243 relations: A5/1, Advanced Encryption Standard, Advanced Encryption Standard process, Advanced Systems Format, Advantage (cryptography), ASC X9, Atmel AVR, Atmel AVR instruction set, Automated teller machine, BestCrypt, Bit slicing, Block cipher, Block cipher mode of operation, Block size (cryptography), Blowfish (cipher), Books on cryptography, Briarcliff Manor, New York, Brute Force: Cracking the Data Encryption Standard, Brute-force attack, Bryant Tuckerman, CBC-MAC, CcTalk, CDMF, Cipher, Cipher security summary, Cipher suite, Ciphertext, Ciphertext-only attack, Classical cipher, Clipper chip, Cobian Backup, Common Interface, Comparison of file transfer protocols, Comparison of operating system kernels, Comparison of remote desktop software, Comparison of TLS implementations, Content Scramble System, Crypt (C), Cryptanalysis, Cryptlib, Crypto (book), Crypto Wars, Cryptographic primitive, Cryptography, Cryptography standards, Cryptomeria cipher, Cube attack, Custom hardware attack, Cybercrime countermeasures, Cycle detection, ..., Cypherpunk, Data Authentication Algorithm, David Kahn (writer), Davies attack, DEA (disambiguation), DEAL, DES, DES Challenges, DES supplementary material, DES-X, DESCHALL Project, Differential cryptanalysis, Differential fault analysis, Differential-linear attack, DOCSIS, Don Coppersmith, EBCDIC, Edna Grossman, EFF DES cracker, Electronic Frontier Foundation, Eli Biham, Encryption by date, ETRAX CRIS, Export of cryptography from the United States, FASCINATOR, FEAL, Federal Information Processing Standards, Feistel cipher, FFmpeg, Financial cryptography, FinTS, Format-preserving encryption, FreeOTFE, FTPS, GDES, General-purpose computing on graphics processing units, George B. Purdy, Glossary of cryptographic keys, GOST (block cipher), HiperLAN, History of cryptography, History of IBM, History of television, HomePlug, Horst Feistel, IBM 3624, IBM Research, ICE (cipher), IEEE 802.16, Index of cryptography articles, Index of standards articles, International Data Encryption Algorithm, IPsec, ISO/IEC 9797-1, James Harris Simons, Java Card, John Gilmore (activist), John the Ripper, Kerberos (protocol), Key derivation function, Key feedback mode, Key generation, Key schedule, Key size, Key space (cryptography), Key stretching, Key whitening, KHAZAD, KN-Cipher, Ladder-DES, LAN Manager, Lars Ramkilde Knudsen, Lawrie Brown, Libav, Libgcrypt, Linear cryptanalysis, List of algorithms, List of CDMA terminology, List of computing and IT abbreviations, List of cryptographers, List of important publications in cryptography, List of information technology initialisms, List of telecommunications encryption terms, LOKI, LOKI97, Lucifer (cipher), MacGuffin (cipher), Madryga, March 1981, MARS (cryptography), Martin Hellman, Matt Curtin, Mbed TLS, Mcrypt, MDC-2, Meet-in-the-middle attack, Message authentication code, Microsoft CryptoAPI, MIFARE, Mitsuru Matsui, Motorola Type II, Moxie Marlinspike, MPEG transport stream, MS-CHAP, National Cryptologic Museum, National Security Agency, Nettle (cryptographic library), Network Security Services, Neural cryptography, New Data Seal, NewDES, Norton Utilities, Nothing up my sleeve number, NSA cryptography, NSA encryption systems, NSA product types, NT LAN Manager, NXDN, OpenCores, OpenSSL, Orders of magnitude (data), Orders of magnitude (numbers), Outline of cryptography, PackIt, Partitioning cryptanalysis, Password, Password cracking, Password strength, Paul Baran, Paul Kocher, Phillip Rogaway, Pirate decryption, PKCS 11, Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol, Power analysis, Power of two, Prince (cipher), Product cipher, Project 25, Pseudorandom permutation, PuTTY, QR code, ROT13, RSA Secret-Key Challenge, RSA Security, S-box, Satellite television, SAVILLE, Sean Murphy (cryptographer), SekChek Classic, SekChek Local, Serpent (cipher), Server Message Block, SGSM, Simple Network Management Protocol, SPARC T3, Spectre (security vulnerability), SSLeay, STM32, Stream cipher, Strong cryptography, Subscriber identity module, Substitution cipher, Substitution–permutation network, Supercomputer, Supercomputer architecture, Television encryption, The Codebreakers, The Radio Hacker's Codebook, Timeline of cryptography, Timeline of Electronic Frontier Foundation actions, Transbase, Transport Layer Security, Triple DES, Twofish, UltraSPARC T2, United States Secret Service, Videocipher, Walter Tuchman, WaveLAN, Weak key, Whitfield Diffie, Windows Media Audio, Windows Media DRM, Windows Media Video, Wireless Transport Layer Security, WolfSSL, XcodeGhost, XXTEA, Yvo G. Desmedt, Zip (file format), 40-bit encryption, 56-bit encryption. Expand index (193 more) » « Shrink index
A5/1 is a stream cipher used to provide over-the-air communication privacy in the GSM cellular telephone standard.
The Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), also known by its original name Rijndael, is a specification for the encryption of electronic data established by the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in 2001.
The Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), the symmetric block cipher ratified as a standard by National Institute of Standards and Technology of the United States (NIST), was chosen using a process lasting from 1997 to 2000 that was markedly more open and transparent than its predecessor, the Data Encryption Standard (DES).
Advanced Systems Format (formerly Advanced Streaming Format, Active Streaming Format) is Microsoft's proprietary digital audio/digital video container format, especially meant for streaming media.
In cryptography, an adversary's advantage is a measure of how successfully it can attack a cryptographic algorithm, by distinguishing it from an idealized version of that type of algorithm.
The Accredited Standards Committee X9 (ASC X9, Inc.) is an ANSI (American National Standards Institute) accredited standards developing organization, responsible for developing voluntary open consensus standards for the financial services industry in the U.S. ASC X9 is the USA Technical Advisory Group (TAG) to the International Technical Committee on Financial Services ISO/TC 68 under the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), of Geneva, Switzerland, and submits X9 American National Standards to the international committee to be considered for adoption as international standards or ISO standards.
AVR is a family of microcontrollers developed by Atmel beginning in 1996.
The Atmel AVR instruction set is the machine language for the Atmel AVR, a modified Harvard architecture 8-bit RISC single chip microcontroller which was developed by Atmel in 1996.
An automated teller machine (ATM) is an electronic telecommunications device that enables customers of financial institutions to perform financial transactions, such as cash withdrawals, deposits, transfer funds, or obtaining account information, at any time and without the need for direct interaction with bank staff.
BestCrypt is a commercial disk encryption app for Windows, Linux and OS X, developed by Jetico Inc, Oy.
Bit slicing is a technique for constructing a processor from modules of processors of smaller bit width, for the purpose of increasing the word length; in theory to make an arbitrary n-bit CPU.
In cryptography, a block cipher is a deterministic algorithm operating on fixed-length groups of bits, called a block, with an unvarying transformation that is specified by a symmetric key.
In cryptography, a block cipher mode of operation is an algorithm that uses a block cipher to provide an information service such as confidentiality or authenticity.
In modern cryptography, symmetric key ciphers are generally divided into stream ciphers and block ciphers.
Blowfish is a symmetric-key block cipher, designed in 1993 by Bruce Schneier and included in a large number of cipher suites and encryption products.
Books on cryptography have been published sporadically and with highly variable quality for a long time.
Briarcliff Manor is a suburban village in Westchester County, New York, around north of New York City.
Brute Force (2005, Copernicus Books) is a book by Matt Curtin about cryptography.
In cryptography, a brute-force attack consists of an attacker trying many passwords or passphrases with the hope of eventually guessing correctly.
Louis Bryant Tuckerman, III (November 28, 1915 – May 19, 2002) was an American mathematician, born in Lincoln, Nebraska.
In cryptography, a cipher block chaining message authentication code (CBC-MAC) is a technique for constructing a message authentication code from a block cipher.
ccTalk (pronounced see-see-talk) is a serial protocol in widespread use throughout the money transaction and point-of-sale industry.
In cryptography, CDMF (Commercial Data Masking Facility) is an algorithm developed at IBM in 1992 to reduce the security strength of the 56-bit DES cipher to that of 40-bit encryption, at the time a requirement of U.S. restrictions on export of cryptography.
In cryptography, a cipher (or cypher) is an algorithm for performing encryption or decryption—a series of well-defined steps that can be followed as a procedure.
This article summarizes publicly known attacks against block ciphers and stream ciphers.
