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Index Disease

A disease is any condition which results in the disorder of a structure or function in an organism that is not due to any external injury. [1]

2595 relations: Abdul Kadir Shaikh, Abdur Rahman Khan, Aberdeen Maternity Hospital, Abiola Bashorun, Abomasitis, Abortion in Nigeria, Absence rate, Abu Bakr Rabee Ibn Ahmad Al-Akhawyni Bokhari, Abu Zayd al-Balkhi, Abundant life, Accidental death, ACE inhibitor, Acetone, Acoustocerebrography, Acquired characteristic, Acrofrontofacionasal dysostosis, Actin, Activities of daily living, Actuary, Acute (medicine), Acute cerebellar ataxia of childhood, Acute liver failure, Acyl CoA dehydrogenase, ADE (chemotherapy), Adeno-associated virus, Adenosquamous lung carcinoma, Adenovirus infection, Adherence management coaching, Adipomastia, Admission note, Adult daycare center, Adult-onset Still's disease, Advanced Accelerator Applications, Adventist Health Studies, Adverse effect, Adverse event prediction, Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, Aerolysin, Aeroponics, Affliction, Afghan Relief, Africa Humanitarian Action, African armyworm, African horse sickness, African trypanosomiasis, Afro-Asian Rural Development Organization, Agbogbloshie, Age adjustment, Age of onset, Aging-associated diseases, ..., Agostino Bassi, Agraphesthesia, Agricultural policy, AIDS education and training centers, Ail, Ailsa A. Welch, Ainu people, Aircraft disinsection, Akabane virus, Akinetic mutism, Alan Geisler, Alû, Albert Abrams, Albert Braun, Albert Christian Kruyt, Albert Fraenkel (1848–1916), Albert W. Dent, Alcelaphine herpesvirus 2, Alcohol (drug), Alcoholic lung disease, Alcoholic polyneuropathy, Alcoholism, Alcoholism in adolescence, Aldershot Military Cemetery, Aleksandr Porokhovshchikov, Alice Cleveland, Alice in Chains (album), Allergic inflammation, Allergy, Alliance for Clinical Trials in Oncology, Alma Ata Declaration, Aloe petricola, Alopecia universalis, Alpha-aminoadipic semialdehyde synthase, mitochondrial, Alström syndrome, Altered Schaedler flora, Alternative medicine, Amazon Malaria Initiative, AmBX, American Academy of Clinical Toxicology, American Association of Poison Control Centers, American Bronchoesophagological Association, American cliff swallow, American College of Nutrition, American Dance Therapy Association, American Society for Investigative Pathology, Aminoacylase, Amphetamine, Amphistomiasis, Amputation, Amycolatopsis orientalis, Amyloid, Analgesic adjuvant, Anastomosis, Ancient filipino diet and health, André Chagnon, Andrew N. J. McKenzie, Andrew Taylor Still, Androgen deficiency, Androgen-dependent condition, Anencephaly, Anesthesia, Angie Chabram-Dernersesian, Angiola Cimini, Marchesana della Petrella, Angiology, Angiomyolipoma, Angle Light, Anglo-Thai Foundation, Angular cheilitis, Animal attacks, Animal drug, Animal genetic resources for food and agriculture, Animal husbandry, Animal husbandry in Himachal Pradesh, Animal welfare, Anisomastia, Ankylosis, Ankyrin repeat, Annals of Medicine, Anne Flett-Giordano, Anterior urethral cancer, Anterograde amnesia, Antibody-dependent enhancement, Antimalarial medication, Antioxidative stress, Anxiety, APC internal ribosome entry site (IRES), Aphorism, Appendix (anatomy), Appointment with Life, Aquarium, Arachnid, Arbovirus, ARCHIVE Global, Aretaeus of Cappadocia, Argyria, Ari Ne'eman, Arnold Pick, Arrowsmith System, Arthralgia, Arthropathy, Arthur Guirdham, Arthur J. Ammann, Arthur K. Shapiro, Arusha Declaration, ASA physical status classification system, Asbestos-related diseases, Asclepiades of Bithynia, Asperger syndrome, Assistive technology, Astellas Pharma, Asymptomatic, Atenolol, Athanasius Kircher, Athletic heart syndrome, Athrotaxis cupressoides, Athymhormia, ATOX1, Attachment disorder, Attack rate, Attending physician statement, Atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor, Audio-visual entrainment, August Batsch, Auriculectomy, Australian Charbray, Autism, Autism friendly, Autofluorescence, Autoimmune heart disease, Autoimmune retinopathy, Autoinoculation, Automated analyser, Autonomous building, Autophagy, Autopsy, Autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia, Autosplenectomy, Auxin, Avec un grand A, Avital Ronell, Avocado sunblotch viroid, Avtomaticheskie udovletvoriteli, Ayman Zohry, Azim Surani, Azoospermia, Ángel Botello, Étienne de Harven, Šulak, Żelechów, B'Elanna Torres, Baby colic, Babylonia, Bacteremia, Bacteria, Bacterial vaginosis, Bad Housewife, Bald sea urchin disease, Balneotherapy, Bam Bam Bigelow, Banksia, Bantu mythology, Baptista Mantuanus, Bardet–Biedl syndrome, Barefoot doctor, Bark beetle, Bark-binding, Barnet Burns, Bas-Congo virus, Basal metabolic rate, Bathroom privileges, Battle Blaze, Bedlington Terrier, Beech bark disease, Beef cattle, Beekeeping in the United States, Bees Act 1980, Behavior change (public health), Behavioral medicine, Bengal cat, Benignity, Benzodiazepine dependence, Berberis, Berberis vulgaris, Berk–Tabatznik syndrome, Berylliosis, Best Comeback Athlete ESPY Award, Betty Anyanwu-Akeredolu, BIA 10-2474, Bioactive glass, Biochemistry, Biodefense and Pandemic Vaccine and Drug Development Act of 2005, Biodiversity hypothesis of health, Bioenvironmental Engineering, Biological organisation, Biological therapy for inflammatory bowel disease, Biologics for immunosuppression, Biology, Biology and consumer behaviour, Biomarker, Biomedical scientist, Biopsy, Biotechnology, Biotechnology and Agricultural Trade Program, Biovista, Biphasic disease, Bird collections, Birdie & Bogey, Birth control in Africa, Birth credit, Birth spacing, Black carbon, Black comedy, Black Jack (manga), Black Sea hostage crisis, Blackleg (disease), Blessed Martyrs of Drina, Blood donation in India, Blood lipids, Blood plasma fractionation, Blood test, Bloodletting, Blue cod, Blue diaper syndrome, Body fluid, BOINC Credit System, Bombus ruderatus, Bone erosion, Bonfire, Boris Rosenthal, Bornaprine, Bornholm disease, Boston's sign, Botanical drug, Botulism, Bout, Bovine herpesvirus 4, Brain mapping, Brattleboro Retreat, Breast milk, Breastfeeding, Brisbane Water National Park, British Chinese, British Thoracic Society, Brno death march, Broken Embraces, Broome County Alms House, Bruno Brivonesi, Bryan Simpson United States Courthouse, Buckeye rot of tomato, Bud Collyer, Bundibugyo ebolavirus, Bundibugyo virus, Bur oak blight, Burkitt's lymphoma, Burrill Bernard Crohn, Byeongsin chum, C9orf152, Cadang-cadang, Calcium encoding, Calf (leg), Calico (company), California mussel, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Camellia sinensis, Camillus de Lellis, Camptodactyly, Camurati–Engelmann disease, Canada Labour Code, Canadian Association for Laboratory Animal Science, Canadian Association of Gastroenterology, Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, Canadian health claims for food, Canadian Health Network, Canadian Perinatal Network, Canadian Spinal Research Organization, Canadian Stem Cell Foundation, Cancer signs and symptoms, Candesartan, Candida albicans, Canine distemper, Canine glaucoma, Canine influenza, Cannabis in Tanzania, Cap Anson, Captaincy General of Chile, Captive breeding, Cardiac fibroma, Cardiac function curve, Cardiology, Cardiovascular & pulmonary physiotherapy, Cardiovascular disease in Australia, Cardiovascular disease in China, Care work, Caregiver, Caregiver tax credit, Caribbean Public Health Agency, Carlos Chagas, Carol Vance Unit, Carter Center, Cartridge (respirator), Case report, Casualty (person), Catarina Parda, Catarrh, Cause (medicine), Causes of the 1948 Palestinian exodus, Cavitary pneumonia, CDC classification system for HIV infection, Cecil Helman, Celestial stem, Cell death, Cell Population Data, Cellular communication (biology), Cenesthopathy, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Central venous catheter, Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters, Centronuclear myopathy, Ceratopogonidae, Cerebral contusion, CGMP-specific phosphodiesterase type 5, Chametz, Chanson réaliste, Chaos (Warhammer), Charged GBH, Charles McNeil (physician), Charlie Moreno, Chauntea, Chemoprophylaxis, Chemotherapy regimen, Cheng Sait Chia, Cheonjeyeon Waterfalls, Cheshiahud, Chest (journal), Chest pain, ChIA-PET, Child and family services, Child bone fracture, Child health and nutrition in Africa, Child poverty, Child's Dream Foundation, Childhood phobias, Children Without Worms, Chimelong Ocean Kingdom, Chin Fung Kee, China Center of Adoption Affairs, Choice, Chorea acanthocytosis, Christian Identity, Christmas in August, Chromosomal crossover, Chromosome engineering, Chronic condition, Chronic disease in China, Chronic enteropathy associated with SLCO2A1 gene, Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, Chronic periodontitis, Chuangshen, Chugworth Academy, Chytridiomycosis, Ciliopathy, Cilium, Citalopram, Class of the Titans, Classic Maya collapse, Classification of obesity, Classification of Pharmaco-Therapeutic Referrals, Classification of transsexual and transgender people, Classification rule, Cleanliness, Clifford Craig Medical Research Trust, Clifton Forbes, Climate appraisal, Climate change and agriculture, Climate Change Denial: Heads in the Sand, Climate change in Sweden, Climate change, industry and society, Clinical endpoint, Clinical governance, Clinical pharmacy, Clinically isolated syndrome, ClinLife, Clipping (gardening), Clodomiro Picado Twight, Clostridium, Clubroot, Clusterin, Codependency, Coffee, Coffeehouse (event), Cognitive epidemiology, COLD-PCR, College of Veterinary Sciences and Animal Husbandry, Selesih, Colonial Chile, Columbus Day, Columnaris, Combination therapy, Combined sewer, Common cold, Common torpedo, Community reinforcement approach and family training, Community-acquired pneumonia, Comorbidity, Compensation scheme for radiation-linked diseases, Complete blood count, Complication (medicine), Complications of hypertension, Complications of pregnancy, Component causes, Computer accessibility, Condition, Conditioned taste aversion, Confessions and Lamentations, Congenital adrenal hyperplasia, Conjugate gaze palsy, Conscience-in-Media Award, Conservation-reliant species, Constitution of Cyprus, Construct (philosophy), Consulate-General of Denmark in Saint Petersburg, Contact a Family, Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia, Contagious disease, Contraction band necrosis, Contrast-enhanced ultrasound, Controlled burn, Controversy surrounding psychiatry, Convalescence, Convict ship, Conway, New Hampshire, Copper in health, Coquillettidia perturbans, Corchorus olitorius, Corn crake, Cornus nuttallii, Correlates of immunity/correlates of protection, Corticosteroid, COSHH, Cosmetics, Cost-Effectiveness Analysis Registry, Cotton fever, Count Orlok, Course (medicine), Craniofacial prosthesis, Craniosynostosis, Crazy Sexy Cancer, Creative Visualization (New Age), Credé's maneuver, Critical Path Institute, Cronartiaceae, Cronartium, Crop Trust, Crude drug, Cryptosporidiosis, Culex pipiens, Culicinae, Culture of the Marquesas Islands, Culture-bound syndrome, Curative care, Cure, Curing (food preservation), Cushing's disease, Cutaneous condition, Cyborg data mining, Cyclospora cayetanensis, Cysteine protease, Cystinuria, Cytomegalovirus vaccine, Da Costa's syndrome, DAM (chemotherapy), Dance therapy, Dandy–Walker syndrome, Daniel Bernoulli, Darier's sign, DAT (chemotherapy), Davi Kopenawa Yanomami, David Caldicott, David Duncan Main, David Gorski, David Reich (geneticist), DDT, De Gradibus, De Loys' Ape, De Medicina, De rerum natura, Dead Sea, Deadliest single days of World War I, Deaf culture, Dear Brother, Death, Death anxiety (psychology), Death Domain database, Death in children's literature, Death of Desire, Death Risk Rankings, Death's Messengers, Decline in amphibian populations, Deep fried Oreo, Defaunation, Deficit irrigation, Degenerative disease, Delayed density dependence, Delusional disorder, Demineralized bone matrix, Demographic economics, Demographics of British Bangladeshis, Demyelinating disease, Denis Periša, Denis Wirtz, Dennis Hood, Denominator data, Dental hygienist, Dental instruments, Dental laser, Dentistry, Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Dependency need, Derrick Lonsdale, Designer baby, Desire discrepancy, Developing country, Developmental disability, Dewi Sri, DHAP (chemotherapy), Diabetes insipidus, Diabetes mellitus and deafness, Diabetic neuropathy, Diagnosis code, DiagnosisPro, Dialysis, Diane Gifford-Gonzalez, Diethylcarbamazine, Diethylstilbestrol, Dietitian, Differential diagnosis, Differential staining, Digenea, Digital therapeutics, Dilbert (character), Dimensional models of personality disorders, Diplomatic illness, Diprotodon, Dipsalut, Dirk Bumann, Dirty Money Project, Disability benefits, Disability management program, Disability-adjusted life year, Disc protrusion, Discourse to the Greeks concerning Hades, Discovery and development of beta-blockers, Discovery and development of direct thrombin inhibitors, Discovery and development of triptans, Disease (disambiguation), Disease burden, Disease diffusion mapping, Disease informatics, Disease management (health), Disease model of addiction, Disease Models & Mechanisms, Disease Ontology, Disease surveillance, Disease theory of alcoholism, Disease X, Diseases of affluence, Diseases of poverty, Disgust, Dishonored 2, Disorder, Disorders of consciousness, Dispositional affect, Disseminated disease, Divers diseases, DNA microarray, DNAJA3, Doctor's visit, DOHaD China, Dolichostenomelia, Domesticated hedgehog, Dominions II: The Ascension Wars, Donnie Brooks, Dopaminergic, Doppler ultrasonography, Dorit Rubinstein Reiss, Dosage form, Double-dead meat, Dr. Livesey (character), Drinabant, Dropsy (fish disease), Droxidopa, Drug, Drug education, Drug interaction, Drug repositioning, Drug resistance, Dryness (medical), Dual diagnosis, Dual systems model, Dust storm, Duwamish people, Dyscrasia, Dysfunctional uterine bleeding, Dyskinesia, Dystrophy, Dzahui, Early childhood caries, Early goal-directed therapy, Early in the Morning (Larry Santos song), Early intervention in psychosis, Earthquake, East Karelian concentration camps, East Tennessee Children's Hospital, Eastern Front (World War II), Eating, Eccentric training, Ecgfrith of Mercia, Echinococcus multilocularis, Echinostoma hortense, Ecological health, Ecological Imperialism: The Biological Expansion of Europe, 900–1900, Ecology of Banksia, Economic development, Economic importance of bacteria, Ecosystem services, Ectropion, Edd Gould, Edible mushroom, Eduard Heinrich Henoch, Edward Constant Séguin, Effects of global warming on human health, Egg taphonomy, Eggshell skull, Egyptian medical papyri, Ehrlich's reagent, Eikev, Elastography, Elastosis perforans serpiginosa, Eleanor Josephine Macdonald, Electrodiagnostic medicine, Eli Todd, Ellis Island, Ellis–van Creveld syndrome, Emanuel Vigeland, Embolism, EMDEX, Emerald Hill, Singapore, Emeran Mayer, Emergency (Philippine TV series), Emergency medical dispatcher, Emergency medical services, Emergency Medical Services for Children, Emergency Medical Services for Children Reauthorization Act of 2014, Emergency medicine, Emergency tourniquet, Emergent virus, Emetophobia, Emil Kraepelin, Emmeline Pankhurst, Emotions in the workplace, Empiric school, Employment discrimination, Employment discrimination law in the United States, Encephalopathy, End of Watch Call, End Water Poverty, Endangered language, Endocrine pathology, ENDOG, Endogenous infection, Endometrosis, Endoscopic vessel harvesting, Endotype, Enema, Enemy, English Poor Laws, Enhancer RNA, Ennis House, Entropion, Environmental disease, Environmental effects of cocoa production, Environmental impact of Gulf wars, Environmental issues in Iran, Environmental issues in Kazakhstan, Environmental issues in Peru, Eosinophilia, Eosinophilic pneumonia, Eperisone, Epicrates maurus, Epidemic, Epidemiology, Epidemiology of cancer, Epidemiology of depression, Epigenetic clock, Epigenetic therapy, Epigenetics in insects, Epineurial repair, Episcleritis, Epizootic, Epizootiology, Equine dentistry, Eran Elhaik, Ergasilidae, Erythropoiesis, Eschatology (religious movement), Escherichia coli O157:H7, ESHAP, Estrogen and neurodegenerative diseases, Estrogen insensitivity syndrome, Estrogen-dependent condition, Estrous cycle, Eternals (comics), Ethyl methanesulfonate, Etiquette, Eucomed, European early modern humans, European Society of Endocrinology, European Voluntary Service, Evas sommarplåster, Everest ER, Everychild Foundation, Evolutionary medicine, Excess risk, Exchange transfusion, Exencephaly, Exercise addiction, Exercise intolerance, Exile (Hurts album), Exoenzyme, Exorcism in Christianity, Exotic ungulate encephalopathy, Experimental pathology, Explanatory style, Extermination through labour, External risk, Eye color, Facial eczema, Facies (medical), Factitious disorder, Factitious disorder imposed on another, Factitious disorder imposed on self, Factor V Leiden, Factories Act 1961, Falls in older adults, False codling moth, Familial aortic dissection, Familial isolated vitamin E deficiency, Family medicine, Fanconi syndrome, Fantastic Voyage: Live Long Enough to Live Forever, Fantasy flight, FAO Country Profiles, Farmington, New Hampshire, Fatigue, Fatty liver, Fatty liver hemorrhagic syndrome, Fatu Hiva (book), Favid, Fecal incontinence, Federal War, Federation of European Pharmacological Societies, Federation of Indian Animal Protection Organisations, Federation of State Medical Boards, Fedotozine, Fee, Feline asthma, Felipa Hernandez Barragan, Fermentation theory, Ferritin, Fever, Fezolinetant, Fibrinogenolysis, Fibrosing colonopathy, Fields' disease, Filipino-American health, Filippo Giustini, Filoviridae, Fin rot, Finger agnosia, Finger Lakes Environmental Film Festival, Fire department rehab, First aid, First contact (anthropology), First wave of European colonization, Fish disease and parasites, Five Star Urgent Care, FLAG (chemotherapy), Flare (disambiguation), Flea, Fleming–Tamao oxidation, Flocculus (cerebellar), Florida wine, Flowers of sulfur, Fluid balance, Fluperlapine, FMRFamide in Biomphalaria glabrata, Focal proliferative nephritis, Foix–Alajouanine syndrome, Foldit, Foodborne illness, Foot-and-mouth disease, Forest genetic resources, Forest pathology, Forestry, Forever and Ever (1977 film), Fort Armstrong, Illinois, Four Big Pollution Diseases of Japan, Four Holy Marshals, Four sights, Frailty index, François E. Matthes, Francis Crick Institute, Francis Sejersted, Franciscan Center of Baltimore, Franklinia, Frataxin, Freak show, Freak Show (album), Free-living Amoebozoa infection, Freshwater environmental quality parameters, Friedrich Wilhelm Quirin von Forcade de Biaix, Friends Without a Border, Fritz Haarmann, Fritz Lenz, Functional disorder, Futakuchi-onna, Future Evolution, Gabe Lewis, Gabriel Miró, Gaizkin, Galactosemia, Galvez, Louisiana, Gambian epauletted fruit bat, Garden roses, Gardenia taitensis, Gastroenterology, Gastroenterostomy, Gastrointestinal pathology, GemOx, Gender disparities in health, Gender-bias in medical diagnosis, Gene Disease Database, Gene expression, Gene mapping, Gene product, Gene–environment interaction, GeneCards, General anaesthesia, General medical services, General Practice Extraction Service, General practitioner, Genetic diversity, Genetic predisposition, Genetic testing, Genetically modified tree, Genitourinary system, Genomic convergence, Genset Corporation, Genu varum, Georg Theodor August Gaffky, George Bodington, George Samuel Hurst, George W. Carey, Georges Menahem, Georges-Fernand Widal, GeoVax, Gerard Evan, Gerhard Armauer Hansen, Geriatric anesthesia, Geriatric rheumatology, Geriatrics, Germ theory of disease, German Statutory Accident Insurance, Gerontechnology, Gerontological nursing, Gerstmann–Sträussler–Scheinker syndrome, Gestational age, Ghen War, Giant tortoise, Gilbert Wheeler Beebe, Gilles Garnier, Gingival enlargement, GJA1, Gland, Global Education Magazine, Global health, Global Infectious Disease Epidemiology Network, Global issue, Global Press Institute, Globalization, Gloria Yip, Glossary of diabetes, Glossary of medicine, Glossary of philosophy, Glossary of spirituality terms, Glossary of the Greek military junta, Glutamate formimidoyltransferase, Gluten-free diet, Goa stone, Gold salts, Goosebumps Series 2000, Gorham's disease, Gossypiboma, Gould's mouse, Grand Ages: Rome, Granuloma inguinale, Grapevine yellows, Graphic medicine, Great Book of Interpretation of Dreams, Green nails, Greenhouse, Gregório de Matos, Grim & Evil, Gross pathology, Grow Your Own Drugs, Growing Up..., Growth differentiation factor, Guichard Joseph Duverney, Guided imagery, Guido Fanconi, Guinea (region), Gut (band), Gut flora, Gwystyl, H.R. 3578 (113th Congress), Habib the Carpenter, HAIR-AN syndrome, Hale (band), Hand deformity, Handroanthus, Hans Biebow, Hans Wagner (medicine), Hantu Tinggi, Haplotype, Harry Hill (sportsman), Haunted (TV series), Hawaiian crow, Hawazma tribe, Healing of periapical lesions, Health, Health and Social Care, Health blog, Health care, Health care in Australia, Health care in Karachi, Health claim, Health crisis, Health Effects from Incarceration of Indigenous Australians, Health effects of tea, Health equity, Health facility, Health geography, Health in Cuba, Health in Guatemala, Health in Guyana, Health in Iraq, Health in Libya, Health Protection Agency, Health risks from dead bodies, Health Survey for England, Healthcare in Canada, Healthcare in Cuba, Healthcare in Kosovo, Healthy diet, Healthy