679 relations: A Mind Forever Voyaging, Abdourahmane Sarr, Abdul Latif Pedram, Abdullah II of Jordan, Accountable autonomy, Administrative divisions of New Caledonia, Administrative divisions of Peru, Administrative divisions of Portugal, Administrative divisions of the Maldives, Administrative law in Mongolia, Administrative regions of Greece, After Capitalism: Economic Democracy in Action, Al Uqaydat, Al-Qaeda, Albert Gould, Alejandro Toledo, Aleksandar Ranković, Alexandru Averescu, Alexei Kosygin, All Progressives Grand Alliance, Alsace First, Alsace independence movement, Amorn Chantarasomboon, Amrit Campus, Anarcha-feminism, Anarchism, Anarchism in Spain, Anarchism in the United States, Anarchist economics, Anarcho-capitalism, Anna Vinayachandra, Anonymous (group), Anonymous P2P, Anti-austerity movement in Spain, Anti-Racist Action, Antwerp (district), Appropriate technology, Archives Nationales (France), Armenia–United States relations, Arvind Kejriwal, Association for the Taxation of Financial Transactions and for Citizens' Action, Augur (software), Automotive industry in Canada, Automotive industry in the United States, Autonomous administrative division, Autonomous Communities Administration, Autonomous communities of Spain, École normale supérieure de lettres et sciences humaines, Bad for Democracy, Bagani, Namibia, ..., Bakhmach Raion, Ballarat, Basic Attention Token, Bastir!, Bathurst, New South Wales, Berendrecht-Zandvliet-Lillo, Bertelsmann, Bio-inspired computing, Bitcoin Cash, Bitmarkets, Bitmessage, BitTorrent, Black Bridge International, Blockchain, Blood transfusion in Sri Lanka, Bootstrapping node, Boulder City, Nevada, Bourbon Democrat, Brazilian Labour Party (current), Brecknockshire, Bureau of Indian Affairs building takeover, BuyUcoin, Cameroonian presidential election, 2004, Canadian Confederation, Cantonalism, Cellular democracy, Centralisation, Centralized government, Centre for Civil Society, Centre Party (Finland), Centre Party (Norway), Centre Party (Sweden), Centre Youth, Centrism, Charles Russell (Australian politician), Charlie Lee (computer scientist), Chen Jiao, Chhota Udaipur district, Chinese economic reform, Christian Democrats (Denmark), Christianity and politics, Christophe Boutin, Civil service reform in developing countries, Civil Society Movement, Clean Wehrmacht, Cleckheaton, Climate resilience, Clive Osborne, Cognitive architecture, Collaboration, Colombian Constitution of 1991, Comilla Model, Common Fisheries Policy, Community-based management, Comparison of file-sharing applications, Comparison of payment systems, Comprehensive Program for Socialist Economic Integration, Conditional budgeting, Confederation of sultanates in Lanao, Conservatism in Canada, Conservative Party of Canada, Constantin Stere, Constitution of 3 May 1791, Constitution of Serbia, Constitution of Thailand, Constitution of the Netherlands, Constitution of the Republic of the Congo, Constitutional reform in the Philippines, Constitutional status of Orkney, Shetland and the Western Isles, Constitutionalization attempts in Iran, Control theory (sociology), Cornell University, Corvid College, CrimethInc., Criminalization, Criticism of Pope John Paul II, Criticisms of anarchism, Croat People's Union, Croatian Coalition (2010), Croatian parliamentary election, 2011, Crypto-anarchism, Cryptocurrency, Culture of France, Culture of Iceland, Curtis LeMay, Cyber resilience, Cyberdelic, Dale Allen Pfeiffer, David Hume, De Leonism, Debates within libertarianism, DECENT Network, Decentralisation in France, Decentralised system, Decentralization Coalition, Decentralization process in Peru, Decentralized computing, Decentralized planning (economics), Deforestation in Laos, Delegated administration, Democratic Labour Party (UK), Democratic Party (Peru), Democratic Party of Serbia, Democratic structuring, Dennis Bakke, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit, Devolution, Digital currency, 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Index of economics articles, Index of management articles, Index of urban sociology articles, Industrial deconcentration, Industrial Estate Authority of Thailand, Industry of Communist Czechoslovakia, Information processing, Initiative, Innovations for Successful Societies, Institute for Social Ecology, Institute of the Regions of Europe, Institutional seats of the European Union, Insubordinate movement in Spain, Integralism, Integralismo Lusitano, International Water Management Institute, Ion Heliade Rădulescu, Irrigation in Vietnam, Isaac Mulindwa (politician), Isabel Magkoeva, Italian Radical Party, Jane Jacobs, Japan Teachers Union, Japanese work environment, Jean-François Gravier, Jean-Paul Faguet, Jean-Pierre Raffarin, Jean-Pierre Worms, Jeffersonian democracy, Jehangir Karamat, Jerome Lyle Rappaport, John Zerzan, Jordanian local elections, 2017, Jos Chathukulam, José María Vernet, Joseph Lubin (entrepreneur), Josh Whitford, June List, Kaga ikki, Karen Barkey, Katanning state 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A Mind Forever Voyaging (AMFV) is a 1985 interactive fiction game designed and implemented by Steve Meretzky and published by Infocom.
Abdourahmane Sarr, (born 26 March 1968) in Paris, is a Senegalese economist who is the leader of the Movement for Rebirth, Liberty and Development (MRLD) - Moom sa Bopp, Mënël sa Bopp, a Senegalese social movement created in 2011, and the head of the Center for Local Economic Development Financing (CEFDEL), a think tank founded in 2010.
Abdul Latīf Pedrām (عبداللطيف پدرام; born in 1963) is a politician and a Member of Parliament in Afghanistan.
Abdullah II bin Al-Hussein (عبد الله الثاني بن الحسين., ʿAbdullāh ath-thānī ibn Al-Ḥusayn, born 30 January 1962) has been King of Jordan since 1999.
Accountable autonomy is an institutional design of administrative and democratic organization that tries to get the most out of civic participation and deliberation.
New Caledonia is divided into three provinces.
The administrative divisions of Peru have changed from time to time, since the nation gained independence from Spain in the early 19th century.
Administratively, Portugal is a unitary and decentralized State.
The Administrative Divisions of the Maldives refers to the various units of government that provide local government services in the Maldives.
Administrative law in Mongolia is the body of law that governs the activities of administrative agencies of the Mongolian government.
The administrative regions of Greece (περιφέρειες, peripheries) are the country's thirteen first-level administrative entities, each comprising several second-level units, originally prefectures and, since 2011, regional units.
After Capitalism: Economic Democracy in Action is a 2012 book by United States author Dada Maheshvarananda, an activist, yoga monk and writer.
The Uqaydat tribe is a Sunni large Arab tribe which straddles Syria's eastern border with Iraq.made up of an alliance Arab clans in the Euphrates basin, constitute the mainstay clans Zubaid of the breed Amru bin Ma'adi Yakrib, the number of the tribe estimated at more than 4 million people, more than 2.7 million in Syria (Deir ez-Zor60%, Hasakah, Ras Al-Ayn) and the others in Iraq, GCC States and Turkey, the tribe formed a coalition of different clans in the descent, so the system presidential tribe like the Decentralization somewhat Each tribe had its own Sheikh in its areas of deployment, but everyone continued to chieftain of the tribe's main town Diban near Mayadin and the leadership of the tribe be Al Hevel family from Al Bukamil clan major clans nodules.
Al-Qaeda (القاعدة,, translation: "The Base", "The Foundation" or "The Fundament" and alternatively spelled al-Qaida, al-Qæda and sometimes al-Qa'ida) is a militant Sunni Islamist multi-national organization founded in 1988.
Sir Albert John Gould (12 February 1847 – 27 July 1936) was an Australian politician and solicitor who served as the second President of the Australian Senate.
Alejandro Celestino Toledo Manrique (born 28 March 1946) is a Peruvian politician who served as the 63rd President of Peru, from 2001 to 2006.
Aleksandar Ranković (nom de guerre Leka; Александар Ранковић Лека; 28 November 1909 – 19 August 1983) was a Yugoslav communist of Serb origin, considered to be the third most powerful man in Yugoslavia after Josip Broz Tito and Edvard Kardelj.
Alexandru Averescu (3 April 1859 – 2 October 1938) was a Romanian marshal and populist politician.
Alexei Nikolayevich Kosygin (p; – 18 December 1980) was a Soviet-Russian statesman during the Cold War.
The All Progressives Grand Alliance (APGA) is a political party in Nigeria.
Alsace First (Elsass Zuerst, EZ; Alsace d'abord, ADA) is a political party based in Alsace, France, established in 1989.
Alsace autonomist movement (Mouvement autonomiste alsacien) or (Elsässer autonome Bewegung) is a cultural, ideological and political regionalist movement for greater autonomy or outright independence of Alsace.
Amorn Chantarasomboon (อมร จันทรสมบูรณ์) is a Thai expert on public law and constitutional law.
Amrit Campus, formerly known as Public Science College (PUSCOL), was named after late Amrit Prasad Pradhan.
Anarcha-feminism, also called anarchist feminism and anarcho-feminism, combines anarchism with feminism.
Anarchism is a political philosophy that advocates self-governed societies based on voluntary institutions.
Anarchism in Spain has historically gained more support and influence than anywhere else, especially before Francisco Franco's victory in the Spanish Civil War of 1936–39.
Anarchism in the United States began in the mid-19th century and started to grow in influence as it entered the American labor movements, growing an anarcho-communist current as well as gaining notoriety for violent propaganda by the deed and campaigning for diverse social reforms in the early 20th century.
Anarchist economics is the set of theories and practices of economic activity within the political philosophy of anarchism.
Anarcho-capitalism is a political philosophy and school of anarchist thought that advocates the elimination of centralized state dictum in favor of self-ownership, private property and free markets.
Anna Vinayachandra is an Ex-MLC from Panchayati Raj constituency of Dakshina Kannada, Karnataka.
Anonymous is a decentralized international hacktivist group that is widely known for its various DDOS cyber attacks against several governments, government institutions & government agencies, corporations, and the Church of Scientology.
An anonymous P2P communication system is a peer-to-peer distributed application in which the nodes or participants are anonymous or pseudonymous.
The anti-austerity movement in Spain, also referred to as the 15-M Movement (Spanish: Movimiento 15-M), the Indignados Movement, and Take the Square, had origins in social networks such as Real Democracy NOW (Democracia Real YA) or Youth Without a Future (Juventud Sin Futuro).
The Anti-Racist Action Network (ARA) was a decentralized network of anti-fascists and anti-racists in North America which existed from 1987 until 2013.
Antwerp District coincides with the old city of Antwerp.
Appropriate technology is a movement (and its manifestations) encompassing technological choice and application that is small-scale, decentralized, labor-intensive, energy-efficient, environmentally sound, and locally autonomous.
The Archives Nationales (Archives nationales de France), also known as the French Archives or the National Archives, preserve France's official archives apart from the archives of the Ministry of Defence and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, as these two ministries have their own archive services, the Defence Historical Service (Service historique de la défense) and the Diplomatic Archives (Archives diplomatiques) respectively.
dissolution of the Soviet Union in December 1991 brought an end to the Cold War and created the opportunity for bilateral relations with the New Independent States (NIS) as they began a political and economic transformation.
Arvind Kejriwal (born 16 August 1968) is an Indian politician and a former bureaucrat who is the current and 7th Chief Minister of Delhi since February 2015.
The Association pour la Taxation des Transactions financières et pour l'Action Citoyenne (Association for the Taxation of financial Transactions and Citizen's Action, ATTAC) is an activist organisation originally created for promoting the establishment of a tax on foreign exchange transactions.
Augur is a decentralized oracle and prediction market platform built on the Ethereum blockchain that was founded in 2014 by Jack Peterson and Joey Krug.
The automotive industry in Canada consists primarily of assembly plants of foreign automakers, most with headquarters in the United States or Japan, along with hundreds of manufacturers of automotive parts and systems.
The automotive industry in the United States began in the 1890s and, as a result of the size of the domestic market and the use of mass production, rapidly evolved into the largest in the world.
An autonomous administrative division (also referred to as an autonomous area, entity, unit, region, subdivision, or territory) is a subdivision or dependent territory of a country that has a degree of self-governance, or autonomy, from an external authority.
The Administration of the Autonomous Communities, also known as Autonomous Administration, is a Public Administration of Spain.
