almost 90% of its exports and 55% of its imports.. The World Factbook. CIA. Recently, the Congress of the Union approved important tax, pension and judicial reforms, and reform to the oil industry is currently being debated. Mexico had 15 companies in the Forbes Global 2000 list of the world's largest companies in 2016. Mexico's labor force is 52.8 million as of 2015. The OECD and WTO both rank Mexican workers as the hardest-working in the world in terms of the amount of hours worked yearly, although profitability per man-hour remains low.

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Economy of New Zealand

The economy of New Zealand is the 53rd-largest national economy in the world when measured by nominal gross domestic product (GDP) and the 68th-largest in the world when measured by purchasing power parity (PPP).

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Economy of North America

The economy of North America comprises more than 579 million people (8% of the world population) in its 23 sovereign states and 15 dependent territories.

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Economy of Oceania

The economy of Oceania comprises more than 14 separate countries and their associated economies.

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Economy of Panama

The economy of Panama is a fully dollarized economy with a history of low inflation.

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Economy of Portugal

Portugal ranked 42nd in the WEF's Global Competitiveness Report for 2017–2018.

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Economy of Russia

Russia has an upper-middle income, World Bank mixed economy with state ownership in strategic areas of the economy.

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Economy of Scotland

The economy of Scotland had an estimated nominal gross domestic product (GDP) of up to £152 billion in 2015.

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Economy of Sierra Leone

The economy of Sierra Leone is that of a least developed country with a GDP of approximately 1.9 billion USD in 2009.

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Economy of Singapore

The economy of Singapore is a highly developed free-market economy.

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Economy of Somalia

Somalia is classified by the United Nations as a least developed country.

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Economy of Suriname

Suriname was ranked the 124th safest investment destination in the world in the March 2011 Euromoney Country Risk rankings.

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Economy of Switzerland

The economy of Switzerland is one of the world's most advanced economies.

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Economy of the African Union

The combined states of the African Union (AU) constitute the world's 11th largest economy with a nominal gross domestic product (GDP) of US$2263 billion.

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Economy of the Americas

The economy of the Americas comprises more than 953 million people in 35 different countries and 18 territories.

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Economy of the Falkland Islands

The economy of the Falkland Islands, which first involved sealing, whaling and provisioning ships, became heavily dependent on sheep farming from the 1870s to 1980.

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Economy of the United Kingdom

The economy of the United Kingdom is highly developed and market-oriented.

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Economy of the United States

The economy of the United States is a highly developed mixed economy.

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Economy of Venezuela

The economy of Venezuela is largely based on the petroleum sector and manufacturing.

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Economy of Wales

The economy of Wales is closely linked with the rest of the United Kingdom and the wider European Economic Area.

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Edward Lametek Adamu

Edward Lametek Adamu is a Nigerian quantity surveyor, business consultant and leadership strategist.

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Edwin W. Kemmerer

Edwin Walter Kemmerer (June 29, 1875 – December 16, 1945) American economist, became famous as an economic adviser to foreign governments in many countries (Philippines, Mexico, Guatemala, Colombia, Germany, Chile, South Africa, Poland, Ecuador, Bolivia, China, Peru, and Turkey), promoting plans based on strong currencies, the gold standard, central banks, and balanced budgets.

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Elias Saleeby

Elie E. Saleeby, PhD, is a retired Liberian banker.

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Elisabeth Delatour Préval

Elisabeth Débrosse Delatour Préval (born around 1962) is a Haitian businesswoman, presidential economic advisor and economist.

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Emmanuel Tumusiime-Mutebile

Emmanuel Tumusiime-Mutebile is a Ugandan economist and banker.

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Encilhamento

The Encilhamento was an economic bubble that boomed in the late 1880s and early 1890s in Brazil, bursting during the 1st Brazilian military dictatorship (1889-1894), leading to an institutional and a financial crisis.

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Endogenous money

Endogenous money is an economy’s supply of money that is determined endogenously—that is, as a result of the interactions of other economic variables, rather than exogenously (autonomously) by an external authority such as a central bank.

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England

England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.

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Environmental resource management

Environmental resource management is the management of the interaction and impact of human societies on the environment.

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Equity Bank Kenya Limited

Equity Bank Kenya Limited, is a financial services provider headquartered in Nairobi, Kenya.

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Equity Bank Rwanda Limited

Equity Bank Rwanda Limited (EBRL), is a commercial bank in Rwanda.

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Equity Bank South Sudan Limited

Equity Bank South Sudan Limited (EBSSL) is a commercial bank in South Sudan.

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Equity Bank Tanzania Limited

Equity Bank Tanzania Limited, is a commercial bank in Tanzania, the second-largest economy in the East African Community.

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Equity Bank Uganda Limited

Equity Bank Uganda Limited (EBUL), is a commercial bank in Uganda.

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Ernest Riddle

Sir Ernest Cooper Riddle (5 April 187328 February 1939) was an Australian banker who served as governor of the Commonwealth Bank of Australia, then Australia's central bank, from 1927 to 1938.

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Estonia

Estonia (Eesti), officially the Republic of Estonia (Eesti Vabariik), is a sovereign state in Northern Europe.

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Euro

The euro (sign: €; code: EUR) is the official currency of the European Union.

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Euro banknotes

Banknotes of the euro, the currency of the Eurozone, have been in circulation since the first series was issued in 2002.

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European Central Bank

The European Central Bank (ECB) is the central bank for the euro and administers monetary policy of the euro area, which consists of 19 EU member states and is one of the largest currency areas in the world.

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European Commission

The European Commission (EC) is an institution of the European Union, responsible for proposing legislation, implementing decisions, upholding the EU treaties and managing the day-to-day business of the EU.

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European debt crisis

The European debt crisis (often also referred to as the Eurozone crisis or the European sovereign debt crisis) is a multi-year debt crisis that has been taking place in the European Union since the end of 2009.

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European Exchange Rate Mechanism

The European Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM) was a system introduced by the European Economic Community on 13 March 1979, as part of the European Monetary System (EMS), to reduce exchange rate variability and achieve monetary stability in Europe, in preparation for Economic and Monetary Union and the introduction of a single currency, the euro, which took place on 1 January 1999.

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European System of Central Banks

The European System of Central Banks (ESCB) consists of the European Central Bank (ECB) and the national central banks (NCBs) of all 28 member states of the European Union (EU).

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Eurozone

No description.

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Everardo Elizondo

Everardo Elizondo Almaguer is a Mexican economist who has worked for private, public, and academic institutions.

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Excess reserves

In banking, excess reserves are bank reserves in excess of a reserve requirement set by a central bank.

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Exchange rate

In finance, an exchange rate is the rate at which one currency will be exchanged for another.

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Exchange Stabilization Fund

The Exchange Stabilization Fund (ESF) is an emergency reserve fund of the United States Treasury Department, normally used for foreign exchange intervention.

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Exim Bank (Comoros)

Exim Bank (Comoros) (EBC), also Exim Bank Comores SA (French), is a commercial bank in the Comoros.

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Exim Bank (Djibouti)

Exim Bank (Djibouti) (EBD), also Exim Bank Djibouti SA or Exim Bank of Djibouti, is a commercial bank in Djibouti.

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Exim Bank (Tanzania)

Exim Bank (Tanzania) (EBT), is a commercial bank in Tanzania, the second-largest economy in the East African Community.

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Exim Bank (Uganda)

Exim Bank (Uganda) (EBU), commonly known as Exim Bank, is a commercial bank in Uganda.

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Ezra Suruma

Ezra Suruma (born 11 November 1945) is a Ugandan economist, banker, and academic.

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Faircoop

FairCoop is an open global cooperative that organizes itself through the Internet outside the boundaries and controls of nation-states.

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Fakhruddin Ahmed

Fakhruddin Ahmed (born 1 May 1940) is a Bangladeshi economist, civil servant, and a former governor of the Bangladesh Bank, the country's central bank.

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Family Bank

Family Bank Limited (FBL), commonly known as Family Bank, is a commercial bank in Kenya, the largest economy in the East African Community.

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FBC Bank

FBC Bank, whose full name is FBC Bank Limited, is a commercial bank in Zimbabwe.

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FDH Bank

FDH Bank, also FDH Bank Limited, is a commercial bank in Malawi.

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Fear of floating

Fear of floating refers to situations where a country prefers a smoother exchange rate to a floating exchange rate regime.

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Federal Open Market Committee

The Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC), a committee within the Federal Reserve System (the Fed), is charged under the United States law with overseeing the nation's open market operations (e.g., the Fed's buying and selling of United States Treasury securities).

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Federal Reserve Act

The Federal Reserve Act (ch. 6,, enacted December 23, 1913) is an Act of Congress that created and established the Federal Reserve System (the central banking system of the United States), and which created the authority to issue Federal Reserve Notes (commonly known as the US Dollar) as legal tender.

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Federal Reserve Bank

A Federal Reserve Bank is a regional bank of the Federal Reserve System, the central banking system of the United States.

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Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago

The Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago (informally the Chicago Fed) is one of twelve regional Reserve Banks that, along with the Board of Governors in Washington, D.C., make up the nation's central bank.

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Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas

The Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas covers the Eleventh Federal Reserve District, which includes Texas, northern Louisiana and southern New Mexico, a district sometimes referred to as the Oil Patch.

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Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond Baltimore Branch

The Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond Baltimore Branch Office is one of the two Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond branch offices.

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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

The Federal Reserve Bank of St.

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Federal Reserve Deposits

Federal Reserve Deposits, also known as Federal Reserve Accounts, are deposits of gold or, later, Treasury Bills placed by United States banks with the Federal Reserve, the central bank.

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Federal Reserve Note

Federal Reserve Notes, also United States banknotes or U.S. banknotes, are the banknotes currently used in the United States of America.

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Federal Reserve Police

The U.S. Federal Reserve Police is the law enforcement unit of the Federal Reserve System, the central banking system of the United States.

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Federal Reserve System

The Federal Reserve System (also known as the Federal Reserve or simply the Fed) is the central banking system of the United States of America.

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Federal Reserve Transparency Act

The Federal Reserve Transparency Act of 2015 was a bill introduced in the U.S. House of Representatives of the 114th United States Congress by Congressman Thomas Massie (KY-4).

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Federal Reserve Transparency Act of 2013

The Federal Reserve Transparency Act of 2013 is a bill that would direct the Government Accountability Office (GAO) to prepare, within 12 months of enactment, an audit of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System and the Federal Reserve Banks.

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Federalism in India

The Constitution of India gives a federal structure to the Republic of India, declaring it to be a "Union of the States".

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Feldstein–Horioka puzzle

The Feldstein–Horioka puzzle is a widely discussed problem in macroeconomics and international finance, which was first documented by Martin Feldstein and Charles Horioka in a 1980 paper.

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Fellesbanken

Fellesbanken was a Norwegian bank that existed between 1920 and 1985 with offices in Oslo, Norway.

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Fernando Abril Martorell

Fernando Abril Martorell (31 August 1936 – 16 February 1998) was a Valencian Spanish politician and agricultural engineer.

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Fiat money

Fiat money is a currency without intrinsic value that has been established as money, often by government regulation.

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Fidelity Bank Nigeria

Fidelity Bank, also known as Fidelity Bank Plc., is a commercial bank in Nigeria.

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Finance minister

A finance minister is an executive or cabinet position in charge of one or more of government finances, economic policy and financial regulation.

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Finance Trust Bank

Finance Trust Bank (FTB), commonly called Finance Trust, is a commercial bank in Uganda.

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Financial capital

Financial capital is any economic resource measured in terms of money used by entrepreneurs and businesses to buy what they need to make their products or to provide their services to the sector of the economy upon which their operation is based, i.e. retail, corporate, investment banking, etc.

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Financial centre

A financial centre is a location that is home to a cluster of nationally or internationally significant financial services providers such as banks, investment managers, or stock exchanges.

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Financial Competitive Act of 2013

The Financial Competitive Act of 2013 is a bill that was introduced into the United States House of Representatives during the 113th United States Congress.

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Financial crisis of 2007–2008

The financial crisis of 2007–2008, also known as the global financial crisis and the 2008 financial crisis, is considered by many economists to have been the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression of the 1930s.

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Financial history of the Dutch Republic

The financial history of the Dutch Republic involves the interrelated development of financial institutions in the Dutch Republic.

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Financial market participants

There are two basic financial market participant categories, Investor vs.

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Financial repression

Financial repression comprises "policies that result in savers earning returns below the rate of inflation" in order to allow banks to "provide cheap loans to companies and governments, reducing the burden of repayments".

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Financial Stability Board

The Financial Stability Board (FSB) is an international body that monitors and makes recommendations about the global financial system.

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Financial Stability Forum

The Financial Stability Forum (FSF) was a group consisting of major national financial authorities such as finance ministries, central bankers, and international financial bodies.

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Financial system

A financial system (within the scope of finance) is a system that allows the exchange of funds between lenders, investors, and borrowers.

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Financial system in Australia

The Australian financial system consists of the arrangements covering the borrowing and lending of funds and the transfer of ownership of financial claims in Australia, comprising.

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Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation

The Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation (Financial University) (Russian: Финансовый университет при Правительстве Российской Федерации) earlier known as "Moscow Institute of Economics and Finance" (1919–1946), "Moscow Finance Institute" (1946–1990), "State Finance Academy" (1991–1992) or "Finance Academy under the Government of the Russian Federation" (1992–2010), is a federal state-funded institution of higher professional education located in Moscow, Russia.

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First Alliance Bank Zambia Limited

First Alliance Bank Zambia Limited (FABZL), also known as First Alliance Bank (Zambia), is a commercial bank in Zambia.

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First Bank of the United States

The President, Directors and Company, of the Bank of the United States, commonly known as the First Bank of the United States, was a national bank, chartered for a term of twenty years, by the United States Congress on February 25, 1791.

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First Community Bank

First Community Bank (FCB), is a commercial bank in Kenya, the largest economy in the East African Community.

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First Housing Company Tanzania Limited

First Housing Finance (Tanzania) Limited, is a mortgage bank in Tanzania.

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First Merchant Bank

First Merchant Bank Limited, commonly known as First Merchant Bank (FMB), is a commercial bank in Malawi.

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First National Bank of Tanzania

First National Bank Tanzania (FNBT), is a commercial bank in Tanzania.

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Fiscal policy

In economics and political science, fiscal policy is the use of government revenue collection (mainly taxes) and expenditure (spending) to influence the economy.

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Fixed exchange-rate system

A fixed exchange rate, sometimes called a pegged exchange rate, is a type of exchange rate regime where a currency's value is fixed against either the value of another single currency, to a basket of other currencies, or to another measure of value, such as gold.

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Fixed income

Fixed income refers to any type of investment under which the borrower or issuer is obliged to make payments of a fixed amount on a fixed schedule.

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Floating exchange rate

A floating exchange rate (also called a fluctuating or flexible exchange rate) is a type of exchange-rate regime in which a currency's value is allowed to fluctuate in response to foreign-exchange market mechanisms.

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Florens Luoga

Florens Luoga is a Tanzanian lawyer and academic.