digestion, Healthy Life Years, Healthy People program, Hearing loss, Heart rate, Heat stroke, Heat-stable enterotoxin, Hedonophobia, Heinrich Landesmann, Heinz Eggert, Helicoverpa zea, Helmeted honeyeater, Helminthiasis, Helminths, Hemodynamics, Hemopericardium, Hemosiderin, Hemotherapy, Henry Cotton (doctor), Henry Vincent (gaoler), Hepacivac, Heparin, Hepatitis D, Hereditary gingival fibromatosis, Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type I, Hermann Rothe, Hero System Bestiary, Herodicus, Herpes simplex, Herpesviridae, Hessian (soldier), Heterochromia iridum, Heterogeneous condition, Hidayat al-Muta`allemin Fi al-Tibb, Hidden Warrior, Hidradenitis suppurativa, HIGD1A, Hill's Pet Nutrition, Hippo (philosopher), Hippocampal sclerosis, Hippocratic face, Histomoniasis, Histopathology, Histoplasmosis, Historical ecology, Historiography of the fall of the Western Roman Empire, History of Benzedrine, History of childhood, History of depression, History of Earth, History of emerging infectious diseases, History of general anesthesia, History of Lycoming County, Pennsylvania, History of medical diagnosis, History of Peru, History of psychopathy, History of the ambulance, History of the forest in Central Europe, History of Thornton Heath, History of Tourette syndrome, History of tracheal intubation, History of water supply and sanitation, HIT Humanitarian, HIV disease progression rates, HIV-tainted blood scandal (Japan), HIV/AIDS in Taiwan, HIV/AIDS in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, HLA-B27, Hochelaga (village), Hoʻoponopono, Hohlgangsanlage 8, Holmes and Rahe stress scale, Homeopathy, Honey, Hong Kong Museum of Medical Sciences, Hoover's sign (leg paresis), Hope, Hope I, Horrible Histories, Horrible Science, Hosokawa Harumoto, Hospital Central Militar Mexico, Hospital Colônia de Barbacena, Hospital medicine, Hospital-acquired infection, Host (biology), Host factor, Host–pathogen interaction, HPV-positive oropharyngeal cancer, HSP60, Hugh Lambert, Hugh S. Cumming, Hulda Regehr Clark, Hulusi Behçet, Human, Human cytomegalovirus, Human Disease, Human disease network, Human enhancement, Human feces, Human genetic resistance to malaria, Human Genome Diversity Project, Human Genome Structural Variation, Human geography, Human Metabolome Database, Human parasite, Human pathogen, Human physical appearance, Human reproductive system, Human response to disasters, Human Rights Commission of Salt Lake City, Human Security Report 2005, Human skeleton, Hunger, Huntsman Cancer Institute, Hurricane Rita, Hwang Woo-suk, Hybrid cardiac surgery, Hydrops fetalis, Hymenoptera training, Hyperaldosteronism, Hyperandrogenism, Hyperestrogenism, Hyperfibrinolysis, Hypergonadotropic hypogonadism, Hyperkeratinization, Hypermetabolism, Hyperphenylalaninemia, Hyperplasia, Hyperpnea, Hypertension, Hypochromic anemia, Hypopharyngeal cancer, Hypoplasia, Hypoprolactinemia, Hypopyon, Iatrochemistry, Iatrogenesis, Ibrahim Index of African Governance, ICD-10 Chapter V: Mental and behavioural disorders, ICD-10 Chapter VI: Diseases of the nervous system, ICD-10 Chapter XIV: Diseases of the genitourinary system, ICD-10 Chapter XV: Pregnancy, childbirth and the puerperium, ICD-10 Chapter XVIII: Symptoms, signs and abnormal clinical and laboratory findings, ICD-10 Clinical Modification, ICE (chemotherapy), ICU scoring systems, Identification key, Idiopathic disease, Idiopathic pulmonary haemosiderosis, Idiosyncrasy, Iglesia de San Francisco de Asís (Santa Cruz de Tenerife), Ignacio Ellacuría, Ileus, Ill, Illness as Metaphor, Imaging instruments, Immigrant health in Australia, Immortality, Immune system, Immune-mediated inflammatory diseases, Immunity (medical), Immunization, Immunologic adjuvant, Immunology, Immunotherapy, Immunotoxicology, Immunotoxin, Impacted wisdom teeth, IMSAFE, In vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy, Inborn errors of steroid metabolism, Incidence (epidemiology), Inclusion and exclusion criteria, Inclusion body rhinitis, Income protection insurance, Index case, Index of genetics articles, Index of health articles, Index of HIV/AIDS-related articles, Index of immunology articles, Indian Council of Medical Research, Indian yellow-nosed albatross, Indigenous horticulture, Indigenous peoples of Siberia, Indoor bioaerosol, Infant food safety, Infantilism (physiological disorder), Infantry, Infarction, Infection, Infections associated with diseases, Infectious salmon anemia virus, Inferno (Dante), Influenza, Influenza A virus subtype H1N1, Ingestion, Injury prevention, InnerChange Freedom Initiative, Inotrope, Inpatient care, Insect ecology, Insomnia, Instituto Oncológico Nacional, Intact dilation and extraction, Intellectual disability, Intellectual giftedness, Intelligence quotient, Intensive care unit, Interactive accommodation process, Interactome, Internal bleeding, International Anesthesia Research Society, International Classification of Headache Disorders, International Commission on Trichinellosis, International development, International Food Policy Research Institute, International Grape Genome Program, International health, International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, International Society for Developmental Origins of Health and Disease, International Society of Addiction Medicine, International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Interstitial cell of Cajal, Interstitium, Intestine transplantation, Intraflagellar transport, Intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring, Intrauterine growth restriction, Intravenous regional anesthesia, Intrinsic finality, Invasibility, Invasion of Cuba (1741), Inverse benefit law, Inverted repeat, Investigation, Ionomics, Iowa wine, Iranian labor law, Iron deficiency, Irrigated Rice Research Consortium, Isatuximab, Islamic Scholarship & Learning in Central Asia, Isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, Isotopic labeling, Ivor Wood, Ixodidae, Izena Island, Jacinta Duncan, Jake (rescue dog), James Crichton-Browne, James Underwood, Jan-Åke Gustafsson, Jangil, Jason Atkinson, Jean-Marie Beurel, Jens Frahm, Jeongbang Waterfall, Jet's Law, Jewish Board of Guardians (United Kingdom), Johann Nikolaus Weislinger, John D. Hamaker, John E. Fogarty, John Henryism, John Syer Bristowe, Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation, Jonathan Shay, José Prat, Josemaría Escrivá, Joseph Babinski, Joseph Bancroft, Joseph Flores (Guamanian politician), Joseph Goldberger, Journal of Molecular Medicine, Juglans ailantifolia, Jul i Valhal, Jules Henry, Julie Billiart, Jungian archetypes, Justin Champion, Juvenile cellulitis, Juvenile hyaline fibromatosis, Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy, Juvenile plantar dermatosis, Kaposi's sarcoma, Karim Nayernia, Karma, Kathryn McGee, Kattupalli, Kawasaki disease, Kazem Sadegh-Zadeh, Kübler-Ross model, Kürşad Türkşen, KEGG, Ken Currie, Keratosis pilaris, Ketotic hypoglycemia, Kharkiv Medical Academy of Post-graduate Education, Khmer Rouge rule of Cambodia, Kidney disease, Kidney stone disease, Kids Wish Network, Kikinda, Kingdom of Tahiti, Klippel–Feil syndrome, Koch's postulates, Kouprey, Kraamzorg, Krovim Krovim, Krypton (comics), Kung (Haida village), Kyrylo Stetsenko, L'Abécédaire de Gilles Deleuze, L'Autre Afrique, La Joie de vivre, LabCorp v. Metabolite, Inc, Laboratory specimen, Lahore Composting Facility, Lake Bosumtwi, Lake Nicaragua, Laloorinu Parayanullathu, Lambdacism, Land diving, Landfills in the United States, Landrace, Language death, Larry Kert, Lars Hanson, Laryngology, Latah, Late years of Pope Pius XII, Later life of Winston Churchill, Laudanum, Laurence H. Snyder, Law of Maximum, Lawrence Corey, Léon Rostan, Löffler's syndrome, Leaf wetness, Lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase deficiency, Leishmaniasis, Leon Eisenberg, Leptoconops torrens, Lesion, Lespesia archippivora, Lettuce mosaic virus, Leucostoma canker, Leukocytosis, LGBT rights in Lithuania, LGBT rights opposition, Life, Life-process model of addiction, Lifestyle disease, Lifestyle drug, Lignan, Linear regression, LINGO1, Lip augmentation, Lipodermatosclerosis, List of abbreviations for diseases and disorders, List of animals of Yellowstone, List of bacterial vaginosis microbiota, List of battles with most United States military fatalities, List of body horror media, List of childhood diseases and disorders, List of climate change books, List of concentration and internment camps, List of Dewey Decimal classes, List of diseases (0–9), List of diseases (A), List of diseases (B), List of diseases (C), List of diseases (D), List of diseases (E), List of diseases (F), List of diseases (G), List of diseases (H), List of diseases (I), List of diseases (J), List of diseases (K), List of diseases (L), List of diseases (M), List of diseases (N), List of diseases (O), List of diseases (P), List of diseases (Q), List of diseases (R), List of diseases (S), List of diseases (T), List of diseases (U), List of diseases (V), List of diseases (W), List of diseases (X), List of diseases (Y), List of diseases (Z), List of diseases of the honey bee, List of disorders, List of Emojis, List of eponymously named diseases, List of esoteric healing articles, List of fictional diseases, List of Forgotten Realms deities, List of gray wolf populations by country, List of Greek morphemes used in English, List of He-Man and the Masters of the Universe episodes, List of Horizon episodes, List of ICD-9 codes 680–709: diseases of the skin and subcutaneous tissue, List of important publications in medicine, List of life sciences, List of medical abbreviations: D, List of medical roots, suffixes and prefixes, List of MeSH codes, List of MeSH codes (C23), List of MeSH codes (E05), List of MeSH codes (G03), List of MeSH codes (L01), List of MeSH codes (N01), List of minor Buffy the Vampire Slayer characters, List of mystery diseases, List of neuroscience databases, List of Nova episodes, List of phenyltropanes, List of phobias, List of poisonous plants, List of Professor Blastoff episodes, List of signs and symptoms of diving disorders, List of spatial analysis software, List of Star Wars creatures, List of systemic diseases with ocular manifestations, List of The Last Blade characters, List of The Magic School Bus episodes, List of The Texas Chainsaw Massacre characters, List of U.S. state reptiles, List of unsolved problems in biology, List of unsolved problems in neuroscience, List of words ending in ology, Listening Books, Lists of diseases, Lithium carbonate, Lithotomy, Liver, Liver disease, Living things in culture, Lloviu virus, Localized disease, Longleaf pine ecosystem, Lord's Resistance Army insurgency (2002–05), Lore (podcast), Lorenzo Carter, Lori L. 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Expand index (2545 more) »