A cipher suite is a set of algorithms that help secure a network connection that uses Transport Layer Security (TLS) or Secure Socket Layer (SSL).
In cryptography, ciphertext or cyphertext is the result of encryption performed on plaintext using an algorithm, called a cipher.
In cryptography, a ciphertext-only attack (COA) or known ciphertext attack is an attack model for cryptanalysis where the attacker is assumed to have access only to a set of ciphertexts.
In cryptography, a classical cipher is a type of cipher that was used historically but now has fallen, for the most part, into disuse.
The Clipper chip was a chipset that was developed and promoted by the United States National Security Agency (NSA) as an encryption device that secured “voice and data messages" with a built-in backdoor.
Cobian Backup was a free, donation-supported backup software for Microsoft Windows.
In Digital Video Broadcasting, the Common Interface (also called DVB-CI) is a technology which allows decryption of pay TV channels.
This article lists communication protocols that are designed for file transfer over a telecommunications network.
A kernel is the most fundamental component of a computer operating system.
This page is a comparison of remote desktop software available for various platforms.
The Transport Layer Security (TLS) protocol provides the ability to secure communications across networks.
The Content Scramble System (CSS) is a digital rights management (DRM) and encryption system employed on many commercially produced DVD-Video discs.
crypt is the library function which is used to compute a password hash that can be used to store user account passwords while keeping them relatively secure (a passwd file).
Cryptanalysis (from the Greek kryptós, "hidden", and analýein, "to loosen" or "to untie") is the study of analyzing information systems in order to study the hidden aspects of the systems.
cryptlib is an open source cross-platform software security toolkit library.
Crypto: How the Code Rebels Beat the Government Saving Privacy in the Digital Age is a book about cryptography written by Steven Levy, published in 2001.
The Crypto Wars is an unofficial name for the U.S. and allied governments' attempts to limit the public's and foreign nations' access to cryptography strong enough to resist decryption by national intelligence agencies (especially USA's NSA).
Cryptographic primitives are well-established, low-level cryptographic algorithms that are frequently used to build cryptographic protocols for computer security systems.
Cryptography or cryptology (from κρυπτός|translit.
There are a number of standards related to cryptography.
The Cryptomeria cipher, also called C2, is a proprietary block cipher defined and licensed by the 4C Entity.
The cube attack is a method of cryptanalysis applicable to a wide variety of symmetric-key algorithms, published by Itai Dinur and Adi Shamir in a September 2008 preprint.
In cryptography, a custom hardware attack uses specifically designed application-specific integrated circuits (ASIC) to decipher encrypted messages.
Cyber crime, or computer crime, refers to any crime that involves a computer and a network.
In computer science, cycle detection or cycle finding is the algorithmic problem of finding a cycle in a sequence of iterated function values.
A cypherpunk (UK /ˈsʌɪfəpʌŋk/ US /ˈsʌɪfərpʌŋk/) is any activist advocating widespread use of strong cryptography and privacy-enhancing technologies as a route to social and political change.
The Data Authentication Algorithm (DAA) is a former U.S. government standard for producing cryptographic message authentication codes.
David Kahn (b. February 7, 1930*) is a US historian, journalist and writer.
In cryptography, the Davies attack is a dedicated statistical cryptanalysis method for attacking the Data Encryption Standard (DES).
DEA is the commonly used acronym for the Drug Enforcement Administration, a United States law enforcement agency.
In cryptography, DEAL (Data Encryption Algorithm with Larger blocks) is a symmetric block cipher derived from the Data Encryption Standard (DES).
DES or Des may refer to.
The DES Challenges were a series of brute force attack contests created by RSA Security to highlight the lack of security provided by the Data Encryption Standard.
For reference, this article details the various tables referenced in the Data Encryption Standard (DES) block cipher.
In cryptography, DES-X (or DESX) is a variant on the DES (Data Encryption Standard) symmetric-key block cipher intended to increase the complexity of a brute force attack using a technique called key whitening.
DESCHALL, short for DES Challenge, was the first group to publicly break a message which used the Data Encryption Standard (DES), becoming the $10,000 winner of the first of the set of DES Challenges proposed by RSA Security in 1997.
Differential cryptanalysis is a general form of cryptanalysis applicable primarily to block ciphers, but also to stream ciphers and cryptographic hash functions.
Differential fault analysis (DFA) is a type of side channel attack in the field of cryptography, specifically cryptanalysis.