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Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act

The Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act (FATCA) is a 2010 United States federal law requiring all non-U.S. ('foreign') financial institutions (FFIs) to search their records for customers with indicia of 'U.S.-person' status, such as a U.S. place of birth, and to report the assets and identities of such persons to the U.S. Department of the Treasury.

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Foreign exchange market

The foreign exchange market (Forex, FX, or currency market) is a global decentralized or over-the-counter (OTC) market for the trading of currencies.

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Foreign-exchange reserves

Foreign-exchange reserves (also called forex reserves or FX reserves) is money or other assets held by a central bank or other monetary authority so that it can pay if need be its liabilities, such as the currency issued by the central bank, as well as the various bank reserves deposited with the central bank by the government and other financial institutions.

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Forward guidance

Forward guidance is a tool used by a central bank to exercise its power in monetary policy in order to influence, with their own forecasts, market expectations of future levels of interest rates.

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Fractional-reserve banking

Fractional-reserve banking is the practice whereby a bank accepts deposits, makes loans or investments, but is required to hold reserves equal to only a fraction of its deposit liabilities.

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François Villeroy de Galhau

François Villeroy de Galhau (born 24 February 1959) is a French central banker, Governor of the Bank of France since 1 November 2015.

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Frankfurt

Frankfurt, officially the City of Frankfurt am Main ("Frankfurt on the Main"), is a metropolis and the largest city in the German state of Hesse and the fifth-largest city in Germany.

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Friedman rule

The Friedman rule is a monetary policy rule proposed by Milton Friedman.

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Friedman's k-percent rule

Friedman's k-percent rule is the monetarist proposal that the money supply should be increased by the central bank by a constant percentage rate every year, irrespective of business cycles.

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Friedrich Hayek

Friedrich August von Hayek (8 May 189923 March 1992), often referred to by his initials F. A. Hayek, was an Austrian-British economist and philosopher best known for his defense of classical liberalism.

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Fritz Joubert Duquesne

Frederick "Fritz" Joubert Duquesne (21 September 187724 May 1956; sometimes Du Quesne) was a South African Boer and German soldier, big-game hunter, journalist, and a spy.

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Full employment

Full employment means that everyone who wants a job have all the hours of work they need on "fair wages".

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Funding liquidity

Funding liquidity is the availability of credit to finance the purchase of financial assets.

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G20

The G20 (or Group of Twenty) is an international forum for the governments and central bank governors from Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, South Korea, Turkey, the United Kingdom, the United States and the European Union.

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Gabon

Gabon, officially the Gabonese Republic (République gabonaise), is a sovereign state on the west coast of Central Africa.

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Gary Allen

Gary Allen (August 2, 1936 – November 29, 1986) was an American conservative journalist and conspiracy theorist book author who promoted the theory that international banking and politics control domestic decisions, taking them out of elected officials' hands.

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GCB Bank Limited

Formerly Ghana Commercial Bank, now legally GCB Bank Ltd. The second largest bank in Ghana by net profit and total assets, licensed by Bank of Ghana, the national banking regulator.

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George E. Marcus

George E. Marcus is an American professor of anthropology at the University of California, Irvine who focuses on the anthropology of elites.

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George Selgin

George Selgin (born 1957) is the Director of the Cato Institute's Center for Monetary and Financial Alternatives, where he is editor-in-chief of the Center's blog, Alt-M, Professor Emeritus of economics at the Terry College of Business at the University of Georgia, and an associate editor of Econ Journal Watch.

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George W. Crawford

George Walker Crawford (December 22, 1798 – July 27, 1872) was a licensed attorney turned politician from Columbia County, Georgia.

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Georges Pauget

Georges Pauget (born 1947) was the CEO of Crédit Agricole and LCL S.A. from 2005 to 2010.

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Gerardo Rodriguez Regordosa

Gerardo Rodriguez Regordosa (born July 10, 1972 in Puebla, Mexico) is an economist from Universidad de las Americas Puebla (UDLA-P), with a master's degree in Engineering-Economic Systems and Operations Research from Stanford University.

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Giro Commercial Bank

Giro Commercial Bank (GCB), whose full name was Giro Commercial Bank Limited, was a commercial bank in Kenya it was acquired and absorbed by I&M Holdings in 2017.

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Global financial system

The global financial system is the worldwide framework of legal agreements, institutions, and both formal and informal economic actors that together facilitate international flows of financial capital for purposes of investment and trade financing.

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Global saving glut

A global saving glut (also global savings glut, GSG, cash hoarding, dead cash, dead money, glut of excess intended saving, or shortfall of investment intentions) is a situation in which desired savingAccording to national saving is the "sum of saving done by households (for example, through contributions to employer-sponsored pension accounts) and saving done by businesses (in the form of retained earnings) less any budget deficit run by the government (which is a use rather than a source of saving).

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Global Trust Bank (Uganda)

Global Trust Bank (Uganda) Limited (GTBU), commonly referred to as Global Trust Bank (GTBU), was a commercial bank in Uganda which started operations in 2008 and was closed down in 2014.

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Glossary of economics

Most of the terms listed in Wikipedia glossaries are already defined and explained within Wikipedia itself.

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Glossary of notaphily

This page is a glossary of notaphily.

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Godfrey Huggins

Godfrey Martin Huggins, 1st Viscount Malvern (6 July 1883 – 8 May 1971) was a Rhodesian politician and physician.

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Goh Keng Swee

Goh Keng Swee,, (6 October 1918 – 14 May 2010) was the second Deputy Prime Minister of Singapore between 1973 and 1984, and a Member of Parliament (MP) for the Kreta Ayer constituency for a quarter of a century.

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Gold

Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.

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Gold as an investment

Of all the precious metals, gold is the most popular as an investment.

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Gold bar

A gold bar, also called gold bullion or a gold ingot, is a quantity of refined metallic gold of any shape that is made by a bar producer meeting standard conditions of manufacture, labeling, and record keeping.

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Gold coin

A gold coin is a coin that is made mostly or entirely of gold.

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Gold holdings

Gold holdings are the quantities of gold held by individuals, private corporations, or public entities as a store of value, an investment vehicle, or perceived as protection against hyperinflation and against financial and/or political upheavals.

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Gold holdings of Norway

The gold holdings of Norway also known as "gold reserves" (Norwegian Bokmål: Norges gullbeholdning or Norges gullreserver) are the physical quantity of gold owned of the Kingdom of Norway.

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Gold laundering

Gold laundering is the process whereby illegally obtained gold is melted and recast into another form.

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Gold leasing

Gold leasing is a practice whereby central banks and other financial institutions lend gold out on an unsecured basis.

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Gold reserve

A gold reserve was the gold held by a national central bank, intended mainly as a guarantee to redeem promises to pay depositors, note holders (e.g. paper money), or trading peers, during the eras of the gold standard, and also as a store of value, or to support the value of the national currency.

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Gold Reserve Act

The United States Gold Reserve Act of January 30, 1934 required that all gold and gold certificates held by the Federal Reserve be surrendered and vested in the sole title of the United States Department of the Treasury.

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Gold reserves of the United Kingdom

The gold reserve of the United Kingdom is the amount of gold kept by Bank of England as a store of value of part of the United Kingdom's wealth.

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Goldenberg scandal

The Goldenberg scandal was a political scandal where the Kenyan government was found to have subsidised exports of gold far beyond standard arrangements during the 1990s, by paying the company Goldenberg International 35% more (in Kenyan shillings) than their foreign currency earnings.

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Good Delivery

The Good Delivery specification is a set of rules issued by the London Bullion Market Association (LBMA) describing the physical characteristics of gold and silver bars used in settlement in the wholesale London bullion market.

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Gosbank

Gosbank (Госбанк, Государственный банк СССР, Gosudarstvenny bank SSSR—the State Bank of the USSR) was the central bank of the Soviet Union and the only bank whatsoever in the entire Union from the 1930s to 1987.

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Governance without government

Governance without government refers to a form of governance which uses non-governmental means (NGM) of government.

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Government agencies in Sweden

The government agencies in Sweden are state-controlled organizations who act independently to carry out the policies of the Government of Sweden.

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Government bond

A government bond or sovereign bond is a bond issued by a national government, generally with a promise to pay periodic interest payments and to repay the face value on the maturity date.

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Government budget balance

A government budget is a financial statement presenting the government's proposed revenues and spending for a financial year.

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Government debt

Government debt (also known as public interest, public debt, national debt and sovereign debt) is the debt owed by a government.

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Government revenue

Government revenue is money received by a government.

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Governor of the Central Bank of Sri Lanka

The Governor of the Central Bank of Sri Lanka (CBSL) functions as the chief executive of the Sri Lankan central bank.

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Great Depression

The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place mostly during the 1930s, beginning in the United States.

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Grenada

Grenada is a sovereign state in the southeastern Caribbean Sea consisting of the island of Grenada and six smaller islands at the southern end of the Grenadines island chain.

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Grill (family)

The Grill family was one of several Swedish families having significant influence with the Swedish East India Company (SOIC).

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Gross loan

Gross loan is the total amount of issued credits given to banks during the accounting period.

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Group of 22

The Group of 22 (G22 or Willard Group) was announced by the leaders of APEC (Asia–Pacific Economic Cooperation) in 1997.

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Group of Eight

The G8, reformatted as G7 from 2014 due to the suspension of Russia's participation, was an inter-governmental political forum from 1997 until 2014, with the participation of some major industrialized countries in the world, that viewed themselves as democracies.

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Group of Seven

The Group of Seven (G7) is a group consisting of Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

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Group of Thirty

The Group of Thirty, often abbreviated to G30, is an international body of leading financiers and academics which aims to deepen understanding of economic and financial issues and to examine consequences of decisions made in the public and private sectors related to these issues.

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Group of Twelve

The Group of Twelve or G12 is a group of industrially advanced countries whose central banks co-operate to regulate international finance.

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Guaranty Trust Bank (Kenya)

Guaranty Trust Bank (Kenya), commonly referred to as GT Bank Kenya, is a commercial bank in Kenya and part of Nigerian Guaranty Trust Bank.

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Guaranty Trust Bank (Rwanda)

Guaranty Trust Bank (Rwanda), commonly referred to as GTBank, is one of the licensed commercial banks in the Republic of Rwanda.

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Guaranty Trust Bank (Uganda)

Guaranty Trust Bank (Uganda), commonly referred to as GT Bank (Uganda), is a commercial bank in Uganda.

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Guardian (polymer)

Guardian is the trademark name of a polymer originally manufactured by Securency International, a joint venture between the Reserve Bank of Australia and Innovia Films Ltd.

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Guardian Bank

Guardian Bank, whose full name is Guardian Bank Limited, is a commercial bank in Kenya with headquarters in Nairobi.

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Guillermo de la Dehesa

Guillermo de la Dehesa Romero (Madrid, July 9, 1941) is a Spanish lawyer, economist, politician and businessman.

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Guinea

Guinea, officially the Republic of Guinea (République de Guinée), is a country on the western coast of Africa.

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Gulf African Bank

Gulf African Bank (GAB), whose full name is Gulf African Bank Limited, is a commercial bank in Kenya operating under an Islamic banking regime. It is licensed by the Central Bank of Kenya, the central bank and national banking regulator. the bank was a mid-sized financial services provider in Kenya. Its total assets were valued at approximately US$191.8 million (KES:19, 753, 647 billion), with customer deposits totalling approximately US$153.3 million (KES:15.8 billion), and shareholders' equity estimated at approximately US$30.6 million (KES:3.15 billion). At that time, the bank was ranked number 25, by assets, out of the 43 licensed banks in Kenya then. The bank has plans to enter Uganda and Tanzania.

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Gulu

Gulu is a city in the Northern Region of Uganda.

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Gunnar Heinsohn

Gunnar Heinsohn is a German author, sociologist and economist and professor emeritus at the University of Bremen.

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Gunnebo Belgium

Gunnebo Belgium is a member of the Gunnebo Security Group.

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Gunnebo Group

Gunnebo (OMX) is a multinational corporation headquartered in Gothenburg, Sweden, specialising in security products, services and solutions mainly in the areas of cash management, entrance security, electronic security and safes & vaults.

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Guo Shuqing

Guo Shuqing (born August 1956) is a Chinese politician, banker, and financial regulator.

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Gyula Kautz

Gyula Kautz (5 November 1829 – 27 March 1909) was a notable Hungarian economist.

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Hanna Gronkiewicz-Waltz

Hanna Beata Gronkiewicz-Waltz (born 4 November 1952) is a Polish lawyer, Professor of Jurisprudence and politician who has been the Mayor of Warsaw since 2 December 2006.

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Hans Eichel

Hans Eichel is a German politician (SPD) and the co-founder of the G20, or "Group of Twenty", an international forum for the governments and central bank governors of twenty developed and developing nations to discuss policy issues pertaining to the promotion of international financial stability.

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Hard currency

Hard currency, safe-haven currency or strong currency is any globally traded currency that serves as a reliable and stable store of value.

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Henry Kajura

Henry Muganwa Kajura (born 7 July 1934), commonly known as Henry Kajura, is a Ugandan administrator and politician.

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Henry Thornton (reformer)

Henry Thornton (10 March 1760 – 16 January 1815) was an English economist, banker, philanthropist and parliamentarian.

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Henry Wallich

Henry Christopher Wallich (June 10, 1914 – September 15, 1988) was a German American economist and central banker.

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Herman Van Rompuy

Herman Achille, Count Van Rompuy (Herman Achille, Graaf Van Rompuy,; born 31 October 1947) is a Belgian politician, who formerly served as Prime Minister of Belgium and then as the first President of the European Council.

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History of banking

The history of banking began with the first prototype banks were the merchants of the world, who made grain loans to farmers and traders who carried goods between cities.

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History of banking in China

The history of banking in China includes the business of dealing with money and credit transactions in China.

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History of banking in the United States

This article details the history of banking in the United States.

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History of capitalism

The history of capitalism has diverse and much debated roots, but fully-fledged capitalism is generally thought to have emerged in north-west Europe, especially in the Low Countries (mainly present-day Flanders and Netherlands) and Britain, in the sixteenth to seventeenth centuries.

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History of central banking in the United States

This history of central banking in the United States encompasses various bank regulations, from early "wildcat" practices through the present Federal Reserve System.

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History of Chinese currency

The history of Chinese currency spans more than 3000 years.

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History of copper currency in Sweden

The Swedish Empire had the greatest and most numerous copper mines in Europe as it entered into its pre-eminence in the early 17th century as an emerging Great Power.

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History of Federal Open Market Committee actions

This is a list of historical rate actions by the United States Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC).

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History of macroeconomic thought

Macroeconomic theory has its origins in the study of business cycles and monetary theory.

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History of money

The history of money concerns the development of means of carrying out transactions involving a medium of exchange.

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History of Russia (1991–present)

The history of Russia from 1991 to the present began with the dissolution of the Soviet Union on 26 December 1991, and the establishment of the Russian Federation.

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History of Switzerland

Since 1848, the Swiss Confederation has been a federal state of relatively autonomous cantons, some of which have a history of confederacy that goes back more than 700 years, putting them among the world's oldest surviving republics.

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History of the African Union

The African Union is a geo-political entity covering the entirety of the African continent.

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History of the Canadian dollar

Canada has an extensive history with regard to its currency.

