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Data Encryption Standard

Index Data Encryption Standard

The Data Encryption Standard (DES) is a symmetric-key algorithm for the encryption of electronic data. [1]

243 relations: A5/1, Advanced Encryption Standard, Advanced Encryption Standard process, Advanced Systems Format, Advantage (cryptography), ASC X9, Atmel AVR, Atmel AVR instruction set, Automated teller machine, BestCrypt, Bit slicing, Block cipher, Block cipher mode of operation, Block size (cryptography), Blowfish (cipher), Books on cryptography, Briarcliff Manor, New York, Brute Force: Cracking the Data Encryption Standard, Brute-force attack, Bryant Tuckerman, CBC-MAC, CcTalk, CDMF, Cipher, Cipher security summary, Cipher suite, Ciphertext, Ciphertext-only attack, Classical cipher, Clipper chip, Cobian Backup, Common Interface, Comparison of file transfer protocols, Comparison of operating system kernels, Comparison of remote desktop software, Comparison of TLS implementations, Content Scramble System, Crypt (C), Cryptanalysis, Cryptlib, Crypto (book), Crypto Wars, Cryptographic primitive, Cryptography, Cryptography standards, Cryptomeria cipher, Cube attack, Custom hardware attack, Cybercrime countermeasures, Cycle detection, ..., Cypherpunk, Data Authentication Algorithm, David Kahn (writer), Davies attack, DEA (disambiguation), DEAL, DES, DES Challenges, DES supplementary material, DES-X, DESCHALL Project, Differential cryptanalysis, Differential fault analysis, Differential-linear attack, DOCSIS, Don Coppersmith, EBCDIC, Edna Grossman, EFF DES cracker, Electronic Frontier Foundation, Eli Biham, Encryption by date, ETRAX CRIS, Export of cryptography from the United States, FASCINATOR, FEAL, Federal Information Processing Standards, Feistel cipher, FFmpeg, Financial cryptography, FinTS, Format-preserving encryption, FreeOTFE, FTPS, GDES, General-purpose computing on graphics processing units, George B. Purdy, Glossary of cryptographic keys, GOST (block cipher), HiperLAN, History of cryptography, History of IBM, History of television, HomePlug, Horst Feistel, IBM 3624, IBM Research, ICE (cipher), IEEE 802.16, Index of cryptography articles, Index of standards articles, International Data Encryption Algorithm, IPsec, ISO/IEC 9797-1, James Harris Simons, Java Card, John Gilmore (activist), John the Ripper, Kerberos (protocol), Key derivation function, Key feedback mode, Key generation, Key schedule, Key size, Key space (cryptography), Key stretching, Key whitening, KHAZAD, KN-Cipher, Ladder-DES, LAN Manager, Lars Ramkilde Knudsen, Lawrie Brown, Libav, Libgcrypt, Linear cryptanalysis, List of algorithms, List of CDMA terminology, List of computing and IT abbreviations, List of cryptographers, List of important publications in cryptography, List of information technology initialisms, List of telecommunications encryption terms, LOKI, LOKI97, Lucifer (cipher), MacGuffin (cipher), Madryga, March 1981, MARS (cryptography), Martin Hellman, Matt Curtin, Mbed TLS, Mcrypt, MDC-2, Meet-in-the-middle attack, Message authentication code, Microsoft CryptoAPI, MIFARE, Mitsuru Matsui, Motorola Type II, Moxie Marlinspike, MPEG transport stream, MS-CHAP, National Cryptologic Museum, National Security Agency, Nettle (cryptographic library), Network Security Services, Neural cryptography, New Data Seal, NewDES, Norton Utilities, Nothing up my sleeve number, NSA cryptography, NSA encryption systems, NSA product types, NT LAN Manager, NXDN, OpenCores, OpenSSL, Orders of magnitude (data), Orders of magnitude (numbers), Outline of cryptography, PackIt, Partitioning cryptanalysis, Password, Password cracking, Password strength, Paul Baran, Paul Kocher, Phillip Rogaway, Pirate decryption, PKCS 11, Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol, Power analysis, Power of two, Prince (cipher), Product cipher, Project 25, Pseudorandom permutation, PuTTY, QR code, ROT13, RSA Secret-Key Challenge, RSA Security, S-box, Satellite television, SAVILLE, Sean Murphy (cryptographer), SekChek Classic, SekChek Local, Serpent (cipher), Server Message Block, SGSM, Simple Network Management Protocol, SPARC T3, Spectre (security vulnerability), SSLeay, STM32, Stream cipher, Strong cryptography, Subscriber identity module, Substitution cipher, Substitution–permutation network, Supercomputer, Supercomputer architecture, Television encryption, The Codebreakers, The Radio Hacker's Codebook, Timeline of cryptography, Timeline of Electronic Frontier Foundation actions, Transbase, Transport Layer Security, Triple DES, Twofish, UltraSPARC T2, United States Secret Service, Videocipher, Walter Tuchman, WaveLAN, Weak key, Whitfield Diffie, Windows Media Audio, Windows Media DRM, Windows Media Video, Wireless Transport Layer Security, WolfSSL, XcodeGhost, XXTEA, Yvo G. Desmedt, Zip (file format), 40-bit encryption, 56-bit encryption. Expand index (193 more) »

A5/1

A5/1 is a stream cipher used to provide over-the-air communication privacy in the GSM cellular telephone standard.