In Spain, an autonomous community (comunidad autónoma, autonomia erkidegoa, comunitat autònoma, comunidade autónoma, comunautat autonòma) is a first-level political and administrative division, created in accordance with the Spanish constitution of 1978, with the aim of guaranteeing limited autonomy of the nationalities and regions that make up Spain.
The École normale supérieure de lettres et sciences humaines (ENS LSH) was an elite French grande école specialising in the arts, humanities and social sciences.
Bad for Democracy: How the Presidency Undermines the Power of the People (2008) is a non-fiction book written by Vanderbilt professor Dana D. Nelson.
Bagani (1.093 m above sea level) is a town on the south-western banks of the Okavango River in the Kavango East Region, Namibia, 200 km east of Rundu and near the Popa Falls on the Okavango River.
Bakhmatskyi Raion (Бахмацький район) is a raion (district) of Chernihiv Oblast, within northern Ukraine.
Ballarat is a city located on the Yarrowee River in the Central Highlands of Victoria, Australia.
Basic Attention Token is an open-source, decentralized pay to surf software based on Ethereum, founded by web pioneer Brendan Eich.
"Bastir!" (to Build), originally the "Manifeste Occitaniste" (the Occitanist Manifesto), now "Bastir Occitanie", is a pan-Occitanist movement mainly involved in French municipal elections of 2014, in French departmental elections of 2015 and in French legislative elections of 2017.
Bathurst is a regional city in the Central Tablelands of New South Wales, Australia.
Berendrecht, Zandvliet and Lillo are three towns along the seaport docks north of the old city of Antwerp in Flanders, Belgium.
Bertelsmann is a German multinational corporation based in Gütersloh, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.
Bio-inspired computing, short for biologically inspired computing, is a field of study that loosely knits together subfields related to the topics of connectionism, social behaviour and emergence.
Bitcoin Cash is a cryptocurrency.
Bitmarkets is a free and open-source decentralized online marketplace that uses the cryptocurrency bitcoin.
Bitmessage is a decentralized, encrypted, peer-to-peer, trustless communications protocol that can be used by one person to send encrypted messages to another person, or to multiple subscribers.
BitTorrent (abbreviated to BT) is a communication protocol for peer-to-peer file sharing (P2P) which is used to distribute data and electronic files over the Internet.
Black Bridge International was a "decentralized anarchist mutual aid network" set up to facilitate the sharing of resources and information.
A blockchain, originally block chain, is a continuously growing list of records, called blocks, which are linked and secured using cryptography.
Blood transfusion was first performed in Sri Lanka in late 1950.
A bootstrapping node, also known as a rendezvous host, is a node in an overlay network that provides initial configuration information to newly joining nodes so that they may successfully join the overlay network.
Boulder City is a city in Clark County, Nevada.
Bourbon Democrat was a term used in the United States in the later 19th century (1872–1904) to refer to members of the Democratic Party who were ideologically aligned with conservatism or classical liberalism, especially those who supported presidential candidates Charles O'Conor in 1872, Samuel J. Tilden in 1876, President Grover Cleveland in 1884–1888/1892–1896 and Alton B. Parker in 1904.
The Brazilian Labour Party (Partido Trabalhista Brasileiro, PTB) is a political party in Brazil founded in 1981 by Ivete Vargas, niece of President Getúlio Vargas.
Brecknockshire (Sir Frycheiniog), also known as the County of Brecknock, Breconshire, or the County of Brecon is one of thirteen historic counties of Wales, and a former administrative county.
The Bureau of Indian Affairs building takeover refers to a protest by Native Americans at the Department of Interior headquarters in the national capital of Washington, DC from November 3 to November 9, 1972.
BuyUcoin is a New Delhi based Indian Cryptocurrency Exchange founded in 2016.
Presidential elections were held in Cameroon on 11 October 2004.
Canadian Confederation (Confédération canadienne) was the process by which the British colonies of Canada, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick were united into one Dominion of Canada on July 1, 1867.
Cantonalism, mainly prevalent in late 19th century and early 20th century Spain, is a political option which aims to divide the state into highly autonomous cantons.
As developed by geolibertarian political economist Fred E. Foldvary, cellular democracy is a model of democracy based on multi-level bottom-up structure based on either small neighborhood governmental districts or contractual communities.
Centralisation (British), or centralization (both British and American), is the process by which the activities of an organization, particularly those regarding planning and decision-making, become concentrated within a particular location or group, keeping all of the important decision-making powers within the head office or the centre of the organisation.
A centralized government (also centralised government (Oxford spelling)) is one in which power or legal authority is exerted or coordinated by a de facto political executive to which '''federal states''', local authorities, and smaller units are considered subject.
Centre for Civil Society (CCS) is a non-profit think tank based in New Delhi.
The Centre Party of Finland (Suomen Keskusta, Kesk; Centern i Finland) is a centrist, liberal, and agrarian political party in Finland.
The Centre Party (Senterpartiet, Sp) is an agrarian centrist political party in Norway.
The Centre Party (Centerpartiet, abbreviated C) is a liberal and agrarian political party in Sweden.
The Centre Youth (Senterungdommen or SUL) is the youth organization of the Norwegian Centre Party.
In politics, centrism—the centre (British English/Canadian English/Australian English) or the center (American English/Philippine English)—is a political outlook or specific position that involves acceptance or support of a balance of a degree of social equality and a degree of social hierarchy, while opposing political changes which would result in a significant shift of society either strongly to the left or the right.
Charles Wilfred Russell (24 April 1907 – 21 October 1977) was an Australian politician, pastoralist and right wing activist who served briefly in both the Queensland and federal parliaments.
Charles Lee is a computer scientist, best known as the creator of Litecoin.
th:จักรพรรดินีเฉินเจี่ยว Empress Chen of Wu (孝武陳皇后), also known as Deposed Empress Chen (陳廢后) and in unofficial history as Chen Jiao or as her milk name A'Jiao (阿嬌), was an empress during Han Dynasty.
Chhota Udaipur district (also Chhota Udepur district) is a district in the state of Gujarat in India.
The Chinese economic reform refers to the program of economic reforms termed "Socialism with Chinese characteristics" in the People's Republic of China (PRC) that was started in December 1978 by reformists within the Communist Party of China, led by Deng Xiaoping.
The Christian Democrats (Danish: Kristendemokraterne) are a political party in Denmark.
The relationship between Christianity and politics is a historically complex subject and a frequent source of disagreement throughout the history of Christianity, as well as in modern politics between the Christian right and Christian left.
Christophe Boutin (born 1959) is a French political scientist.
Civil service reform is a deliberate action to improve the efficiency, effectiveness, professionalism, representativity and democratic character of a civil service, with a view to promoting better delivery of public goods and services, with increased accountability.
(ar: تيار المجتمع المدني) (CSM) is a Lebanese political party.
The myth of the Clean Wehrmacht (Saubere Wehrmacht), Clean Wehrmacht legend (Legende von der sauberen Wehrmacht), or Wehrmacht's "clean hands" is the belief that the Wehrmacht was an apolitical organization along the lines of its predecessor, the Reichswehr, and was largely innocent of Nazi Germany's crimes, comporting themselves as honorably as the armed forces of the Western Allies.
Cleckheaton is a town in the Metropolitan borough of Kirklees, in West Yorkshire, England.
Climate resilience can be generally defined as the capacity for a socio-ecological system to: (1) absorb stresses and maintain function in the face of external stresses imposed upon it by climate change and (2) adapt, reorganize, and evolve into more desirable configurations that improve the sustainability of the system, leaving it better prepared for future climate change impacts.
Clive Geoffrey Osborne (18 March 1923 – 25 March 1998) was an Australian politician.
A cognitive architecture can refer to a theory about the structure of the human mind.
Collaboration occurs when two or more people or organizations work together--> to realize or achieve a goal.
The Constitution of Colombia (Constitución Política de Colombia), better known as the Constitution of 1991, is the current governing document of the Republic of Colombia.
The Comilla Model was a rural development programme launched in 1959 by the Pakistan Academy for Rural Development (renamed in 1971 the Bangladesh Academy for Rural Development).
The Common Fisheries Policy (CFP) is the fisheries policy of the European Union (EU).
Community-based management (CBM) is a bottom up approach of organization which can be facilitated by an upper government or NGO structure but it aims for local stakeholder participation in the planning, research, development, management and policy making for a community as a whole.
File sharing is a method of distributing electronically stored information such as computer programs and digital media.
Comparison of payment systems (also known as comparison of payment processing services, comparison of payment processors, or comparison of merchant services) is a list displaying comparative information and fee rates on various payment systems (also payment processing services, payment processor, or merchant services).
The Comprehensive Program for Socialist Economic Integration was set up in 1971, laying the guidelines for Comecon activity until 1990.
Conditional budgeting is a budgeting approach designed for companies with fluctuating income, high fixed costs, or income depending on sunk costs, as well as NPOs and NGOs.
The Sultanates of Lanao in Mindanao, Philippines were founded in the 16th century through the influence of Shariff Kabungsuan, who was enthroned as first Sultan of Maguindanao in 1520.
Conservatism in Canada is generally considered to be primarily represented by the modern-day Conservative Party of Canada in federal party politics, and by various centre-right and right-wing parties at the provincial level.
The Conservative Party of Canada (Parti conservateur du Canada), colloquially known as the Tories, is a political party in Canada.
Constantin G. Stere or Constantin Sterea (Romanian; Константин Егорович Стере, Konstantin Yegorovich Stere or Константин Георгиевич Стере, Konstantin Georgiyevich Stere; also known under his pen name Șărcăleanu; June 1, 1865 – June 26, 1936) was a Romanian writer, jurist, politician, ideologue of the Poporanist trend, and, in March 1906, co-founder (together with Garabet Ibrăileanu and Paul Bujor — the latter was afterwards replaced by the physician Ioan Cantacuzino) of the literary magazine Viața Românească.
The Constitution of 3 May 1791 (Konstytucja 3 Maja, Gegužės trečiosios konstitucija) was adopted by the Great Sejm (parliament) of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, a dual monarchy comprising the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.
The current Constitution of the Republic of Serbia (Устав Републике Србије / Ustav Republike Srbije), also known as Mitrovdan Constitution (Митровдански устав / Mitrovdanski ustav) was adopted in 2006, replacing the previous constitution dating from 1990.
The Constitution of the Kingdom of Thailand (รัฐธรรมนูญแห่งราชอาณาจักรไทย) provides the basis for the rule of law in Thailand.
The Constitution for the Kingdom of the Netherlands (Grondwet voor het Koninkrijk der Nederlanden) is one of two fundamental documents governing the Kingdom of the Netherlands as well as the fundamental law of the European territory of the Kingdom of the Netherlands.
The Constitution of the Republic of the Congo is the basic law governing the Republic of the Congo.
Constitutional reform in the Philippines, also known as Charter Change, refers to the political and legal processes needed to amend the current 1987 Constitution of the Philippines.
The constitutional status of Orkney, Shetland and the Western Isles has periodically been discussed, for example during the Scottish independence referendum campaign.
The Persian Constitutional Revolution was a short-lived push for democratic rule in the form of a constitutional monarchy within a highly elitist yet decentralized society under the Qajars.
Control theory in sociology is the idea that two control systems—inner controls and outer controls—work against our tendencies to deviate.
Cornell University is a private and statutory Ivy League research university located in Ithaca, New York.
Corvid College was co-founded in Boston in October 2009 by Dr.
CrimethInc., also known as CWC, which stands for either "CrimethInc.
Criminalization or criminalisation, in criminology, is "the process by which behaviors and individuals are transformed into crime and criminals".
Pope John Paul II was criticised, amongst other things, for lack of any response to sex abuse of children in the Church.
Critics of anarchism include allegations of utopianism, tacit authoritarianism, and vandalism towards feats of civilization.
Croat People's Union (Hrvatska narodna zajednica,; Croatian abbreviation: HNZ) was a Bosnian Croat political party in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The Croatian Coalition was the coalition of two Croat parties in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatian Democratic Union 1990 and Croatian Party of Rights of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Parliamentary elections were held in Croatia on Sunday, 4 December 2011 to elect 151 members to the Croatian Parliament.
Crypto-anarchism (or crypto-anarchy) is a cyber-spatial realization of anarchism.
A cryptocurrency (or crypto currency) is digital asset designed to work as a medium of exchange that uses strong cryptography to secure financial transactions, control the creation of additional units, and verify the transfer of assets.
The culture of Paris,in France and of the French people has been shaped by geography, by profound historical events, and by foreign and internal forces and groups.
The culture of Iceland is rich and varied as well as being known for its literary heritage which began in the 12th century.