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History of the Netherlands

The history of the Netherlands is the history of seafaring people thriving on a lowland river delta on the North Sea in northwestern Europe.

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Hong Kong

Hong Kong (Chinese: 香港), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is an autonomous territory of China on the eastern side of the Pearl River estuary in East Asia.

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Hong Kong dollar

The Hong Kong dollar (sign: HK$; code: HKD) is the official currency of Hong Kong.

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Hong Kong Monetary Authority

The Hong Kong Monetary Authority (HKMA, or 金管局) is Hong Kong's currency board and de facto central bank.

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Horizontalism

Horizontalism is an approach to money creation theory pioneered by Basil Moore which states that private bank reserves are not managed by central banks.

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Hot money

In economics, hot money is the flow of funds (or capital) from one country to another in order to earn a short-term profit on interest rate differences and/or anticipated exchange rate shifts.

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Housing Bank of Rwanda

Housing Bank of Rwanda (HBR), also known as Rwanda Housing Bank, was a commercial bank in Rwanda.

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Housing Finance Company of Kenya

Housing Finance Company of Kenya (HFCK), whose official name is Housing Finance Company Limited (HFC Limited), but is commonly referred to as Housing Finance, is a mortgage finance provider in Kenya, the largest economy in the East African Community.

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How an Economy Grows and Why It Crashes

How an Economy Grows and Why it Crashes (2010) is an illustrated polemic on various economic topics by Peter Schiff and Andrew Schiff.

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Howlett and Bailey Architects

Howlett and Bailey Architects was founded by Jeffrey Howlett and Donald Bailey in 1960, in Perth, Western Australia.

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Hugh D.T. Williamson

Hugh Dean Thomas Williamson C.B.E. (1901-1985) was an Australian banking executive and philanthropist.

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Hungarian National Bank

The Hungarian National Bank (Magyar Nemzeti Bank (MNB)) is the central bank of Hungary and as such part of the European System of Central Banks (ESCB).

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Hyman Minsky

Hyman Philip Minsky (September 23, 1919 – October 24, 1996) was an American economist, a professor of economics at Washington University in St. Louis, and a distinguished scholar at the Levy Economics Institute of Bard College.

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Hyperinflation

In economics, hyperinflation is very high and typically accelerating inflation.

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Hysteresis (economics)

In economics, hysteresis (derived from the Greek verb ύστερέω, meaning "that which comes later") refers to effects that persist after the initial causes giving rise to the effects are removed.

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I&M Bank Limited

I&M Bank Limited, is a commercial bank in Kenya, the largest economy in the East African Community.

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I&M Bank Tanzania Limited

I&M Bank Tanzania Limited is a commercial bank in Tanzania headquartered in Dar es Salaam and a subsidiary of Kenyan based I&M Bank Group.

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Ian Macfarlane (economist)

Ian John Macfarlane, AC (born 22 June 1946), Australian economist, and Governor of the Reserve Bank of Australia (RBA), Australia's central bank, from 1996 to 17 September 2006.

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Imperial Bank Limited

Imperial Bank Limited (IBKL), commonly known as Imperial Bank, is a commercial bank in Kenya, the largest economy in the East African Community.

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Imperial Bank of India

The Imperial Bank of India (IBI) was the oldest and the largest commercial bank of the Indian subcontinent, and was subsequently transformed into State Bank of India in 1955.

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Imperial Bank of Persia

The Imperial Bank of Persia (بانک شاهنشاهی ایران; Bank-e Šâhanšâhi-ye Irân) was a British bank that operated as the state bank and bank of issue in Iran (formerly known as Persia until the 1935) between 1889 and 1929.

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Incomes policy

Incomes policies in economics are economy-wide wage and price controls, most commonly instituted as a response to inflation, and usually seeking to establish wages and prices below free market level.

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Independence Party (United States)

The Independence Party, established as the Independence League, was a short-lived minor American political party sponsored by newspaper publisher and United States Representative William Randolph Hearst in 1906.

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Independent agencies of the United States government

Independent agencies of the United States federal government are those agencies that exist outside the federal executive departments (those headed by a Cabinet secretary) and the Executive Office of the President.

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Independent State of Croatia

The Independent State of Croatia (Nezavisna Država Hrvatska, NDH; Unabhängiger Staat Kroatien; Stato Indipendente di Croazia) was a World War II fascist puppet state of Germany and Italy.

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Independent Treasury

The Independent Treasury was the system for managing the money supply of the United States federal government through the U.S. Treasury and its sub-treasuries, independently of the national banking and financial systems.

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Index of economics articles

This aims to be a complete article list of economics topics.

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Indexation

Indexation is a technique to adjust income payments by means of a price index, in order to maintain the purchasing power of the public after inflation, while deindexation is the unwinding of indexation.

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Indo-Zambia Bank Limited

Indo–Zambia Bank (IZB), whose full name is Indo–Zambia Bank Limited, is a commercial bank in Zambia.

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Indonesian presidential election, 2009

Presidential elections were held in Indonesia on 8 July 2009.

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Industrial production

Industrial production is a measure of output of the industrial sector of the economy.

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Infection ratio

In finance, the infection ratio describes the relationship between non-performing portfolios and the total loan portfolio.

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Inflation

In economics, inflation is a sustained increase in price level of goods and services in an economy over a period of time.

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Inflation in India

The annualised inflation rate in India was 3.78% as of August 2015, as per the Indian Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation.

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Inflation targeting

Inflation targeting is a monetary policy regime in which a central bank has an explicit target inflation rate for the medium term and announces this inflation target to the public.

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Inflationary bias

Inflationary bias is the outcome of discretionary government policy that, under perfect foresight in the labor market, leads to a higher than optimal level of inflation and no transitory income increase.

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Inside lag

In economics, the inside lag (or inside recognition and decision lag) is the amount of time it takes for a government or a central bank to respond to a shock in the economy.

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Institute for the Works of Religion

The Institute for the Works of Religion (Istituto per le Opere di Religione – IOR; Institutum pro Operibus Religionis), commonly known as the Vatican Bank, is a private bank situated inside Vatican City and run by a Board of Superintendence which reports to a Supervisory Commission of Cardinals and the Pope.

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Institute of Business Administration, Karachi

The Institute of Business Administration (IBA) (انسٽيٽيوٽ آف بزنس ايڊمنسٽريشن) is an independent university in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan.

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Institutions of the European Union

The institutions of the European Union are the seven principal decision making bodies of the European Union (EU).

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Interaction between monetary and fiscal policies

Fiscal policy and monetary policy are the two tools used by the state to achieve its macroeconomic objectives.

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Interbank foreign exchange market

The interbank market is the top-level foreign exchange market where banks exchange different currencies.

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Interest

Interest is payment from a borrower or deposit-taking financial institution to a lender or depositor of an amount above repayment of the principal sum (i.e., the amount borrowed), at a particular rate.

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Interest rate

An interest rate is the amount of interest due per period, as a proportion of the amount lent, deposited or borrowed (called the principal sum).

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Interest rate channel

The interest rate channel is a mechanism of monetary policy, whereby a policy-induced change in the short-term nominal interest rate by the central bank affects the price level, and subsequently output and employment.

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Internal debt

Internal debt or domestic debt is the part of the total government debt in a country that is owed to lenders within the country.

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International financial institutions

An international financial institution (IFI) is a financial institution that has been established (or chartered) by more than one country, and hence are subjects of international law.

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International Journal of Central Banking

The International Journal of Central Banking (IJCB) is an economic research journal which began in the 2004 decision of several Central Banks to create a professional journal for policymakers and researchers in the field of monetary policy.

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International lender of last resort

International lender of last resort (ILLR) is a facility prepared to act when no other lender is capable or willing to lend in sufficient volume to provide or guarantee liquidity in order to avert a sovereign debt crisis or a systemic crisis.

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International reactions to the 2016 United Kingdom European Union membership referendum

International reactions to the United Kingdom European Union membership referendum of 2016 are the reactions to the decision to leave the European Union by the United Kingdom.

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International University of East Africa

International University of East Africa (IUEA) is a private university in Uganda.

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Investrust Bank

Investrust Bank Plc., commonly known as Investrust Bank, is a commercial bank in Zambia. It is licensed by the Bank of Zambia, the central bank and national banking regulator.

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IOR

The abbreviation IOR may refer to.

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IS–LM model

The IS–LM model, or Hicks–Hansen model, is a macroeconomic tool that shows the relationship between interest rates (ordinate) and assets market (also known as real output in goods and services market plus money market, as abscissa).

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Islamic banking and finance

Islamic banking or Islamic finance (مصرفية إسلامية) or sharia-compliant finance is banking or financing activity that complies with sharia (Islamic law) and its practical application through the development of Islamic economics.

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Islamic economics in Pakistan

The economic policies proposed under the banner of "Islamisation" in Pakistan include executive decrees on Zakāt (poor-due), Ushr (tithe), judicial changes that helped to halt land redistribution to the poor, and perhaps most importantly, elimination of riba (defined by activists as interest charged on loans and securities).

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Islamic Financial Services Board

The Islamic Financial Services Board (IFSB) is an international body that sets standards and offers guidance for Islamic banking and finance regulatory and supervisory agencies.

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Ismail Abdul Rahman

Tun Dr. Ismail bin Dato' Abdul Rahman (4 November 1915 – 2 August 1973) was a Malaysian politician from the United Malays National Organisation (UMNO).

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J. Soedradjad Djiwandono

Joseph Soedradjad Djiwandono (born 7 August 1938 in Yogyakarta) was the Governor of Bank Indonesia, the nation's central bank, from 1993 until his sudden dismissal in 1998.

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J. Tomilson Hill

James ("Tom") Tomilson Hill III (born 1948/49) is the vice chairman of the Blackstone Group, and president and CEO of Blackstone Alternative Asset Management (BAAM), the firm's hedge funds business.

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Jack M. Guttentag

Jack M. Guttentag (born December 9, 1923) is a professor emeritus of finance at the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania.

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Jacques de Larosière

Jacques de Larosière de Champfeu (born 12 November 1929 in Paris) is a French central banker.

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James F. Burke

James Francis Burke (October 21, 1867 – August 8, 1932) was Republican member of the U.S. House of Representatives for Pennsylvania.

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Jan Tinbergen

Jan Tinbergen (April 12, 1903June 9, 1994) was an important Dutch economist.

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January 14

In the 20th and 21st centuries the Julian calendar is 13 days behind the Gregorian calendar, thus January 14 is sometimes celebrated as New Year's Day (Old New Year) by religious groups who use the Julian calendar.

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January 3

Perihelion, the point during the year when the Earth is closest to the Sun, occurs around this date.

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Japanese currency

Japanese currency has a history covering the period from the 8th century to the present.

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János Kornai

János Kornai, until 1945 János Kornhauser (born January 21, 1928), is an economist noted for his analysis and criticism of the command economies of Eastern European communist states.

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Jürgen von Hagen

Jürgen von Hagen (born in Iserlohn on December 14, 1955) is a German economist and professor at the University of Bonn, where he currently also serves as director of the Institute for International Economic Policy.

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Jean-Pierre Landau

Jean-Pierre Landau is a high-ranking French civil servant, born on November 16, 1946.

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Jekyll Island

Jekyll Island is located off the coast of the U.S. state of Georgia, in Glynn County.

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Job guarantee

A job guarantee (JG) is an economic policy proposal aimed at providing a sustainable solution to the dual problems of inflation and unemployment.

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Johan Beyen

Johan Willem Beyen (2 May 1897 in Utrecht – 29 April 1976 in 's-Gravenhage) was a Dutch banker, civil servant, politician, and diplomat.

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John B. Taylor

John Brian Taylor (born December 8, 1946) is the Mary and Robert Raymond Professor of Economics at Stanford University, and the George P. Shultz Senior Fellow in Economics at Stanford University's Hoover Institution.

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John Edward Brownlee

John Edward Brownlee, (August 27, 1883 – July 15, 1961) was the fifth Premier of Alberta, Canada, serving from 1925 until 1934.

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John Law (economist)

John Law (baptised 21 April 1671 – 21 March 1729) was a Scottish economist who believed that money was only a means of exchange that did not constitute wealth in itself and that national wealth depended on trade.

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John Maynard Keynes

John Maynard Keynes, 1st Baron Keynes (5 June 1883 – 21 April 1946), was a British economist whose ideas fundamentally changed the theory and practice of macroeconomics and the economic policies of governments.

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John Rwangombwa

John Rwangombwa, is a Rwandan accountant, politician and banker.

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José Alencar

José Alencar Gomes da Silva (October 17, 1931 – March 29, 2011) was a Brazilian businessman and politician who served as the Vice President of Brazil from January 1, 2003 to December 31, 2010.

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José Antonio Mayobre

José Antonio Mayobre (21 August 1913 in Cumaná – 15 August 1980 in Washington DC) was a Venezuelan economist who worked as an academic economist, a diplomat and international civil servant.

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José Manuel González-Paramo

José M. González-Páramo is Ph.D., M.Phil.

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Joseph Masson

Joseph Masson (January 5, 1791 – May 15, 1847) was Canadian businessman, who is considered the first French Canadian millionaire.

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Juan Pedro Aguirre

Juan Pedro Julián Aguirre y López de Anaya (October 19, 1781 – July 17, 1837) was an Argentine revolutionary and politician.

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July 1

It is the first day of the second half of the year.

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Kabale

Kabale is a city in the Western Region of Uganda.

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Kabul

Kabul (کابل) is the capital of Afghanistan and its largest city, located in the eastern section of the country.

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Kamalesh Chandra Chakrabarty

Kamalesh Chandra Chakrabarty or K.C. Chakrabarty, (born 27 June 1952) is an Indian Banker who served as one of the four Deputy Governors of the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) (India's central bank) from 15 June 2009 to 20 March 2014, resigning three months ahead of the completion of his term.

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KCB Bank South Sudan Limited

Kenya Commercial Bank South Sudan Limited, sometimes KCB South Sudan, is a commercial bank in South Sudan.

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KCB Bank Uganda Limited

KCB Bank Uganda Limited (KCB Bank Uganda), is a commercial bank in Uganda.

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Kern Amendment

Sponsored by Sen.

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Kevin Dowd

Kevin Dowd is an Irish/British economist, having research interests in private money and free banking, monetary systems and macroeconomics, financial risk measurement and management, risk disclosure, political economy and policy analysis, and pensions and mortality modelling.

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Keynesian economics

Keynesian economics (sometimes called Keynesianism) are the various macroeconomic theories about how in the short run – and especially during recessions – economic output is strongly influenced by aggregate demand (total demand in the economy).

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Khurai

Khurai is a City in Sagar District and a municipality in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh.

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Kiev Bank Union

The Kiev Bank Union (translit) is a banking association created in 1994 by twenty commercial banks operating in the city of Kiev, Ukraine, for the purpose of cooperation between Kiev's financial institutions, and to manage collective interaction with authorities.

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Kindle Banking Systems

Kindle Banking Systems was a banking solutions company that originated from a bespoke banking systems project in 1979 for the Irish merchant bank Ansbacher Bank.