Introduced by Martin Hellman and Susan K. Langford in 1994, the differential-linear attack is a mix of both linear cryptanalysis and differential cryptanalysis.
Data Over Cable Service Interface Specification (DOCSIS) is an international telecommunications standard that permits the addition of high-bandwidth data transfer to an existing cable TV (CATV) system.
Don Coppersmith (born 1950) is a cryptographer and mathematician.
Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code (EBCDIC) is an eight-bit character encoding used mainly on IBM mainframe and IBM midrange computer operating systems.
Edna Grossman (born Edna Kalka) is an American mathematician.
In cryptography, the EFF DES cracker (nicknamed "Deep Crack") is a machine built by the Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) in 1998, to perform a brute force search of the Data Encryption Standard (DES) cipher's key space – that is, to decrypt an encrypted message by trying every possible key.
The Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) is an international non-profit digital rights group based in San Francisco, California.
Eli Biham (אלי ביהם) is an Israeli cryptographer and cryptanalyst, currently a professor at the Technion Israeli Institute of Technology Computer Science department.
This is a timeline of the public releases or introductions of computer encryption algorithms.
The ETRAX CRIS is a series of CPUs designed and manufactured by Axis Communications for use in embedded systems since 1993.
The export of cryptographic technology and devices from the United States was severely restricted by U.S. law until 1992, but was gradually eased until 2000; some restrictions still remain.
FASCINATOR is a series of Type 1 encryption modules designed in the late-1980s to be installed in Motorola digital-capable voice radios.
In cryptography, FEAL (the Fast data Encipherment ALgorithm) is a block cipher proposed as an alternative to the Data Encryption Standard (DES), and designed to be much faster in software.
Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS) are publicly announced standards developed by the United States federal government for use in computer systems by non-military government agencies and government contractors.
In cryptography, a Feistel cipher is a symmetric structure used in the construction of block ciphers, named after the German-born physicist and cryptographer Horst Feistel who did pioneering research while working for IBM (USA); it is also commonly known as a Feistel network.
FFmpeg is a free software project, the product of which is a vast software suite of libraries and programs for handling video, audio, and other multimedia files and streams.
Financial cryptography (FC) is the use of cryptography in applications in which financial loss could result from subversion of the message system.
FinTS (Financial Transaction Services), formerly known as HBCI (Home Banking Computer Interface), is a bank-independent protocol for online banking, developed and used by German banks.
In cryptography, format-preserving encryption (FPE), refers to encrypting in such a way that the output (the ciphertext) is in the same format as the input (the plaintext).
FreeOTFE is a discontinued open source computer program for on-the-fly disk encryption (OTFE).
FTPS (also known as FTPES, FTP-SSL, and FTP Secure) is an extension to the commonly used File Transfer Protocol (FTP) that adds support for the Transport Layer Security (TLS) and the Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) cryptographic protocols.
In cryptography, the Generalized DES Scheme (GDES or G-DES) is a variant of the DES symmetric-key block cipher designed with the intention of speeding up the encryption process while improving its security.
General-purpose computing on graphics processing units (GPGPU, rarely GPGP) is the use of a graphics processing unit (GPU), which typically handles computation only for computer graphics, to perform computation in applications traditionally handled by the central processing unit (CPU).
George Barry Purdy (20 February 1944 - 30 December 2017) was a mathematician and computer scientist who specialized in cryptography, combinatorial geometry and number theory.
This glossary lists types of keys as the term is used in cryptography, as opposed to door locks.
The GOST block cipher (Magma), defined in the standard GOST 28147-89 (RFC 5830), is a Soviet and Russian government standard symmetric key block cipher with a block size of 64 bits.
HiperLAN (High Performance Radio LAN) is a Wireless LAN standard.
Cryptography, the use of codes and ciphers to protect secrets, began thousands of years ago.
International Business Machines, or IBM, nicknamed "Big Blue", is a multinational computer technology and IT consulting corporation headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States.
The invention of the television was the work of many individuals in the late 19th century and early 20th century.
HomePlug is the family name for various power line communications specifications under the HomePlug designation, with each offering unique performance capabilities and coexistence or compatibility with other HomePlug specifications.
Horst Feistel (January 30, 1915 – November 14, 1990) was a German-born cryptographer who worked on the design of ciphers at IBM, initiating research that culminated in the development of the Data Encryption Standard (DES) in the 1970s.