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Advanced Encryption Standard

The Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), also known by its original name Rijndael, is a specification for the encryption of electronic data established by the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in 2001.

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Advanced Encryption Standard process

The Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), the symmetric block cipher ratified as a standard by National Institute of Standards and Technology of the United States (NIST), was chosen using a process lasting from 1997 to 2000 that was markedly more open and transparent than its predecessor, the Data Encryption Standard (DES).

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Advanced Systems Format

Advanced Systems Format (formerly Advanced Streaming Format, Active Streaming Format) is Microsoft's proprietary digital audio/digital video container format, especially meant for streaming media.

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Advantage (cryptography)

In cryptography, an adversary's advantage is a measure of how successfully it can attack a cryptographic algorithm, by distinguishing it from an idealized version of that type of algorithm.

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ASC X9

The Accredited Standards Committee X9 (ASC X9, Inc.) is an ANSI (American National Standards Institute) accredited standards developing organization, responsible for developing voluntary open consensus standards for the financial services industry in the U.S. ASC X9 is the USA Technical Advisory Group (TAG) to the International Technical Committee on Financial Services ISO/TC 68 under the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), of Geneva, Switzerland, and submits X9 American National Standards to the international committee to be considered for adoption as international standards or ISO standards.

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Atmel AVR

AVR is a family of microcontrollers developed by Atmel beginning in 1996.

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Atmel AVR instruction set

The Atmel AVR instruction set is the machine language for the Atmel AVR, a modified Harvard architecture 8-bit RISC single chip microcontroller which was developed by Atmel in 1996.

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Automated teller machine

An automated teller machine (ATM) is an electronic telecommunications device that enables customers of financial institutions to perform financial transactions, such as cash withdrawals, deposits, transfer funds, or obtaining account information, at any time and without the need for direct interaction with bank staff.

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BestCrypt

BestCrypt is a commercial disk encryption app for Windows, Linux and OS X, developed by Jetico Inc, Oy.

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Bit slicing

Bit slicing is a technique for constructing a processor from modules of processors of smaller bit width, for the purpose of increasing the word length; in theory to make an arbitrary n-bit CPU.

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Block cipher

In cryptography, a block cipher is a deterministic algorithm operating on fixed-length groups of bits, called a block, with an unvarying transformation that is specified by a symmetric key.

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Block cipher mode of operation

In cryptography, a block cipher mode of operation is an algorithm that uses a block cipher to provide an information service such as confidentiality or authenticity.

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Block size (cryptography)

In modern cryptography, symmetric key ciphers are generally divided into stream ciphers and block ciphers.

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Blowfish (cipher)

Blowfish is a symmetric-key block cipher, designed in 1993 by Bruce Schneier and included in a large number of cipher suites and encryption products.

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Books on cryptography

Books on cryptography have been published sporadically and with highly variable quality for a long time.

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Briarcliff Manor, New York

Briarcliff Manor is a suburban village in Westchester County, New York, around north of New York City.

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Brute Force: Cracking the Data Encryption Standard

Brute Force (2005, Copernicus Books) is a book by Matt Curtin about cryptography.

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Brute-force attack

In cryptography, a brute-force attack consists of an attacker trying many passwords or passphrases with the hope of eventually guessing correctly.

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Bryant Tuckerman

Louis Bryant Tuckerman, III (November 28, 1915 – May 19, 2002) was an American mathematician, born in Lincoln, Nebraska.

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CBC-MAC

In cryptography, a cipher block chaining message authentication code (CBC-MAC) is a technique for constructing a message authentication code from a block cipher.

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CcTalk

ccTalk (pronounced see-see-talk) is a serial protocol in widespread use throughout the money transaction and point-of-sale industry.

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CDMF

In cryptography, CDMF (Commercial Data Masking Facility) is an algorithm developed at IBM in 1992 to reduce the security strength of the 56-bit DES cipher to that of 40-bit encryption, at the time a requirement of U.S. restrictions on export of cryptography.

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Cipher

In cryptography, a cipher (or cypher) is an algorithm for performing encryption or decryption—a series of well-defined steps that can be followed as a procedure.

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Cipher security summary

This article summarizes publicly known attacks against block ciphers and stream ciphers.

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Cipher suite

A cipher suite is a set of algorithms that help secure a network connection that uses Transport Layer Security (TLS) or Secure Socket Layer (SSL).

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Ciphertext

In cryptography, ciphertext or cyphertext is the result of encryption performed on plaintext using an algorithm, called a cipher.

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Ciphertext-only attack

In cryptography, a ciphertext-only attack (COA) or known ciphertext attack is an attack model for cryptanalysis where the attacker is assumed to have access only to a set of ciphertexts.

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Classical cipher

In cryptography, a classical cipher is a type of cipher that was used historically but now has fallen, for the most part, into disuse.

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Clipper chip

The Clipper chip was a chipset that was developed and promoted by the United States National Security Agency (NSA) as an encryption device that secured “voice and data messages" with a built-in backdoor.