Curtis LeMay (November 15, 1906 – October 1, 1990) was a general in the United States Air Force and the vice presidential running mate of American Independent Party candidate George Wallace in the 1968 presidential election.
Cyber resilience refers to an entity's ability to continuously deliver the intended outcome despite adverse cyber events.
Cyberdelic (a portmanteau word combining prefix "cyber-" and "psychedelic") is a term used to refer to either.
Dale Allen Pfeiffer (March 30, 1958) is a geologist and writer from Michigan, U.S. who has investigated and written about energy depletion and potential future resource wars.
David Hume (born David Home; 7 May 1711 NS (26 April 1711 OS) – 25 August 1776) was a Scottish philosopher, historian, economist, and essayist, who is best known today for his highly influential system of philosophical empiricism, skepticism, and naturalism.
De Leonism, occasionally known as Marxism–De Leonism, is a libertarian Marxist current developed by the American activist Daniel De Leon.
Libertarianism is variously defined by sources as there is no general consensus among scholars on the definition nor on how one should use the term as a historical category.
DECENT is a Blockchain driven content distribution platform.
In France, the policy of decentralisation was initiated by acts of the French parliament known as Gaston Defferre Laws in 1982.
A decentralised system in systems theory is a system in which lower level components operate on local information to accomplish global goals.
Concertación Descentralista was a Peruvian electoral coalition established to contend in the 2006 national election.
Decentralization in Peru has long been a major issue in the government agenda.
Decentralized computing is the allocation of resources, both hardware and software, to each individual workstation, or office location.
A decentralized-planned economy or decentrally-planned economy (occasionally horizontally-planned economy) is a type of economic system based on decentralized economic planning, in which decision-making is distributed amongst various economic agents or localized within production units.
Deforestation in Laos is a major environmental concern, with Laos losing forest area to legal and illegal logging.
In computing, delegated administration or delegation of control describes the decentralization of role-based-access-control systems.
The Democratic Labour Party was a small British left-wing political party in Walsall, sometimes known as the Walsall Democratic Labour Party.
The Democratic Party (Partido Demócrata, PD) was a political party in Peru.
The Democratic Party of Serbia (Демократска странка Србије / Demokratska stranka Srbije,, Serbian abbreviation: ДCC / DSS) is a national conservative and Christian democratic political party in Serbia.
The principles of democratic structuring were defined by Jo Freeman in "The Tyranny of Structurelessness", first delivered as a talk in 1970, later published in the Berkeley Journal of Sociology in 1972.
Dennis W. Bakke (born November 6, 1945) is an American chief executive officer (CEO) and business entrepreneur.
The Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH or GIZ in short (English: German Corporation for International Cooperation GmbH) is a German development agency headquartered in Bonn and Eschborn that provides services in the field of international development cooperation.
Devolution is the statutory delegation of powers from the central government of a sovereign state to govern at a subnational level, such as a regional or local level.
Digital currency (digital money or electronic money or electronic currency) is a type of currency available only in digital form, not in physical (such as banknotes and coins).
Dimitrios I. Roussopoulos (born 1936) is a political activist, ecologist, writer, editor, publisher, community organizer, and public speaker.
Distributed economies (DE) is a term that was coined by Allan Johansson et al.
Distributism is an economic ideology that developed in Europe in the late 19th and early 20th century based upon the principles of Catholic social teaching, especially the teachings of Pope Leo XIII in his encyclical Rerum novarum and Pope Pius XI in Quadragesimo anno.
District Planning is the process of preparing an integrated plan for the local government sector in a district taking into account the resources (natural, human and financial) available and covering the sectoral activities and schemes assigned to the district level and below and those implemented through local governments in a state.
DRDA has traditionally been the principal organ at the district level to oversee the implementation of anti-poverty programmes of the Ministry of Rural Development.
The districts of the city of Rosario, province of Santa Fe, Argentina are administrative divisions created to decentralise the workings of the municipal government.
Don't Just Vote, Get Active, also known as Don't Just (Not) Vote (DJV) was an open, decentralized national campaign in the United States of America initiated by the CrimethInc. Ex-Workers Collective and its allies.
Donald Livingston is a former Professor of Philosophy at Emory University and a David Hume scholar.
The Donetsk People's Republic (DPR or DNR, dɐˈnʲɛtskəjə nɐˈrodnəjə rʲɪˈspublʲɪkə, Донецька Народна Республіка) is a proto-state in the Donetsk Oblast of Ukraine recognized only by the partially recognized South Ossetia.
In the Byzantine Empire, the Duchy of the Pentapolis was a duchy (Latin: ducatus), a territory ruled by a duke (dux) appointed by and under the authority of the Praetorian Prefect of Italy (554–584) and then the Exarch of Ravenna (584–751).
Earth First! is a radical environmental advocacy group that emerged in the Southwestern United States in 1979.
The Ecologists Greens (Οικολόγοι Πράσινοι (ΟΠ),, OP) are a Greek Green ecologist political party.
Economic democracy is a socioeconomic philosophy that proposes to shift decision-making power from corporate managers and corporate shareholders to a larger group of public stakeholders that includes workers, customers, suppliers, neighbors and the broader public.
Economic restructuring refers to the phenomenon of Western urban areas shifting from a manufacturing to a service sector economic base.
The socialist market economy of the People's Republic of China is the world's second largest economy by nominal GDP and the world's largest economy by purchasing power parity according to the International Monetary Fund (IMF), although China's National Bureau of Statistics denies the latter assessment.
The economy of Croatia is a service-based economy with the tertiary sector accounting for 70% of total gross domestic product (GDP).
The economy of Iran is a mixed and transition economy with a large public sector.
The economy of the Lao People's Democratic Republic is rapidly growing, as a result of decentralized government control and encouragement of private enterprise since 1986.
Peru is classified as upper middle income by the World Bank and is the 39th largest in the world by total GDP.
Ecotopia Emerging (EE) by Ernest Callenbach is a fictionalized history of the events leading up to the secession of Northern California, Oregon, and Washington to form the steady-state, environmentalist nation of Ecotopia along the Pacific Coast of the United States.
"Edge city" is an American term for a concentration of business, shopping, and entertainment outside a traditional downtown (or central business district) in what had previously been a residential or rural area.
The Edirne Event (script) was a janissary revolt that began in Constantinople in 1703.
The eDonkey Network (also known as the eDonkey2000 network or eD2k) is a decentralized, mostly server-based, peer-to-peer file sharing network created in 2000 by US developers Jed McCaleb and Sam Yagan that is best suited to share big files among users, and to provide long term availability of files.
EDU Ecosystem (dba LiveEdu) is a decentralized learning ecosystem that teaches people how to build complete products in future technological fields.
Education in China is a state-run system of public education run by the Ministry of Education.
Egypt has the largest overall education system in Africa, and it has grown rapidly since the early 1990s.
The Haitian Educational System yields the lowest total rate in the education realm of the Western Hemisphere.
The system of education in Iceland is divided in four levels: playschool, compulsory, upper secondary and higher, and is similar to that of other Nordic countries.
Education in Libya begins with primary education, which is both free and compulsory.
Education in Zimbabwe is under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Primary and Secondary Education for primary and secondary education and the Ministry of Higher and Tertiary Education, Science and Technology Development for higher education.
Egalitarianism – or equalitarianism – is a school of thought that prioritizes equality for all people.
Ekeren is a northern district of the municipality of Antwerp in the Flemish Region of Belgium.
El Barzón is a movement of middle class private business and farming interests in Mexico.
ElectriCChain is a nonprofit affiliate of renewable energy cryptocurrency SolarCoin.
Emperor Wu of Han (30 July 157BC29 March 87BC), born Liu Che, courtesy name Tong, was the seventh emperor of the Han dynasty of China, ruling from 141–87 BC.
The term empowerment refers to measures designed to increase the degree of autonomy and self-determination in people and in communities in order to enable them to represent their interests in a responsible and self-determined way, acting on their own authority.
Association "It's Enough – Restart" (/ Udruženje „Dosta je bilo”), commonly known in English as Enough is Enough, is a Serbian political organization, established on 27 January 2014 around the former Minister of Economy, Saša Radulović and his associates from the ministry.
Detailed accounts of the impact of economic development on China’s environmental landscape through the century have been provided by scholars, many of whom are Chinese.
Environmental issues in Australia describes a number of environmental issues which affect the environment of Australia.
Equitable Tourism Options (EQUATIONS) is a research, campaign and advocacy NGO working on social, cultural, economic and environmental impacts of tourism on local communities in India.
Erling Folkvord (born 15 June 1949) is a Norwegian politician for the Red party, and a former member of the Parliament of Norway.
Europe Ecology – The Greens (Europe Écologie Les Verts, EELV) is a green and centre-left political party in France.
ALDA, the European Association for Local Democracy, is a membership based organisation established in 1999 at the initiative of the Council of Europe's Congress of Local and Regional Authorities.
The European Medicines Agency (EMA) is a European Union agency for the evaluation of medicinal products.
Fabulous Trobadors are a band from Toulouse, France, founded in 1987.
The Irish government budget for 2009 was delivered on 14 October 2008, as the first budget in the tenure of Fianna Fáil's Brian Lenihan as Minister for Finance and the first of Taoiseach Brian Cowen's tenure.
A federated state (which may also be referred to by various terms such as a state, a province, a canton, a land) is a territorial and constitutional community forming part of a federation.
Federica Montseny Mañé (12 February 1905 14 January 1994) was a Spanish anarchist, intellectual and Minister of Health during the Spanish Revolution of 1936, a social revolution that occurred in Spain in parallel to the Spanish Civil War.
Felipe Barrera-Osorio is a Colombian economist and Associate Professor of Education and Economics at the Harvard Graduate School of Education.
Fermat is a collaborative, open-source technology project advocating for a free, secure, decentralized and disintermediated information space in which people's interests are placed ahead of those of corporations, states and unnecessary third parties in general.
Feudal fragmentation is stage in the development of certain feudal states, in which it is split into smaller regional state structures, each characterized by significant autonomy if not outright independence and ruled by a high-ranking noble such as a prince or a duke.
Feudalism was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries.
As a subfield of public economics, fiscal federalism is concerned with "understanding which functions and instruments are best centralized and which are best placed in the sphere of decentralized levels of government" (Oates, 1999).
Fiscal localism comprises institutions of localized monetary exchange.
The five-year plans for the development of the national economy of the Soviet Union (USSR) (Пятиле́тние пла́ны разви́тия наро́дного хозя́йства СССР, Pjatiletnije plany razvitiya narodnogo khozyaystva SSSR) consisted of a series of nationwide centralized economic plans in the Soviet Union, beginning in the late 1920s.
The Five Year Plans of Bhutan are a series of national economic development plans created by the government of Bhutan since 1961.
A flat organization (also known as horizontal organization) has an organizational structure with few or no levels of middle management between staff and executives.
The foreign exchange market (Forex, FX, or currency market) is a global decentralized or over-the-counter (OTC) market for the trading of currencies.
The foreign relations of Canada are Canada's relations with other governments and peoples.
The Foundation for Research on Economics and the Environment (FREE), based in Bozeman, Montana, is an American think-tank that promotes free-market environmentalism.
Fourth-generation warfare (4GW) is conflict characterized by a blurring of the lines between war and politics, combatants and civilians.
Francisco Tomás y Valiente (8 December 1932 – 14 February 1996) was a Spanish jurist, historian, and writer.
Frederick Joseph "Fred" Lawton (November 11, 1900 – 1975) was an American bureaucrat who served as the ninth Director of the Bureau of the Budget.
Chad was a part of the French colonial empire from 1900 to 1960.
A constitutional referendum was held in France on 27 April 1969.
Functional organization is a type of organizational structure that uses the principle of specialization based on function or role.
Functionalism is a theory of international relations that arose during the inter-War period principally from the strong concern about the obsolescence of the State as a form of social organization.
Future Perfect: The Case for Progress in a Networked Age (2012) is a non-fiction book published in 2012 by American best-selling author Steven Berlin Johnson.
G17 Plus (G17+), was a liberal-conservative political party in Serbia that existed from 2002 until 2013 when it merged into the United Regions of Serbia (URS).
The Galician Statute of Autonomy (Estatuto de autonomía de Galicia) (1936) was a statute of autonomy for Galicia.
Gandhian economics is a school of economic thought based on the spiritual and socio-economic principles expounded by Indian leader Mahatma Gandhi.
Gary William Chartier (born December 30, 1966) is an American legal scholar and philosopher who is currently Distinguished Professor of Law and Business Ethics and Associate Dean of the Tom and Vi Zapara School of Business at La Sierra University in Riverside, California.