Abdul Kadir Shaikh

Abdul Kadir Shaikh (1926–2008) was a Pakistani politician who was the 13th governor of Sindh from 6 July 1977 to 17 September 1978.

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Abdur Rahman Khan

Abdur Rahman Khan (عبد رحمان خان) (between 1840 and 1844October 1, 1901) was Emir of Afghanistan from 1880 to 1901.

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Aberdeen Maternity Hospital

Aberdeen Maternity Hospital (AMH) is a specialist maternity hospital in Aberdeen, Scotland.

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Abiola Bashorun

Abiola Bashorun is a model and former Most Beautiful Girl in Nigeria.

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Abomasitis (abomasal bloat) is a relatively rare ruminant disease characterized by inflammation of abomasum in young calves, lambs, and goat kids.

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Abortion in Nigeria

Abortion is a controversial topic in Nigeria.

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Absence rate

In economics, the absence rate is the ratio of workers with absences to total full-time wage and salary employment.

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Abu Bakr Rabee Ibn Ahmad Al-Akhawyni Bokhari

Abu Bakr Rabee Ibn Ahmad Al-Akhawyni Bokhari (Al-Akhawyni Bokhari) (?–983 CE) was a Persian physician and the author of the Hidayat al-Muta`allemin Fi al-Tibb, the oldest document in the history of Iranian Traditional Medicine (ITM).