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Klaas Knot

Klaas Henderikus Willem "Klaas" Knot (born 14 April 1967 in Bedum) is a Dutch economist and central banker, who is the current President of the Dutch central bank De Nederlandsche Bank (DNB).

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Korean currency

Korean currency dates back as far as the Goryeo dynasty (918–1392) when the first iron coins were minted.

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Korean won

The won (원(圓)) was the currency of Korea between 1902 and 1910.

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Kwangtung Provincial Bank

The Kwangtung Provincial Bank was a bank latterly based in Hong Kong, also known as the Provincial Bank of Kwangtung Province.

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Kyrgyzstan

The Kyrgyz Republic (Kyrgyz Respublikasy; r; Қирғиз Республикаси.), or simply Kyrgyzstan, and also known as Kirghizia (Kyrgyzstan; r), is a sovereign state in Central Asia.

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Laissez-faire

Laissez-faire (from) is an economic system in which transactions between private parties are free from government intervention such as regulation, privileges, tariffs and subsidies.

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Landsbanki

Landsbanki (literally "national bank"), also commonly known as Landsbankinn (literally "the national bank") which is now the name of the current rebuilt bank (here called "New Landsbanki"), was one of the largest Icelandic commercial banks that failed as part of the 2008–2011 Icelandic financial crisis when its subsidiary sparked the Icesave dispute.

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Lars E. O. Svensson

Lars Erik Oscar Svensson, is a Swedish economist.

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Latin American economy

Latin America as a region has multiple nation-states, with varying levels of economic complexity.

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Lúcio Mauro Vinhas de Souza

Lúcio Vinhas de Souza is a Portuguese economist.

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League of the South

The League of the South is a white nationalist, Neo-Confederate, white supremacist organization, headquartered in Killen, Alabama, which states that its ultimate goal is "a free and independent Southern republic".

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Lender of last resort

A lender of last resort (LOLR) is the institution in a financial system that acts as the provider of liquidity to a financial institution which finds itself unable to obtain sufficient liquidity in the interbank lending market and other facilities or sources have been exhausted.

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Leslie Melville

Sir Leslie Galfreid Melville (26 March 190230 April 2002) was a renowned Australian economist, academic and public servant.

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Letshego Bank Tanzania

Letshego Bank Tanzania Limited, commonly known as Letshego Bank is a commercial bank in Tanzania, licensed by Bank of Tanzania, the central bank and national banking regulator.

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Li Zhaohuan

Li Zhaohuan (1898–1969), also known as Juwan Usang Ly, was a Chinese educator, politician and banker.

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Liaquat Ahamed

Liaquat Ahamed (born November 14, 1952 in Kenya) is an Indian American author.

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Life in the African Union

The combined states of the African Union constitute the world's 17th largest economy with a nominal GDP of $500 billion, ranking after the Netherlands.

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Linked exchange rate system in Hong Kong

A linked exchange rate system is a type of exchange rate regime that pegs the exchange rate of one currency to another.

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Liquidity crisis

In financial economics, a liquidity crisis refers to an acute shortage (or "drying up") of liquidity.

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Liquidity trap

A liquidity trap is a situation, described in Keynesian economics, in which, "after the rate of interest has fallen to a certain level, liquidity preference may become virtually absolute in the sense that almost everyone prefers cash holding a debt which yields so low a rate of interest."Keynes, John Maynard (1936) The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money, United Kingdom: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007 edition, A liquidity trap is caused when people hoard cash because they expect an adverse event such as deflation, insufficient aggregate demand, or war.

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List of accidents and incidents involving the DC-3 in the 1980s

This is a list of accidents and incidents involving the Douglas DC-3 that have taken place in the period 1980–1989, including aircraft based on the DC-3 airframe such as the Douglas C-47 Skytrain and Lisunov Li-2.

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List of acronyms associated with the eurozone crisis

This is a list of acronyms and initialisms associated with the eurozone crisis.

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List of banks in Asia

This is a list of banks in Asia (alphabetically).

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List of banks in Belarus

This is a list of banks in Belarus.

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List of banks in China

This is a list of incorporated banks in China.

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List of banks in Lithuania

This list of banks in Lithuania is based on information from Central Bank of Lithuania, responsible for financial supervision in Lithuania.

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List of banks in the Comoros

;The central bank in the Comoros.

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List of central banks

This is a list of central banks.

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List of central banks of Africa

There are two African currency unions associated with multinational central banks; the West African Banque Centrale des Etats de l'Afrique de l'Ouest (BCEAO) and the Central African Banque des Etats de l'Afrique Centrale (BEAC).

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List of countries by foreign-exchange reserves

Foreign-exchange reserves (also called Forex reserves) are, in a strict sense, only the foreign-currency deposits held by national central banks and monetary authorities (See List of countries by foreign-exchange reserves (excluding gold)).

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List of countries by sovereign wealth funds

A sovereign wealth fund (SWF) is a fund owned by a state (or a political subdivision of a federal state) composed of financial assets such as stocks, bonds, property or other financial instruments.

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List of Dutch inventions and discoveries

The Netherlands had a considerable part in the making of modern society.

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List of emerging technologies

Emerging technologies are those technical innovations which represent progressive developments within a field for competitive advantage.

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List of Governors of Reserve Bank of India

RBI Governor is the chief executive of India's central bank and the ex-officio chairperson of its Central Board of Directors.

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List of governors of the Banque Centrale du Congo

This is a list of the governors of the Banque Centrale du Congo in Kinshasa.

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List of international banking institutions

This is a list of International banking institutions.

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List of mints

Mints designed for the manufacture of coins have been commonplace since coined currency was first development around 600 BC by the Lydian people of modern-day Turkey.

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List of national and international statistical services

The following is a list of national and international statistical services.

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List of Nobel laureates

The Nobel Prizes (Nobelpriset, Nobelprisen) are prizes awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, the Swedish Academy, the Karolinska Institutet, and the Norwegian Nobel Committee to individuals and organizations who make outstanding contributions in the fields of chemistry, physics, literature, peace, and physiology or medicine.

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List of Nobel laureates affiliated with Cornell University

The Nobel Prizes are awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, the Karolinska Institute, and the Norwegian Nobel Committee to individuals who make outstanding contributions in the fields of chemistry, physics, literature, peace, and physiology or medicine.

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List of Nobel laureates affiliated with Imperial College London

The Nobel Prizes are awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, the Karolinska Institute, and the Norwegian Nobel Committee to individuals who make outstanding contributions in the fields of chemistry, physics, literature, peace, and physiology or medicine.

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List of Nobel laureates affiliated with Johns Hopkins University

The Nobel Prizes are awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, the Karolinska Institute, and the Norwegian Nobel Committee to individuals who make outstanding contributions in the fields of chemistry, physics, literature, peace, and physiology or medicine.

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List of Nobel laureates affiliated with King's College London

The Nobel Prizes are awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, the Karolinska Institute, and the Norwegian Nobel Committee to individuals who make outstanding contributions in the fields of chemistry, physics, literature, peace, and physiology or medicine.

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List of Nobel laureates affiliated with Princeton University

This list of Nobel laureates affiliated with Princeton University comprehensively shows the Princeton-affiliated individual winners of the Nobel Prize and the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences since 1901.

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List of Nobel laureates affiliated with the City University of New York

The Nobel Prizes are awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, the Karolinska Institute, and the Norwegian Nobel Committee to individuals who make outstanding contributions in the fields of chemistry, physics, literature, peace, and physiology or medicine.

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List of Nobel laureates affiliated with the University of California, Santa Barbara

The Nobel Prizes are awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, the Karolinska Institute, and the Norwegian Nobel Committee to individuals who make outstanding contributions in the fields of chemistry, physics, literature, peace, and physiology or medicine.

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List of Nobel laureates affiliated with the University of Pennsylvania

The Nobel Prizes are awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, the Karolinska Institute, and the Norwegian Nobel Committee to individuals who make outstanding contributions in the fields of chemistry, physics, literature, peace, and physiology or medicine.

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List of Nobel laureates affiliated with Washington University in St. Louis

The Nobel Prizes are awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, the Karolinska Institute, and the Norwegian Nobel Committee to individuals who make outstanding contributions in the fields of chemistry, physics, literature, peace, and physiology or medicine.

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List of oldest banks in continuous operation

This list of the oldest banks includes financial institutions in continuous operation, operating with the same legal identity without interruption since their establishment until the present time.

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List of presidents of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York

The Federal Reserve Bank of New York (New York Fed) is one of 12 regional reserve banks of the Federal Reserve System, which is the American central bank.

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List of Princeton University people (government)

Four Presidents of the United States have had connections to Princeton.

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List of regions of the United States

This is a list of some of the regions in the United States.

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List of salaries of central bank governors

This is a list of salaries of central bank governors, displaying the salary of the chair of a state's central bank.

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List of Utah companies

The following is a list of companies based in Utah.

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Lombard banking

Lombard banking refers to the historical use of the term "Lombard" for a mount of piety style of pawn shop in the Middle Ages, a type of banking that originated with the prosperous northern Italian region of Lombardy.

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Lombard credit

Lombard credit is the granting of credit to banks against pledged items, mostly in the form of securities or life insurance policies.

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Lombard Street: A Description of the Money Market

Lombard Street: A Description of the Money Market (1873) is a book by Walter Bagehot.

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London bullion market

The London bullion market is a wholesale over-the-counter market for the trading of gold and silver.

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London Conference on Nazi Gold

The London Conference on Nazi Gold was an international conference held in London in December 1997.

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London Gold Pool

The London Gold Pool was the pooling of gold reserves by a group of eight central banks in the United States and seven European countries that agreed on 1 November 1961 to cooperate in maintaining the Bretton Woods System of fixed-rate convertible currencies and defending a gold price of US$35 per troy ounce by interventions in the London gold market.

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Lords of Finance

Lords of Finance: The Bankers Who Broke the World is a nonfiction book by Liaquat Ahamed about events leading up to and culminating in the Great Depression as told through the personal histories of the heads of the Central Banks of the world's four major economies at the time: Benjamin Strong Jr. of the New York Federal Reserve, Montagu Norman of the Bank of England, Émile Moreau of the Banque de France, and Hjalmar Schacht of the Reichsbank.

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Louis Kasekende

Louis A. Kasekende is a Ugandan economist.

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Lyndon LaRouche

Lyndon Hermyle LaRouche Jr. (born September 8, 1922) is an American political activist and founder of the LaRouche movement, whose main organization is the National Caucus of Labor Committees (NCLC).

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M Oriental Bank

M Oriental Bank, previously known as Oriental Commercial Bank Limited, is a commercial bank in Kenya, the largest economy in the East African Community.

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Macroeconomic policy instruments

Macroeconomic policy instruments refer to macroeconomic quantities that can be directly controlled by an economic policy maker.

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Macroeconomics

Macroeconomics (from the Greek prefix makro- meaning "large" and economics) is a branch of economics dealing with the performance, structure, behavior, and decision-making of an economy as a whole.

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Madrid

Madrid is the capital of Spain and the largest municipality in both the Community of Madrid and Spain as a whole.

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Mahasamund

Mahasamund is a town in Mahasamund District in the Indian state of Chhattisgarh.

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Mahmoud Abu-Saud

Mahmoud Abu-Saud; (1911 – April 24, 1993), was an economist, author, religious scholar and activist.

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Malawi Savings Bank

Malawi Savings Bank (MSB), was a commercial bank in Malawi.

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Maldives Monetary Authority

The Maldives Monetary Authority (MMA) acts as the central bank of the republic of Maldives and was established on July 1, 1981, under the mandate provided by the "MMA Act" of 1981, located in the capital city of Malé.

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Maldivian rufiyaa

The Maldivian rufiyaa (ދިވެހި ރުފިޔާ; sign: Rf or.ރ; code: MVR) is the currency of the Maldives.

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Malinvestment

In Austrian business cycle theory, malinvestments are badly allocated business investments, due to artificially low cost of credit and an unsustainable increase in money supply.

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Managed float regime

Managed float regime is the current international financial environment in which exchange rates fluctuate from day to day, but central banks attempt to influence their countries' exchange rates by buying and selling currencies.

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Manchukuo Temporary Government

The Manchukuo Temporary Government is an organisation established in 2004 in Hong Kong.

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Mario Draghi

Mario Draghi (born 3 September 1947) is an Italian economist serving as the President of the European Central Bank since 2011.

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Mark Carney

Mark Joseph Carney, (born March 16, 1965) is a Canadian economist and the Governor of the Bank of England and Chairman of the G20's Financial Stability Board.

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Mark Spitznagel

Mark Spitznagel (born March 5, 1971) is an American hedge fund manager, stocks and commodities trader, and author.

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Market liquidity

In business, economics or investment, market liquidity is a market's feature whereby an individual or firm can quickly purchase or sell an asset without causing a drastic change in the asset's price.

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Market system

A market system is any systematic process enabling many market players to bid and ask: helping bidders and sellers interact and make deals.

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Martin Place

Martin Place is a pedestrian mall in the central business district of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

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Masaka

Masaka is a large town in the Central Region of Uganda, west of Lake Victoria.

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Mauritius Bank

Mauritius Bank, commonly known as MauBank, is a financial institution based in Mauritius with its head office is situated at Ebene.

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Mauritius Commercial Bank

Mauritius Commercial Bank (MCB) is a commercial bank in Mauritius.

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Mayfair Bank

Mayfair Bank Limited, is a commercial bank in Kenya.

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Medium of exchange

A medium of exchange is a tradeable entity used to avoid the inconveniences of a pure barter system.

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Mercantile Credit Bank

Mercantile Credit Bank Limited (MCBL), commonly referred to as Mercantile Credit Bank, is a Ugandan tier II financial institution licensed by the Bank of Uganda, the national banking regulator.

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Mercosur

Mercosur (also known as Mercosul or Ñemby Ñemuha) is a South American trade bloc established by the Treaty of Asunción in 1991 and Protocol of Ouro Preto in 1994.

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Metbank

Metbank, formerly known as Metropolitan Bank of Zimbabwe, is a commercial bank in Zimbabwe.

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Mexican Debt Disclosure Act of 1995

The Mexican Debt Disclosure Act is a law of the United States formulating congressional oversight and monetary policy, through reports of the US president and the US treasury, to support the strength of the 1995 peso currency of Mexico; all resulting from speculative capital flight and the Mexican peso crisis of 1994.

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Michał Kalecki

Michał Kalecki (22 June 1899 – 18 April 1970) was a Polish economist.

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Michael Kumhof

Michael Kumhof (born 15 October 1962) is a German researcher and economist.

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Michael Polanyi

Michael Polanyi, (11 March 1891 – 22 February 1976) was a Hungarian-British polymath, who made important theoretical contributions to physical chemistry, economics, and philosophy.

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Michael Tellinger

Michael Tellinger is a South African author, scientist, explorer and founder of the Ubuntu Party which supports the supply of resources free of charge across society.

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Middle East Bank (Kenya)

Middle East Bank Kenya (MEBK), is a commercial bank in Kenya.

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Missouri Sports Hall of Fame

The Missouri Sports Hall of Fame is located in Springfield, Missouri, United States.