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Cobian Backup

Cobian Backup was a free, donation-supported backup software for Microsoft Windows.

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Common Interface

In Digital Video Broadcasting, the Common Interface (also called DVB-CI) is a technology which allows decryption of pay TV channels.

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Comparison of file transfer protocols

This article lists communication protocols that are designed for file transfer over a telecommunications network.

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Comparison of operating system kernels

A kernel is the most fundamental component of a computer operating system.

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Comparison of remote desktop software

This page is a comparison of remote desktop software available for various platforms.

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Comparison of TLS implementations

The Transport Layer Security (TLS) protocol provides the ability to secure communications across networks.

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Content Scramble System

The Content Scramble System (CSS) is a digital rights management (DRM) and encryption system employed on many commercially produced DVD-Video discs.

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Crypt (C)

crypt is the library function which is used to compute a password hash that can be used to store user account passwords while keeping them relatively secure (a passwd file).

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Cryptanalysis

Cryptanalysis (from the Greek kryptós, "hidden", and analýein, "to loosen" or "to untie") is the study of analyzing information systems in order to study the hidden aspects of the systems.

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Cryptlib

cryptlib is an open source cross-platform software security toolkit library.

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Crypto (book)

Crypto: How the Code Rebels Beat the Government Saving Privacy in the Digital Age is a book about cryptography written by Steven Levy, published in 2001.

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Crypto Wars

The Crypto Wars is an unofficial name for the U.S. and allied governments' attempts to limit the public's and foreign nations' access to cryptography strong enough to resist decryption by national intelligence agencies (especially USA's NSA).

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Cryptographic primitive

Cryptographic primitives are well-established, low-level cryptographic algorithms that are frequently used to build cryptographic protocols for computer security systems.

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Cryptography

Cryptography or cryptology (from κρυπτός|translit.

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Cryptography standards

There are a number of standards related to cryptography.

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Cryptomeria cipher

The Cryptomeria cipher, also called C2, is a proprietary block cipher defined and licensed by the 4C Entity.

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Cube attack

The cube attack is a method of cryptanalysis applicable to a wide variety of symmetric-key algorithms, published by Itai Dinur and Adi Shamir in a September 2008 preprint.

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Custom hardware attack

In cryptography, a custom hardware attack uses specifically designed application-specific integrated circuits (ASIC) to decipher encrypted messages.

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Cybercrime countermeasures

Cyber crime, or computer crime, refers to any crime that involves a computer and a network.

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Cycle detection

In computer science, cycle detection or cycle finding is the algorithmic problem of finding a cycle in a sequence of iterated function values.

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Cypherpunk

A cypherpunk (UK /ˈsʌɪfəpʌŋk/ US /ˈsʌɪfərpʌŋk/) is any activist advocating widespread use of strong cryptography and privacy-enhancing technologies as a route to social and political change.

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Data Authentication Algorithm

The Data Authentication Algorithm (DAA) is a former U.S. government standard for producing cryptographic message authentication codes.

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David Kahn (writer)

David Kahn (b. February 7, 1930*) is a US historian, journalist and writer.

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Davies attack

In cryptography, the Davies attack is a dedicated statistical cryptanalysis method for attacking the Data Encryption Standard (DES).

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DEA (disambiguation)

DEA is the commonly used acronym for the Drug Enforcement Administration, a United States law enforcement agency.

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DEAL

In cryptography, DEAL (Data Encryption Algorithm with Larger blocks) is a symmetric block cipher derived from the Data Encryption Standard (DES).

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DES

DES or Des may refer to.

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DES Challenges

The DES Challenges were a series of brute force attack contests created by RSA Security to highlight the lack of security provided by the Data Encryption Standard.

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DES supplementary material

For reference, this article details the various tables referenced in the Data Encryption Standard (DES) block cipher.

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DES-X

In cryptography, DES-X (or DESX) is a variant on the DES (Data Encryption Standard) symmetric-key block cipher intended to increase the complexity of a brute force attack using a technique called key whitening.

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DESCHALL Project

DESCHALL, short for DES Challenge, was the first group to publicly break a message which used the Data Encryption Standard (DES), becoming the $10,000 winner of the first of the set of DES Challenges proposed by RSA Security in 1997.

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Differential cryptanalysis

Differential cryptanalysis is a general form of cryptanalysis applicable primarily to block ciphers, but also to stream ciphers and cryptographic hash functions.

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Differential fault analysis

Differential fault analysis (DFA) is a type of side channel attack in the field of cryptography, specifically cryptanalysis.

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Differential-linear attack

Introduced by Martin Hellman and Susan K. Langford in 1994, the differential-linear attack is a mix of both linear cryptanalysis and differential cryptanalysis.

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DOCSIS

Data Over Cable Service Interface Specification (DOCSIS) is an international telecommunications standard that permits the addition of high-bandwidth data transfer to an existing cable TV (CATV) system.

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Don Coppersmith

Don Coppersmith (born 1950) is a cryptographer and mathematician.

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EBCDIC

Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code (EBCDIC) is an eight-bit character encoding used mainly on IBM mainframe and IBM midrange computer operating systems.