The IBM 3624 was a late 1970s second-generation automatic teller machine (ATM), a successor to the IBM 3614.
IBM Research is IBM's research and development division.
In cryptography, ICE (Information Concealment Engine) is a symmetric-key block cipher published by Kwan in 1997.
IEEE 802.16 is a series of wireless broadband standards written by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE).
Articles related to cryptography include.
Articles related to standards include.
In cryptography, the International Data Encryption Algorithm (IDEA), originally called Improved Proposed Encryption Standard (IPES), is a symmetric-key block cipher designed by James Massey of ETH Zurich and Xuejia Lai and was first described in 1991.
In computing, Internet Protocol Security (IPsec) is a secure network protocol suite of IPv4 that authenticates and encrypts the packets of data sent over an IPv4 network.
ISO/IEC 9797-1 Information technology – Security techniques – Message Authentication Codes (MACs) – Part 1: Mechanisms using a block cipher is an international standard that defines methods for calculating a message authentication code (MAC) over data.
James Harris "Jim" Simons (born April 25, 1938) is an American mathematician, billionaire hedge fund manager, and philanthropist.
Java Card refers to a software technology that allows Java-based applications (applets) to be run securely on smart cards and similar small memory footprint devices.
John Gilmore (born 1955) is one of the founders of the Electronic Frontier Foundation, the Cypherpunks mailing list, and Cygnus Solutions.
John the Ripper is a free password cracking software tool.
Kerberos is a computer network authentication protocol that works on the basis of tickets to allow nodes communicating over a non-secure network to prove their identity to one another in a secure manner.
In cryptography, a key derivation function (KDF) derives one or more secret keys from a secret value such as a master key, a password, or a passphrase using a pseudorandom function.
In cryptography key feedback mode (KFB) is a mode of operation for cryptographic block ciphers.
Key generation is the process of generating keys in cryptography.
In cryptography, the so-called product ciphers are a certain kind of cipher, where the (de-)ciphering of data is typically done as an iteration of rounds.
In cryptography, key size or key length is the number of bits in a key used by a cryptographic algorithm (such as a cipher).
In cryptography, an algorithm's key space refers to the set of all possible permutations of a key.
In cryptography, key stretching techniques are used to make a possibly weak key, typically a password or passphrase, more secure against a brute-force attack by increasing the time it takes to test each possible key.
In cryptography, key whitening is a technique intended to increase the security of an iterated block cipher.
In cryptography, KHAZAD is a block cipher designed by Paulo S. L. M. Barreto together with Vincent Rijmen, one of the designers of the Advanced Encryption Standard (Rijndael).
In cryptography, KN-Cipher is a block cipher created by Kaisa Nyberg and Lars Knudsen in 1995.
In cryptography, Ladder-DES is a block cipher designed in 1994 by Terry Ritter.
LAN Manager was a Network operating system (NOS) available from multiple vendors and developed by Microsoft in cooperation with 3Com Corporation.
Lars Ramkilde Knudsen (born 21 February 1962) is a Danish researcher in cryptography, particularly interested in the design and analysis of block ciphers, hash functions and message authentication codes (MACs).
Lawrence Peter "Lawrie" Brown is a cryptographer and computer security researcher, currently a (retired and now visiting) Senior Lecturer with UNSW Canberra at the Australian Defence Force Academy.
Libav is a free software project, forked from FFmpeg in 2011, that produces libraries and programs for handling multimedia data.
Libgcrypt is a cryptography library developed as a separated module of GnuPG.
In cryptography, linear cryptanalysis is a general form of cryptanalysis based on finding affine approximations to the action of a cipher.
The following is a list of algorithms along with one-line descriptions for each.
This page contains terminology related to CDMA.
This is a list of computing and IT acronyms and abbreviations.
List of cryptographers.
This is a list of important publications in cryptography, organized by field.
The table below lists information technology initialisms and acronyms in common and current usage.
This is a list of telecommunications encryption terms.
In cryptography, LOKI89 and LOKI91 are symmetric-key block ciphers designed as possible replacements for the Data Encryption Standard (DES).
In cryptography, LOKI97 is a block cipher which was a candidate in the Advanced Encryption Standard competition.
In cryptography, Lucifer was the name given to several of the earliest civilian block ciphers, developed by Horst Feistel and his colleagues at IBM.
In cryptography, MacGuffin is a block cipher created in 1994 by Bruce Schneier and Matt Blaze at a Fast Software Encryption workshop.