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Mizuho Securities USA

Mizuho Securities USA (“MSUSA”) is the US investment banking subsidiary of Mizuho Securities (“MHSC”).

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Mkombozi Commercial Bank

Mkombozi Commercial Bank Plc. (MKCB) is a commercial bank in Tanzania. It is licensed by Bank of Tanzania, the central bank and national banking regulator. Mkombozi is a Swahili word meaning Savior.

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MKS (Switzerland)

MKS (Switzerland) SA is a trader of precious metals.

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Modern Monetary Theory

Modern Monetary Theory (MMT or Modern Money Theory) is a macroeconomic theory that describes and analyses modern economies in which the national currency is fiat money, established and created by a sovereign government.

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Monetarism

Monetarism is a school of thought in monetary economics that emphasizes the role of governments in controlling the amount of money in circulation.

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Monetary authority

In finance and economics, a monetary authority is the entity which controls the money supply of a given currency, often with the objective of controlling inflation or interest rates.

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Monetary Authority of Brunei Darussalam

The Monetary Authority of Brunei Darussalam (abbreviated as) is the central bank of Brunei.

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Monetary Authority of Singapore

The Monetary Authority of Singapore (Abbreviation: MAS;; Malay: Penguasa Kewangan Singapura) is Singapore's central bank and financial regulatory authority.

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Monetary base

In economics, the monetary base (also base money, money base, high-powered money, reserve money, outside money, central bank money or, in the UK, narrow money) in a country is defined as the portion of a commercial bank's reserves that consist of the commercial bank's accounts with its central bank plus the total currency circulating in the public, plus the currency, also known as vault cash, that is physically held in the bank's vault.

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Monetary circuit theory

Monetary circuit theory is a heterodox theory of monetary economics, particularly money creation, often associated with the post-Keynesian school.

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Monetary conditions index

In macroeconomics, a monetary conditions index (MCI) is an index number calculated from a linear combination of a small number of economy-wide financial variables deemed relevant for monetary policy.

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Monetary discipline

Monetary discipline is a phrase used by some economists when speaking of monetary policy, generally meaning limiting the money supply of an economy in some way.

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Monetary economics

Monetary economics is a branch of economics that provides a framework for analyzing money in its functions as a medium of exchange, store of value, and unit of account.

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Monetary Financial Institutions

Monetary Financial Institutions (MFIs), as in a definition provided by the European Central Bank, are defined as central banks, resident credit institutions as defined in Community Law, and other resident financial institutions whose business is to receive deposits or close substitutes for deposits from entities other than MFIs and, for their own account (at least in economic terms), to grant credits and/or make investments in securities.

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Monetary hawk and dove

A monetary hawk, or hawk for short, is someone who advocates keeping inflation low as the top priority in monetary policy.

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Monetary inflation

Monetary inflation is a sustained increase in the money supply of a country (or currency area).

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Monetary policy

Monetary policy is the process by which the monetary authority of a country, typically the central bank or currency board, controls either the cost of very short-term borrowing or the monetary base, often targeting an inflation rate or interest rate to ensure price stability and general trust in the currency.

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Monetary Policy Council

The Monetary Policy Council, Polish: Rada Polityki Pieniężnej, (RPP) is a body of Narodowy Bank Polski, the central bank of Poland.

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Monetary policy of the United States

Monetary policy concerns the actions of a central bank or other regulatory authorities that determine the size and rate of growth of the money supply.

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Monetary policy reaction function

The monetary policy reaction function is a function that gives the value of a monetary policy tool that a central bank chooses, or is recommended to choose, in response to some indicator of economic conditions.

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Monetary reform

Monetary reform is any movement or theory that proposes a system of supplying money and financing the economy that is different from the current system.

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Monetary reform in Russia, 1993

Russia's monetary reform of 1993 took place from 26 July to 7 August 1993.

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Monetary reform in the United States

Monetary reform, the reform of monetary creation and thus of the banking system, is a topical political issue in the United States, especially in light of the public debt (15 trillion dollar in November 2011), household debt (student debts, etc.), Social Security and other public sector undertakings and state debts.

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Monetary system

A monetary system is the set of institutions by which a government provides money in a country's economy.

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Monetization

Monetization (also written monetisation) is the process of converting or establishing something into legal tender.

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Money

Money is any item or verifiable record that is generally accepted as payment for goods and services and repayment of debts in a particular country or socio-economic context.

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Money burning

Money burning or burning money is the purposeful act of destroying money.

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Money changer

A money changer is a person or organisation whose business is the exchange of coins or currency of one country, for that of another.

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Money creation

Money creation is the process by which the money supply of a country, or of an economic or monetary region,Such as the Eurozone or ECCAS is increased.

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Money market

As money became a commodity, the money market became a component of the financial markets for assets involved in short-term borrowing, lending, buying and selling with original maturities of one year or less.

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Money market in India

The Money market in India correlation for short-term funds with maturity ranging from overnight to one year in India including financial instruments that are deemed to be close substitutes of money.

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Money supply

In economics, the money supply (or money stock) is the total value of monetary assets available in an economy at a specific time.

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Moore Capital Management

Moore Capital Management LLC is an American hedge fund sponsor-owned by its employees.

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Moscow gold

The Moscow Gold (Oro de Moscú), or alternatively Gold of the Republic (Oro de la República), was 510 tonnes of gold, corresponding to 72.6% of the total gold reserves of the Bank of Spain, that were transferred from their original location in Madrid to the Soviet Union a few months after the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War.

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Mountain Trade and Development Bank

Mountain Trade and Development Bank (MTDB), is a commercial bank in South Sudan.

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Mugur Isărescu

Constantin Mugur Isărescu (born 1 August 1949) is the Governor of the National Bank of Romania, a position he held since September 1990, with the exception of an eleven months period (22 December 1999 to 28 November 2000), during which he served as Prime Minister of Romania.

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Multi-objective optimization

Multi-objective optimization (also known as multi-objective programming, vector optimization, multicriteria optimization, multiattribute optimization or Pareto optimization) is an area of multiple criteria decision making, that is concerned with mathematical optimization problems involving more than one objective function to be optimized simultaneously.

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Murray Rothbard

Murray Newton Rothbard (March 2, 1926 – January 7, 1995) was an American heterodox economist of the Austrian School, a historian and a political theorist whose writings and personal influence played a seminal role in the development of modern right-libertarianism.

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Mysteries at the Hotel

Mysteries at the Hotel (formerly Hotel Secrets & Legends) is an American documentary television series that premiered on Sunday, April 6, 2014, on the Travel Channel and ended on June 8, 2014.

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Nainital Bank

The Nainital Bank Limited (NTB) (known as Nainital Bank) (Hindi: नैनीताल बैंक) is a scheduled commercial bank founded in 1922.

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National bank

In banking, the term national bank carries several meanings.

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National bank (disambiguation)

National bank several meanings in banking.

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National Bank of Angola

The National Bank of Angola (Banco Nacional de Angola) is the central bank of Angola.

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National Bank of Belgium

The National Bank of Belgium (NBB; Nationale Bank van België, Banque nationale de Belgique, Belgische Nationalbank) has been the central bank of Belgium since 1850.

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National Bank of Cambodia

The National Bank of Cambodia (NBC) (ធនាគារជាតិនៃកម្ពុជា), located in Phnom Penh, is the central bank of Cambodia.

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National Bank of Commerce (Tanzania)

National Bank of Commerce (Tanzania), whose full name is National Bank of Commerce (Tanzania) Limited, sometimes referred to as NBC (Tanzania), or as NBC (Tanzania) Limited, is a commercial bank in Tanzania.

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National Bank of Commerce (Uganda)

National Bank of Commerce (Uganda) (NBCU) was a commercial bank in Uganda.

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National Bank of Ethiopia

The National Bank of Ethiopia (NBE) is the central bank of Ethiopia.

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National Bank of Georgia

National Bank of Georgia (საქართველოს ეროვნული ბანკი, Sakartvelos Erovnuli Bank’i) is the central bank of Georgia.

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National Bank of Kazakhstan

The National Bank of Kazakhstan (translit) is the central bank of Kazakhstan.

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National Bank of Kenya

National Bank of Kenya (NBK), also known as National Bank, is a commercial bank in Kenya, the largest economy in the East African Community.

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National Bank of Liechtenstein

The National Bank of Liechtenstein (German: Liechtensteinische Landesbank) is the central bank of Liechtenstein, based in the capital city Vaduz.

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National Bank of Malawi

National Bank of Malawi (NBM), is a commercial bank in Malawi.

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National Bank of Moldova

The National Bank of Moldova (Banca Naţională a Moldovei) is the central bank of the Republic of Moldova.

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National Bank of Pakistan

National Bank of Pakistan (NBP) is a major Pakistani commercial bank with headquarters in Karachi.

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National Bank of Poland

Narodowy Bank Polski (National Bank of Poland, NBP) is the central bank of Poland.

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National Bank of Poland building in Bydgoszcz

The building of the National Bank of Poland is a historical edifice, located at Jagiellońska street 8, in downtown Bydgoszcz, Poland.

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National Bank of Romania

The National Bank of Romania (Banca Națională a României, BNR) is the central bank of Romania and was established in April 1880.

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National Bank of Rwanda

The National Bank of Rwanda (Banki Nkuru Y'u Rwanda, Banque Nationale du Rwanda) is the central bank of Rwanda.

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National Bank of Serbia

The National Bank of Serbia (Народна банка Србије / Narodna banka Srbije) is the central bank of Serbia.

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National Bank of Slovakia

National Bank of Slovakia (Národná banka Slovenska, NBS), is the central bank of Slovakia, which is a member of the European Union and the European System of Central Banks.

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National Bank of Tajikistan

The National Bank of Tajikistan (Бонки миллии Тоҷикистон) is the central bank of Tajikistan.

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National Bank of the Kyrgyz Republic

The National Bank of the Kyrgyz Republic (Kyrgyz Respublikasynyn Uluttuk Banky) is the central bank of Kyrgyzstan.

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National Bank of the Republic of Belarus

The National Bank of the Republic of Belarus (Нацыянальны банк Рэспублікі Беларусь; Национальный банк Республики Беларусь) is the central bank of Belarus, located in the capital city, Minsk.

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National Bank of the Republic of Macedonia

The National Bank of the Republic of Macedonia (translit, NBRM) is the central bank of Macedonia, located in the capital city, Skopje.

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National Bank of Ukraine

National Bank of Ukraine (Національний банк України) or NBU (НБУ) is the central bank of Ukraine – a government body responsible for unified state policy in the field of country's monetary circulation, including strengthening of national currency unit – hryvnia.

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National Commercial Bank Mauritius

National Commercial Bank Limited, commonly known as NCB, was a financial institution based in Mauritius with its head office situated in Port Louis.

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National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2012

The National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) for Fiscal Year 2012 is a United States federal law which besides other provisions specifies the budget and expenditures of the United States Department of Defense.

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National Fed Challenge

The National Fed Challenge is an academic competition that provides high school students (grades 9-12) with an insider's view of how the United States central bank, the Federal Reserve, makes monetary policy.

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National Institute of Banking and Finance (Pakistan)

The National Institute of Banking and Finance (NIBAF) is a subsidiary of the State Bank of Pakistan (SBP) head by the Managing Director, a Board of Directors and the Governor of State Bank of Pakistan.

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National Microfinance Bank

NMB Bank, is a commercial bank in Tanzania.

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National numbering agency

A national numbering agency (NNA) is the organisation in each country responsible for issuing International Securities Identification Numbers (ISIN) as described by the ISO 6166 standard and the Classification of Financial Instruments code as described by the ISO 10962 standard.

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National Reserve Bank of Tonga

The National Reserve Bank of Tonga (NRBT) is the central bank of Tonga.

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Natural rate of interest

The natural rate of Interest (NRI), sometimes called the neutral rate of interest, is the rate that supports the economy at full employment/maximum output while keeping inflation constant.

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NBS Bank

NBS Bank Limited, commonly referred to as NBS Bank, is a commercial bank in Malawi.

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NC Bank Uganda

NC Bank Uganda (NCBU), whose complete name is NC Bank Uganda Limited, is a commercial bank in Uganda.

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Nedbank Zimbabwe Limited

Nedbank Zimbabwe Limited, also Nedbank Zimbabwe, is a commercial bank in Zimbabwe.

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Nelson W. Aldrich House

The Nelson W. Aldrich House, also known as the Dr.

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Nepal Rastra Bank

Nepal Rastra Bank (नेपाल राष्ट्र बैंक; abbreviated as NRB) is the central bank of Nepal and was established on 26 April 1956.

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Netaji Subhas Road, Kolkata

Netaji Subash Road (abbreviated as N. S. Road), previously known as Clive Road, is an important thoroughfare in Central Kolkata that runs in an east to west direction in B. B. D. Bagh area of Kolkata.

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Neutrality of money

Neutrality of money is the idea that a change in the stock of money affects only nominal variables in the economy such as prices, wages, and exchange rates, with no effect on real variables, like employment, real GDP, and real consumption.

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New Finance Bank

New Finance Bank (NFB), whose complete name is New Finance Bank Malawi Limited is a commercial bank in Malawi.

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New Keynesian economics

New Keynesian economics is a school of contemporary macroeconomics that strives to provide microeconomic foundations for Keynesian economics.

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New neoclassical synthesis

The new neoclassical synthesis (NNS) or new synthesis is the fusion of the major, modern macroeconomic schools of thought, new classical and Neo-Keynesianism, into a consensus on the best way to explain short-run fluctuations in the economy.

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New York Post

The New York Post is the fourth-largest newspaper in the United States and a leading digital media publisher that reached more than 57 million unique visitors in the U.S. in January 2017.

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NIC Bank

NIC Bank, whose full name is National Industrial Credit Bank, is a commercial bank in Kenya.

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NIC Bank Tanzania

National Industrial and Commercial Bank Tanzania Limited, commonly known as NIC Bank Tanzania (NICBT) and formerly known as Savings and Finance Commercial Bank (SFCB), is a commercial bank in Tanzania.

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NMB Bank Limited

Not to be confused with NMB Bank Nepal, a commercial bank in Nepal NMB Bank Limited, previously known as National Merchant Bank of Zimbabwe Limited, is a commercial bank in Zimbabwe.

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Noel Newton Nethersole

Noel Newton "Crab" Nethersole (2 November 1903 – 17 March 1959) was a Jamaican Rhodes Scholar, cricket player and administrator, lawyer, politician, economist, and Jamaica's Minister for Finance from 1955 to 1959.

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Nominal income target

A nominal income target is a monetary policy target.

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Non-deliverable forward

In finance, a non-deliverable forward (NDF) is an outright forward or futures contract in which counterparties settle the difference between the contracted NDF price or rate and the prevailing spot price or rate on an agreed notional amount.

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Noorulah Delwari

Noorulah Delwari is a former Governor of the central bank of Afghanistan, Da Afghanistan Bank.

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Nor Mohamed Yakcop

Tan Sri Nor Mohamed Yakcop (born 24 August 1947) is the Malaysian Minister in the Prime Minister's Department, in charge of Economic Planning Unit.

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Norges Bank

Norges Bank / Noregs Bank is the central bank of Norway.