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Edna Grossman

Edna Grossman (born Edna Kalka) is an American mathematician.

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EFF DES cracker

In cryptography, the EFF DES cracker (nicknamed "Deep Crack") is a machine built by the Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) in 1998, to perform a brute force search of the Data Encryption Standard (DES) cipher's key space – that is, to decrypt an encrypted message by trying every possible key.

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Electronic Frontier Foundation

The Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) is an international non-profit digital rights group based in San Francisco, California.

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Eli Biham

Eli Biham (אלי ביהם) is an Israeli cryptographer and cryptanalyst, currently a professor at the Technion Israeli Institute of Technology Computer Science department.

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Encryption by date

This is a timeline of the public releases or introductions of computer encryption algorithms.

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ETRAX CRIS

The ETRAX CRIS is a series of CPUs designed and manufactured by Axis Communications for use in embedded systems since 1993.

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Export of cryptography from the United States

The export of cryptographic technology and devices from the United States was severely restricted by U.S. law until 1992, but was gradually eased until 2000; some restrictions still remain.

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FASCINATOR

FASCINATOR is a series of Type 1 encryption modules designed in the late-1980s to be installed in Motorola digital-capable voice radios.

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FEAL

In cryptography, FEAL (the Fast data Encipherment ALgorithm) is a block cipher proposed as an alternative to the Data Encryption Standard (DES), and designed to be much faster in software.

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Federal Information Processing Standards

Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS) are publicly announced standards developed by the United States federal government for use in computer systems by non-military government agencies and government contractors.

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Feistel cipher

In cryptography, a Feistel cipher is a symmetric structure used in the construction of block ciphers, named after the German-born physicist and cryptographer Horst Feistel who did pioneering research while working for IBM (USA); it is also commonly known as a Feistel network.

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FFmpeg

FFmpeg is a free software project, the product of which is a vast software suite of libraries and programs for handling video, audio, and other multimedia files and streams.

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Financial cryptography

Financial cryptography (FC) is the use of cryptography in applications in which financial loss could result from subversion of the message system.

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FinTS

FinTS (Financial Transaction Services), formerly known as HBCI (Home Banking Computer Interface), is a bank-independent protocol for online banking, developed and used by German banks.

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Format-preserving encryption

In cryptography, format-preserving encryption (FPE), refers to encrypting in such a way that the output (the ciphertext) is in the same format as the input (the plaintext).

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FreeOTFE

FreeOTFE is a discontinued open source computer program for on-the-fly disk encryption (OTFE).

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FTPS

FTPS (also known as FTPES, FTP-SSL, and FTP Secure) is an extension to the commonly used File Transfer Protocol (FTP) that adds support for the Transport Layer Security (TLS) and the Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) cryptographic protocols.

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GDES

In cryptography, the Generalized DES Scheme (GDES or G-DES) is a variant of the DES symmetric-key block cipher designed with the intention of speeding up the encryption process while improving its security.

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General-purpose computing on graphics processing units

General-purpose computing on graphics processing units (GPGPU, rarely GPGP) is the use of a graphics processing unit (GPU), which typically handles computation only for computer graphics, to perform computation in applications traditionally handled by the central processing unit (CPU).

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George B. Purdy

George Barry Purdy (20 February 1944 - 30 December 2017) was a mathematician and computer scientist who specialized in cryptography, combinatorial geometry and number theory.

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Glossary of cryptographic keys

This glossary lists types of keys as the term is used in cryptography, as opposed to door locks.

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GOST (block cipher)

The GOST block cipher (Magma), defined in the standard GOST 28147-89 (RFC 5830), is a Soviet and Russian government standard symmetric key block cipher with a block size of 64 bits.

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HiperLAN

HiperLAN (High Performance Radio LAN) is a Wireless LAN standard.

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History of cryptography

Cryptography, the use of codes and ciphers to protect secrets, began thousands of years ago.

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History of IBM

International Business Machines, or IBM, nicknamed "Big Blue", is a multinational computer technology and IT consulting corporation headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States.

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History of television

The invention of the television was the work of many individuals in the late 19th century and early 20th century.

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HomePlug

HomePlug is the family name for various power line communications specifications under the HomePlug designation, with each offering unique performance capabilities and coexistence or compatibility with other HomePlug specifications.

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Horst Feistel

Horst Feistel (January 30, 1915 – November 14, 1990) was a German-born cryptographer who worked on the design of ciphers at IBM, initiating research that culminated in the development of the Data Encryption Standard (DES) in the 1970s.

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IBM 3624

The IBM 3624 was a late 1970s second-generation automatic teller machine (ATM), a successor to the IBM 3614.

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IBM Research

IBM Research is IBM's research and development division.

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ICE (cipher)

In cryptography, ICE (Information Concealment Engine) is a symmetric-key block cipher published by Kwan in 1997.

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IEEE 802.16

IEEE 802.16 is a series of wireless broadband standards written by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE).

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Index of cryptography articles

Articles related to cryptography include.

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Index of standards articles

Articles related to standards include.