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Abu Zayd al-Balkhi

Abu Zayd Ahmed ibn Sahl Balkhi (ابو زید احمد بن سهل بلخی) was a Persian Muslim polymath: a geographer, mathematician, physician, psychologist and scientist.

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Abundant life

"Abundant life" is a term used to refer to Christian teachings on fullness of life.

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Accidental death

An accidental death is an unnatural death that is caused by an accident such as a slip and fall, traffic collision, or accidental poisoning.

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ACE inhibitor

An angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor (ACE inhibitor) is a pharmaceutical drug used primarily for the treatment of hypertension (elevated blood pressure) and congestive heart failure.

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Acetone (systematically named propanone) is the organic compound with the formula (CH3)2CO.

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Acoustocerebrography (ACG) is a medical test used to diagnose changes and problems in the brain and the central nervous system.

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Acquired characteristic

An acquired characteristic is a non-heritable change in a function or structure of a living biotic material caused after birth by disease, injury, accident, deliberate modification, variation, repeated use, disuse, or misuse, or other environmental influences.

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Acrofrontofacionasal dysostosis

Acrofrontofacionasal dysostosis is an extremely rare disorder, characterized by intellectual disability, short stature, hypertelorism, broad notched nasal tip, cleft lip/palate, postaxial camptobrachypolysyndactyly, fibular hypoplasia, and anomalies of foot structure.

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Actin is a family of globular multi-functional proteins that form microfilaments.

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Activities of daily living

Activities of daily living (ADLs or ADL) is a term used in healthcare to refer to people's daily self care activities.

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An actuary is a business professional who deals with the measurement and management of risk and uncertainty.

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Acute (medicine)

In medicine, describing a disease as acute denotes that it is of short duration and, as a corollary of that, of recent onset.

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Acute cerebellar ataxia of childhood

Acute cerebellar ataxia of childhood is a childhood condition characterized by an unsteady gait, most likely secondary to an autoimmune of postinfectious cause, drug induced or paraneoplastic.

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Acute liver failure

Acute liver failure is the appearance of severe complications rapidly after the first signs of liver disease (such as jaundice), and indicates that the liver has sustained severe damage (loss of function of 80–90% of liver cells).

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Acyl CoA dehydrogenase

Acyl-CoA dehydrogenases (ACADs) are a class of enzymes that function to catalyze the initial step in each cycle of fatty acid β-oxidation in the mitochondria of cells.

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ADE (chemotherapy)

ADE is a chemotherapy regimen most often used as an induction or consolidation regimen in acute myelogenous leukemia, especially in poor-risk patients or those refractory to the standard first-line induction with standard "7+3" regimen or who are relapsed after the standard chemotherapy.

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Adeno-associated virus

Adeno-associated virus (AAV) is a small virus which infects humans and some other primate species.

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Adenosquamous lung carcinoma

Adenosquamous lung carcinoma (AdSqLC) is a biphasic malignant tumor arising from lung tissue that is composed of at least 10% by volume each of squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC) and adenocarcinoma (AdC) cells.

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Adenovirus infection

Adenovirus infections most commonly cause illness of the respiratory system; however, depending on the infecting serotype, they may also cause various other illnesses and presentations.

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Adherence management coaching

Adherence management coaching (AdM coaching) is an evidence-based applied behavioral approach for significantly improving patient adherence and reducing unplanned hospital readmissions.

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Adipomastia, or lipomastia, also known colloquially as fatty breasts, is a condition defined as an excess of skin and adipose tissue in the breasts without true breast glandular tissue.

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Admission note

An admission note is part of a medical record that documents the patient's status (including history and physical examination findings), reasons why the patient is being admitted for inpatient care to a hospital or other facility, and the initial instructions for that patient's care.

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Adult daycare center

An adult daycare center is typically a non-residential facility that supports the health, nutritional, social, and daily living needs of adults in a professionally staffed, group setting.

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Adult-onset Still's disease

Adult-onset Still's disease (AOSD) is a form of Still's disease, a rare systemic autoinflammatory disease characterized by the classic triad of persistent high spiking fevers, joint pain, and a distinctive salmon-colored bumpy rash.

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Advanced Accelerator Applications

Advanced Accelerator Applications (AAA) is a pharmaceutical group specialized in the field of nuclear medicine.

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Adventist Health Studies

Adventist Health Studies (AHS) is a series of long-term medical research projects of Loma Linda University with the intent to measure the link between lifestyle, diet, disease and mortality of Seventh-day Adventists.

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Adverse effect

In medicine, an adverse effect is an undesired harmful effect resulting from a medication or other intervention such as surgery.

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Adverse event prediction

Adverse event (or Adverse effect) prediction is the process of identifying potential adverse events of an investigational drug before they actually occur in a clinical trial.

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Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices

The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), founded in 1964, provides advice and guidance on effective control of vaccine-preventable diseases in the U.S. civilian population.

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In molecular biology, aerolysin is a cytolytic pore-forming toxin exported by Aeromonas hydrophila, a Gram-negative bacterium associated with diarrhoeal diseases and deep wound infections.

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Aeroponics is the process of growing plants in an air or mist environment without the use of soil or an aggregate medium (known as geoponics).

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Affliction or Afflicted may refer to.

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Afghan Relief

The objects of this Trust were to relieve poverty and sickness and promote health and advance education amongst refugees from Afghanistan during the Russian occupation.

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Africa Humanitarian Action

In 1994, the Rwandan Genocide unfolded before the world’s eyes and with it, several hundred thousand people were murdered in the heart of Africa.

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African armyworm

The African armyworm (Spodoptera exempta), also called okalombo, kommandowurm, or nutgrass armyworm, is a moth of the family Noctuidae.

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African horse sickness

African horse sickness (AHS) is a highly infectious and deadly disease.

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African trypanosomiasis

African trypanosomiasis, also known as sleeping sickness, is an insect-borne parasitic disease of humans and other animals.

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Afro-Asian Rural Development Organization

African-Asian Rural Development Organization (AARDO) formed in 1962, is an autonomous inter-governmental organization comprising 15 African members and 15 Asian members.

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Agbogbloshie is a nickname of a commercial district on the Korle Lagoon of the Odaw River, near the center of Accra, Ghana's capital city.

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Age adjustment

In epidemiology and demography, age adjustment, also called age standardization, is a technique used to allow populations to be compared when the age profiles of the populations are quite different.

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Age of onset

The age of onset is a medical term referring to the age at which an individual acquires, develops, or first experiences a condition or symptoms of a disease or disorder.

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Aging-associated diseases

An aging-associated disease is a disease that is most often seen with increasing frequency with increasing senescence.

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Agostino Bassi

Agostino Bassi, sometimes called de Lodi (25 September 1773 – 8 February 1856), was an Italian entomologist.

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Agraphesthesia is a disorder of directional cutaneous kinesthesia or a disorientation of the skin's sensation across its space.

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Agricultural policy

Agricultural policy describes a set of laws relating to domestic agriculture and imports of foreign agricultural products.

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AIDS education and training centers

AIDS, caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), has become a global health issue, and various ways are being explored in order to combat the spread of the disease.

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Ail or AIL may refer to.

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Ailsa A. Welch


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Ainu people

The Ainu or the Aynu (Ainu アィヌ ''Aynu''; Japanese: アイヌ Ainu; Russian: Айны Ajny), in the historical Japanese texts the Ezo (蝦夷), are an indigenous people of Japan (Hokkaido, and formerly northeastern Honshu) and Russia (Sakhalin, the Kuril Islands, and formerly the Kamchatka Peninsula).

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Aircraft disinsection

Aircraft disinsection is the use of insecticide on international flights and in other closed spaces for insect and disease control.

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Akabane virus

The Akabane virus is an insect-transmitted virus that causes congenital abnormalities of the central nervous systems in ruminants.

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Akinetic mutism

Akinetic mutism is a medical term describing patients tending neither to move (akinesia) nor speak (mutism).

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Alan Geisler

Alan S. Geisler (c. 1931 – January 6, 2009) was an American food chemist, best known for creating the red onion sauce most often used as a condiment topping on hot dogs in New York City.

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In Akkadian and Sumerian mythology, Alû is a vengeful spirit of the Utukku that goes down to the underworld Kur.

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Albert Abrams

Albert Abrams (December 8, 1863 – January 13, 1924) was an American physician, well known during his life for inventing machines, such as the "Oscilloclast" and the "Radioclast", which he falsely claimed could diagnose and cure almost any disease.

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Albert Braun

Father Albert Braun OFM (September 5, 1889 – March 6, 1983) was a Roman Catholic priest and teacher in the Southwest and the Pacific United States.

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Albert Christian Kruyt

Albert Christian Kruyt (Albertus Christiaan Kruyt; born 10 October 186919 January 1949) was a Dutch Calvinist missionary, ethnographer and theologian.