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Notgeld

Notgeld (German for "emergency money" or "necessity money") refers to money issued by an institution in a time of economic or political crisis.

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Nouriel Roubini

Nouriel Roubini (born March 29, 1958) is an American economist.

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Nout Wellink

Arnout Henricus Elisabeth Maria "Nout" Wellink (born 27 August 1943 in Bredevoort, Netherlands) is a Dutch economist and former central banker.

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Oesterreichische Nationalbank

The Oesterreichische Nationalbank (OeNB) is the central bank of Austria and, as such, an integral part of both the European System of Central Banks (ESCB) and the Eurozone.

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Office of International Treasury Control

The Office of International Treasury Control (OITC) is a seemingly elaborate fraudulent organization which claims to be associated with the United Nations and the Federal Reserve, the central bank of the United States.

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Official cash rate

The official cash rate (OCR) is the term used in Australia and New Zealand for the bank rate and is the rate of interest which the central bank charges on overnight loans to commercial banks.

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Open market

The term open market is used generally to refer to an economic situation close to free trade.

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Open market operation

An open market operation (OMO) is an activity by a central bank to give (or take) liquidity in its currency to (or from) a bank or a group of banks.

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Opportunity Uganda Limited

Opportunity Bank Uganda Limited (OBUL), is a credit institution (Tier II Financial Institution) in Uganda.

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Ordoliberalism

Ordoliberalism is the German variant of social liberalism that emphasizes the need for the state to ensure that the free market produces results close to its theoretical potential.

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Orient Bank

Orient Bank is a commercial bank in Uganda which is licensed by the Bank of Uganda (BOU), the central bank and national banking regulator.

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Ottoman Bank

The Ottoman Bank (Osmanlı Bankası) (formerly Imperial Ottoman Bank, Bank-ı Osmanî-i Şahane) was founded in 1856 in the Galata business section of Istanbul, the capital of the Ottoman Empire, as a joint venture between British interests, the Banque de Paris et des Pays-Bas of France, and the Ottoman government.

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Outline of economics

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to economics: Economics – analyzes the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.

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Outline of finance

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to finance: Finance – addresses the ways in which individuals and organizations raise and allocate monetary resources over time, taking into account the risks entailed in their projects.

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Outside lag

In economics, the outside lag is the amount of time it takes for a government or central bank's actions, in the form of either monetary or fiscal policy, to have a noticeable effect on the economy.

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Overheating (economics)

Overheating of an economy occurs when its productive capacity is unable to keep pace with growing aggregate demand.

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Overnight indexed swap

An overnight indexed swap (OIS) is an interest rate swap where the periodic floating payment is generally based on a return calculated from a daily compound interest investment.

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Overnight rate

The overnight rate is generally the interest rate that large banks use to borrow and lend from one another in the overnight market.

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Overseas Filipinos

An Overseas Filipino (Pilipino sa Ibayong-dagat) is a person of Filipino origin who lives outside the Philippines.

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Panic of 1837

The Panic of 1837 was a financial crisis in the United States that touched off a major recession that lasted until the mid-1840s.

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Panic of 1907

The Panic of 1907 – also known as the 1907 Bankers' Panic or Knickerbocker Crisis – was a United States financial crisis that took place over a three-week period starting in mid-October, when the New York Stock Exchange fell almost 50% from its peak the previous year.

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Pany Yathotou

Pany Yathotou (born 18 February 1951) is a Laotian politician, banker and member of the Lao People's Revolutionary Party.

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Patrick Ngugi Njoroge

Patrick Ngugi Njoroge is a Kenyan economist and banker and the governor of the Central Bank of Kenya.

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Paul Craig Roberts

Paul Craig Roberts (born April 3, 1939) is an American economist, journalist, blogger, and former civil servant.

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Paul Krugman

Paul Robin Krugman (born February 28, 1953) is an American economist who is currently Distinguished Professor of Economics at the Graduate Center of the City University of New York, and a columnist for The New York Times.

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Paulson & Co.

Paulson & Co.

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Pavel Kysilka

Pavel Kysilka (born 5 September 1958 in Boskovice) is a Czechoslovakian/Czech economist, who was head of the Central Bank of the Czech National Bank from 1997 to 1998.

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Penn effect

The Penn effect is the economic finding that real income ratios between high and low income countries are systematically exaggerated by gross domestic product (GDP) conversion at market exchange rates.

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People's Bank of China

The People's Bank of China (PBC or PBOC) is the central bank of the People's Republic of China responsible for carrying out monetary policy and regulation of financial institutions in mainland China, as determined by Bank Law.

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People's Bank of Zanzibar

The People's Bank of Zanzibar (PBZ) is a commercial bank in Tanzania.

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People's Quantitative Easing

People's Quantitative Easing (PQE) is a policy proposed by Jeremy Corbyn during the 2015 Labour leadership election, which would require the Bank of England to create money to finance government investment via a National Investment Bank.

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Peter Howells (economist)

Peter Howells is Professor Emeritus of Monetary Economics at the Bristol Business school at the University of the West of England.

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Peter Mandelson

Peter Benjamin Mandelson, Baron Mandelson, (born 21 October 1953) is a British Labour politician, president of international think tank Policy Network and Chairman of strategic advisory firm He served as Member of Parliament (MP) for Hartlepool from 1992 to 2004, and held a number of Cabinet positions under Prime Ministers Tony Blair and Gordon Brown.

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Peter Turkson

Peter Kodwo Appiah Turkson (born 11 October 1948) is a Ghanaian cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church.

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Philip Burlamachi

Philip Burlamachi (1575 – 1644)) was a major financial intermediary of King Charles I of England, and is remembered as the inventor of the concept of a central bank. Burlamachi was born Sedan, France. His family was of Italian origin, exiled descendants of the Lucchese Francesco Burlamacchi. He is known to have been in England for at least 30 years (since at least 1605) where he became naturalised by an Act of Parliament. He worked extensively with his brother in law Philip Calandrini who was his financial representative in Amsterdam; for example, in 1626 Philip offered to stand as guarantor for £58,400 for Charles 1.Acts of The Privy Council 1621 p.92 In 1621 Burlamachi acted on behalf of the City of London Merchants, collecting money from foreign merchants and transferring it to the Privy Council. "Whereas you have undertaken the collecting of such moneys as were thought reasonable and meet for the merchants strangers residing within the City of London and the outports, to contribute towards the expedition against pirates." He was entrusted the sum of £30,000 on behalf of the Privy Council with bills of exchange for the service of an army for the States of the United Provinces or 'direct the employment them as he shall think'. One thing that is certain and clear is the importance of Philip Burlamachi in regards to money and finance and his idea (the first of its kind) although he himself did concede "the proposal has been formerly made." Burlamachi’s idea was a national clearing bank: the first known proposal for a central bank, where the word bank is first used for "a bank for the payment of all large sums of which shall be negotiated". The idea was originally discussed in the year 1636 and 58 years later, in 1694, the Bank of England was first formed. Burlamachi is also known for financing the East India Company. and as Postmaster of Foreign posts from 1637 to 1642. During the Anglo-French War (1627-1629), Burlamachi loaned Charles I the sum of £70,000, though the king's inability to repay him caused him to go bankrupt in 1633.

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Philipp Hildebrand

Philipp Michael Hildebrand (born 19 July 1963) is a Swiss banker.

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Philippine National Bank

The Philippine National Bank (PNB, Filipino: Bangko Nasyonal ng Pilipinas, Castilian Spanish: Banco Nacional de Agricola de Filipinas, Chinese: 菲律賓國家銀行 Hui-lu̍t-pin kok-ka gîn-hâng) is one of the largest banks in the Philippines.

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Phillip Swagel

Phillip Lee "Phill" Swagel.

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Phillips curve

The Phillips curve is a single-equation empirical model, named after William Phillips, describing a historical inverse relationship between rates of unemployment and corresponding rates of rises in wages that result within an economy.

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Pierre Pay-Pay wa Syakasighe

Pierre Pay-Pay wa Syakasighe (born 10 July 1946) is a politician from the Zaire, best known as a former governor of the central bank, the Banque Centrale du Congo from 1985 to 1991.

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Plaza Accord

The Plaza Accord or Plaza Agreement was an agreement between the governments of France, West Germany, Japan, the United States, and the United Kingdom, to depreciate the U.S. dollar in relation to the Japanese yen and German Deutsche Mark by intervening in currency markets.

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Plurinational Legislative Assembly

The Plurinational Legislative Assembly (Asamblea Legislativa Plurinacional) is the national legislature of Bolivia, placed in La Paz, the country's seat of government.

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Pobjoy Mint

British Pobjoy Mint is a private-sector mint located in Surrey, England which produces commemorative coins, medal, tokens and bullion.

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Policy mix

The policy mix is the combination of a country's monetary policy and fiscal policy.

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Political positions of Jeremy Corbyn

This article summarises the policies, views and voting record of Labour Party MP Jeremy Corbyn, who since 12 September 2015 has been the Leader of the Opposition and Leader of the Labour Party in the United Kingdom.

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Political positions of Ron Paul

The political positions of Ron Paul (L-TX), United States presidential candidate in 1988, 2008, and 2012, are generally described as libertarian, but have also been labeled conservative and constitutionalist.

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Polymer banknote

Polymer banknotes are banknotes made from a polymer such as biaxially oriented polypropylene (BOPP).

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Port Moresby Stock Exchange

Port Moresby Stock Exchange is the principal stock exchange of Papua New Guinea.

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Portuguese Guinean escudo

The escudo was the currency of Portuguese Guinea between 1914 and 1975.

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Portuguese Indian escudo

The escudo was the currency of Portuguese India between 1958 and 1961.

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Portuguese Indian rupia

The rupia was the currency of Portuguese India sometime after 1668 until 1958.

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Post-Keynesian economics

Post-Keynesian economics is a school of economic thought with its origins in The General Theory of John Maynard Keynes, with subsequent development influenced to a large degree by Michał Kalecki, Joan Robinson, Nicholas Kaldor, Sidney Weintraub, Paul Davidson, Piero Sraffa and Jan Kregel.

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PostBank Uganda

PostBank Uganda is a non-bank credit institution in Uganda.

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Pound sterling

The pound sterling (symbol: £; ISO code: GBP), commonly known as the pound and less commonly referred to as Sterling, is the official currency of the United Kingdom, Jersey, Guernsey, the Isle of Man, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, the British Antarctic Territory, and Tristan da Cunha.

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Prague interbank offered rate

The Prague interbank offered rate (PRIBOR) is the average rate at which banks are willing to lend to each other on the Czech interbank money market.

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Premiership of John Edward Brownlee

John Edward Brownlee was Premier of Alberta, Canada, from 1925 to 1934 as leader of the United Farmers of Alberta (UFA) caucus in the Legislative Assembly of Alberta.

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Presidency of Woodrow Wilson

The presidency of Woodrow Wilson began on March 4, 1913 at noon when Woodrow Wilson was inaugurated as President of the United States, and ended on March 4, 1921.

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President of the European Central Bank

The President of the European Central Bank is the head of the European Central Bank (ECB), the institution responsible for the management of the euro and monetary policy in the Eurozone of the European Union (EU).

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Price controls

Price controls are governmental restrictions on the prices that can be charged for goods and services in a market.

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Price signal

A price signal is information conveyed to consumers and producers, via the price charged for a product or service, which provides a signal to increase or decrease supply or demand.

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Price–specie flow mechanism

The price–specie flow mechanism is a model developed by Scottish economist David Hume (1711–1776) to illustrate how trade imbalances can be self-correct and adjust under the gold standard.

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Pride Microfinance Limited

Pride Microfinance Limited (PMFL), is a microfinance deposit-taking institution (MDI) in Uganda.

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Prime Bank (Kenya)

Prime Bank Kenya (PBKL) is a commercial bank in Kenya.

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Private currency

A private currency is a currency issued by a private entity, be it an individual, a commercial business or a nonprofit enterprise.

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Privatized foreign currency risk

Privatization of foreign currency risk, also known as foreign currency risk privatization, is a financial system established under the Bretton Woods system in which foreign exchange risk was borne by the public sector, but when it collapsed, risk was privatized, as exchange rates are able to fluctuate freely.

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Public finance

Public finance is the study of the role of the government in the economy.

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Purchasing power parity

Purchasing power parity (PPP) is a neoclassical economic theory that states that the exchange rate between two countries is equal to the ratio of the currencies' respective purchasing power.

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Pushing on a string

Pushing on a string is a figure of speech for influence that is more effective in moving things in one direction than another – you can pull, but not push. If something is connected to someone by a string, they can move it toward themselves by pulling on the string, but they cannot move it away from themselves by pushing on the string.

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Qatar Central Bank

The Qatar Central Bank (مصرف قطر المركزي) is the central bank of Qatar.

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Quantitative easing

Quantitative easing (QE), also known as large-scale asset purchases, is an expansionary monetary policy whereby a central bank buys predetermined amounts of government bonds or other financial assets in order to stimulate the economy and increase liquidity.

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Quantity theory of money

In monetary economics, the quantity theory of money (QTM) states that the general price level of goods and services is directly proportional to the amount of money in circulation, or money supply.

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Radius Prawiro

Dr.

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Rafael Buenaventura

Rafael Carlos Baltazar Buenaventura (August 5, 1938 – November 30, 2006) was a prominent banker in the Philippines who served as the second Governor of the Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas (from 1999 to 2005); he served under two Philippine presidents during one of the most tumultuous political transitions in the country’s history.

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Ram Upendra Das

Ram Upendra Das (born 18 November 1967) is an economist and author.

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Real-time gross settlement

Real-time gross settlement systems are specialist funds transfer systems where the transfer of money or securities takes place from one bank to another on a "real time" and on a "gross" basis.

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Reform Party (Southern Rhodesia)

The Reform Party was a political party that was formed in Southern Rhodesia in 1932, which went on to form the government under Godfrey Huggins in 1933, before splitting in 1934 and disappearing by the end of the decade.

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Reichsbank

The was the central bank of Germany from 1876 until 1945.

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Renminbi

The renminbi (Ab.: RMB;; sign: 元; code: CNY) is the official currency of the People's Republic of China.

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Reserve Bank

A reserve bank is a public institution that manages a state's currency, money supply, and interest rates.

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Reserve Bank of Australia

The Reserve Bank of Australia (RBA), on 14 January 1960, became the Australian central bank and banknote issuing authority, when the Reserve Bank Act 1959 (23 April 1959) removed the central banking functions from the Commonwealth Bank.

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Reserve Bank of Fiji

The Reserve Bank of Fiji (RBF) is the central bank of the Pacific island country of Fiji.

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Reserve Bank of India

The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) is India's central banking institution, which controls the monetary policy of the Indian rupee.

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Reserve Bank of India: Working and Functions

Reserve Bank of India is India's central bank, headquartered at Bombay.

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Reserve Bank of Malawi

The Reserve Bank of Malawi is the central bank of Malawi established in the year 1968 located in Lilongwe.

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Reserve Bank of New Zealand

The Reserve Bank of New Zealand (RBNZ, Te Pūtea Matua) is the central bank of New Zealand.

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Reserve Bank of Vanuatu

The Reserve Bank of Vanuatu is the central bank of Vanuatu.