The Ground Combat Infantry Fighting Vehicle was an infantry fighting vehicle being developed for the U.S. Army.
The General Council of the Pyrénées-Orientales (in French: Conseil Général des Pyrénées-Orientales, Catalan: Consell General dels Pirineus Orientals) is the assembly elected for 6 years by the 31 Cantons of the Pyrénées-Orientales and its executive.
General Electric Specialty Control Plant is a historic factory complex located at Waynesboro, Virginia.
The concept of four "generations" in the history of modern warfare was created by a team of United States analysts, including William S. Lind, for the purpose of an argument for "the changing face of war" entering into a "fourth generation".
Geolibertarianism is a political and economic ideology that integrates libertarianism with Georgism (alternatively geoism or geonomics).
Gerogery is a town in the Riverina region of the Australian state of New South Wales.
The Ghana Standards Authority (GSA) formerly Ghana Standards Board (GSB) is a Government of Ghana agency responsible for the maintenance of acceptable standards for product and services and sound management practices in industries and public institutions in Ghana.
Gilberto Teodoro Sr. (May 7, 1927 – February 22, 2008) was a former Social Security System administrator.
Girardot is a municipality and town of Colombia in the department of Cundinamarca.
The global brain is a neuroscience-inspired and futurological vision of the planetary information and communications technology network that interconnects all humans and their technological artifacts.
The following is a list of terms specific to anarchists.
GNUnet is a software framework for decentralized, peer-to-peer networking and an official GNU package.
Golden Liberty (Aurea Libertas; Złota Wolność, Auksinė laisvė), sometimes referred to as Golden Freedoms, Nobles' Democracy or Nobles' Commonwealth (Szlachecka or Złota wolność szlachecka, aureă lībertās) was a political system in the Kingdom of Poland and, after the Union of Lublin (1569), in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Good governance is an indeterminate term used in the international development literature to describe how public institutions conduct public affairs and manage public resources.
goTenna (goTenna Inc.) is a Brooklyn, New York-based startup that designs and develops technologies for off-grid and decentralized communications.
Governance in higher education is the means by which institutions for higher education (tertiary or post-secondary education) are formally organized and managed (though often there is a distinction between definitions of management and governance).
A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, often a state.
The Republic of Cameroon is a decentralized unitary state.
This article is about the government of Rosario, the third most populated city in Argentina, and the largest in the province of Santa Fe.
Governorate council (مجلس المحافظة) is an elected local assembly in Jordan.
GRAIN (initially the International Coalition for Development Action or ICDA) is a small international non-profit organisation that works to support small farmers and social movements in their struggles for community-controlled and biodiversity-based food systems.
The grain rationing system was imposed by the People's Republic of China in the 1950s to control the production of food and to boost industrialization.
Grassroots democracy is a tendency towards designing political processes where as much decision-making authority as practical is shifted to the organization's lowest geographic or social level of organization.
Greater Los Angeles is the second-largest urban region in the United States, encompassing five counties in southern California, extending from Ventura County in the west to San Bernardino County and Riverside County on the east, with Los Angeles County in the center and Orange County to the southeast.
Green anarchism (or eco-anarchism) is a school of thought within anarchism which puts a particular emphasis on environmental issues.
Green libertarianism (also known as eco-libertarianism) is a hybrid political philosophy that has developed in the United States.
The Green Party of Minnesota is a green political party in the U.S. state of Minnesota.
The Pakistan Green Party is a green democratic political party in Pakistan.
The Green Party of the United States (GPUS) is a green federation of political parties in the United States.
Green politics (also known as ecopolitics) is a political ideology that aims to create an ecologically sustainable society rooted in environmentalism, nonviolence, social justice and grassroots democracy.
The Hancock Report was a report on the Australian system of industrial relations system by the central government.
Hassan Katsina (31 March 1933 – 24 July 1995) was a Nigerian Army Major General and son of Usman Nagogo, the Emir of Katsina from 1944 to 1981. He was governor of the Northern Region of Nigeria from 1966 to 1967. During the Nigerian civil war, he was the Chief of Staff, Army and later became the deputy Chief of Staff, Supreme Headquarters under the administration of General Yakubu Gowon.
Health and Ageing is a research programme set up by the Geneva Association, also known as the International Association for the Study of Insurance Economics.
Health in Uganda refers to the health of the population of Uganda.
In the past, Kosovo’s capabilities to develop a modern health care system were limited.
Healthcare in Senegal is a center topic of discourse in understanding the wellbeing and vitality of the Senegalese people.
Healthy Serbia (Здрава Србија, Zdrava Srbija) is a Serbian regional political party founded in 2017 by Milan Stamatović, Mayor of Čajetina.
Heraeus is a German technology group with a focus on precious and special metals, medical technology, quartz glass, sensors and specialty light sources.
Hermes Juan Binner (born June 5, 1943) is an Argentine physician and a politician.
HIAG (Hilfsgemeinschaft auf Gegenseitigkeit der Angehörigen der ehemaligen Waffen-SS, literally "Mutual aid association of former Waffen-SS members") was a lobby group and a revisionist veterans' organisation founded by former high-ranking Waffen-SS personnel in West Germany in 1951.
HIE of One is a free software project developing tools for patients to manage their own health records.
Higher education in the United States is an optional final stage of formal learning following secondary education.
The Himmerod memorandum was a 40-page document produced following a 1950 secret meeting of former Wehrmacht high-ranking officers invited by Chancellor Konrad Adenauer to the Himmerod Abbey to discuss West Germany's Wiederbewaffnung (rearmament).
Hispanophone and Hispanosphere are terms used to refer to Spanish-language speakers and the Spanish-speaking world, respectively.
The history of Albania forms a part of the history of Europe.
Bitcoin is a cryptocurrency, a digital asset designed to work as a medium of exchange that uses cryptography to control its creation and management, rather than relying on central authorities.
The German Democratic Republic (GDR), Deutsche Demokratische Republik (DDR), often known in English as East Germany, existed from 1949 to 1990.
The original inhabitants of Mauritania were the Bafour, presumably a Mande ethnic group, connected to the contemporary Arabized minor social group of Imraguen ("fishermen") on the Atlantic coast.
Microeconomics is the study of the behaviour of individuals and small impacting organisations in making decisions on the allocation of limited resources.
The history of money concerns the development of means of carrying out transactions involving a medium of exchange.
Plaid Cymru; The Party of Wales (often shortened to Plaid) originated in 1925 after a meeting held at that year's National Eisteddfod in Pwllheli, Caernarfonshire (now Gwynedd).
The history of rail transport in Spain begins in 1848 with the construction of a railway line between Barcelona and Mataró, www.fomento.es in 1852 the first narrow gauge line was built, in 1863 a line reached the Portuguese border.
South African nationality has been influenced primarily by the racial dynamics that have structured South African society throughout its development.
Trade is a key factor of the People's Republic of China's economy.
Home rule is government of a colony, dependent country, or region by its own citizens.
Honduras, officially the Republic of Honduras (República de Honduras), is a republic in Central America.
The Human Rights Information and Documentation Systems, International (HURIDOCS), established in 1982, is a global network of organisations concerned with human rights.
The International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) is an international financial institution and a specialized agency of the United Nations dedicated to eradicating rural poverty in Vietnam and other developing countries.
In economics, implicit contracts refer to voluntary and self-enforcing long term agreements made between two parties regarding the future exchange of goods or services.
Inclusive Democracy (ID) is a project that aims for direct democracy; economic democracy in a stateless, moneyless and marketless economy; self-management (democracy in the social realm); and ecological democracy.
The Independent Democratic Party (Samostalna demokratska stranka, Самостална демократска странка; Samostojna demokratska stranka, SDS) was a social liberal political party in the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, and later the Kingdom of Yugoslavia.
This aims to be a complete article list of economics topics.
This is a list of articles on general management and strategic management topics.
Urban sociology is the sociological study of social life and human interaction in metropolitan areas.
Industrial deconcentration is the movement of industrial zones (factories) away from the center of the city, and further away from each other.
The Industrial Estate Authority of Thailand (I-EA-T), (การนิคมอุตสาหกรรมแห่งประเทศไทย) is a state enterprise under control of the Ministry of Industry of Thailand.
Czechoslovakia inherited the bulk of existing industrial assets following the breakup of the Austro-Hungarian Empire after World War I. Industrialization continued in the interwar years.
Information processing is the change (processing) of information in any manner detectable by an observer.
In political science, an initiative (also known as a popular or citizens' initiative) is a means by which a petition signed by a certain minimum number of registered voters can force a public vote (referendum, sometimes called a plebiscite).
Innovations for Successful Societies (ISS) is a research program at Princeton University.
The Institute for Social Ecology (ISE) is an educational institution in Plainfield, Vermont dedicated to the study of social ecology, an anti-capitalist and anti-authoritarian strain of ecology that is a form of libertarian socialism.
The Institute of the Regions of Europe (IRE) (Institut der Regionen Europas; IRE) is a scientific institute located in Salzburg (Austria) and was founded on 21st of December 2004 by Univ.
The seven institutions of the European Union (EU) are seated in four different cities, viz. Brussels, Frankfurt, Luxembourg and Strasbourg, rather than being concentrated in a single capital city.
The Insubordinate movement (Spanish: Movimiento insumiso or Insumisión, Catalan: Moviment d'insubmissió, Galician: Movemento insubmiso, Basque: Matxinada) was a mass antimilitarist movement of civil disobedience to compulsory military service in Spain, the movement lasting from the early 1980s until the abolition of conscription on 31 December 2001.
Integralism or Integrism is used in the context of Catholicism to refer to an organization of the state which rejects "the separation of politics from concern with the end of human life, holding that political rule must order man to his final goal." Though less commonly referred to in modern theology, Integralism defines the social order of medieval Christendom and is part of the social teaching of the Catholic Church.
Integralismo Lusitano (English: "Lusitanian Integralism") was a Portuguese integralist political movement, founded in Coimbra in 1914, that advocated traditionalism but not conservatism.
The International Water Management Institute (IWMI) is a non-profit research organisation with headquarters in Colombo, Sri Lanka, and offices across Africa and Asia.
Ion Heliade Rădulescu or Ion Heliade (also known as Eliade or Eliade Rădulescu;; January 6, 1802 – April 27, 1872) was a Wallachian, later Romanian academic, Romantic and Classicist poet, essayist, memoirist, short story writer, newspaper editor and politician.
Although it is a country of high annual rainfall, irrigation in Vietnam is widespread.
Isaac Mulindwa Ssozi (born 26 January 1983) is a Ugandan procurement specialist, logistician and politician.
Isabel Magkoeva (Изабель Казбековна Магкоева, born 20 January 1991) is a Russian political activist.
The Italian Radical Party (Partito Radicale Italiano), also known as Historical Radical Party (Partito Radicale storico), was a radical, secularist and left-liberal political party in Italy.
Jane Jacobs (née Butzner; May 4, 1916 – April 25, 2006) was an American-Canadian journalist, author, and activist who influenced urban studies, sociology, and economics.
, abbreviated, is Japan's largest and oldest labor union of teachers and school staff.
Many both in and outside Japan share an image of the Japanese work environment that is based on a and " model used by large companies as well as a reputation of long work-hours and strong devotion to one's company.
Jean-François Gravier is a French geographer famous for his work Paris and the French Desert published in 1947, and republished in 1953 and 1972.
Jean-Paul Faguet is Professor of the Political Economy of Development.
Jean-Pierre Raffarin (born 3 August 1948) is a French politician who served as Prime Minister of France from 6 May 2002 to 31 May 2005.
Jean-Pierre Worms (born 16 July 1934 in Courbevoie, Hauts-de-Seine), is a sociologist, a former French parliamentarian, and is active in the associative sector.
Jeffersonian democracy, named after its advocate Thomas Jefferson, was one of two dominant political outlooks and movements in the United States from the 1790s to the 1820s.
General Jehangir Karamat (Urdu: جہانگیر کرامت; born 20 February 1941), is a retired four-star rank army general, diplomat, public intellectual, and a former professor of political science at the National Defense University.
Jerome Lyle Rappaport (born 1927) is a lawyer, developer, political leader, and landlord.
John Zerzan (born August 10, 1943) is an American anarchist and primitivist philosopher and author.
On 15 August 2017, Jordan held local elections for three levels of government: mayoralties, municipal and local councils, and governorate councils.
Jos Chathukulam is the Director of the Centre for rural management, Kottayam, Kerala, India.