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Albert Fraenkel (1848–1916)

Albert Fraenkel (10 March 1848, Frankfurt/Oder – 6 July 1916, Berlin) was a German physician.

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Albert W. Dent

Albert Walter Dent (1904–1984) was an academic administrator who served initially as business administrator of Flint-Goodridge Hospital and later as president of Dillard University (1941–1969), a predominately black liberal arts college in New Orleans, Louisiana.

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Alcelaphine herpesvirus 2

Alcelaphine herpesvirus 2 is a type of rhadinovirus that is believed to be responsible for causing hartebeest infections of malignant catarrhal fever.

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Alcohol (drug)

Alcohol, also known by its chemical name ethanol, is a psychoactive substance or drug that is the active ingredient in alcoholic beverages such as beer, wine, and distilled spirits (hard liquor).

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Alcoholic lung disease

Alcoholic lung disease is disease of the lungs caused by excessive alcohol consumption.

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Alcoholic polyneuropathy

Alcoholic polyneuropathy (A.K.A alcohol leg) is a neurological disorder in which peripheral nerves throughout the body malfunction simultaneously.

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Alcoholism, also known as alcohol use disorder (AUD), is a broad term for any drinking of alcohol that results in mental or physical health problems.

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Alcoholism in adolescence

Alcohol is a liquid form substance which contains ethyl alcohol (also known formally as ethanol) that can cause harm and even damage to a persons DNA.

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Aldershot Military Cemetery

Aldershot Military Cemetery is a burial ground for military personnel, or ex-military personnel.

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Aleksandr Porokhovshchikov

Aleksandr Shalvovich Porokhovshchikov (Александр Шалвович Пороховщиков, 31 January 1939, Moscow – 15 April 2012, Moscow) was a Russian film and theatre actor and film director, People's Artist of Russia (1994).

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Alice Cleveland

Alice Cleveland is a former television home shopping host on HSN and most recently an on-air vendor representative on QVC.

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Alice in Chains (album)

Alice in Chains (occasionally informally referred to as The Dog Album, The Dog Record, and Tripod) is the self-titled third studio album by the American rock band Alice in Chains.

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Allergic inflammation

Allergic inflammation is an important pathophysiological feature of several disabilities or medical conditions including allergic asthma, atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis and several ocular allergic diseases.

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Allergies, also known as allergic diseases, are a number of conditions caused by hypersensitivity of the immune system to typically harmless substances in the environment.

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Alliance for Clinical Trials in Oncology

The Alliance for Clinical Trials in Oncology is a national clinical trials network sponsored by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) that consists of about 10,000 cancer specialists at hospitals, medical centers, and community clinics across the United States and Canada.

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Alma Ata Declaration

The Declaration of Alma-Ata was adopted at the International Conference on Primary Health Care (PHC), Almaty (formerly Alma-Ata), Kazakhstan (formerly Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic), 6–12 September 1978.

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Aloe petricola

Aloe petricola belongs to the Aloe genus in the Asphodelaceae family, and is commonly known as a stone aloe.

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Alopecia universalis

Alopecia universalis (AU) or alopecia areata universalis is a medical condition involving loss of all hair, including eyebrows and eyelashes.

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Alpha-aminoadipic semialdehyde synthase, mitochondrial

Alpha-aminoadipic semialdehyde synthase is an enzyme encoded by the AASS gene in humans and is involved in their major lysine degradation pathway.

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Alström syndrome

Alström syndrome (AS), also called Alström–Hallgren syndrome, is a rare genetic disorder caused by mutations in the gene ALMS1.

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Altered Schaedler flora

The altered Schaedler flora (ASF) is a community of eight bacterial species: two Lactobacilli, one Bacteroides, one spiral bacteria of the Flexistipes genus, and four extremely oxygen sensitive (EOS) Fusobacterium species.

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Alternative medicine

Alternative medicine, fringe medicine, pseudomedicine or simply questionable medicine is the use and promotion of practices which are unproven, disproven, impossible to prove, or excessively harmful in relation to their effect — in the attempt to achieve the healing effects of medicine.--> --> --> They differ from experimental medicine in that the latter employs responsible investigation, and accepts results that show it to be ineffective. The scientific consensus is that alternative therapies either do not, or cannot, work. In some cases laws of nature are violated by their basic claims; in some the treatment is so much worse that its use is unethical. Alternative practices, products, and therapies range from only ineffective to having known harmful and toxic effects.--> Alternative therapies may be credited for perceived improvement through placebo effects, decreased use or effect of medical treatment (and therefore either decreased side effects; or nocebo effects towards standard treatment),--> or the natural course of the condition or disease. Alternative treatment is not the same as experimental treatment or traditional medicine, although both can be misused in ways that are alternative. Alternative or complementary medicine is dangerous because it may discourage people from getting the best possible treatment, and may lead to a false understanding of the body and of science.-->---> Alternative medicine is used by a significant number of people, though its popularity is often overstated.--> Large amounts of funding go to testing alternative medicine, with more than US$2.5 billion spent by the United States government alone.--> Almost none show any effect beyond that of false treatment,--> and most studies showing any effect have been statistical flukes. Alternative medicine is a highly profitable industry, with a strong lobby. This fact is often overlooked by media or intentionally kept hidden, with alternative practice being portrayed positively when compared to "big pharma". --> The lobby has successfully pushed for alternative therapies to be subject to far less regulation than conventional medicine.--> Alternative therapies may even be allowed to promote use when there is demonstrably no effect, only a tradition of use. Regulation and licensing of alternative medicine and health care providers varies between and within countries. Despite laws making it illegal to market or promote alternative therapies for use in cancer treatment, many practitioners promote them.--> Alternative medicine is criticized for taking advantage of the weakest members of society.--! Terminology has shifted over time, reflecting the preferred branding of practitioners.. Science Based Medicine--> For example, the United States National Institutes of Health department studying alternative medicine, currently named National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health, was established as the Office of Alternative Medicine and was renamed the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine before obtaining its current name. Therapies are often framed as "natural" or "holistic", in apparent opposition to conventional medicine which is "artificial" and "narrow in scope", statements which are intentionally misleading. --> When used together with functional medical treatment, alternative therapies do not "complement" (improve the effect of, or mitigate the side effects of) treatment.--> Significant drug interactions caused by alternative therapies may instead negatively impact functional treatment, making it less effective, notably in cancer.--> Alternative diagnoses and treatments are not part of medicine, or of science-based curricula in medical schools, nor are they used in any practice based on scientific knowledge or experience.--> Alternative therapies are often based on religious belief, tradition, superstition, belief in supernatural energies, pseudoscience, errors in reasoning, propaganda, fraud, or lies.--> Alternative medicine is based on misleading statements, quackery, pseudoscience, antiscience, fraud, and poor scientific methodology. Promoting alternative medicine has been called dangerous and unethical.--> Testing alternative medicine that has no scientific basis has been called a waste of scarce research resources.--> Critics state that "there is really no such thing as alternative medicine, just medicine that works and medicine that doesn't",--> that the very idea of "alternative" treatments is paradoxical, as any treatment proven to work is by definition "medicine".-->.

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Amazon Malaria Initiative

The Amazon Malaria Initiative (AMI) is a regional program that was created in 2001 by several countries sharing the Amazon basin with technical support from PAHO/WHO and financial support from the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), and managed by USAID/Peru as part of its South American Regional Infectious Disease Program (SARI).

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AmBX (officially stylised amBX) is a technology (originally developed by Philips) for controlling incandescent and white/coloured LED lighting and other compatible peripherals.

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American Academy of Clinical Toxicology

The American Academy of Clinical Toxicology (AACT) is a non-profit multidisciplinary health association that promotes research, education, prevention, and treatment of diseases caused by chemicals.

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American Association of Poison Control Centers

The American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC) is a national voluntary health organization founded in 1958 that represents the nation’s 55 poison centers.

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American Bronchoesophagological Association

The American Broncho-Esophagological Association (ABEA) was founded in 1917 by Chevalier Jackson,AD Boyd.

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American cliff swallow

The American cliff swallow (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) is a member of the passerine bird family Hirundinidae consisting of both swallow and martin species.

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American College of Nutrition

The American College of Nutrition (ACN) is a 501(c)(3) charitable non-profit organization established to encourage the scientific investigation of nutrition and metabolism.

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American Dance Therapy Association

American Dance Therapy Association was founded in 1966 to establish and maintain standards of professional education in the field of dance/movement therapy.

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American Society for Investigative Pathology

The American Society for Investigative Pathology (ASIP) is a society of biomedical scientists who investigate mechanisms of disease.

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In enzymology, an aminoacylase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are N-acyl-L-amino acid and H2O, whereas its two products are carboxylate and L-amino acid.

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Amphetamine (contracted from) is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), narcolepsy, and obesity.

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Amphistomiasis or paramphistomiasis (alternatively spelled amphistomosis or paramphistomosis) is a parasitic disease of livestock animals, more commonly of cattle and sheep, and humans caused by immature helminthic flatworms belonging to the order Echinostomida.

