143 relations: Abusive head trauma, Adult neurogenesis, African Americans, Aging brain, AIDS amendments of 1988, Air pollution, Alcohol (drug), Allopregnanolone, Altered level of consciousness, Alzheimer's disease, Alzheimer's disease research, AMPA receptor positive allosteric modulator, Anabolic steroid, Anticonvulsant, Aspen Education Group, Associated features of bipolar disorder, Autosomal dominant porencephaly type I, Azapirone, Baggio–Yoshinari syndrome, Balwant Rai Mehta Vidya Bhawan (Lajpat Nagar), Basmisanil, Benzodiazepine, Beta-Hydroxybutyric acid, Borderline intellectual functioning, Buspirone, Butriptyline, Cannabis in pregnancy, Cerebral palsy, Childhood acquired brain injury, Ciliopathy, Clomipramine, Coffee, Cognitive behavioral training, Cognitive inhibition, Cognitive orthotics, Cognitive therapies for dementia, Confusion, Critical Path Institute, Deficit, Dementia, Depressant, Desipramine, Desmethylclozapine, Diabetes mellitus, DiGeorge syndrome, Dihexa, Dihydrexidine, Disabilities affecting intellectual abilities, Dissociative, Dorsal nexus, ..., Double deficit (education), Doxepin, Drugs in pregnancy, Eleanor Saffran, Electroconvulsive therapy, Encenicline, Epileptic spasms, Episcopal Community Services of San Francisco, Epix Pharmaceuticals, Erteberel, Fanapanel, Fenfluramine, Florbetaben (18F), Folate deficiency, Funding bias, GABA reuptake inhibitor, GABAA receptor negative allosteric modulator, Game accessibility, Gene silencing, Geriatric anesthesia, Geriatric dentistry, Geriatric rehabilitation, Geriatrics, Hôpital-Général de Québec, Health, Health effects of wine, Hyperintensity, Hypertension, Idalopirdine, Index of HIV/AIDS-related articles, Intellectual disability, Ketamine, Lead poisoning, List of ICD-9 codes 390–459: diseases of the circulatory system, Lormetazepam, Lurasidone, Luria Neuroscience Institute, Management of multiple sclerosis, MDMA, Medroxyprogesterone acetate, Meningitis, Mentalism (discrimination), Methyldopa, Methylphenylpiracetam, Mild cognitive impairment, Military acute concussion evaluation, Montreal Cognitive Assessment, Mu wave, Neurofibrillary tangle, Neuroinflammation, Neurosteroid, NSI-189, Outline of thought, Paratonia, Parvalbumin, Passive smoking, Paul Satz, Pherine, Piribedil, Pirisudanol, Place cell, Polar T3 syndrome, Posterior cingulate cortex, Potocki–Lupski syndrome, Primary age-related tauopathy, Primary polydipsia, Progesterone (medication), Progestin, PRX-07034, Ro4938581, Salla disease, Schizencephaly, Schizotypal personality disorder, Severe cognitive impairment, Shprintzen–Goldberg syndrome, Signalong, Spectrum disorder, Superoxide dismutase mimetics, Surrogate decision-maker, Tazomeline, Traumatic brain injury, Treatment of bipolar disorder, Tricyclic antidepressant, Umespirone, Vascular dementia, Vertiginous epilepsy, Vitamin D, Vulnerable adult, Weinberg Center for Elder Abuse Prevention, Wheelchair, William Iacono, Work Capability Assessment, 7,8-Dihydroxyflavone. Expand index (93 more) » « Shrink index
Abusive head trauma (AHT), commonly known as shaken baby syndrome (SBS), is an injury to a child's head caused by someone else.
Neurogenesis is the process by which neurons are generated from neural stem cells.
African Americans (also referred to as Black Americans or Afro-Americans) are an ethnic group of Americans with total or partial ancestry from any of the black racial groups of Africa.