José María Vernet (born February 24, 1944) is an Argentine Justicialist Party politician.
Joseph Lubin is a Canadian entrepreneur.
Josh Whitford, an American sociologist, is an associate professor at Columbia University.
The June List (Junilistan, jl) is a Swedish, Eurosceptic political party.
The Kaga ikki, also known as The Peasants' Kingdom, was a theocratic feudal confederacy that emerged in Kaga Province (present-day southern Ishikawa Prefecture), Japan, during the late 15th and early 16th centuries.
Karen Barkey is the Haas Distinguished Chair of Religious Diversity at the Haas Institute for a Fair and Inclusive Society and a Professor of sociology at University of California, Berkeley.
A by-election for the seat of Katanning in the Western Australian Legislative Assembly was held on 31 August 1935, following the death of the sitting member, Arnold Piesse of the Country Party.
, also known as the Keiyō Industrial Region, the Keiyō Industrial Area, or the Keiyō Industrial Belt, is an industrial zone on the northeastern coast of Tokyo Bay that crosses 8 cities in Chiba Prefecture, Japan.
Kerala Institute of Local Administration (KILA) is an autonomous training, research and consultancy organisation constituted under the Ministry of Local Self Government, government of Kerala, registered as per Travancore – Cochin Literacy, Scientific and Charitable Societies Act-1955.
Kirkpatrick Sale (born June 27, 1937) is an independent scholar and author who has written prolifically about political decentralism, environmentalism, luddism and technology.
Kodi (formerly XBMC) is a free and open-source media player software application developed by the XBMC Foundation, a non-profit technology consortium.
Korea Electric Power Corporation, better known as KEPCO (Hangul: 켑코) or Hanjeon (Hangul: 한전), is the largest electric utility in South Korea, responsible for the generation, transmission and distribution of electricity and the development of electric power projects including those in nuclear power, wind power and coal.
Kudumbashree is the women empowerment and poverty eradication program, framed and enforced by the State Poverty Eradication Mission (SPEM) of the Government of Kerala.
The Kurdish National Council (KNC,, ENKS; المجلس الوطني الكوردي Al-Majlis Al-Watani Al-Kurdi) is a Syrian Kurdish political organization funded by the President of Iraqi Kurdistan Masoud Barzani and Turkey in the Syrian Civil War.
The is the name given to the Japanese philosophical movement centered at Kyoto University that assimilated western philosophy and religious ideas and used them to reformulate religious and moral insights unique to the East Asian cultural tradition.
Ladipo Adamolekun (born July 20, 1942) is a Nigerian public administration scholar, former dean of the Faculty of Administration at Obafemi Awolowo University and was a lead public sector management specialist at World Bank.
Laloorinu Parayanullathu (What Has Laloor To Say) is an Indian documentary film produced by Joseph Paneagaden and directed by Sathish Kalathil under the banner of Digital Film Makers Forum in Malayalam Language.
France has one official language, the French language.
Prior to the 1917 federal election in Canada, the Liberal Party of Canada split into two factions.
The League of Social Democrats of Vojvodina (Лига социјалдемократа Војводине, ЛСВ / Liga socijaldemokrata Vojvodine, LSV) is autonomist, regionalist and social-democratic political party in the Vojvodina region of Serbia.
The concept of leapfrogging is used in many different domains of economics and business, and was originally developed in the field of industrial organization and economic growth.
Left-wing politics supports social equality and egalitarianism, often in opposition to social hierarchy.
Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev (a; Леоні́д Іллі́ч Бре́жнєв, 19 December 1906 (O.S. 6 December) – 10 November 1982) was a Soviet politician who led the Soviet Union from 1964 to 1982 as the General Secretary of the Central Committee (CC) of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU), presiding over the country until his death and funeral in 1982.
Leopold Kohr (5 October 1909 in Oberndorf bei Salzburg, Austria – 26 February 1994 in Gloucester, England) was an economist, jurist and political scientist known both for his opposition to the "cult of bigness" in social organization and as one of those who inspired the small is beautiful movement.
The Lerwick Declaration refers to an announcement made by First Minister Alex Salmond on behalf of the Scottish Government on 25 July 2013, which revealed that a ministerial working group would examine the prospect of decentralising power to Shetland, Orkney, and the Western Isles.
Les Identitaires (English: The Identitarians), formerly the Bloc Identitaire, is a nationalist movement in Europe.
Llewellyn Harrison Rockwell Jr. (born July 1, 1944) is an American author, editor, and political consultant.
The Liberal Democratic Party (Либерално демократска партија, ЛДП / Liberalno demokratska partija, LDP) is a liberal political party in Serbia.
The Liberal Party of Chile (Spanish: Partido Liberal de Chile) is a political party founded 26 January 2013 in Santiago, Chile.
The Liberal Rebellions of 1842 were a series of rebellions that took place in the Brazilian states of Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo and Minas Gerais in response to actions taken by Emperor Dom Pedro II to unify power under the central government and limit the powers of the states.
This article gives an overview of liberalism and centrism in Finland.
This article gives an overview of liberalism in India.
Libertarian Marxism refers to a broad scope of economic and political philosophies that emphasize the anti-authoritarian aspects of Marxism.
The Libertarian Movement (Movimento Libertario, ML) is a political party in Italy which espouses a typically libertarian platform, namely minimal regulation of society, liberism of the markets, strong defense of natural rights of liberty and property, non-interventionism in foreign policy and laissez-faire freedom of trade and travel to all foreign countries.
Libertarian socialism (or socialist libertarianism) is a group of anti-authoritarian political philosophies inside the socialist movement that rejects socialism as centralized state ownership and control of the economy.
This is a list of confederations.
This is a list of conservative parties in Canada.
A list of file sharing programs for use on computers running Linux, BSD or other Unix-like operating systems, categorised according to the different filesharing networks or protocols they access.
In democracies, large proportions of the population may vote, either to make decisions or to choose representatives to make decisions.
The following is a list of the 100 largest United Kingdom-based law firms measured by worldwide revenues, as well as their PEP, lawyer numbers and profit margins.
List of associations or groupings of local governments and municipalities.
As of January 2018, there are 380 municipalities (Dutch: gemeenten) and 3 public bodies (openbare lichamen), also referred to as special municipalities (bijzondere gemeenten), in the Netherlands.
This article lists current political parties in Poland, as well as former parties dating back as far as 1918.
Litecoin (LTC or Ł) is a peer-to-peer cryptocurrency and open source software project released under the MIT/X11 license.
A local government is a form of public administration which, in a majority of contexts, exists as the lowest tier of administration within a given state.
The Local Government (Wales) Act 1994 (c. 19) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom which created the current local government structure in Wales of 22 unitary authority areas, referred to as principal areas in the Act, and abolished the previous two-tier structure of counties and districts.
The Local Government Act of Bhutan (Dzongkha: འབྲུག་གི་ས་གནས་གཞུངས་སྤྱི་མོ་ཅན་མ་; Wylie: 'brug-gi sa-gans-gzhungs can-ma) was enacted on September 11, 2009, by parliament of Bhutan in order to further implement its program of decentralization and devolution of power and authority.
The Local Government etc.
Local governments in Kerala enjoy very stable sources of revenue compared to their counterparts in the country.
Local service delivery is the delivery of public services at the local level and is a distinct domain of public policy.
The London Borough of Tower Hamlets is a London Borough in East London which covers much of the traditional East End.
As an agglutinative language, Turkish allows the construction of words by adding many suffixes to a word stem.
Lounès Matoub (or ⵎⵄⵟⵓⴱ ⵍⵓⵏⵉⵙ; معطوب لونّاس (January 24, 1956 – June 25, 1998)) was a famous Algerian Berber singer, poet, thinker and mandole player who was a prominent advocate of the Berber cause, human rights and secularism in Algeria throughout his life.
The Luhansk People's Republic (Луганська Народна Республіка), also known as Lugansk People's Republic (lʊˈɡanskəjə nɐˈrodnəjə rʲɪˈspublʲɪkə), usually abbreviated as LPR or LNR, is a landlocked proto-state in eastern Ukraine.
Lux-Development S.A., better known as LuxDev, is the aid and development agency of the government of Luxembourg.
In the U.S. education system, magnet schools are public schools with specialized courses or curricula.
The Maine Green Independent Party is a state-level political party affiliated with the Green Party of the United States.
Makhnovism refers to various related political and economic theories elaborated by Ukrainian anarchist revolutionary leader Nestor Makhno and by other theorists such as Peter Arshinov who claim to be carrying on Makhno's work.
Managing Urban America (first published in 1979) is a book that provides an academic overview and introduction to local urban planning and management in the United States, written by David R. Morgan, Robert E. England and John Peter Pelissero.
Marie-France Garaud (born 3 March 1934) is a French politician.
Marketization or marketisation is a restructuring process that enables state enterprises to operate as market-oriented firms by changing the legal environment in which they operate.
The Marquesas Islands (Îles Marquises or Archipel des Marquises or Marquises; Marquesan: Te Henua (K)enana (North Marquesan) and Te FenuaEnata (South Marquesan), both meaning "the land of men") are a group of volcanic islands in French Polynesia, an overseas collectivity of France in the southern Pacific Ocean.
Mauritania (موريتانيا; Gànnaar; Soninke: Murutaane; Pulaar: Moritani; Mauritanie), officially the Islamic Republic of Mauritania, is a country in the Maghreb region of Northwestern Africa.
Maurrassisme is a political doctrine originated by Charles Maurras (1868–1952), most closely associated with the Action française movement.
Media in Manchester has been an integral part of Manchester's culture and economy for many generations and has been described as the only other British city to rival to London in terms of television broadcasting.
MediaCityUK is a mixed-use property development on the banks of the Manchester Ship Canal in Salford and Trafford, Greater Manchester, England.
The Mediterranean Interregional Commission is one of the twelve Committees of the United Cities and Local Governments.
Melodifestivalen (literally "The Melody Festival") is an annual music competition organised by Swedish public broadcasters Sveriges Television (SVT) and Sveriges Radio (SR).
The Miami Coalition of Christians and Jews is a nonsectarian nonprofit organization dedicated to advancing understanding and respect among people of all cultures, religions and races.
Michel Rocard (23 August 1930 – 2 July 2016) was a French politician and a member of the Socialist Party (PS).
Michigan State University (MSU) is a public research university in East Lansing, Michigan, United States.
This article focuses on internal migration as well as migration from and to Japan.
Mildura is a regional city in north-west Victoria, Australia.
Minds is an open source and distributed social networking service, integrating the blockchain to reward the community with ERC20 tokens for various contributions to the network.
The Ministry of Finance of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) (Министерство финансов СССР), formed on 15 March 1946, was one of the most important government offices in the Soviet Union.
The Ministry of Housing, Communities and Local Government (MHCLG) is the UK Government department for Housing, communities and local government in England.
The Ministry of Interior, Public Safety and Decentralization of the Government of Niger is the government authority responsible for policing, internal security and the ongoing process of decentralization of authority to the Regions, Departments, and Communes of Niger.
The Ministry of Panchayati Raj is a branch of the Government of India looking after the ongoing process of decentralisation and local governance in the States.
The Ministry of the Interior and Administrative Reconstruction (Υπουργείο Εσωτερικών και Διοικητικής Ανασυγκρότησης) is a government department of Greece.
The Ministry of the Interior and Decentralization is the national Ministry of the Interior of Mauritania.
Modern American liberalism is the dominant version of liberalism in the United States.
Modern warfare is warfare using the concepts, methods, and military technology that have come into use during and after World Wars I and II.
Andi Mohammad Jusuf Amir (born in Kajuara, Bone, South Sulawesi, Dutch East Indies, 23 June 1928 - died in Makassar, South Sulawesi, Indonesia, 8 September 2004 at the age of 76 years), more commonly known as "M.
Moncucco was an autonomous Italian municipality until March 30, 1871, when due to a royal decree it became a hamlet of the town of Brugherio, established in 1866.
Monero (XMR) is an open-source cryptocurrency created in April 2014 that focuses on privacy and decentralization that runs on Windows, macOS, Linux, Android, iOS, and FreeBSD.
The Movimiento Nacional (National Movement) was the name given to the nationalist inspired mechanism during Francoist rule in Spain, which purported to be the only channel of participation to Spanish public life.
Multi-level (or multilevel) governance is an approach in political science and public administration theory that originated from studies on European integration.
Municipalities in Bolivia are administrative divisions of the entire national territory governed by local elections.
Murray Bookchin (January 14, 1921 – July 30, 2006)was an American social theorist, author, orator, historian, and political philosopher.