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International Data Encryption Algorithm

In cryptography, the International Data Encryption Algorithm (IDEA), originally called Improved Proposed Encryption Standard (IPES), is a symmetric-key block cipher designed by James Massey of ETH Zurich and Xuejia Lai and was first described in 1991.

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IPsec

In computing, Internet Protocol Security (IPsec) is a secure network protocol suite of IPv4 that authenticates and encrypts the packets of data sent over an IPv4 network.

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ISO/IEC 9797-1

ISO/IEC 9797-1 Information technology – Security techniques – Message Authentication Codes (MACs) – Part 1: Mechanisms using a block cipher is an international standard that defines methods for calculating a message authentication code (MAC) over data.

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James Harris Simons

James Harris "Jim" Simons (born April 25, 1938) is an American mathematician, billionaire hedge fund manager, and philanthropist.

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Java Card

Java Card refers to a software technology that allows Java-based applications (applets) to be run securely on smart cards and similar small memory footprint devices.

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John Gilmore (activist)

John Gilmore (born 1955) is one of the founders of the Electronic Frontier Foundation, the Cypherpunks mailing list, and Cygnus Solutions.

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John the Ripper

John the Ripper is a free password cracking software tool.

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Kerberos (protocol)

Kerberos is a computer network authentication protocol that works on the basis of tickets to allow nodes communicating over a non-secure network to prove their identity to one another in a secure manner.

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Key derivation function

In cryptography, a key derivation function (KDF) derives one or more secret keys from a secret value such as a master key, a password, or a passphrase using a pseudorandom function.

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Key feedback mode

In cryptography key feedback mode (KFB) is a mode of operation for cryptographic block ciphers.

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Key generation

Key generation is the process of generating keys in cryptography.

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Key schedule

In cryptography, the so-called product ciphers are a certain kind of cipher, where the (de-)ciphering of data is typically done as an iteration of rounds.

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Key size

In cryptography, key size or key length is the number of bits in a key used by a cryptographic algorithm (such as a cipher).

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Key space (cryptography)

In cryptography, an algorithm's key space refers to the set of all possible permutations of a key.

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Key stretching

In cryptography, key stretching techniques are used to make a possibly weak key, typically a password or passphrase, more secure against a brute-force attack by increasing the time it takes to test each possible key.

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Key whitening

In cryptography, key whitening is a technique intended to increase the security of an iterated block cipher.

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KHAZAD

In cryptography, KHAZAD is a block cipher designed by Paulo S. L. M. Barreto together with Vincent Rijmen, one of the designers of the Advanced Encryption Standard (Rijndael).

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KN-Cipher

In cryptography, KN-Cipher is a block cipher created by Kaisa Nyberg and Lars Knudsen in 1995.

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Ladder-DES

In cryptography, Ladder-DES is a block cipher designed in 1994 by Terry Ritter.

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LAN Manager

LAN Manager was a Network operating system (NOS) available from multiple vendors and developed by Microsoft in cooperation with 3Com Corporation.

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Lars Ramkilde Knudsen

Lars Ramkilde Knudsen (born 21 February 1962) is a Danish researcher in cryptography, particularly interested in the design and analysis of block ciphers, hash functions and message authentication codes (MACs).

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Lawrie Brown

Lawrence Peter "Lawrie" Brown is a cryptographer and computer security researcher, currently a (retired and now visiting) Senior Lecturer with UNSW Canberra at the Australian Defence Force Academy.

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Libav

Libav is a free software project, forked from FFmpeg in 2011, that produces libraries and programs for handling multimedia data.

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Libgcrypt

Libgcrypt is a cryptography library developed as a separated module of GnuPG.

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Linear cryptanalysis

In cryptography, linear cryptanalysis is a general form of cryptanalysis based on finding affine approximations to the action of a cipher.

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List of algorithms

The following is a list of algorithms along with one-line descriptions for each.

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List of CDMA terminology

This page contains terminology related to CDMA.

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List of computing and IT abbreviations

This is a list of computing and IT acronyms and abbreviations.

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List of cryptographers

List of cryptographers.

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List of important publications in cryptography

This is a list of important publications in cryptography, organized by field.

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List of information technology initialisms

The table below lists information technology initialisms and acronyms in common and current usage.

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List of telecommunications encryption terms

This is a list of telecommunications encryption terms.

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LOKI

In cryptography, LOKI89 and LOKI91 are symmetric-key block ciphers designed as possible replacements for the Data Encryption Standard (DES).

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LOKI97

In cryptography, LOKI97 is a block cipher which was a candidate in the Advanced Encryption Standard competition.

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Lucifer (cipher)

In cryptography, Lucifer was the name given to several of the earliest civilian block ciphers, developed by Horst Feistel and his colleagues at IBM.

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MacGuffin (cipher)

In cryptography, MacGuffin is a block cipher created in 1994 by Bruce Schneier and Matt Blaze at a Fast Software Encryption workshop.

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Madryga

In cryptography, Madryga is a block cipher published in 1984 by W. E. Madryga.

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March 1981

The following events occurred in March 1981.

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MARS (cryptography)

MARS is a block cipher that was IBM's submission to the Advanced Encryption Standard process.