Aging is a major risk factor for most common neurodegenerative diseases, including mild cognitive impairment, dementias including Alzheimer's disease, cerebrovascular disease, Parkinson's disease and Lou Gehrig's disease.
AIDS amendments of 1988, better known as the Health Omnibus Programs Extension (HOPE) Act of 1988, is a United States statute amending the Public Health Service Act.
Air pollution occurs when harmful or excessive quantities of substances including gases, particulates, and biological molecules are introduced into Earth's atmosphere.
Alcohol, also known by its chemical name ethanol, is a psychoactive substance or drug that is the active ingredient in alcoholic beverages such as beer, wine, and distilled spirits (hard liquor).
Allopregnanolone, also known as 5α-pregnan-3α-ol-20-one or 3α,5α-tetrahydroprogesterone (3α,5α-THP), as well as brexanolone, is an endogenous inhibitory pregnane neurosteroid.
An altered level of consciousness is any measure of arousal other than normal.
Alzheimer's disease (AD), also referred to simply as Alzheimer's, is a chronic neurodegenerative disease that usually starts slowly and worsens over time.
In April 2014 there were 315 open clinical trials under way to understand and treat Alzheimer's disease.
AMPA receptor positive allosteric modulators are positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPR), a type of ionotropic glutamate receptor which mediates most fast synaptic neurotransmission in the central nervous system.
Anabolic steroids, also known more properly as anabolic–androgenic steroids (AAS), are steroidal androgens that include natural androgens like testosterone as well as synthetic androgens that are structurally related and have similar effects to testosterone.
Anticonvulsants (also commonly known as antiepileptic drugs or as antiseizure drugs) are a diverse group of pharmacological agents used in the treatment of epileptic seizures.
Aspen Education Group is an American company that provides therapeutic interventions for adolescents and young adults, including wilderness therapy programs, residential treatment centers, therapeutic boarding schools, and weight loss programs.
The associated features of bipolar disorder are clinical phenomena that often accompany bipolar disorder (BD) but are not part of the diagnostic criteria for the disorder.
Autosomal dominant porencephaly type I is a rare type of porencephaly that causes cysts to grow on the brain and damage to small blood vessels, which can lead to cognitive impairment, migraines, seizures, and hemiplegia or hemiparesis.
Azapirones are a class of drugs used as anxiolytics, antidepressants, and antipsychotics.
The Baggio–Yoshinari syndrome (BYS), formerly known as the Brazilian Lyme-like disease and Brazilian human borreliosis, is a disease transmitted by the Amblyomma cajennense tick, but the organism that causes the infection is still unknown.
Balwant Rai Mehta Vidya Bhawan Senior Secondary School (BRMVB) is a co-educational high school in Lajpat Nagar neighborhood of South Delhi.
Basmisanil (developmental code names RG-1662, RO5186582) is a highly selective inverse agonist/negative allosteric modulator of α5 subunit-containing GABAA receptors which is under development by Roche for the treatment of cognitive impairment associated with Down syndrome.
Benzodiazepines (BZD, BZs), sometimes called "benzos", are a class of psychoactive drugs whose core chemical structure is the fusion of a benzene ring and a diazepine ring.
β-Hydroxybutyric acid, also known as 3-hydroxybutyric acid, is an organic compound and a beta hydroxy acid with the chemical formula CH3CH(OH)CH2CO2H; its conjugate base is β-hydroxybutyrate, also known as 3-hydroxybutyrate.
Borderline intellectual functioning, also called borderline mental disability, is a categorization of intelligence wherein a person has below average cognitive ability (generally an IQ of 70–85), but the deficit is not as severe as intellectual disability (below 70).
Buspirone, sold under the brand name Buspar, is an anxiolytic drug that is primarily used to treat generalized anxiety disorder (GAD).
Butriptyline, sold under the brand name Evadyne among others, is a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) that has been used in the United Kingdom and several other European countries for the treatment of depression but appears to no longer be marketed.
Cannabis consumption in pregnancy might be associated with restrictions in growth of the fetus, miscarriage, and cognitive deficits.