Mushtaq Husain Khan is a heterodox economist and professor of economics at the School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS), University of London.
The Mutual Ownership Defense Housing Division of the Federal Works Agency part of the United States government, operating from about 1940 to 1942 under the leadership of Colonel Lawrence Westbrook, was an attempt by the United States Government, late in the New Deal, to respond to the housing needs facing defense workers and develop housing projects for middle-income families utilizing the cooperative/mutual housing ownership concept.
Nancy Alene Hicks Maynard (1 November 1946 – 21 September 2008) was an American publisher, journalist, former owner of The Oakland Tribune, and co-founder of the Maynard Institute for Journalism Education.
The National Congress Party of Afghanistan (حزب کنگره ملی افغانستان Hezb-e Kongrā-ye Mīllī-ye Afghānestān) is a liberal, secular, multi-ethnic political party in Afghanistan.
The National Film Board of Canada (or simply National Film Board or NFB) (French: Office national du film du Canada, or ONF) is Canada's public film and digital media producer and distributor.
The National Finance Commission Award or NFC is a series of planned economic program enacted since 1951.
The National Liberation Army (Ushtria Çlirimtare Kombëtare – UÇK; Ослободителна народна армија – ОНА, Osloboditelna narodna armija – ONA), also known as the Macedonian UÇK, is a militant organization that operated in the Republic of Macedonia in 2001 and was closely associated with the Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA).
The National Partnership for Reinventing Government (NPR), originally the National Performance Review, was an interagency task force to reform the way the United States federal government works in the Clinton Administration.
The is an agency administered by the National Public Safety Commission of the Cabinet Office of the Cabinet of Japan, and is the central agency of the Japanese police system, and the central coordinating agency of law enforcement in situations of national emergency in Japan.
The National Union for the Progress of Romania (Uniunea Națională pentru Progresul României, UNPR) was a political party of Romania.
National-anarchism is a radical, anti-capitalist, anti-Marxist and anti-statist ideology.
Natural resource management refers to the management of natural resources such as land, water, soil, plants and animals, with a particular focus on how management affects the quality of life for both present and future generations (stewardship).
Neorealism or structural realism is a theory of international relations that says power is the most important factor in international relations.
The Network of Associations of Local Authorities of South-East Europe or (NALAS) was created in 2001 to enhance the process of democratization and decentralization in south-east Europe.
The Netzkraft Movement, based in Germany, is a cross-thematic and international network of individuals and groups who work for the common good.
New Federalism is a political philosophy of devolution, or the transfer of certain powers from the United States federal government back to the states.
New Serbia (Нова Србија (НС)/Nova Srbija (NS)) is a minor populist and monarchist political party in Serbia.
The New York City teachers' strike of 1968 was a months-long confrontation between the new community-controlled school board in the largely black Ocean Hill–Brownsville neighborhoods of Brooklyn, and New York City’s United Federation of Teachers.
Nkurenkuru (1.093 m above sea level) is a town on the south-western banks of the Kavango River.
The non-conformists of the 1930s were groups and individuals during the inter-war period in France that were seeking new solutions to face the political, economical and social crisis.
The Nordic agrarian parties, or Nordic Centre parties, are agrarian political parties that belong to a political tradition particular to the Nordic countries.
Norman Kingsley Mailer (January 31, 1923 – November 10, 2007) was an American novelist, journalist, essayist, playwright, film-maker, actor, and liberal political activist.
In England, the term North–South divide refers to the cultural, economic, and social differences between.
Nsumi, or "Nsumi Collective" is an art collective, initially formed as a New School student association called Nsumiscope in the fall of 2001 the week directly following September 11th.
(a.k.a. Niwa, Tomoe, Nishizono) is one of the most prominent manufacturers of bearings in Japan, second domestically only to NSK Ltd. The company is one of the largest exporters worldwide of friction-reducing products such as constant-velocity joints.
The NTP pool is a dynamic collection of networked computers that volunteer to provide highly accurate time via the Network Time Protocol to clients worldwide.
NuBits is a cryptocurrency which advertises itself as a stablecoin issued by a DAO under the same name.
Nunatta Qitornai (literally the Descendants of Our Country) is a separatist political party in Greenland.
Off the derech (OTD), from the Hebrew word (meaning 'path'), is an expression used to describe someone who leaves an Orthodox Jewish community.
Sir Oliver Mowat, (July 22, 1820 – April 19, 1903) was a Canadian lawyer, politician, and Liberal Party leader.
Ontario is one of the 13 provinces and territories of Canada and is located in east-central Canada.
The open method of coordination (OMC) is a relatively new and intergovernmental means of governance in the European Union, based on the voluntary cooperation of its member states.
Open spectrum (also known as free spectrum) is a movement to get the Federal Communications Commission to provide more unlicensed radio-frequency spectrum that is available for use by all.
Open-source appropriate technology (OSAT) is appropriate technology designed in the same fashion as free and open-source software.
Open-source governance (also known as open politics) is a political philosophy which advocates the application of the philosophies of the open-source and open-content movements to democratic principles to enable any interested citizen to add to the creation of policy, as with a wiki document.
The open-source model is a decentralized software-development model that encourages open collaboration.
OpenBazaar is an open source project developing a protocol for e-commerce transactions in a fully decentralized marketplace.
OpenID is an open standard and decentralized authentication protocol.
The Ottoman Party for Administrative Decentralization or (Hizb al-lamarkaziyya al-idariyya al'Uthmani) (OPAD) was a political party in the Ottoman Empire founded in January 1913.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to anarchism: Anarchism is generally defined as the political philosophy which holds the state to be undesirable, unnecessary, and harmful, The following sources cite anarchism as a political philosophy: Slevin, Carl.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to management: Business management – management of a business.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to economics: Economics – analyzes the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to libertarianism: Libertarianism – collection of political philosophies and movements that upholds liberty as its principal objective.
Overnet was a decentralized peer-to-peer computer network, usually used for sharing large files (e.g., movies and CD images).
An overseas department (département d’outre-mer or DOM) is a department of France that is outside metropolitan France.
An overseas region (Région d'outre-mer) is a designation given to the overseas departments that have identical powers to those of the regions of metropolitan France.
Ovidiu Coriolan Pecican (born January 8, 1959) is a Romanian historian, essayist, novelist, short-story writer, literary critic, poet, playwright, and journalist of partly Serbian origin.
The Pacific Green Party of Oregon (PGP) is a political party in the U.S. state of Oregon.
Pacifism is opposition to war, militarism, or violence.
The Pacifist Socialist Party (Pacifistisch Socialistische Partij, PSP) was a left-wing Dutch socialist political party.
Packet switching is a method of grouping data which is transmitted over a digital network into packets which are made of a header and a payload.
Panarchy (from pan and archy), coined by Paul Emile de Puydt in 1860, is a form of governance that would encompass all others.
The Panchayat raj is a South Asian political system found mainly in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Trinidad and Tobago, and Nepal.
Several parties have advocated the relocation of the Parliament of the United Kingdom from its current location at the Palace of Westminster, London, to the English Midlands or Northern England, for economic or other reasons.
The Parthian Empire (247 BC – 224 AD), also known as the Arsacid Empire, was a major Iranian political and cultural power in ancient Iran and Iraq.
The Party of Reason (Partei der Vernunft, PDV) is a libertarian political party in Germany founded in 2009 by the journalist and author Oliver Janich.
The Patriotic Nigras (also known by the initialism PN) are a group of griefers in the online world of Second Life.
Paul Barthelemy Telukluk is a ni-Vanuatu politician.
Pavlo Mykolayovych Kyshkar (Павло Миколайович Кишкар, born 22 September 1980) is a Ukrainian politician.
The Pax Mongolica (Latin for "Mongol Peace"), less often known as Pax Tatarica ("Tatar Peace"), is a historiographical term modelled after the original phrase Pax Romana which describes the stabilising effects of the conquests of the Mongol Empire on the social, cultural and economic life of the inhabitants of the vast Eurasian territory that the Mongols conquered in the 13th and 14th centuries.
A peace movement is a social movement that seeks to achieve ideals such as the ending of a particular war (or all wars), minimize inter-human violence in a particular place or type of situation, and is often linked to the goal of achieving world peace.
PeerTube is a free, decentralized, federated video platform that uses peer-to-peer technology to reduce load on individual servers.
The People's Alliance for Democracy (PAD) (พันธมิตรประชาชนเพื่อประชาธิปไตย, Phanthamit Prachachon Pheu Prachathipatai) also called the National Liberation Alliance - กลุ่มพันธมิตรกู้ชาติ, Klum Phanthamit Ku Chat, Thai Patriots Network or more commonly the Yellow Shirts - เสื้อเหลือง, Suea Lueang - is a Thai political movement and pressure group.
People's Plan Campaign, held in 1996 in Kerala State, was an experiment in decentralisation of powers to local governments with focus on local planning.
Albania (Shqipëri/Shqipëria; Shqipni/Shqipnia, Shqypni/Shqypnia), officially the People's Socialist Republic of Albania (Republika Popullore Socialiste e Shqipërisë), was a Marxist-Leninist government that ruled Albania from 1946 to 1992.
Peoples' Global Action (PGA) is the name of a worldwide co-ordination of radical social movements, grassroots campaigns and direct actions in resistance to capitalism and for social and environmental justice.
Pershing Square is a small public park in downtown Los Angeles, California, one square block in size, bounded by 5th Street to the north, 6th Street to the south, Hill Street to the east, and Olive Street to the west.
Peru (Perú; Piruw Republika; Piruw Suyu), officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America.
Petname systems are naming systems that claim to possess all three naming properties of Zooko's triangle - global, secure, and memorable.
The Petro Poroshenko Bloc "Solidarity" (Блок Петра Порошенка «Солідарність», Blok Petra Poroshenka «Solidarnist'»), is a political party in Ukraine, formed on 27 August 2014.
Simon Philip Van Patten (1852–1918), known by his middle name of "Philip," was an American socialist political activist prominent during the latter half of the 1870s and the first half of the 1880s.
Executive Order No.
The Philippine Health Insurance Corporation (PhilHealth) was created in 1995 to implement universal health coverage in the Philippines.
The Pia Opera Pastore was a private charitable institution, mainly in support of poor and sick people, which had its seat in the palace of the baron Felice Pastore near Porta Trapani, in Alcamo.
Pierre-René Lemas (born 23 February 1951 in French Algeria) is a French civil servant.
The Platform for Eastern Andalusia (Plataforma por Andalucía Oriental – P.A.O.) is a Spanish organization with regionalist character, set up juridically as an association, created from a civic initiative in the provinces of Jaén, Granada and Almería, with the objective of forming an autonomous community including these three provinces.
Plurinationality, plurinational, or plurinationalism is defined as the coexistence of two or more sealed or preserved national groups within a polity (an organized community or body of peoples).
The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, formally the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, after 1791 the Commonwealth of Poland, was a dualistic state, a bi-confederation of Poland and Lithuania ruled by a common monarch, who was both the King of Poland and the Grand Duke of Lithuania.
The political culture of Canada is in some ways part of a greater North American and European political culture, which emphasizes constitutional law, freedom of religion, personal liberty, and regional autonomy; these ideas stemming in various degrees from the British common law and French civil law traditions, North American aboriginal government, and English civic traditions, among others.
Political freedom (also known as political autonomy or political agency) is a central concept in history and political thought and one of the most important features of democratic societies.
The political positions of Ron Paul (L-TX), United States presidential candidate in 1988, 2008, and 2012, are generally described as libertarian, but have also been labeled conservative and constitutionalist.
The politics of Denmark take place within the framework of a parliamentary representative democracy, a constitutional monarchy and a decentralised unitary state in which the monarch of Denmark, Queen Margrethe II, is head of state.
The politics of France take place with the framework of a semi-presidential system determined by the French Constitution of the French Fifth Republic.
The politics of the Republic of Peru takes place in a framework of a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the President of Peru is both head of state and head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system.
Politics in Senegal takes place within the framework of a semi-presidential, democratic republic.
The politics of Somalia takes place in a framework of federal parliamentary representative democratic republic.
Politics of the Democratic Republic of Congo take place in a framework of a republic in transition from a civil war to a semi-presidential republic.
The politics of the Netherlands take place within the framework of a parliamentary representative democracy, a constitutional monarchy and a decentralised unitary state.
The politics of Turkey takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the Prime Minister of Turkey is the head of government, and the President of Turkey is the head of state who holds a largely ceremonial role with substantial reserve powers.