In cryptography, Madryga is a block cipher published in 1984 by W. E. Madryga.
The following events occurred in March 1981.
MARS is a block cipher that was IBM's submission to the Advanced Encryption Standard process.
Martin Edward Hellman (born October 2, 1945) is an American cryptologist, best known for his invention of public key cryptography in cooperation with Whitfield Diffie and Ralph Merkle.
Matt Curtin (born 1973) is a computer scientist and entrepreneur in Columbus, Ohio best known for his work in cryptography and firewall systems.
mbed TLS (previously PolarSSL) is an implementation of the TLS and SSL protocols and the respective cryptographic algorithms and support code required.
mcrypt is a replacement for the popular Unix crypt command.
In cryptography, MDC-2 (Modification Detection Code 2, sometimes called Meyer-Schilling) is a cryptographic hash function.
The meet-in-the-middle attack (MITM) is a generic space–time tradeoff cryptographic attack against encryption schemes which rely on performing multiple encryption operations in sequence.
In cryptography, a message authentication code (MAC), sometimes known as a tag, is a short piece of information used to authenticate a message—in other words, to confirm that the message came from the stated sender (its authenticity) and has not been changed.
The Microsoft windows platform specific Cryptographic Application Programming Interface (also known variously as CryptoAPI, Microsoft Cryptography API, MS-CAPI or simply CAPI) is an application programming interface included with Microsoft Windows operating systems that provides services to enable developers to secure Windows-based applications using cryptography.
MIFARE is the NXP Semiconductors-owned trademark of a series of chips widely used in contactless smart cards and proximity cards.
is a Japanese cryptographer and senior researcher for Mitsubishi Electric Company.
Motorola Type II refers to the second generation Motorola trunked radio systems that replaced fleets and subfleets with the concept of talkgroups and individual radio IDs.
Matthew Rosenfield, known as Moxie Marlinspike, is an American computer security researcher, whose research focuses primarily on techniques for intercepting communication, as well as methods for strengthening communication infrastructure against interception.
MPEG transport stream (transport stream, MPEG-TS, MTS or TS) is a standard digital container format for transmission and storage of audio, video, and Program and System Information Protocol (PSIP) data.
MS-CHAP is the Microsoft version of the Challenge-Handshake Authentication Protocol, CHAP.
The National Cryptologic Museum (NCM) is an American museum of cryptologic history that is affiliated with the National Security Agency (NSA).
The National Security Agency (NSA) is a national-level intelligence agency of the United States Department of Defense, under the authority of the Director of National Intelligence.
Nettle is a cryptographic library designed to fit easily in a wide range of toolkits and applications.
In computing, Network Security Services (NSS) comprises a set of libraries designed to support cross-platform development of security-enabled client and server applications with optional support for hardware TLS/SSL acceleration on the server side and hardware smart cards on the client side.
Neural cryptography is a branch of cryptography dedicated to analyzing the application of stochastic algorithms, especially artificial neural network algorithms, for use in encryption and cryptanalysis.
In cryptography, New Data Seal (NDS) is a block cipher that was designed at IBM in 1975, based on the Lucifer algorithm that became DES.
In cryptography, NewDES is a symmetric key block cipher.
Norton Utilities is a utility software suite designed to help analyze, configure, optimize and maintain a computer.
In cryptography, nothing-up-my-sleeve numbers are any numbers which, by their construction, are above suspicion of hidden properties.
The vast majority of the National Security Agency's work on encryption is classified, but from time to time NSA participates in standards processes or otherwise publishes information about its cryptographic algorithms.
The National Security Agency took over responsibility for all U.S. Government encryption systems when it was formed in 1952.
The U.S. National Security Agency (NSA) ranks cryptographic products or algorithms by a certification called product types.
In a Windows network, NT LAN Manager (NTLM) is a suite of Microsoft security protocols that provides authentication, integrity, and confidentiality to users.
NXDN is an open standard Common Air Interface (CAI) technical protocol for mobile communications.
OpenCores is an open source hardware community developing digital open source hardware through electronic design automation, with a similar ethos to the free software movement.
OpenSSL is a software library for applications that secure communications over computer networks against eavesdropping or need to identify the party at the other end.
An order of magnitude is a factor of ten.
This list contains selected positive numbers in increasing order, including counts of things, dimensionless quantity and probabilities.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to cryptography: Cryptography (or cryptology) – practice and study of hiding information.