Cerebral palsy (CP) is a group of permanent movement disorders that appear in early childhood.
Childhood (or paediatric) acquired brain injury (ABI) is the term given to any injury to the brain that occurs during childhood but after birth and the immediate neonatal period.
A ciliopathy is a genetic disorder of the cellular cilia or the cilia anchoring structures, the basal bodies, or of ciliary function.
Clomipramine, sold under the brand name Anafranil among others, is a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA).
Coffee is a brewed drink prepared from roasted coffee beans, which are the seeds of berries from the Coffea plant.
Cognitive behavioral training (CBTraining), sometimes referred to as structured cognitive behavioral training, (SCBT) is a regimented cognitive-behavioral process that uses a systematic, highly structured workshop-style approach to break down and replace dysfunctional emotionally dependent behaviors.
Cognitive inhibition refers to the mind's ability to tune out stimuli that are irrelevant to the task/process at hand or to the mind's current state.
Cognitive orthotics are software-based personal reminder systems for people with cognitive impairment, such as memory loss.
Psychological therapies for dementia are starting to gain some momentum.
Confusion (from Latin confusĭo, -ōnis, from confundere: "to pour together;" "to mingle together;" "to confuse") is the state of being bewildered or unclear in one’s mind about something.
Critical Path Institute (C-Path) is an independent, non-profit organization committed to transformational improvement of the drug development process.
A deficit is the amount by which a sum falls short of some reference amount.
Dementia is a broad category of brain diseases that cause a long-term and often gradual decrease in the ability to think and remember that is great enough to affect a person's daily functioning.
A depressant, or central depressant, is a drug that lowers neurotransmission levels, which is to depress or reduce arousal or stimulation, in various areas of the brain.
Desipramine, sold under the brand name Norpramin and Pertofrane among others, is a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) which is used in the treatment of depression.
N-Desmethylclozapine (NDMC), or norclozapine, is a major active metabolite of the atypical antipsychotic drug clozapine.
Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.
DiGeorge syndrome, also known as 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, is a syndrome caused by the deletion of a small segment of chromosome 22.
Dihexa (developmental code name PNB-0408), also known as N-hexanoic-Tyr-Ile-(6) aminohexanoic amide, is an oligopeptide drug derived from angiotensin IV that binds with high affinity to hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and potentiates its activity at its receptor, c-Met.
Dihydrexidine (DAR-0100) is a moderately selective full agonist at the dopamine D1 and D5 receptors.
There are a variety of medical conditions affecting cognitive ability.
Dissociatives are a class of hallucinogen, which distort perceptions of sight and sound and produce feelings of detachment – dissociation – from the environment and self.
The dorsal nexus is an area within the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex that serves as an intersection point for multiple brain networks.
The double-deficit theory of dyslexia proposes that a deficit in two essential skills gives rise to the lowest level of reading performances, constituting the most severe form of dyslexia.
Doxepin is a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) used as a pill to treat major depressive disorder, anxiety disorders, chronic hives, and for short-term help with trouble remaining asleep after going to bed (a form of insomnia).
Drugs in pregnancy can be either pharmaceutical or recreational and can have temporary or permanent effects on the fetus.
Eleanor M. Saffran (May 16, 1938 – November 23, 2002) was a researcher in the field of Cognitive Neuropsychology.
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), formerly known as electroshock therapy, and often referred to as shock treatment, is a psychiatric treatment in which seizures are electrically induced in patients to provide relief from mental disorders.
Encenicline (INN, USAN, code names EVP-6124, MT-4666) is a selective partial agonist of the α7 nicotinic receptor, and is in phase III clinical trials for the treatment of cognitive impairment in schizophrenia.
Epileptic spasms, also known as infantile spasms, juvenile spasms, or West syndrome is an uncommon-to-rare epileptic disorder in infants, children and adults.
Episcopal Community Services of San Francisco (ECS) is a non-profit organization benefiting homeless and low-income men, women, and children in San Francisco, California.