Pond Inlet (Inuktitut: Mittimatalik, in English the place where the landing place is) is a small, predominantly Inuit community in the Qikiqtaaluk Region of Nunavut, Canada, and is located in northern Baffin Island.
The Popular Democratic Party (Parti démocrate populaire, PDP) was a Christian democratic political party in France during the Third Republic.
A population protocol is a distributed computing model formed by resource-limited mobile agents which meet in a random way according to an interaction graph.
POSCO (formerly Pohang Iron and Steel Company) is a South Korean steel-making company headquartered in Pohang, South Korea.
The Potsdam Agreement (Potsdamer Abkommen) was the August 1945 agreement between three of the Allies of World War II, the United Kingdom, the United States, and the Soviet Union.
The Potsdam Conference (Potsdamer Konferenz) was held at Cecilienhof, the home of Crown Prince Wilhelm, in Potsdam, occupied Germany, from 17 July to 2 August 1945.
Poverty in South America is high in most countries.
The POWER Inquiry was established in 2004 to explore how political participation and involvement can be increased and deepened in Britain.
Prabhat Ranjan Sarkar (11 May 1922 – 21 October 1990), also known by his spiritual name, Shrii Shrii Ánandamúrti (Ánanda Múrti.
The Prague Spring (Pražské jaro, Pražská jar) was a period of political liberalization in Czechoslovakia during the era of its domination by the Soviet Union after World War II.
A private defense agency (PDA) is an enterprise which would provide personal protection and military defense services to individuals who would voluntarily contract for its services.
Proactive Contracting is akin to Proactive Law and focuses on the same properties, namely to prevent problems and promote relationships.
The Proclamation of Timișoara was a thirteen-point written document, drafted on March 11, 1990 by the Timișoara participants in Romania's 1989 Revolution, and partly issued in reaction to the first Mineriad.
The Programa Saúde da Família (PSF), Family Health Program, in Portuguese language is one of the national public health programs in Brazil, which implements a national policy for primary care settings with the aim of substituting part of the traditional model of primary care based on medical specialists.
The Programme commun (or 'Common Programme') was a reform programme, signed 27 June 1972 by the Socialist Party, the French Communist Party and the centrist Radical Movement of the Left, which provided a great upheaval in the economic, political and military fields in France.
Progressive Utilization Theory (Prout), also known by the acronym PROUT, is a socioeconomic and political theory developed by philosopher and spiritual leader Prabhat Ranjan Sarkar.
A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state.
The Prud Agreement or Prud Process was an agreement that pertained to state property, census, constitutional changes, reconstructing the Council of Ministers and solving the legal status of the Brčko District.
Public Administration is the implementation of government policy and also an academic discipline that studies this implementation and prepares civil servants for working in the public service.
The Public Administration of Spain is the governmental apparatus that manages the Spanish public interests.
The Puntland Development Research Center (PDRC) is a Local Non-Governmental Organization (LNGO) based in Garowe, the administrative capital of the autonomous Puntland region in northeastern Somalia.
Queensland Health is a department of the Government of Queensland which operates and administers the state's public health system.
The Radical Party (Радикальна Партія) is a political party in Ukraine.
Radnor or Radnorshire (Sir Faesyfed) is a sparsely populated area, one of thirteen historic and former administrative counties of Wales.
Ralph J. Cordiner was an American businessman.
Rankovićism refers to a political ideology prevalent in the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia based on the political views of the Serbian communist official and former Yugoslav Partisan leader Aleksandar Ranković.
Raymond Lee Washington (August 14, 1953 – August 9, 1979) was an American gangster, known as the founder of the Crips gang in Los Angeles, California.
The Reggio revolt occurred in Reggio Calabria, Italy, from July 1970 to February 1971.
Regional autonomy is decentralization of governance to outlying regions.
The Regional Contemporary Art Fund of Lorraine (FRAC Lorraine) is a public collection of contemporary art of the Lorraine region and located in the regional capital, Metz.
Regional councils are, nominally, the governing bodies of the regions of Cameroon.
A regional state or a regionalised unitary state, is a unitary state in which authority has been decentralized to subnational regions.
Regionalization is the tendency to form decentralized regions.
In politics, regionalism is a political ideology that focuses on the national or normative interests of a particular region, group of regions or another subnational entity.
France is divided into 18 administrative regions (région), including 13 metropolitan regions and 5 overseas regions.
Regions are currently the highest administrative divisions in Morocco.
The United States and the Republic of Macedonia enjoy excellent bilateral relations.
Republican Action (Acción Republicana) was a Spanish left-wing republican party between 1930 and 1934.
The Republican Federation (Fédération républicaine, FR) was the largest conservative party during the French Third Republic, gathering together the liberal Orleanists rallied to the Republic.
The Republican Party, early named Liberian Party, was a political party founded soon after the founding of Liberia in 1848.
The Republican Party of Havana (Partido Republicano de La Habana) was a political party in Cuba.
The Republics of the Soviet Union or the Union Republics (r) of the Soviet Union were ethnically based proto-states that were subordinated directly to the Government of the Soviet Union.
In comparative federalism and comparative constitutionalism, reserved powers are the powers which are not "enumerated" (written down).
The Revolutionary Socialist Workers' Party (Parti ouvrier socialiste révolutionnaire, POSR) was a French political party founded by Jean Allemane in 1890 and dissolved in 1901.
Rinat Leonidovych Akhmetov (Ріна́т Леоні́дович Ахме́тов, Рина́т Леони́дович Ахме́тов, Ринат Леонид улы Әхмәтов; Rinat Leonid ulı Äxmätov; born on 21 September 1966) is a Ukrainian businessman, philanthropist, and oligarch.
The Robert F. Kennedy presidential campaign began on March 16, 1968, when Robert Francis Kennedy (RFK), a U.S. Senator from New York who had won a Senate seat in 1964, entered an unlikely primary election as a challenger to incumbent Democratic President Lyndon B. Johnson (LBJ).
Roberto Laserna (born 1953) is a Bolivian and Spanish writer and economist who earned a PhD from the University of California, Berkeley in regional planning.
Rodrigo Roa Duterte (born March 28, 1945), also known as Digong and Rody, is a Filipino politician who is the 16th and current President of the Philippines and the first from Mindanao, the southernmost island of the country to hold the office.
Rolls-Royce Holdings plc is a British multinational public limited company incorporated in February 2011 that owns Rolls-Royce, a business established in 1904 which today designs, manufactures and distributes power systems for aviation and other industries.
Ronald MacLean-Abaroa (born in La Paz, 1949) is a former Bolivian politician and leading international expert in decentralization, devolution of government powers to local citizens, and anti-corruption strategies.
Ronald John Thompson, known as Ronnie Thompson or 'Machine Gun Ronnie' Thompson (born July 21, 1934), is a former Georgia Republican politician who was the first member of his party to have been elected mayor of Macon, the seat of Bibb County in central Georgia.
Root Force is a biocentric, decentralized, international direct-action campaign devoted to " the system that is killing and enslaving planet and its people." Its slogan is "Demolishing Colonialism At Its Foundations.".
Rosario is the largest city in the province of Santa Fe, in central Argentina.
Roubaix is a city in Northern France, located in the Lille metropolitan area.
In medicine, rural health or rural medicine is the interdisciplinary study of health and health care delivery in rural environments.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
Satoshi Nakamoto is the name used by the unknown person or people who developed bitcoin, authored the bitcoin white paper, created and deployed bitcoin's original reference implementation.
Scania, also known as Skåne, is the southernmost province (landskap) of Sweden.
The Scottish Green Party (Pàrtaidh Uaine na h-Alba; Scots Green Pairty) is a green political party in Scotland.
The Scottish Liberal Democrats (Libearal Deamocratach na h-Alba, Scots Leeberal Democrats) is a liberal and social-liberal political party in Scotland.
The Scottish National Party (SNP; Pàrtaidh Nàiseanta na h-Alba, Scots Naitional Pairtie) is a Scottish nationalist and social-democratic political party in Scotland.
Secession (derived from the Latin term secessio) is the withdrawal of a group from a larger entity, especially a political entity, but also from any organization, union or military alliance.
Union "Self Reliance" or "Self Help" (Об'єднання «Самопоміч»; Ob'yednannya «Samopomich») is a political party in Ukraine.
The right of people to self-determination is a cardinal principle in modern international law (commonly regarded as a jus cogens rule), binding, as such, on the United Nations as authoritative interpretation of the Charter's norms.
Semantic publishing on the Web, or semantic web publishing, refers to publishing information on the web as documents accompanied by semantic markup.
Serhiy Leonidovych Tihipko or Sergiy Tigipko (Сергій Леонідович Тiгiпко Сергей Леонидович Тигипко) (born 13 February 1960) is a Ukrainian politician and finance specialist who has been Vice Prime Minister of Ukraine.
Shane Curran (born January, 2000) is an Irish entrepreneur and computer scientist from Dublin, Ireland and is currently the founder of Muon, a cybersecurity company based in San Francisco, California.
Sharing economy is an umbrella term with a range of meanings, often used to describe economic activity involving online transactions.
Silicon Valley is an American comedy television series created by Mike Judge, John Altschuler and Dave Krinsky.
The Sistema Único de Saúde (Single Health System), better known by the acronym SUS, is Brazil's publicly funded health care system.
Situated ethics, often confused with situational ethics, is a view of applied ethics in which abstract standards from a culture or theory are considered to be far less important than the ongoing processes in which one is personally and physically involved, e.g. climate, ecosystem, etc.
The Slovene People's Party (Slovenska ljudska stranka,, Slovene abbreviation SLS) was a Slovenian political party in the 19th and 20th centuries, active in the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy and in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia.
The Smart Party is a Gujarat, India based political party, founded in 2017 by Abhishek Kumar to end the prohibition of alcohol in Gujarat.
A social fund (sometimes also called Social Investment Fund, Social Fund for Development, Social Action Fund, National Solidarity Fund or Social Development Agency) is an institution, typically in a developing country, that provides financing (usually grants) for small-scale public investments targeted at meeting the needs of poor and vulnerable communities.
Social movement impact theory (otherwise known as outcome theory) is a subcategory of social movement theory, and focuses on assessing the impacts that social movements have on society, as well as what factors might have led to those effects.
Social peer-to-peer processes are interactions with a peer-to-peer dynamic.
The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFR Yugoslavia or SFRY) was a socialist state led by the League of Communists of Yugoslavia, that existed from its foundation in the aftermath of World War II until its dissolution in 1992 amid the Yugoslav Wars.
Socialist feminism rose in the 1960s and 1970s as an offshoot of the feminist movement and New Left that focuses upon the interconnectivity of the patriarchy and capitalism.
The Socialist Party (Parti socialiste, PS) is a social-democratic political party in France, and the largest party of the French centre-left.
Sociocultural evolution, sociocultural evolutionism or cultural evolution are theories of cultural and social evolution that describe how cultures and societies change over time.
The South Island (Māori: Te Waipounamu) is the larger of the two major islands of New Zealand, the other being the smaller but more populous North Island.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
After the restoration of democracy in the late 1970s, the changes in everyday Spanish life were as radical as the political transformation.
Stanak is the most common name used to refer to the assembly of nobility in medieval Bosnia.
Over the past two decades, state-building has developed into becoming an integral part and even a specific approach to peacebuilding by the international community.
Stigmergy is a consensus social network mechanism of indirect coordination, through the environment, between agents or actions.
Strahlendes Klima e.V is a registered non-profit organization that produces films and media focusing on the issues of energy and resources for an environmentally friendly, more climate conscious world.
The Students Coalition Against War is a Canadian organization with members in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Edmonton, Alberta, Victoria, British Columbia, Ottawa, Ontario and Gatineau, Quebec.
Subsidiarity is a principle of social organization that holds that social and political issues should be dealt with at the most immediate (or local) level that is consistent with their resolution.
Suburbanization is a population shift from central urban areas into suburbs, resulting in the formation of (sub)urban sprawl.
Prince Sabahaddin de Neuchâtel (born Sultanzade Mehmed Sabâhaddin; 13 February 1879 in Constantinople — 30 June 1948 in Neuchâtel, Switzerland) was an Ottoman sociologist and thinker.
The Superior Courts of Justice (Tribunales Superiores de Justicia), or High Courts of Justice, are courts within the judicial system of Spain, whose territorial scope covers an Autonomous Community, as laid down in the Organic Law of Judicial Power (Ley Orgánica del Poder Judicial).
Sustainable forest management is the management of forests according to the principles of sustainable development.