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Amputation is the removal of a limb by trauma, medical illness, or surgery.

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Amycolatopsis orientalis

Amycolatopsis orientalis previously known as Streptomyces orientalis is a bacterium.

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Amyloids are aggregates of proteins that become folded into a shape that allows many copies of that protein to stick together forming fibrils.

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Analgesic adjuvant

An analgesic adjuvant is a medication that is typically used for indications other than pain control but provides control of pain in some painful diseases.

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An anastomosis (plural anastomoses) is a connection or opening between two things (especially cavities or passages) that are normally diverging or branching, such as between blood vessels, leaf veins, or streams.

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Ancient filipino diet and health

Ancient diet is mainly determined by food's accessibility which involves location, geography and climate while ancient health is affected by food consumption apart from external factors such as diseases and plagues.

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André Chagnon

André Chagnon, (born 1928) is a Canadian businessman and philanthropist.

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Andrew N. J. McKenzie

Andrew Neil James McKenzie is a molecular biologist and group leader in the Medical Research Council (MRC) Laboratory of Molecular Biology (LMB).

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Andrew Taylor Still

Andrew Taylor Still, MD, DO (August 6, 1828 – December 12, 1917) was the founder of osteopathy and osteopathic medicine.

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Androgen deficiency

Androgen deficiency also known as hypoandrogenism and androgen deficiency syndrome, is a medical condition characterized by not enough androgenic activity in the body.

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Androgen-dependent condition

An androgen-dependent condition, disease, disorder, or syndrome, is a medical condition that is, in part or full, dependent on, or is sensitive to, the presence of androgenic activity in the body.

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Anencephaly is the absence of a major portion of the brain, skull, and scalp that occurs during embryonic development.

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In the practice of medicine (especially surgery and dentistry), anesthesia or anaesthesia (from Greek "without sensation") is a state of temporary induced loss of sensation or awareness.

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Angie Chabram-Dernersesian

Professor Angie Chabram-Dernersesian is a Full Professor at the University of California, Davis.

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Angiola Cimini, Marchesana della Petrella

Angiola Cimini (1700 - 1727) was the daughter of Italian nobleman, Giuseppi Cimino, avvocato fiscale del real patrimonio, and of Anna d'Arieta-Crespo, member of a noble family from Castigliana.

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Angiology (from Greek ἀγγεῖον, angeīon, "vessel"; and -λογία, -logia) is the medical specialty which studies the diseases of the circulatory system and of the lymphatic system, i.e., arteries, veins and lymphatic vessels, and its diseases.

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Angiomyolipomas are the most common benign tumour of the kidney.

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Angle Light

Angle Light (April 18, 1970 – unknown) was an American Thoroughbred racehorse.

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Anglo-Thai Foundation

The Anglo-Thai Foundation is UK Registered charity No.

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Angular cheilitis

Angular cheilitis (AC) is inflammation of one or both corners of the mouth.

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Animal attacks

Animal attacks are a cause of human injuries and fatalities worldwide.

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Animal drug

An animal drug (also veterinary drug) refers to a drug intended for use in the diagnosis, cure, mitigation, treatment, or prevention of disease in animals.

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Animal genetic resources for food and agriculture

Animal genetic resources for food and agriculture (AnGR) are a subset of genetic resources (defined by the Convention on Biological Diversity as "genetic material of actual or potential value") and a specific element of agricultural biodiversity.

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Animal husbandry

Animal husbandry is the branch of agriculture concerned with animals that are raised for meat, fibre, milk, eggs, or other products.

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Animal husbandry in Himachal Pradesh

Animal husbandry in Himachal Pradesh plays a very major role in the development of agricultural sector of Himachal.

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Animal welfare

Animal welfare is the well-being of animals.

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Anisomastia is a medical condition in which there is a severe asymmetry or unequalness in the size of the breasts, generally related to a difference in volume.

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Ankylosis or anchylosis (from Greek ἀγκύλος, bent, crooked) is a stiffness of a joint due to abnormal adhesion and rigidity of the bones of the joint, which may be the result of injury or disease.

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Ankyrin repeat

The ankyrin repeat is a 33-residue motif in proteins consisting of two alpha helices separated by loops, first discovered in signaling proteins in yeast Cdc10 and Drosophila Notch.

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Annals of Medicine

Annals of Medicine is a peer-reviewed medical journal that publishes research articles as well as reviews on a wide range of medical specialties, with a particular focus on internal medicine.

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Anne Flett-Giordano

Anne Flett-Giordano (née Flett) is an American television producer and screenwriter, known for her work on Kate & Allie, Frasier, Desperate Housewives and Hot in Cleveland.

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Anterior urethral cancer

Anterior urethral cancer is a disease in which malignant cancer cells are found in the part of the urethra that is closest to the outside of the body.

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Anterograde amnesia

Anterograde amnesia is a loss of the ability to create new memories after the event that caused the amnesia, leading to a partial or complete inability to recall the recent past, while long-term memories from before the event remain intact.

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Antibody-dependent enhancement

Antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) occurs when non-neutralising antiviral proteins facilitate virus entry into host cells, leading to increased infectivity in the cells.

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Antimalarial medication

Antimalarial medications, also known as antimalarials, are designed to prevent or cure malaria.

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Antioxidative stress

Antioxidative stress is an overabundance of bioavailable antioxidant compounds that interfere with the immune system's ability to neutralize pathogenic threats.

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Anxiety is an emotion characterized by an unpleasant state of inner turmoil, often accompanied by nervous behaviour such as pacing back and forth, somatic complaints, and rumination.

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APC internal ribosome entry site (IRES)

The APC internal ribosome entry site (IRES) is an RNA element which is located in the coding sequence of the APC gene.

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An aphorism (from Greek ἀφορισμός: aphorismos, denoting "delimitation", "distinction", and "definition") is a concise, terse, laconic, and/or memorable expression of a general truth or principle.

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Appendix (anatomy)

The appendix (or vermiform appendix; also cecal appendix; vermix; or vermiform process) is a blind-ended tube connected to the cecum, from which it develops in the embryo.

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Appointment with Life

Maw`ed Ma` al-Hayat (موعد مع الحياة, Appointment with Life) is a 1953 Egyptian drama film directed and co-written by Ezzel Dine Zulficar.

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An aquarium (plural: aquariums or aquaria) is a vivarium of any size having at least one transparent side in which aquatic plants or animals are kept and displayed.

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Arachnids are a class (Arachnida) of joint-legged invertebrate animals (arthropods), in the subphylum Chelicerata.

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Arbovirus is an informal name used to refer to any viruses that are transmitted by arthropod vectors.

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ARCHIVE Global is an international non-profit organization that focuses on the link between health and housing.

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Aretaeus of Cappadocia

Aretaeus (Ἀρεταῖος) is one of the most celebrated of the ancient Greek physicians, of whose life, however, few particulars are known.

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Argyria or argyrosis is a condition caused by excessive exposure to chemical compounds of the element silver, or to silver dust.

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Ari Ne'eman

Ari Daniel Ne'eman (pronounced "neh-uh-MAHN"; born December 10, 1987) is an American autism rights activist who co-founded the Autistic Self Advocacy Network in 2006.

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Arnold Pick

Arnold Pick (20 July 18514 April 1924) was a Jewish Czech psychiatrist.

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Arrowsmith System

Arrowsmith was a system built by Don R. Swanson using the concept of Undiscovered Public Knowledge.

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Arthralgia (from Greek arthro-, joint + -algos, pain) literally means joint pain; it is a symptom of injury, infection, illnesses (in particular arthritis) or an allergic reaction to medication.

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An arthropathy is a disease of a joint.

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Arthur Guirdham

Arthur Guirdham (1905–1992) was an English physician, psychiatrist, novelist, and writer on the Cathar sect, alternative medicine, ESP and reincarnation.

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Arthur J. Ammann

Arthur J. Ammann (born August 12, 1936) is a pediatric immunologist and advocate known for his research on HIV transmission and his role in the development of the first successful vaccine to prevent pneumococcal infection in 1977.

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Arthur K. Shapiro

Arthur K. Shapiro, M.D., (1923–1995) was a psychiatrist and expert on Tourette syndrome.

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Arusha Declaration

The Arusha Declaration (Azimio la Arusha) and TANU’s Policy on Socialism and Self Reliance (1967), referred to as the Arusha Declaration, is known as Tanzania’s most prominent political statement of African Socialism, ‘Ujamaa’, or brotherhood (Kaitilla, 2007).

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ASA physical status classification system

The ASA physical status classification system is a system for assessing the fitness of patients before surgery.

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Asbestos-related diseases

Asbestos-related diseases are disorders of the lung and pleura caused by the inhalation of asbestos fibres.