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Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe

The Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe is the central bank of Zimbabwe.

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Reserve currency

A reserve currency (or anchor currency) is a currency that is held in significant quantities by governments and institutions as part of their foreign exchange reserves.

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Reserve requirement

The reserve requirement (or cash reserve ratio) is a central bank regulation employed by most, but not all, of the world's central banks, that sets the minimum amount of reserves that must be held by a commercial bank.

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Revaluation

Revaluation is a change in a price of a good or product, or especially of a currency, in which case it is specifically an official rise of the value of the currency in relation to a foreign currency in a fixed exchange rate system.

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Revenue

In accounting, revenue is the income that a business has from its normal business activities, usually from the sale of goods and services to customers.

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Riad Salamé

Riad Salamé (born July 17, 1950 in Lebanon), is a Lebanese banker and current Governor of the Banque du Liban – Central Bank of Lebanon since August 1, 1993.

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Richard Timberlake

Richard H. Timberlake, Jr. (born June 24, 1922) is an American economist who was Professor of Economics at the University of Georgia for much of his career.

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Ringgit Operations Monitoring System

Ringgit Operations Monitoring System (ROMS) is a large-value FX transaction reporting system owned and operated by Bank Negara Malaysia (BNM), the central bank of Malaysia.

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Risk–return spectrum

The risk–return spectrum (also called the risk–return tradeoff or risk–reward) is the relationship between the amount of return gained on an investment and the amount of risk undertaken in that investment.

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RMS Titanic alternative theories

The sinking of the ''RMS Titanic'' in 1912, with 1503 lives, attracted so much controversy that several alternative theories about its sinking have gained support.

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Robert Mundell

Robert Alexander Mundell, CC (born October 24, 1932) is a Canadian economist.

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Roger Tamraz

Roger Tamraz (Arabic: روجيه تمرز) is an international banker and venture capital investor who has had an active business career in oil and gas in the Middle East, Europe, Asia and the United States since the early 1960s.

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Roger W. Ferguson Jr.

Roger W. Ferguson Jr. (born October 28, 1951 in Washington, D.C.) is an American economist, who was Vice Chairman of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System from 1999 to 2006, and has served as President and Chief Executive Officer of the Teachers Insurance and Annuity Association - College Retirement Equities Fund (TIAA) since April, 2008.

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Roman economy

During the Roman Republic, the Roman economy was largely agrarian, centered on the trading of commodities such as grain and wine.

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Roman Empire

The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.

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Ronald MacDonald (economist)

Ronald MacDonald OBE (born 1955) is a Scottish economist specialising in applied exchange rate analysis through econometric techniques.

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Roubini Global Economics

Roubini Global Economics (known as RGE), is a global economic and financial analysis firm based in London.

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Routing number (Canada)

A routing number is the term for bank codes in Canada.

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Royal Bank

Royal Bank may refer to.

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Royal Commission on Banking and Currency

The Royal Commission on Banking and Currency (also known as the Macmillan Commission) was a 1933 Canadian royal commission tasked with reviewing the Canadian government's involvement in monetary policy.

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Royal Monetary Authority of Bhutan

The Royal Monetary Authority of Bhutan (བྲུག་རྒྱལ་གཞུང་དངུལ་ལས་དབང་འཛིན་) is the central bank of Bhutan and is a member of the Asian Clearing Union.

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Russian financial crisis (2014–2017)

The financial crisis in Russia in 2014–2017 was the result of the collapse of the Russian ruble beginning in the second half of 2014.

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Rwanda Stock Exchange

The Rwanda Stock Exchange Limited was incorporated on 7 October 2005 with the objective of carrying out stock market operations.

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Sabine Lautenschläger

Sabine Lautenschläger (born 3 June 1964) is a German jurist and central banker.

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Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha

Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha is a British Overseas Territory located in the South Atlantic and consisting of the island of Saint Helena, Ascension Island and the archipelago of Tristan da Cunha.

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Salahuddin Ahmed (governor)

Salahuddin Ahmed is a Bangladeshi economist, civil servant, and a former governor of the Bangladesh Bank, the country's central bank.

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Samlerhuset

Samlerhuset Norge (Collector's House) is a Norwegian distributor of collectibles, mainly coins and medals, but also stamps, banknotes and philatelic numismatic covers (PNC).

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Samurai bond

A samurai bond is a yen-denominated bond issued in Tokyo by non-Japanese companies, and is subject to Japanese regulations.

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Saudi Arabian Monetary Authority

The Saudi Arabian Monetary Authority (SAMA; مؤسسة النقد العربي السعودي), established in 1952, is the central bank of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

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São Tomé and Príncipe escudo

The escudo was the currency of São Tomé and Príncipe between 1914 and 1977.

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SBM Bank Kenya Limited

SBM Bank (Kenya) Limited, previously known as Fidelity Commercial Bank Limited, is a commercial bank in Kenya, the largest economy in the East African Community.

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Scenes of Canada

Scenes of Canada was the fourth series of banknotes of the Canadian dollar issued by the Bank of Canada.

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ScotiaMocatta

ScotiaMocatta is the precious metal and base metal banking division of The Bank of Nova Scotia (Scotiabank).

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Scotland

Scotland (Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.

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Scott Sumner

Scott B. Sumner (born 1955) is an American economist.

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Secondary mortgage market

The secondary mortgage market is the market for the sale of securities or bonds collateralized by the value of mortgage loans.

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Sectoral balances

The sectoral balances (also called sectoral financial balances) are a sectoral analysis framework for macroeconomic analysis of national economies developed by British economist Wynne Godley.

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Securities commission

A securities commission is a government department or agency responsible for financial regulation of securities products within a particular country.

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Seigniorage

Seigniorage, also spelled seignorage or seigneurage (from Old French seigneuriage "right of the lord (seigneur) to mint money"), is the difference between the value of money and the cost to produce and distribute it.

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Shadow banking system

The shadow banking system is a term for the collection of non-bank financial intermediaries that provide services similar to traditional commercial banks but outside normal banking regulations.

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Shadow government (conspiracy)

The shadow government (cryptocracy, secret government, or invisible government) is a family of conspiracy theories based on the notion that real and actual political power resides not with publicly elected representatives but with private individuals who are exercising power behind the scenes, beyond the scrutiny of democratic institutions.

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Shadow Open Market Committee

The Shadow Open Market Committee (SOMC) is an independent group of economists, first organized in 1973 by Professors Karl Brunner, from the University of Rochester, and Allan Meltzer, from Carnegie Mellon University, to provide a monetarist alternative to the views on monetary policy and its inflation effects then prevailing at the Federal Reserve and within the economics profession.

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Shariah Board

A Sharia Board (also Shariah Supervisory Board, Advisory Board or Religious Board) certifies Islamic financial products as being Sharia-compliant (i.e. in accordance with Islamic law).

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Shiftability theory

In banking, shiftability is an approach to keep banks liquid by supporting the shifting of assets.

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Shilling

The shilling is a unit of currency formerly used in Austria, the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, United States, and other British Commonwealth countries.

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Shinkin bank

A (literally a "credit treasury") is a type of Japanese deposit institutions.

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Shock (economics)

In economics, a shock is an unexpected or unpredictable event that affects an economy, either positively or negatively.

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Shock therapy (economics)

Shock therapy is a term used by some non-economists to refer to the sudden release of price and currency controls (economic liberalization), withdrawal of state subsidies, and immediate trade liberalization within a country, usually also including large-scale privatization of previously public-owned assets.

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SIA S.p.A.

SIA S.p.A. is an Italian company operating in the area of ICT, providing solutions and technologies to the banking and finance sector in addition to platforms for financial markets and e-payment services.

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Siamese coup d'état of 1933

The Siamese Coup d’état of June 1933 (รัฐประหาร 20 มิถุนายน..) was considered the first time in Thai history that the military successfully overthrew the constitutional government.

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Sierra Leone

Sierra Leone, officially the Republic of Sierra Leone, is a country in West Africa.

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Sierra Leone Commercial Bank

Sierra Leone Commercial Bank (SLCB) is a commercial bank in Sierra Leone.

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Silver standard

The silver standard is a monetary system in which the standard economic unit of account is a fixed weight of silver.

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Simons Ministry

The Simons Ministry was in office in Luxembourg from 23 September 1853 to 26 September 1860.

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Sinan Al Shabibi

Dr.

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Singapore

Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign city-state and island country in Southeast Asia.

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Singapore 2006

Singapore 2006 was a group of several concurrent events that were held in Singapore in support of the 61st Annual Meetings of the Boards of Governors of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank Group.

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SOAS, University of London

SOAS University of London (the School of Oriental and African Studies), is a public research university in London, England, and a constituent college of the federal University of London.

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Socialist economics

Socialist economics refers to the economic theories, practices, and norms of hypothetical and existing socialist economic systems.

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Sodepur

Sodepur is a neighbourhood in Panihati municipality in Barrackpore subdivision of North 24 Parganas district in the state of West Bengal, India.

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Solvency II Directive 2009

The Solvency II Directive is a Directive in European Union law that codifies and harmonises the EU insurance regulation.

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Somali shilling

The Somali shilling (sign: Sh.So.; shilin; شلن; scellino; ISO 4217: SOS) is the official currency of Somalia.

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Somalia

Somalia (Soomaaliya; aṣ-Ṣūmāl), officially the Federal Republic of SomaliaThe Federal Republic of Somalia is the country's name per Article 1 of the.

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Somaliland

Somaliland (Somaliland; صوماليلاند, rtl), officially the Republic of Somaliland (Jamhuuriyadda Somaliland, جمهورية صوماليلاند Jumhūrīyat Ṣūmālīlānd), is a self-declared state internationally recognised as an autonomous region of Somalia.

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South African Reserve Bank

The South African Reserve Bank (SARB) is the central bank of South Africa.

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Sovereign wealth fund

A sovereign wealth fund (SWF) or sovereign investment fund is a state-owned investment fund that invests in real and financial assets such as stocks, bonds, real estate, precious metals, or in alternative investments such as private equity fund or hedge funds.

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Specimen banknote

A specimen banknote is printed generally in very limited quantities for distribution to central banks to aid in the recognition of banknotes from a country other than their own.

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Speculative attack

In economics, a speculative attack is a precipitous acquisition of some assets (currencies, gold, emission permits, remaining quotas) by previously inactive speculators.

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Spire Bank

Spire Bank, formerly known as Equatorial Commercial Bank (ECB), is a commercial bank in Kenya, the largest economy in the East African Community.

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Staatsbank

Headquarters of the East German Central Bank The State Bank of the GDR (German: Staatsbank der DDR) was the central bank of East Germany.

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Stabilization fund

A stabilization fund is a mechanism set up by a government or central bank to insulate the domestic economy from large influxes of revenue, as from commodities such as oil.

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Stagflation

In economics, stagflation, a portmanteau of stagnation and inflation, is a situation in which the inflation rate is high, the economic growth rate slows, and unemployment remains steadily high.

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Standard Bank Malawi

The Standard Bank of Malawi (previously known as the Commercial Bank of Malawi) is a commercial bank in Malawi.

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Standard Chartered Kenya

Standard Chartered Kenya, whose official name is Standard Chartered Bank Kenya Limited, but is sometimes referred to as Stanchart Kenya, is a commercial bank in Kenya.

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Standard Chartered Uganda

Standard Chartered Uganda, whose official name is Standard Chartered Bank Uganda Limited but is often referred to as Stanchart Uganda, is a commercial bank in Uganda.

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Standard Chartered Zambia

Standard Chartered Zambia, officially Standard Chartered Bank Zambia Plc, is a commercial bank in Zambia and a subsidiary of Standard Chartered.

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Standard Chartered Zimbabwe

Standard Chartered Zimbabwe, officially Standard Chartered Bank Zimbabwe Limited, is a commercial bank in Zimbabwe and a wholly owned subsidiary of Standard Chartered.

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State bank

A state bank is generally a financial institution that is chartered by a state.

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State Bank of India

State Bank of India (SBI) is an Indian multinational, public sector banking and financial services company.

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State Bank of Pakistan

The State Bank of Pakistan (SBP) (بینک دَولتِ پاکِستان) is the central bank of Pakistan.

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State Bank of Patiala

State Bank of Patiala, founded in 1917, was an associate bank of the State Bank Group.

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State Bank of Vietnam

The State Bank of Vietnam (Ngân hàng Nhà nước Việt Nam) is the central bank of Vietnam.

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Steady-state economy

A steady-state economy is an economy consisting of a constant stock of physical wealth (capital) and a constant population size.

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Stefan Ingves

Stefan Nils Magnus Ingves (born 23 May 1953) is a Swedish banker, economist and civil servant currently serving as the Governor of Sveriges Riksbank, the central bank of Sweden.

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Stephen G. Cecchetti

Stephen G Cecchetti (born August 18, 1956) is an American economist who has been the Barbara and Richard M Rosenberg Professor of Global Finance at Brandeis International Business School.

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Sterilization (economics)

In macroeconomics, sterilization is action taken by a country's central bank to counter the effects on the money supply caused by a balance of payments surplus or deficit.

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Steve Baker (politician)

Steven John Baker (born 6 June 1971) is a British Conservative Party politician.

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Steve Hanke

Steve H. Hanke is an American applied economist at the Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland.

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Steward Bank

Steward Bank, whose official name is Steward Bank Limited, is a commercial bank in Zimbabwe.

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Stock market

A stock market, equity market or share market is the aggregation of buyers and sellers (a loose network of economic transactions, not a physical facility or discrete entity) of stocks (also called shares), which represent ownership claims on businesses; these may include securities listed on a public stock exchange as well as those only traded privately.

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Storable Votes

Storable Votes (also storable voting) is a multiple-issue electoral system with the potential to promote minority rights relative to a simple majority system.

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Subprime mortgage crisis

The United States subprime mortgage crisis was a nationwide banking emergency, occurring between 2007 and 2010, that contributed to the U.S. recession of December 2007 – June 2009.

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Subprime mortgage crisis solutions debate

The Subprime mortgage crisis solutions debate discusses various actions and proposals by economists, government officials, journalists, and business leaders to address the subprime mortgage crisis and broader financial crisis of 2007–08.

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Suffolk System

The Suffolk System was the first regulatory banking system arrangement of remote banks created in the United States.

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SunTrust Bank Nigeria Limited

SunTrust Bank Nigeria Limited (STBNL), is a Nigerian financial services provider, licensed as a commercial bank, by the Central Bank of Nigeria, the central bank and national banking regulator.

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Supply and demand

In microeconomics, supply and demand is an economic model of price determination in a market.

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Sveriges Riksbank

Sveriges Riksbank, or simply Riksbanken, is the central bank of Sweden.

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Swiss franc

The franc (sign: Fr. or SFr.; Franken, French and Romansh: franc, franco; code: CHF) is the currency and legal tender of Switzerland and Liechtenstein; it is also legal tender in the Italian exclave Campione d'Italia.

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Swiss National Bank

The Swiss National Bank (SNB) is the central bank of Switzerland, and is therefore responsible for the monetary policy of the nation of Switzerland and also for the issuing of Swiss franc banknotes.

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Swiss referendums, 1999

Ten referendums were held in Switzerland during 1999.