PackIt is a software data compression utility for archiving and compressing files on the Apple Macintosh platform.
In cryptography, partitioning cryptanalysis is a form of cryptanalysis for block ciphers.
A password is a word or string of characters used for user authentication to prove identity or access approval to gain access to a resource (example: an access code is a type of password), which is to be kept secret from those not allowed access.
In cryptanalysis and computer security, password cracking is the process of recovering passwords from data that have been stored in or transmitted by a computer system.
Password strength is a measure of the effectiveness of a password against guessing or brute-force attacks.
Paul Baran (April 29, 1926 – March 26, 2011) was a Polish-born Jewish American engineer who was a pioneer in the development of computer networks.
Paul Carl Kocher (born June 11, 1973) is an American cryptographer and cryptography consultant, currently the president and chief scientist of Cryptography Research, Inc.
Phillip Rogaway is a professor of computer science at the University of California, Davis.
Pirate decryption most often refers to the decryption, or decoding, of pay TV or pay radio signals without permission from the original broadcaster.
In cryptography, PKCS #11 is one of the Public-Key Cryptography Standards, and also refers to the programming interface to create and manipulate cryptographic tokens.
The Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP) is an obsolete method for implementing virtual private networks, with many known security issues.
In cryptography, power analysis is a form of side channel attack in which the attacker studies the power consumption of a cryptographic hardware device (such as a smart card, tamper-resistant "black box", or integrated circuit).
In mathematics, a power of two is a number of the form where is an integer, i.e. the result of exponentiation with number two as the base and integer as the exponent.
Prince is a block cipher targeting low latency, unrolled hardware implementations.
In cryptography, a product cipher combines two or more transformations in a manner intending that the resulting cipher is more secure than the individual components to make it resistant to cryptanalysis.
Project 25 (P25 or APCO-25) is a suite of standards for digital mobile radio communications designed for use by public safety organizations in North America.
In cryptography, a pseudorandom permutation (PRP) is a function that cannot be distinguished from a random permutation (that is, a permutation selected at random with uniform probability, from the family of all permutations on the function's domain) with practical effort.
PuTTY is a free and open-source terminal emulator, serial console and network file transfer application.
QR code (abbreviated from Quick Response Code) is the trademark for a type of matrix barcode (or two-dimensional barcode) first designed in 1994 for the automotive industry in Japan.
ROT13 ("rotate by 13 places", sometimes hyphenated ROT-13) is a simple letter substitution cipher that replaces a letter with the 13th letter after it, in the alphabet.
The RSA Secret-Key Challenge consisted of a series of cryptographic contests organised by RSA Laboratories with the intent of helping to demonstrate the relative security of different encryption algorithms.
RSA Security LLC, formerly RSA Security, Inc. and doing business as RSA, is an American computer and network security company.
In cryptography, an S-box (substitution-box) is a basic component of symmetric key algorithms which performs substitution.
Satellite television is a service that delivers television programming to viewers by relaying it from a communications satellite orbiting the Earth directly to the viewer's location.
SAVILLE is a classified NSA Type 1 encryption algorithm, developed in the late 1960s, jointly by the Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ) in the UK and the National Security Agency (NSA) in the US.
Sean Murphy is a cryptographer, currently a professor at Royal Holloway, University of London.
SekChek Classic comprises a set of automated computer security audit and benchmarking tools for non-mainframe platforms developed by SekChek IPS in 1996.
SekChek Local is a set of automated computer security audit and benchmarking tools developed by SekChek IPS in March 2008.
Serpent is a symmetric key block cipher that was a finalist in the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) contest, where it was ranked second to Rijndael.
In computer networking, Server Message Block (SMB), one version of which was also known as Common Internet File System (CIFS), operates as an application-layer network protocol mainly used for providing shared access to files, printers, and serial ports and miscellaneous communications between nodes on a network.
Secure GSM, a wireless product, is based on Global System for Mobile communications (GSM) originally from Groupe Spécial Mobile.
Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is an Internet Standard protocol for collecting and organizing information about managed devices on IP networks and for modifying that information to change device behavior.
The SPARC T3 microprocessor (previously known as UltraSPARC T3, codenamed Rainbow Falls, and also known as UltraSPARC KT or Niagara-3 during development) is a multithreading, multi-core CPU produced by Oracle Corporation (previously Sun Microsystems).