Sustainable implant is an urban typology that acts as a decentralized infrastructure provision hub on the neighborhood or district scale.
The Sustainable Urban Development Network (SUD-Net) has as a goal to help impoverished areas gain access to food in a sustainable manner even in urbanized areas.
Swarāj (स्वराज "self", raj "rule") can mean generally self-governance or "self-rule", and was used synonymously with "home-rule" by Maharishi Dayanand Saraswati and later on by Mahatma Gandhi, but the word usually refers to Gandhi's concept for Indian independence from foreign domination.
Swarm behaviour, or swarming, is a collective behaviour exhibited by entities, particularly animals, of similar size which aggregate together, perhaps milling about the same spot or perhaps moving en masse or migrating in some direction.
Swarm intelligence (SI) is the collective behavior of decentralized, self-organized systems, natural or artificial.
The Syndicalist League of North America was an organizations led by William Z. Foster that aimed to "bore from within" the American Federation of Labor to win that trade union center over to the ideals of Revolutionary syndicalism.
The Syria's Tomorrow Movement (Arabic: تيار الغد السوري) is a Syrian opposition party founded in March 2016 in Cairo by Ahmad Jarba, a Syrian National Council member.
This article details responses from Syrian government officials to widespread civil unrest which began in early 2011 and eventually unraveled into nationwide civil war.
The All Systems Commonwealth or simply the Systems Commonwealth is a fictional intergalactic government from Gene Roddenberry's science fiction TV series Andromeda.
The Taiping Rebellion, also known as the Taiping Civil War or the Taiping Revolution, was a massive rebellion or total civil war in China that was waged from 1850 to 1864 between the established Manchu-led Qing dynasty and the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom under Hong Xiuquan.
Mustafa Tamer Başar, (born January 19, 1946 in Istanbul, Turkey) is a Turkish control theorist who holds the ''Swanlund Endowed Chair'' of the Center for Advanced Study and Professor in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA.
commonly known as the Zero Nuclear Party in English-speaking countries and as Datsu-Genpatsu (脱原発, roughly "phase down nuclear power") in Japan, was a short-lived Japanese political party that was formed on 22 November 2012.
The name Tây Sơn (Hán Việt: 西山朝) is used in Vietnamese history in various ways to refer to the period of peasant rebellions and decentralized dynasties established between the end of the figurehead Lê dynasty in 1770 and the beginning of the Nguyễn dynasty in 1802.
Technoliberalism is a political philosophy founded on ideas of liberty, individuality, responsibility, decentralization, and self-awareness.
The Starfish and the Spider: The Unstoppable Power of Leaderless Organizations is a 2006 book by Ori Brafman (author of the 2010 book Click: The Magic of Instant Connections) and Rod Beckstrom is an exploration of the implications of the recent rise of decentralized organizations such as Grokster and YouTube.
Several themes recur throughout the works of American science fiction and fantasy author C. J. Cherryh.
The Third Way is a position akin to centrism that tries to reconcile right-wing and left-wing politics by advocating a varying synthesis of centre-right economic and centre-left social policies.
Thomas Henry Greco Jr. (born October 9, 1936) is a community economist, who blogs, writes, and speaks on the subject of free market alternative currency and monetary systems.
Below is a sequence of some of the events that affected the history of the city of İzmir (historically also Smyrna).
This is a timeline of the 2014 pro-Russian unrest that has erupted in Ukraine, in the aftermath of the Ukrainian revolution and the Euromaidan movement.
Tobolsk (Тобо́льск) is a town in Tyumen Oblast, Russia, located at the confluence of the Tobol and Irtysh Rivers.
Together for Šumadija (Заједно за Шумадијy / Zajedno za Šumadiju) was a political party in Serbia.
Traditional authority (also known as traditional domination) is a form of leadership in which the authority of an organization or a ruling regime is largely tied to tradition or custom.
Transcendental Students (TS) was a student activist and anarchist group created in 1969 at NYU in New York City.
Tribler is an open source decentralized BitTorrent client which allows anonymous peer-to-peer by default.
Kerala state has made many initiatives in the process of decentralization of powers.
Tripoli (طرابلس,; Berber: Oea, or Wy't) is the capital city and the largest city of Libya, with a population of about 1.1 million people in 2015.
Type II partnerships were developed at the Johannesburg World Summit on Sustainable Development in 2002.
Types of democracy refers to kinds of governments or social structures which allow people to participate equally, either directly or indirectly.
Unilineal evolution (also referred to as classical social evolution) is a 19th-century social theory about the evolution of societies and cultures.
The Union for French Democracy (Union pour la Démocratie Française, UDF) was a centre-right political party in France.
The Union Stock Yard & Transit Co., or The Yards, was the meatpacking district in Chicago for more than a century, starting in 1865.
The Union with Scotland (Amendment) Act 1707 (6 Ann c 40) is an Act of the Parliament of Great Britain.
Union, Progress and Democracy (Unión Progreso y Democracia, UPyD) is a Spanish political party founded in September 2007.
In politics, unitarisation is a process of uniting a political entity which consists of smaller regions, either by cancelling the regions completely or by transferring their power to the central government.
The United Federation of Teachers (UFT) is the labor union that represents most teachers in New York City public schools.
The United Regions Organization / Forum of Regional Governments and Global Associations of Regions (ORU Fogar) is an international organization, which aims to bring together regions from all over the world and represents them before other international organizations in order to boost a global policy of balanced development and territorial cohesion.
The United Regions of Serbia (Уједињени региони Србије, УPC / Ujedinjeni regioni Srbije, URS) was a regionalist and liberal-conservative political party in Serbia.
The was a Japanese political party.
In the Middle Ages, the term universal powers referred to the Holy Roman Emperor and the Pope.
The University of Southeastern Philippines (Kinatumhaan sa Habagatan Sidlakang Pilipinas) and (Pamantasan ng Timog Silangang Pilipinas) is a state university based in Davao City, Davao del Sur, Philippines.
The University of Toronto (U of T, UToronto, or Toronto) is a public research university in Toronto, Ontario, Canada on the grounds that surround Queen's Park.
Unode is a short form of underground node: a script or program that combines other programs for creating a decentralized anonymous encrypted communication network.
Urban planning in Africa results from indigenous aesthetics and conceptions of form and function as well as the changes brought on by industrialization, modernization, and colonialism.
Urban sprawl or suburban sprawl describes the expansion of human populations away from central urban areas into low-density, monofunctional and usually car-dependent communities, in a process called suburbanization.
Valencian regionalism is a cultural and political movement that advocates the revival of the identity (language, history, traditions and other distinctive features) of the region now within the Valencian Community in eastern Spain.
Valeriano Orobón Fernández (1901-1936) was a Spanish anarcho-syndicalist theoretician, trade-union activist, translator and poet, who wrote the lyrics of the revolutionary song A Las Barricadas.
Valeriy Mykolayovych Voshchevsky (Валерій Миколайович Вощевський) is Ukrainian entrepreneur and politician who served as Vice Prime Minister of Ukraine from December 2014 until September 2015.
The Very Fast Train (VFT) was a proposed high-speed railway between Sydney, Canberra and Melbourne in south-eastern Australia.
Vice President Edict No.
Viktor Mykolayovych Kryvenko (Ві́ктор Микола́йович Криве́нко, born 9 January 1982) is a Ukrainian politician.
Villa Hortensia is a mansion in the city of Rosario, province of Santa Fe, Argentina.
Vincent Woboya (born 1 July 1974) is a Ugandan public administrator, disaster manager and politician.
United States virtual currency law is financial regulation as applied to transactions in virtual currency in the U.S. The Commodity Futures Trading Commission has regulated and may continue to regulate virtual currencies as commodities.
was a Japanese political party formed in November 2015 by former environment minister Sakihito Ozawa following the split in the Japan Innovation Party.
The Vojvodina's Party (ʋojʋod͡ʑanska partija.) is a political party in Vojvodina.
The Wallachian Revolution of 1848 was a Romanian liberal and nationalist uprising in the Principality of Wallachia.
Although the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) has Africa's largest freshwater resources, it is suffering from an acute drinking water supply crisis.
Water supply and sanitation in Burkina Faso are characterized by high access to water supply in urban areas, while access to an at least basic water sources in rural areas – where three quarters of the population live – remains relatively low.
Drinking water supply and sanitation coverage in Honduras has increased significantly in the last decades.
Water supply and sanitation in Indonesia is characterized by poor levels of access and service quality.
Water supply and sanitation in Latin America is characterized by insufficient access and in many cases by poor service quality, with detrimental impacts on public health.
Water supply and sanitation in Mexico is characterized by achievements and challenges.
This article has been written in 2008, with updates concerning access figures in 2012.
Although access to water supply and sanitation in Sub-Saharan Africa has been steadily improving over the past two decades, the region still lags behind all other developing regions.
Wealth inequality in Latin America and the Caribbean refers to economic discrepancies among people of the region.
West Germany is the common English name for the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG; Bundesrepublik Deutschland, BRD) in the period between its creation on 23 May 1949 and German reunification on 3 October 1990.
Wilhelm Stuckart (16 November 1902 – 15 November 1953) was a Nazi Party lawyer, official and a state secretary in the German Interior Ministry during the Nazi era.
Wilrijk (former, original spelling: Wilrijck) is a district of the municipality and city of Antwerp in the Belgian province of Antwerp.
The Winston Smith Project (Progetto Winston Smith, or PWS) is an informational and operational project for the defence of human rights on the Internet and in the digital era.
Woman on the Edge of Time (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1976) is a novel by Marge Piercy.
is a Japanese politician who was elected to the position of governor of Tokyo in 2014 and resigned in June 2016 due to the misuse of public funds.
The Youth Parliament Program (YPP) is a youth organisation in the India. initiative by Youth for Better India and Foundation for Democratic Reforms under the leadership of Dr. Jayaprakash Narayan for the youth to speak up and make an impact on the change agenda for the country. To take on the policymakers in India. The Youth Parliament Program would be a debate between the best debaters and policy makers and opinion makers. The platform will inspire the youth to express their views in an organized way. It will also allow for the emergence of bright future leaders To Create Awareness and Empower Youth though Youth parliament sessions where Youth can come together, think, discuss and debate on various issues Education and Health, Electoral and Political Reforms, Judicial & Police Reforms, Local Governments & Citizen-cantered governance, Governance Reforms, Instruments of Accountability, Public Policy Reforms of India that facing India to build better future for youth. preparing solutions for problems India facing now through Youth Parliament sessions and advocate for new policies and solutions to major policies.
ZeroNet is a decentralized web-like network of peer-to-peer users.
Ziyad Baroud (زياد بارود; born 29 April 1970) is a Lebanese civil servant and civil society activist.
The current administrative division of Milan, Italy comprises nine zones (zone di decentramento, "decentralization zones" since 1999; municipi, "municipalities" since 2016) numbered from 1 to 9.
.bit is a top-level domain that was created outside the most commonly used Domain Name System (DNS) of the Internet, and is not sanctioned by the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN).
110 Propositions for France (110 Propositions pour la France) was the name of the Socialist Party's program for the 1981 presidential election during which the Socialist Party's candidate, François Mitterrand, was elected by 51.76% of the people.
The 1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt, also known as the August Coup (r "August Putsch"), was an attempt by members of the Soviet Union's government to take control of the country from Soviet President and General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev.
The Constitution of the Kingdom of Thailand, Buddhist Era 2540 (1997) (รัฐธรรมนูญแห่งราชอาณาจักรไทย พุทธศักราช ๒๕๔๐) was a constitution of Thailand enacted on 11 October 1997 to replace the 1991 Constitution, and was widely hailed as a landmark in Thai democratic constitutional reform.
The 2001 insurgency in the Republic of Macedonia was an armed conflict which began when the ethnic Albanian National Liberation Army (NLA) militant group attacked the security forces of the Republic of Macedonia at the beginning of February 2001, and ended with the Ohrid Agreement.
The 6th Congress of the Communist Party of Cuba, the governing political party of Cuba, took place on April 16 – 19, 2011, in Havana at the.
99Rise is a progressive social movement organization founded in 2012, that aims to "reclaim our democracy from the domination of big money." According to their website, 99rise's 10 principles are: nonviolence, strategic unity, common message, decentralized structure, democratic cooperation, inclusion, pluralism, leadership as service, voluntarism, and open affiliation.
Decentralisation, Decentralise, Decentralised, Decentralism, Decentralist, Decentralization of the economy, Decentralize, Decentralized, Decentralized information technology, Decentralized organization, Ideological decentralization, Technological decentralization.