Epix Pharmaceuticals Inc (formerly Predix Pharmaceuticals Inc) was a pharmaceutical company based in Lexington, Massachusetts.
Erteberel (former developmental code name LY-500307), also known as selective estrogen receptor beta agonist-1 (SERBA-1), is a synthetic, nonsteroidal estrogen which acts as a selective ERβ agonist and is under development by Eli Lilly for the treatment of schizophrenia.
Fanapanel (INN, code name ZK-200775), also known as MPQX, is a quinoxalinedione derivative drug which acts as a competitive antagonist of the AMPA receptor.
Fenfluramine, formerly sold under the brand name Pondimin among others, is an appetite suppressant which was used to treat obesity and is now no longer marketed.
Florbetaben, a fluorine-18 (18F)-labeled stilbene derivative (formerly known as BAY-949172), trade name NeuraCeq, is a diagnostic radiotracer developed for routine clinical application to visualize β-amyloid plaques in the brain.
Folate deficiency is a low level of folic acid and derivatives in the body.
Funding bias, also known as sponsorship bias, funding outcome bias, funding publication bias, and funding effect, refers to the tendency of a scientific study to support the interests of the study's financial sponsor.
A GABA reuptake inhibitor (GRI) is a type of drug which acts as a reuptake inhibitor for the neurotransmitter gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) by blocking the action of the gamma-Aminobutyric acid transporters (GATs).
A GABAA receptor negative allosteric modulator is a negative allosteric modulator (NAM), or inhibitor, of the GABAA receptor, a ligand-gated ion channel of the major inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA).
Within the field of human–computer interaction, game accessibility refers to the accessibility of video games.
Gene silencing is the regulation of gene expression in a cell to prevent the expression of a certain gene.
Geriatric anesthesia (or geriatric anaesthesia) is the branch of medicine that studies anesthesia approach in elderly.
Geriatric dentistry is the delivery of dental care to older adults involving diagnosis, prevention, management and treatment of problems associated with age related diseases.
Geriatric rehabilitation or geriatric physical therapy is the branch of medicine that studies rehabilitation and physical therapy issues in elderly.
Geriatrics, or geriatric medicine, is a specialty that focuses on health care of elderly people.
The Hôpital-Général de Québec is a Canadian medical facility located in the tiny municipality of Notre-Dame-des-Anges, Quebec (which consists solely of the hospital), surrounded by the La Cité-Limoilou borough of Quebec City.
Health is the ability of a biological system to acquire, convert, allocate, distribute, and utilize energy with maximum efficiency.
The health effects of wine are mainly determined by its active ingredient alcohol.
Hyperintensities refer to areas of high intensity on types of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of the human brain or that of other mammals that reflect lesions produced largely by demyelination and axonal loss.
Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.
Idalopirdine (INN) (code names Lu AE58054) is a potent and selective 5-HT6 receptor antagonist under development by Lundbeck as an augmentation therapy for the treatment of cognitive deficits associated with Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia.
This is a list of AIDS-related topics, many of which were originally taken from the public domain U.S. Department of Health Glossary of HIV/AIDS-Related Terms, 4th Edition.
Intellectual disability (ID), also known as general learning disability, and mental retardation (MR), is a generalized neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by significantly impaired intellectual and adaptive functioning.
Ketamine, sold under the brand name Ketalar among others, is a medication mainly used for starting and maintaining anesthesia.
Lead poisoning is a type of metal poisoning caused by lead in the body.
Lormetazepam (INN), or methyl-lorazepam, marketed as Noctamid among others, is a drug which is a short to intermediate acting 3-hydroxy benzodiazepine derivative.
Lurasidone (trade name Latuda) is an atypical antipsychotic developed by Dainippon Sumitomo Pharma and marketed by Sunovion in the U.S. It has been an FDA approved treatment for schizophrenia since 2010 and for treating depressive episodes in adults with bipolar I disorder since 2013.