Spectre is a vulnerability that affects modern microprocessors that perform branch prediction.
SSLeay is an open-source SSL implementation.
STM32 is a family of 32-bit microcontroller integrated circuits by STMicroelectronics.
A stream cipher is a symmetric key cipher where plaintext digits are combined with a pseudorandom cipher digit stream (keystream).
Strong cryptography or cryptographic-ally strong are general terms applied to cryptographic systems or components that are considered highly resistant to cryptanalysis.
A subscriber identity module or subscriber identification module (SIM), widely known as a SIM card, is an integrated circuit that is intended to securely store the international mobile subscriber identity (IMSI) number and its related key, which are used to identify and authenticate subscribers on mobile telephony devices (such as mobile phones and computers).
In cryptography, a substitution cipher is a method of encrypting by which units of plaintext are replaced with ciphertext, according to a fixed system; the "units" may be single letters (the most common), pairs of letters, triplets of letters, mixtures of the above, and so forth.
In cryptography, an SP-network, or substitution–permutation network (SPN), is a series of linked mathematical operations used in block cipher algorithms such as AES (Rijndael), 3-Way, Kuznyechik, PRESENT, SAFER, SHARK, and Square.
A supercomputer is a computer with a high level of performance compared to a general-purpose computer.
Approaches to supercomputer architecture have taken dramatic turns since the earliest systems were introduced in the 1960s.
Television encryption, often referred to as "scrambling", is encryption used to control access to pay television services, usually cable or satellite television services.
The Codebreakers – The Story of Secret Writing is a book by David Kahn, published in 1967 comprehensively chronicling the history of cryptography from ancient Egypt to the time of its writing.
The Radio Hacker's Codebook is a book for computer enthusiasts written by George Sassoon.
Below is a timeline of notable events related to cryptography.
The Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) is an international non-profit advocacy and legal organization based in the United States.
Transbase is a relational database management system, developed and maintained by Transaction Software GmbH, Munich.
Transport Layer Security (TLS) – and its predecessor, Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), which is now deprecated by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) – are cryptographic protocols that provide communications security over a computer network.
In cryptography, Triple DES (3DES), officially the Triple Data Encryption Algorithm (TDEA or Triple DEA), is a symmetric-key block cipher, which applies the DES cipher algorithm three times to each data block.
In cryptography, Twofish is a symmetric key block cipher with a block size of 128 bits and key sizes up to 256 bits.
Sun Microsystems' UltraSPARC T2 microprocessor is a multithreading, multi-core CPU.
The United States Secret Service (also USSS or Secret Service) is a federal law enforcement agency under the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, charged with conducting criminal investigations and protecting the nation's leaders.
VideoCipher is a brand name of analog scrambling and de-scrambling equipment for cable and satellite television invented primarily to enforce Television receive-only (TVRO) satellite equipment to only receive TV programming on a subscription basis.
Walter Tuchman led the Data Encryption Standard development team at IBM.
WaveLAN was a brand name for a family of wireless networking technology sold by NCR, AT&T, and Lucent, as well as being sold by other companies under OEM agreements.
In cryptography, a weak key is a key, which, used with a specific cipher, makes the cipher behave in some undesirable way.
Bailey Whitfield 'Whit' Diffie (born June 5, 1944) is an American cryptographer and one of the pioneers of public-key cryptography along with Martin Hellman and Ralph Merkle.
Windows Media Audio (WMA) is the name of a series of audio codecs and their corresponding audio coding formats developed by Microsoft.
Windows Media DRM or WMDRM, is a Digital Rights Management service for the Windows Media platform.
Windows Media Video (WMV) is a series of video codecs and their corresponding video coding formats developed by Microsoft.
Wireless Transport Layer Security (WTLS) is a security protocol, part of the Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) stack.
wolfSSL (formerly CyaSSL or yet another SSL) is a small, portable, embedded SSL/TLS library targeted for use by embedded systems developers.
XcodeGhost (and variant XcodeGhost S) are modified versions of Apple's Xcode development environment that are considered malware.
In cryptography, Corrected Block TEA (often referred to as XXTEA) is a block cipher designed to correct weaknesses in the original Block TEA.
ZIP is an archive file format that supports lossless data compression.
40-bit encryption refers to a key size of forty bits, or five bytes, for symmetric encryption; this represents a relatively low level of security.
In computing, 56-bit encryption refers to a key size of fifty-six bits, or seven bytes, for symmetric encryption.