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Swiss sovereign money referendum, 2018

The Swiss sovereign money initiative of June 2018In Vollgeld-Initiative; in Initiative Monnaie Pleine; in Iniziativa Moneta Intera The official title of the referendum is the Swiss federal popular initiative "for crisis-safe money: money creation by the National Bank only! (Sovereign Money Initiative)" was a popular initiative in Switzerland intended to give the Swiss National Bank the sole authority to create money.

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Switzerland during the World Wars

During World War I and World War II, the Swiss Confederation maintained armed neutrality.

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Sybrin

Sybrin is a multinational Information Technology company headquartered in Johannesburg, South Africa that architects, develops, implements, and supports end-to-end payment and information management software solutions and services.

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Symmetrical inflation target

A symmetrical inflation target is a requirement placed on a central bank to respond when inflation is too low as well as when inflation is too high.

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Systemic risk

In finance, systemic risk is the risk of collapse of an entire financial system or entire market, as opposed to risk associated with any one individual entity, group or component of a system, that can be contained therein without harming the entire system.

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T2S

T2S (TARGET2-Securities) is a new European securities settlement engine which aims to offer centralised delivery-versus-payment (DvP) settlement in central bank funds across all European securities markets.

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Tanzania

Tanzania, officially the United Republic of Tanzania (Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania), is a sovereign state in eastern Africa within the African Great Lakes region.

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Tanzania Women's Bank Limited

Tanzania Women Bank Limited (TWBL) is a Tanzanian bank that specialises in providing financial services to women.

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Tanzimat

The Tanzimât (lit) was a period of reform in the Ottoman Empire that began in 1839 and ended with the First Constitutional Era in 1876.

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TARGET2

TARGET2 (Trans-European Automated Real-time Gross Settlement Express Transfer System) is the real-time gross settlement (RTGS) system for the Eurozone, and is available to non-Eurozone countries.

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Taylor rule

In economics, a Taylor rule is a reduced form approximation of the responsiveness of the nominal interest rate, as set by the central bank, to changes in inflation, output, or other economic conditions.

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Terrorist Finance Tracking Program

The Terrorist Finance Tracking Program (TFTP) is a United States government program to access financial transactions on the international SWIFT network that was revealed by The New York Times, The Wall Street Journal and The Los Angeles Times in June 2006.

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The Case Against the Fed

The Case Against the Fed is a 1994 book by Murray N. Rothbard taking a critical look at the United States Federal Reserve, fractional reserve banking, and central banks in general.

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The Dominion Bank

The Dominion Bank was a Canadian bank based in Toronto, Ontario and incorporated in 1869 that merged on February 1, 1955 with the Bank of Toronto to form the Toronto-Dominion Bank.

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The Economist

The Economist is an English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited at offices in London.

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The Journal of Commerce

The Journal of Commerce is a biweekly magazine published in the United States that focuses on global trade topics.

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The Only Game in Town: Central Banks, Instability, and Avoiding the Next Collapse

The Only Game in Town: Central Banks, Instability, and Avoiding the Next Collapse is a 2016 economics book authored by Mohamed A. El-Erian.

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The World Is Curved

The World Is Curved: Hidden Dangers to the Global Economy is a book written by David M. Smick, a financial market consultant, non-fiction author, and Chairman and CEO in the consultancy company of Johnson Smick International (JSI).

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Thomas Barkin

Thomas I. Barkin (born 1961) is an American central banker, who became the eighth president and CEO of the Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond on January 1, 2018.

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Thomas Tooke

Thomas Tooke (28 February 1774 – 26 February 1858) was an English economist known for writing on money and economic statistics.

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Thomas W. Lamont

Thomas William Lamont, Jr. (September 30, 1870 – February 2, 1948) was an American banker.

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TIB Development Bank

TIB Development Bank, formerly known as Tanzania Investment Bank (TIB), is a government-owned development bank in Tanzania.

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Tier 1 capital

Tier 1 capital is the core measure of a bank's financial strength from a regulator's point of view.

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Timeline of scientific thought

This is a list of important landmarks in the history of systematic philosophical inquiry and scientific analysis of phenomena.

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Timeline of the Gwangmu Reform

The following is a timeline of the Gwangmu Reform, which was a reforms for modernize Korea from the late 19th century to the early 20th century.

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Timothy Geithner

Timothy Franz Geithner (born August 18, 1961) is a former American central banker who served as the 75th United States Secretary of the Treasury under President Barack Obama from 2009 to 2013.

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Tirana Stock Exchange

The Tirana Stock Exchange (Bursa e Tiranës) is the principal stock exchange in Albania.

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Tom Velk

Tom Velk (Thomas James Velk) is a libertarian-leaning American economist who teaches and lives in Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

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Tomita Tetsunosuke

was a Japanese businessman, 2nd Governor of the Bank of Japan (BOJ), and Governor of Tokyo.

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Too big to fail

The "too big to fail" theory asserts that certain corporations, particularly financial institutions, are so large and so interconnected that their failure would be disastrous to the greater economic system, and that they therefore must be supported by government when they face potential failure.

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Top Finance Bank Uganda Limited

Top Finance Bank Uganda Limited (TFBUL), is a credit institution (Tier II Financial Institution) in Uganda.

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Toronto–Dominion Bank

The Toronto–Dominion Bank (Banque Toronto–Dominion) is a Canadian multinational banking and financial services corporation headquartered in Toronto, Ontario.

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Trading room

A trading room gathers traders operating on financial markets.

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Trading the news

Trading the news is a technique to trade equities, currencies and other financial instruments on the financial markets.

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Transnational citizenship

Transnational citizenship redefines traditional notions of citizenship and replaces an individual's singular national loyalties with the ability to belong to multiple nation states, as made visible in the political, cultural, social and economic realms.

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Transnistrian Republican Bank

The Transnistrian Republican Bank is the central bank of Transnistria.

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Treasury Note (19th century)

A Treasury Note is a type of short term debt instrument issued by the United States prior to the creation of the Federal Reserve System in 1913.

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Tropical Bank

Tropical Bank is a commercial bank in Uganda.

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Tukiya Kankasa-Mabula

Tukiya Kankasa-Mabula, sometimes Tukiya Kankasa Mabula, is a Zambian lawyer, educator, administrator and gender issues advocate.

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Tunisian Constitution of 2014

The Tunisian Constitution of 2014 (2014 دستور تونس) was adopted on 26 January 2014 by the Constituent Assembly elected on 23 October 2011 in the wake of Tunisia's Jasmine Revolution that overthrew President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali.

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U.S. Central Credit Union

U.S. Central Federal Credit Union was the largest corporate credit union in the United States.

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U.S. Labor Party

The U.S. Labor Party (USLP) was a political party formed in 1973 by the National Caucus of Labor Committees (NCLC).

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Uganda

Uganda, officially the Republic of Uganda (Jamhuri ya Uganda), is a landlocked country in East Africa.

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Uganda Microfinance Regulatory Authority

The Uganda Microfinance Regulatory Authority (UMRA), is a government agency responsible for the licensing, supervision and regulation of Tier-4 micro finance institutions, money lenders, savings cooperatives and any money-lending institution with capital of less that USh500 million (US$140,000).

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Uganda Securities Exchange

The Uganda Securities Exchange (USE) is the principal stock exchange of Uganda.

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UN Sacco Ltd

United Nations Sacco Society (UN SACCO) Limited is a credit union founded in 1975 to provide banking services to United Nations employees in Kenya.

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Ungku Abdul Aziz

Ungku Abdul Aziz bin Ungku Abdul Hamid (born 28 January 1922, London, United Kingdom) is a Malaysian economist.

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Union Trust Bank

Union Trust Bank (UTB), whose full name is Union Trust Bank Limited, is a commercial bank in Sierra Leone.

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United Bank for Africa (Kenya)

United Bank for Africa (Kenya) Limited (UBAKL), commonly referred to as UBA Kenya, is a commercial bank in Kenya.

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United Bank for Africa (Uganda)

United Bank for Africa (Uganda) (UBA-Uganda) is a commercial bank in Uganda.

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United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.

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United States House of Representatives elections, 1832

Elections to the United States House of Representatives were held in 1832.

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University of Groningen

The University of Groningen (abbreviated as UG; Rijksuniversiteit Groningen, abbreviated as RUG) is a public research university in the city of Groningen in the Netherlands.

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Usha Thorat

Usha Thorat, (born 20 February 1950) served as Deputy Governor of the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) (India's central bank) from 10 November 2005 to 8 November 2010.

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Vadym Hetman

Vadym Petrovych Hetman (Вадим Петрович Гетьман; July 12, 1935 – April 22, 1998) was a Ukrainian statesman and banker.

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Van der Hoop Bankiers

Van der Hoop Bankiers N.V. is a Dutch bank currently in state of bankruptcy and put under supervision of court-ordered curators.

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Vehicle registration plates of Bosnia and Herzegovina

Bosnia and Herzegovina vehicle registration plates have held their current form since 1998.

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Venezuelan constitutional referendum, 2007

A constitutional referendum was held in Venezuela on 2 December 2007 to amend 69 articles of the 1999 Constitution.

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Victoria Commercial Bank

Victoria Commercial Bank (VCB) is a private bank in Kenya.

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Views of Lyndon LaRouche and the LaRouche movement

Lyndon LaRouche and the LaRouche movement have expressed controversial views on a wide variety of topics.

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Viktor Yushchenko

Viktor Andriyovych Yushchenko (Віктор Андрійович Ющенко,; born February 23, 1954) is a Ukrainian politician who was the third President of Ukraine from January 23, 2005 to February 25, 2010.

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Vincent Munyeshyaka

Vincent Munyeshyaka is an economist and politician in Rwanda, who has served as the cabinet minister of Trade and Industry in the Rwandan cabinet since 31 August 2017.

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Walter Bagehot

Walter Bagehot (3 February 1826 – 24 March 1877) was a British journalist, businessman, and essayist, who wrote extensively about government, economics, and literature.

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Walter Cunliffe, 1st Baron Cunliffe

Walter Cunliffe, 1st Baron Cunliffe GBE (3 December 1855 – 6 January 1920) established the merchant banking business of Cunliffe Brothers (after 1920, Goschens and Cunliffe) in London, and who was Governor of the Bank of England from 1913 to 1918, during the critical World War I era.

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Waswa Balunywa

Juma Waswa Balunywa (born 3 December 1955), is a scholar in management, leadership and entrepreneurship. He is also an academic administrator, who serves as the Principal of Makerere University Business School (MUBS), a public institution of higher education in Uganda. He has been at the helm of the institution since 1991, when MUBS was the Faculty of Commerce of Makerere University. He has been credited with having revolutionized business education and spearheading the private students’ scheme in Uganda that has become a model for many universities across the country and region.

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Wealth elasticity of demand

The wealth elasticity of demand, in microeconomics and macroeconomics, is the proportional change in the consumption of a good relative to a change in consumers' wealth (as distinct from changes in personal income).

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Weimar Republic

The Weimar Republic (Weimarer Republik) is an unofficial, historical designation for the German state during the years 1919 to 1933.

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Werner Plan

Werner Plan (or Werner Report) - at the European Summit in The Hague in 1969, the Heads of State and Government of the European Community agreed to prepare a plan for economic and monetary union.

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White House Conference on the Industrial World Ahead

The White House Conference on the Industrial World Ahead was the first White House conference "exclusively concerned with American business and the first one on the future." The conference was called by President Richard Nixon and jointly chaired by Secretary of Commerce Maurice H. Stans and Secretary of Labor James D. Hodgson.

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William White (economist)

William R. White (born 1943) is a Canadian economist who is the chairman of the Economic and Development Review Committee at the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).

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Woodrow Wilson

Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856 – February 3, 1924) was an American statesman and academic who served as the 28th President of the United States from 1913 to 1921.

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World currency

In the foreign exchange market and international finance, a world currency, supranational currency, or global currency refers to a currency that is transacted internationally, with no set borders.

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World Leaders

World Leaders, also known as Chiefs of State and Cabinet Members of Foreign Governments, is a public domain directory published weekly by the United States Central Intelligence Agency.

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Xiao Gang

Xiao Gang (born 1958 in Ji'an, Jiangxi) was the Chairman of the China Securities Regulatory Commission from March 2013 until 20 February 2016.

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Y. Venugopal Reddy

Dr.

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Yield curve

In finance, the yield curve is a curve showing several yields or interest rates across different contract lengths (2 month, 2 year, 20 year, etc....) for a similar debt contract.

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Yuba Raj Khatiwada

Yuba Raj Khatiwada is an economist and the current Minister of Finance of Nepal.

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Zambia National Commercial Bank

Zambia National Commercial Bank, commonly referred to by the name "Zanaco", is a commercial bank in Zambia.

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ZB Bank Limited

ZB Bank Limited (ZBBL), also known as ZB Bank but commonly referred to as Zimbank, is a commercial bank in Zimbabwe.

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Zenith Bank

Zenith Bank is a Nigerian multinational financial services provider.

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Zero interest-rate policy

Zero interest-rate policy (ZIRP) is a macroeconomic concept describing conditions with a very low nominal interest rate, such as those in contemporary Japan and December 2008 through December 2015 in the United States.

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Zero-coupon bond

A zero-coupon bond (also discount bond or deep discount bond) is a bond where the face value is repaid at the time of maturity.

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1910s

The 1910s (pronounced "nineteen-tens", also abbreviated as the "teens") was a decade of the Gregorian calendar that began on January 1, 1910, and ended on December 31, 1919.

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1913

No description.

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1943 in Ireland

Events from the year 1943 in Ireland.

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1972 in Ireland

Events from the year 1972 in Ireland.

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1973 oil crisis

The 1973 oil crisis began in October 1973 when the members of the Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries proclaimed an oil embargo.

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1997 in the United Kingdom

Events from the year 1997 in the United Kingdom.

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1998 in aviation

This is a list of aviation-related events from 1998.

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2008–09 Keynesian resurgence

Following the global financial crisis of 2007–08, there was a worldwide resurgence of interest in Keynesian economics among prominent economists and policy makers.

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2008–2011 Icelandic financial crisis

The Icelandic financial crisis was a major economic and political event in Iceland that involved the default of all three of the country's major privately owned commercial banks in late 2008, following their difficulties in refinancing their short-term debt and a run on deposits in the Netherlands and the United Kingdom.

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2009 Malagasy political crisis

The 2009 Malagasy political crisis began on 26 January 2009 with the political opposition movement led by Antananarivo mayor Andry Rajoelina, which sought to oust President Marc Ravalomanana from the presidency.

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2013 in Ireland

Events during the year 2013 in Ireland.

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2015 G20 Antalya summit

The 2015 G20 Antalya summit was the tenth annual meeting of the G20 heads of government/heads of state.

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2015–16 MDFA Elite Division

The 2015–16 MDFA Elite Division is the top-tier football in the Indian city of Mumbai.

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Bank Centralization, Bank base rate, Bank of issue, Central Bank, Central bank reserves, Central banker, Central bankers, Central banking, Central banks, Issuing authority, Main refinancing rate, Minimum bid rate, National Central Banks, Reserve bank.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Central_bank

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