Luria Neuroscience Institute (LNI) and its not-for-profit arm Luria Scientific Foundation (LNF) were founded in 2011 with the broad purpose of advancing research in cognitive neuroscience and neuropsychology, and disseminating knowledge in these areas.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease that affects the central nervous system (CNS).
3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), commonly known as ecstasy (E), is a psychoactive drug used primarily as a recreational drug.
Medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA), sold under the brand name Depo-Provera among others, is a hormonal medication of the progestin type.
Meningitis is an acute inflammation of the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord, known collectively as the meninges.
Mentalism or sanism is a form of discrimination and oppression against a mental trait or condition a person has, or is judged to have.
Methyldopa, sold under the brand name Aldomet among others, is a medication used for high blood pressure.
Methylphenylpiracetam is a derivative of piracetam and a positive allosteric modulator of the sigma-1 receptor.
Mild cognitive impairment (MCI), also known as incipient dementia and isolated memory impairment, is a neurological disorder that occurs in older adults which involves cognitive impairments with minimal impairment in instrumental activities of daily living.
The Military Acute Concussion Evaluation (MACE) is a medical screening and documentation measure that is used to gauge the severity of symptoms and cognitive deficits after a diagnosis of a concussion has been made.
The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) is a widely used screening assessment for detecting cognitive impairment.
Mu waves, also known as mu rhythms, comb or wicket rhythms, arciform rhythms, or sensorimotor rhythms, are synchronized patterns of electrical activity involving large numbers of neurons, probably of the pyramidal type, in the part of the brain that controls voluntary movement.
Neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) are aggregates of hyperphosphorylated tau protein that are most commonly known as a primary marker of Alzheimer's disease.
Neuroinflammation is inflammation of the nervous tissue.
Neurosteroids, also known as neuroactive steroids, are endogenous or exogenous steroids that rapidly alter neuronal excitability through interaction with ligand-gated ion channels and other cell surface receptors.
NSI-189 is an experimental, potential antidepressant that is under investigation by Neuralstem, Inc. for the treatment for major depressive disorder (MDD), as well as for cognitive impairment and neurodegeneration.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to thought (thinking): Thought (also called thinking) – the mental process in which beings form psychological associations and models of the world.
Paratonia is the inability to relax muscles during muscle tone assessment.
Parvalbumin is a calcium-binding albumin protein with low molecular weight (typically 9-11 kDa).
Passive smoking is the inhalation of smoke, called second-hand smoke (SHS), or environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), by persons other than the intended "active" smoker.
Paul Satz (September 12, 1932 – June 20, 2010) was an American psychologist, and one of the founders of the discipline neuropsychology.
Pherines, also known as vomeropherines, are odorless synthetic neuroactive steroids that engage nasal chemosensory receptors and induce dose-dependent and reversible pharmacological and behavioral effects.
Piribedil (trade names Pronoran, Trivastal Retard, Trastal, Trivastan, Clarium and others) is an antiparkinsonian agent and piperazine derivative which acts as a D2 and D3 receptor agonist.
Pirisudanol (Mentis, Menthen, Mentium, Nadex, Nadexen, Nadexon, Pridana, Stivane), also known as pyrisuccideanol, is the succinic acid ester of pyridoxine (a form of vitamin B6) and of deanol (DMAE).
A place cell is a type of pyramidal neuron within the hippocampus that becomes active when an animal enters a particular place in its environment; this place is known as the place field.
Polar T3 syndrome is a condition found in polar explorers, caused by a decrease in levels of the thyroid hormone T3.
The posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) is the caudal part of the cingulate cortex, located posterior to the anterior cingulate cortex.
Potocki–Lupski syndrome (PTLS), also known as dup(17)p11.2p11.2 syndrome, trisomy 17p11.2 or duplication 17p11.2 syndrome, is a contiguous gene syndrome involving the microduplication of band 11.2 on the short arm of human chromosome 17 (17p11.2).