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Martin Hellman

Martin Edward Hellman (born October 2, 1945) is an American cryptologist, best known for his invention of public key cryptography in cooperation with Whitfield Diffie and Ralph Merkle.

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Matt Curtin

Matt Curtin (born 1973) is a computer scientist and entrepreneur in Columbus, Ohio best known for his work in cryptography and firewall systems.

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Mbed TLS

mbed TLS (previously PolarSSL) is an implementation of the TLS and SSL protocols and the respective cryptographic algorithms and support code required.

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Mcrypt

mcrypt is a replacement for the popular Unix crypt command.

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MDC-2

In cryptography, MDC-2 (Modification Detection Code 2, sometimes called Meyer-Schilling) is a cryptographic hash function.

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Meet-in-the-middle attack

The meet-in-the-middle attack (MITM) is a generic space–time tradeoff cryptographic attack against encryption schemes which rely on performing multiple encryption operations in sequence.

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Message authentication code

In cryptography, a message authentication code (MAC), sometimes known as a tag, is a short piece of information used to authenticate a message—in other words, to confirm that the message came from the stated sender (its authenticity) and has not been changed.

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Microsoft CryptoAPI

The Microsoft windows platform specific Cryptographic Application Programming Interface (also known variously as CryptoAPI, Microsoft Cryptography API, MS-CAPI or simply CAPI) is an application programming interface included with Microsoft Windows operating systems that provides services to enable developers to secure Windows-based applications using cryptography.

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MIFARE

MIFARE is the NXP Semiconductors-owned trademark of a series of chips widely used in contactless smart cards and proximity cards.

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Mitsuru Matsui

is a Japanese cryptographer and senior researcher for Mitsubishi Electric Company.

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Motorola Type II

Motorola Type II refers to the second generation Motorola trunked radio systems that replaced fleets and subfleets with the concept of talkgroups and individual radio IDs.

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Moxie Marlinspike

Matthew Rosenfield, known as Moxie Marlinspike, is an American computer security researcher, whose research focuses primarily on techniques for intercepting communication, as well as methods for strengthening communication infrastructure against interception.

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MPEG transport stream

MPEG transport stream (transport stream, MPEG-TS, MTS or TS) is a standard digital container format for transmission and storage of audio, video, and Program and System Information Protocol (PSIP) data.

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MS-CHAP

MS-CHAP is the Microsoft version of the Challenge-Handshake Authentication Protocol, CHAP.

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National Cryptologic Museum

The National Cryptologic Museum (NCM) is an American museum of cryptologic history that is affiliated with the National Security Agency (NSA).

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National Security Agency

The National Security Agency (NSA) is a national-level intelligence agency of the United States Department of Defense, under the authority of the Director of National Intelligence.

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Nettle (cryptographic library)

Nettle is a cryptographic library designed to fit easily in a wide range of toolkits and applications.

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Network Security Services

In computing, Network Security Services (NSS) comprises a set of libraries designed to support cross-platform development of security-enabled client and server applications with optional support for hardware TLS/SSL acceleration on the server side and hardware smart cards on the client side.

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Neural cryptography

Neural cryptography is a branch of cryptography dedicated to analyzing the application of stochastic algorithms, especially artificial neural network algorithms, for use in encryption and cryptanalysis.

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New Data Seal

In cryptography, New Data Seal (NDS) is a block cipher that was designed at IBM in 1975, based on the Lucifer algorithm that became DES.

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NewDES

In cryptography, NewDES is a symmetric key block cipher.

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Norton Utilities

Norton Utilities is a utility software suite designed to help analyze, configure, optimize and maintain a computer.

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Nothing up my sleeve number

In cryptography, nothing-up-my-sleeve numbers are any numbers which, by their construction, are above suspicion of hidden properties.

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NSA cryptography

The vast majority of the National Security Agency's work on encryption is classified, but from time to time NSA participates in standards processes or otherwise publishes information about its cryptographic algorithms.

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NSA encryption systems

The National Security Agency took over responsibility for all U.S. Government encryption systems when it was formed in 1952.

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NSA product types

The U.S. National Security Agency (NSA) ranks cryptographic products or algorithms by a certification called product types.

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NT LAN Manager

In a Windows network, NT LAN Manager (NTLM) is a suite of Microsoft security protocols that provides authentication, integrity, and confidentiality to users.

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NXDN

NXDN is an open standard Common Air Interface (CAI) technical protocol for mobile communications.

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OpenCores

OpenCores is an open source hardware community developing digital open source hardware through electronic design automation, with a similar ethos to the free software movement.

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OpenSSL

OpenSSL is a software library for applications that secure communications over computer networks against eavesdropping or need to identify the party at the other end.

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Orders of magnitude (data)

An order of magnitude is a factor of ten.

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Orders of magnitude (numbers)

This list contains selected positive numbers in increasing order, including counts of things, dimensionless quantity and probabilities.

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Outline of cryptography

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to cryptography: Cryptography (or cryptology) – practice and study of hiding information.

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PackIt

PackIt is a software data compression utility for archiving and compressing files on the Apple Macintosh platform.

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Partitioning cryptanalysis

In cryptography, partitioning cryptanalysis is a form of cryptanalysis for block ciphers.

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Password

A password is a word or string of characters used for user authentication to prove identity or access approval to gain access to a resource (example: an access code is a type of password), which is to be kept secret from those not allowed access.

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Password cracking

In cryptanalysis and computer security, password cracking is the process of recovering passwords from data that have been stored in or transmitted by a computer system.

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Password strength

Password strength is a measure of the effectiveness of a password against guessing or brute-force attacks.

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Paul Baran

Paul Baran (April 29, 1926 – March 26, 2011) was a Polish-born Jewish American engineer who was a pioneer in the development of computer networks.

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Paul Kocher

Paul Carl Kocher (born June 11, 1973) is an American cryptographer and cryptography consultant, currently the president and chief scientist of Cryptography Research, Inc.

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Phillip Rogaway

Phillip Rogaway is a professor of computer science at the University of California, Davis.

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Pirate decryption

Pirate decryption most often refers to the decryption, or decoding, of pay TV or pay radio signals without permission from the original broadcaster.

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PKCS 11

In cryptography, PKCS #11 is one of the Public-Key Cryptography Standards, and also refers to the programming interface to create and manipulate cryptographic tokens.

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Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol

The Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP) is an obsolete method for implementing virtual private networks, with many known security issues.

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Power analysis

In cryptography, power analysis is a form of side channel attack in which the attacker studies the power consumption of a cryptographic hardware device (such as a smart card, tamper-resistant "black box", or integrated circuit).

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Power of two

In mathematics, a power of two is a number of the form where is an integer, i.e. the result of exponentiation with number two as the base and integer as the exponent.

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Prince (cipher)

Prince is a block cipher targeting low latency, unrolled hardware implementations.

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Product cipher

In cryptography, a product cipher combines two or more transformations in a manner intending that the resulting cipher is more secure than the individual components to make it resistant to cryptanalysis.

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Project 25

Project 25 (P25 or APCO-25) is a suite of standards for digital mobile radio communications designed for use by public safety organizations in North America.

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Pseudorandom permutation

In cryptography, a pseudorandom permutation (PRP) is a function that cannot be distinguished from a random permutation (that is, a permutation selected at random with uniform probability, from the family of all permutations on the function's domain) with practical effort.

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PuTTY

PuTTY is a free and open-source terminal emulator, serial console and network file transfer application.

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QR code

QR code (abbreviated from Quick Response Code) is the trademark for a type of matrix barcode (or two-dimensional barcode) first designed in 1994 for the automotive industry in Japan.

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ROT13

ROT13 ("rotate by 13 places", sometimes hyphenated ROT-13) is a simple letter substitution cipher that replaces a letter with the 13th letter after it, in the alphabet.

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RSA Secret-Key Challenge

The RSA Secret-Key Challenge consisted of a series of cryptographic contests organised by RSA Laboratories with the intent of helping to demonstrate the relative security of different encryption algorithms.

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RSA Security

RSA Security LLC, formerly RSA Security, Inc. and doing business as RSA, is an American computer and network security company.

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S-box

In cryptography, an S-box (substitution-box) is a basic component of symmetric key algorithms which performs substitution.

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Satellite television

Satellite television is a service that delivers television programming to viewers by relaying it from a communications satellite orbiting the Earth directly to the viewer's location.

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SAVILLE

SAVILLE is a classified NSA Type 1 encryption algorithm, developed in the late 1960s, jointly by the Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ) in the UK and the National Security Agency (NSA) in the US.

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Sean Murphy (cryptographer)

Sean Murphy is a cryptographer, currently a professor at Royal Holloway, University of London.

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SekChek Classic

SekChek Classic comprises a set of automated computer security audit and benchmarking tools for non-mainframe platforms developed by SekChek IPS in 1996.

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SekChek Local

SekChek Local is a set of automated computer security audit and benchmarking tools developed by SekChek IPS in March 2008.

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Serpent (cipher)

Serpent is a symmetric key block cipher that was a finalist in the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) contest, where it was ranked second to Rijndael.

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Server Message Block

In computer networking, Server Message Block (SMB), one version of which was also known as Common Internet File System (CIFS), operates as an application-layer network protocol mainly used for providing shared access to files, printers, and serial ports and miscellaneous communications between nodes on a network.

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SGSM

Secure GSM, a wireless product, is based on Global System for Mobile communications (GSM) originally from Groupe Spécial Mobile.

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Simple Network Management Protocol

Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is an Internet Standard protocol for collecting and organizing information about managed devices on IP networks and for modifying that information to change device behavior.

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SPARC T3

The SPARC T3 microprocessor (previously known as UltraSPARC T3, codenamed Rainbow Falls, and also known as UltraSPARC KT or Niagara-3 during development) is a multithreading, multi-core CPU produced by Oracle Corporation (previously Sun Microsystems).

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Spectre (security vulnerability)

Spectre is a vulnerability that affects modern microprocessors that perform branch prediction.

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SSLeay

SSLeay is an open-source SSL implementation.

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STM32

STM32 is a family of 32-bit microcontroller integrated circuits by STMicroelectronics.