Primary age-related tauopathy (PART) is a recently described neuropathological designation used to describe the neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) that are commonly observed in the brains of normally aged individuals that can occur independently of the amyloid plaques of Alzheimer's disease (AD).
Primary polydipsia is a form of polydipsia characterised by excessive fluid intake in the absence of physiological stimuli to drink.
Progesterone is a medication and naturally occurring steroid hormone.
A progestin is a type of medication which is used most commonly in hormonal birth control and menopausal hormone therapy.
PRX-07034 is a selective 5-HT6 receptor antagonist.
Ro4938581 is a nootropic drug invented in 2009 by a team working for Hoffmann-La Roche, which acts as a subtype-selective inverse agonist at the α5 subtype of the benzodiazepine binding site on the GABAA receptor.
Salla disease (SD), also called sialic acid storage disease or Finnish type sialuria, is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease characterized by early physical impairment and intellectual disability.
Schizencephaly is a rare birth defect characterized by abnormal clefts lined with grey matter that form the ependyma of the cerebral ventricles to the pia mater.
Schizotypal personality disorder (STPD) or schizotypal disorder is a mental disorder characterized by severe social anxiety, thought disorder, paranoid ideation, derealization, transient psychosis, and often unconventional beliefs.
Severe cognitive impairment is a form of cognitive impairment that can be distinguished from the "mild" and "moderate" types of impairment.
Shprintzen–Goldberg syndrome is a multiple anomaly syndrome that has craniosynostosis, multiple abdominal hernias, cognitive impairment, and other skeletal malformations as key features.
Signalong is an alternative and augmentative key-word signing communication method used by those individuals with a speech, language and communication need.
A spectrum disorder is a mental disorder that includes a range of linked conditions, sometimes also extending to include singular symptoms and traits.
Superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimetics are synthetic compounds that mimic the native superoxide dismutase enzyme.
A surrogate decision maker, also known as a health care proxy or as agents, is an advocate for incompetent patients.
Tazomeline (LY-287,041) is a drug which acts as a non-selective muscarinic acetylcholine receptor agonist.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI), also known as intracranial injury, occurs when an external force injures the brain.
The emphasis of the treatment of bipolar disorder is on effective management of the long-term course of the illness, which can involve treatment of emergent symptoms.
Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) are a class of medications that are used primarily as antidepressants.
Umespirone (KC-9172) is a drug of the azapirone class which possesses anxiolytic and antipsychotic properties.
Vascular dementia, also known as multi-infarct dementia (MID) and vascular cognitive impairment (VCI), is dementia caused by problems in the supply of blood to the brain, typically a series of minor strokes, leading to worsening cognitive decline that occurs step by step.
Vertiginous epilepsy is infrequently the first symptom of a seizure, characterized by a feeling of vertigo.
Vitamin D is a group of fat-soluble secosteroids responsible for increasing intestinal absorption of calcium, magnesium, and phosphate, and multiple other biological effects.
As defined in the psychology, sociology and social work fields, a vulnerable adult is any person who lacks the absolute most basic (as distinct from mid-level or typical level) human life skills.
The Weinberg Center for Elder Abuse Prevention at the Hebrew Home at Riverdale, is a comprehensive regional elder abuse shelter, providing emergency shelter for victims of elder abuse and to enhance public awareness and knowledge about elder abuse.
A wheelchair, often abbreviated to just "chair", is a chair with wheels, used when walking is difficult or impossible due to illness, injury, or disability.
William George Iacono is an American psychologist known for his research using behavior genetic methodologies, such as twin and adoption studies, to study the development of common mental disorders and substance use.
The Work Capability Assessment (WCA) is the test designed and used by the British Government's Department for Work and Pensions (DWP) to decide whether welfare claimants are entitled to sickness benefits.
7,8-Dihydroxyflavone (7,8-DHF) is a naturally occurring flavone found in Godmania aesculifolia, Tridax procumbens, and primula tree leaves.