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Stream cipher

A stream cipher is a symmetric key cipher where plaintext digits are combined with a pseudorandom cipher digit stream (keystream).

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Strong cryptography

Strong cryptography or cryptographic-ally strong are general terms applied to cryptographic systems or components that are considered highly resistant to cryptanalysis.

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Subscriber identity module

A subscriber identity module or subscriber identification module (SIM), widely known as a SIM card, is an integrated circuit that is intended to securely store the international mobile subscriber identity (IMSI) number and its related key, which are used to identify and authenticate subscribers on mobile telephony devices (such as mobile phones and computers).

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Substitution cipher

In cryptography, a substitution cipher is a method of encrypting by which units of plaintext are replaced with ciphertext, according to a fixed system; the "units" may be single letters (the most common), pairs of letters, triplets of letters, mixtures of the above, and so forth.

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Substitution–permutation network

In cryptography, an SP-network, or substitution–permutation network (SPN), is a series of linked mathematical operations used in block cipher algorithms such as AES (Rijndael), 3-Way, Kuznyechik, PRESENT, SAFER, SHARK, and Square.

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Supercomputer

A supercomputer is a computer with a high level of performance compared to a general-purpose computer.

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Supercomputer architecture

Approaches to supercomputer architecture have taken dramatic turns since the earliest systems were introduced in the 1960s.

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Television encryption

Television encryption, often referred to as "scrambling", is encryption used to control access to pay television services, usually cable or satellite television services.

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The Codebreakers

The Codebreakers – The Story of Secret Writing is a book by David Kahn, published in 1967 comprehensively chronicling the history of cryptography from ancient Egypt to the time of its writing.

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The Radio Hacker's Codebook

The Radio Hacker's Codebook is a book for computer enthusiasts written by George Sassoon.

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Timeline of cryptography

Below is a timeline of notable events related to cryptography.

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Timeline of Electronic Frontier Foundation actions

The Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) is an international non-profit advocacy and legal organization based in the United States.

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Transbase

Transbase is a relational database management system, developed and maintained by Transaction Software GmbH, Munich.

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Transport Layer Security

Transport Layer Security (TLS) – and its predecessor, Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), which is now deprecated by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) – are cryptographic protocols that provide communications security over a computer network.

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Triple DES

In cryptography, Triple DES (3DES), officially the Triple Data Encryption Algorithm (TDEA or Triple DEA), is a symmetric-key block cipher, which applies the DES cipher algorithm three times to each data block.

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Twofish

In cryptography, Twofish is a symmetric key block cipher with a block size of 128 bits and key sizes up to 256 bits.

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UltraSPARC T2

Sun Microsystems' UltraSPARC T2 microprocessor is a multithreading, multi-core CPU.

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United States Secret Service

The United States Secret Service (also USSS or Secret Service) is a federal law enforcement agency under the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, charged with conducting criminal investigations and protecting the nation's leaders.

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Videocipher

VideoCipher is a brand name of analog scrambling and de-scrambling equipment for cable and satellite television invented primarily to enforce Television receive-only (TVRO) satellite equipment to only receive TV programming on a subscription basis.

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Walter Tuchman

Walter Tuchman led the Data Encryption Standard development team at IBM.

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WaveLAN

WaveLAN was a brand name for a family of wireless networking technology sold by NCR, AT&T, and Lucent, as well as being sold by other companies under OEM agreements.

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Weak key

In cryptography, a weak key is a key, which, used with a specific cipher, makes the cipher behave in some undesirable way.

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Whitfield Diffie

Bailey Whitfield 'Whit' Diffie (born June 5, 1944) is an American cryptographer and one of the pioneers of public-key cryptography along with Martin Hellman and Ralph Merkle.

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Windows Media Audio

Windows Media Audio (WMA) is the name of a series of audio codecs and their corresponding audio coding formats developed by Microsoft.

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Windows Media DRM

Windows Media DRM or WMDRM, is a Digital Rights Management service for the Windows Media platform.

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Windows Media Video

Windows Media Video (WMV) is a series of video codecs and their corresponding video coding formats developed by Microsoft.

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Wireless Transport Layer Security

Wireless Transport Layer Security (WTLS) is a security protocol, part of the Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) stack.

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WolfSSL

wolfSSL (formerly CyaSSL or yet another SSL) is a small, portable, embedded SSL/TLS library targeted for use by embedded systems developers.

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XcodeGhost

XcodeGhost (and variant XcodeGhost S) are modified versions of Apple's Xcode development environment that are considered malware.

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XXTEA

In cryptography, Corrected Block TEA (often referred to as XXTEA) is a block cipher designed to correct weaknesses in the original Block TEA.

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Yvo G. Desmedt

Dr.

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Zip (file format)

ZIP is an archive file format that supports lossless data compression.

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40-bit encryption

40-bit encryption refers to a key size of forty bits, or five bytes, for symmetric encryption; this represents a relatively low level of security.

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56-bit encryption

In computing, 56-bit encryption refers to a key size of fifty-six bits, or seven bytes, for symmetric encryption.

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Redirects here:

DES (cryptography), Data Encryption Algorithm, Data encryption standard, DataEncryptionStandard, Single DES.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Data_Encryption_Standard

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