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Asclepiades of Bithynia

Asclepiades (Ἀσκληπιάδης; c. 124 or 129 – 40 BC), sometimes called Asclepiades of Bithynia or Asclepiades of Prusa, was a Greek physician born at Prusias-on-Sea in Bithynia in Asia Minor and who flourished at Rome, where he established Greek medicine near the end of the 2nd century BC.

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Asperger syndrome

Asperger syndrome (AS), also known as Asperger's, is a developmental disorder characterized by significant difficulties in social interaction and nonverbal communication, along with restricted and repetitive patterns of behavior and interests.

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Assistive technology

Assistive technology is an umbrella term that includes assistive, adaptive, and rehabilitative devices for people with disabilities while also including the process used in selecting, locating, and using them.

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Astellas Pharma

is a Japanese pharmaceutical company, formed on 1 April 2005 from the merger of and.

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In medicine, a disease is considered asymptomatic if a patient is a carrier for a disease or infection but experiences no symptoms.

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Atenolol is a selective β1 receptor antagonist, a drug belonging to the group of beta blockers (sometimes written β-blockers), a class of drugs used primarily in cardiovascular diseases.

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Athanasius Kircher

Athanasius Kircher, S.J. (sometimes erroneously spelled Kirchner; Athanasius Kircherus, 2 May 1602 – 28 November 1680) was a German Jesuit scholar and polymath who published around 40 major works, most notably in the fields of comparative religion, geology, and medicine.

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Athletic heart syndrome

Athletic heart syndrome (AHS), also known as athlete's heart, athletic bradycardia, or exercise-induced cardiomegaly is a non-pathological condition commonly seen in sports medicine, in which the human heart is enlarged, and the resting heart rate is lower than normal.

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Athrotaxis cupressoides

Athrotaxis cupressoides, is also known as pencil pine, despite being a species of the Cupressaceae family, and not a member of the pine family.

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Athymhormia is a disorder of motivation, one of that class of neuro-psychiatric conditions marked by abnormalities or deficiencies in motivation.

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ATOX1 is a copper metallochaperone protein that is encoded by the ATOX1 gene in humans.

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Attachment disorder

Attachment disorder is a broad term intended to describe disorders of mood, behavior, and social relationships arising from a failure to form normal attachments to primary care giving figures in early childhood.

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Attack rate

In epidemiology, the attack rate is the biostatistical measure of frequency of morbidity, or speed of spread, in an at risk population.

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Attending physician statement

An attending physician statement (APS) is a report by a physician, hospital or medical facility who has treated, or who is currently treating, a person seeking insurance.

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Atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor

An atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) is a rare tumor usually diagnosed in childhood.

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Audio-visual entrainment

Audio-visual entrainment (AVE), a subset of brainwave entrainment, uses flashes of lights and pulses of tones to guide the brain into various states of brainwave activity.

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August Batsch

August Johann Georg Karl Batsch (28 October 1761 – 29 September 1802) was a German naturalist.

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Auriculectomy is the surgical removal of the ear due to disease or trauma, generally followed by rehabilitation involving an ear prosthesis.

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Australian Charbray

The Australian Charbray is a beef breed of cattle that is the result of the blending of two breeds, the Charolais and the Brahman.

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Autism is a developmental disorder characterized by troubles with social interaction and communication and by restricted and repetitive behavior.

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Autism friendly

Autism friendly means being aware of social engagement and environmental factors affecting people on the autism spectrum, with modifications to communication methods and physical space to better suit individual's unique and special needs.

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Autofluorescence is the natural emission of light by biological structures such as mitochondria and lysosomes when they have absorbed light, and is used to distinguish the light originating from artificially added fluorescent markers (fluorophores).

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Autoimmune heart disease

Autoimmune heart diseases are the effects of the body's own immune defense system mistaking cardiac antigens as foreign and attacking them leading to inflammation of the heart as a whole, or in parts.

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Autoimmune retinopathy

Autoimmune retinopathy (AIR) is a rare disease in which the patient's immune system attacks proteins in the retina, leading to loss of eyesight.

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Autoinoculation is derived from the Latin root words "autos" and "inoculate" that mean "self implanting" or "self infection" or "implanting something from oneself".

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Automated analyser

An automated analyser is a medical laboratory instrument designed to measure different chemicals and other characteristics in a number of biological samples quickly, with minimal human assistance.

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Autonomous building

An autonomous building is a building designed to be operated independently from infrastructural support services such as the electric power grid, gas grid, municipal water systems, sewage treatment systems, storm drains, communication services, and in some cases, public roads.

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Autophagy (or autophagocytosis) (from the Ancient Greek αὐτόφαγος autóphagos, meaning "self-devouring" and κύτος kýtos, meaning "hollow") is the natural, regulated, destructive mechanism of the cell that disassembles unnecessary or dysfunctional components.

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An autopsy (post-mortem examination, obduction, necropsy, or autopsia cadaverum) is a highly specialized surgical procedure that consists of a thorough examination of a corpse by dissection to determine the cause and manner of death or to evaluate any disease or injury that may be present for research or educational purposes.

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Autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia

Autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia (ADCA) is a form of spinocerebellar ataxia inherited in an autosomal dominant manner.

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An autosplenectomy (from 'auto-' self, '-splen-' spleen, '-ectomy' removal) is a negative outcome of disease and occurs when a disease damages the spleen to such an extent that it becomes shrunken and non-functional.

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Auxins (plural of auxin) are a class of plant hormones (or plant growth regulators) with some morphogen-like characteristics.

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Avec un grand A

Avec un grand A is a French-Canadian drama television series comprising 52 episodes which aired from February 19, 1986 to March 22, 1996 on Télé-Québec.

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Avital Ronell

Avital Ronell (born 15 April 1952) is an American philosopher who contributes to the fields of continental philosophy, literary studies, psychoanalysis, feminist philosophy, political philosophy, and ethics.

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Avocado sunblotch viroid

Avocado sunblotch viroid (ASBV) is a disease affecting avocado trees.

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Avtomaticheskie udovletvoriteli

Avtomaticheskie udovletvoriteli abbreviated AU (The Automatic Satisfiers, Автоматические удовлетворители abbreviated АУ) were an iconic and highly influential Russian punk band, formed in Saint Petersburg in 1979.

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Ayman Zohry

Ayman Zohry (born June 7, 1964) is a demographer/geographer and expert on migration studies based in Cairo, Egypt.

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Azim Surani

Azim Surani (born 1945 in Kisumu, Kenya) is a developmental biologist who has been Marshall–Walton Professor at the Wellcome Trust/Cancer Research UK Gurdon Institute at the University of Cambridge since 1992, and Director of Germline and Epigenomics Research since 2013.

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Azoospermia is the medical condition of a man whose semen contains no sperm.

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Ángel Botello

Ángel Botello (June 20, 1913 – November 11, 1986) was a Spanish-Puerto Rican painter, sculptor and graphic artist.

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Étienne de Harven

Etienne de Harven is a Belgian-born pathologist and electron microscopist.

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In the Babylonian magico-medical tradition, Šulak is the Lurker of the bathroom or the demon of the privy.

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Żelechów (Yiddish זשעלעכאָוו) is a town in east Poland in Masovian Voivodeship in Garwolin County.

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B'Elanna Torres

B'Elanna Torres is a main character in Star Trek: Voyager played by Roxann Dawson.

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Baby colic

Baby colic, also known as infantile colic, is defined as episodes of crying for more than three hours a day, for more than three days a week, for three weeks in an otherwise healthy child.

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Babylonia was an ancient Akkadian-speaking state and cultural area based in central-southern Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq).

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Bacteremia (also bacteraemia) is the presence of bacteria in the blood.

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Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.

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Bacterial vaginosis

Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a disease of the vagina caused by excessive growth of bacteria.

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Bad Housewife

Bad Housewife (불량주부, Bullyang jubu) is a Korean drama series, produced and aired in 2005 by SBS.

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Bald sea urchin disease

Bald sea urchin disease is a bacterial disease known to affect several species of sea urchins in the Mediterranean Sea, North Atlantic and along the California coastline.

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Balneotherapy (balneum "bath") is the presumed benefit from disease by bathing, a traditional medicine technique usually practiced at spas.

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Bam Bam Bigelow

Scott Charles Bigelow (September 1, 1961 – January 19, 2007) was an American professional wrestler, better known by the ring name Bam Bam Bigelow.

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Banksia, commonly known as Australian honeysuckles, are a genus of around 170 species in the plant family Proteaceae.

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Bantu mythology

The Bantu mythology is the system of myths and legends of the Bantu peoples of Africa.

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Baptista Mantuanus

Baptista Spagnuoli Mantuanus (Battista Mantovano, English: Battista the Mantuan or simply Mantuan; also known as Johannes Baptista Spagnolo; 17 April 1447 – 20 March 1516) was an Italian Carmelite reformer, humanist, and poet.

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Bardet–Biedl syndrome

Bardet–Biedl syndrome (BBS) is a ciliopathic human genetic disorder that produces many effects and affects many body systems.

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Barefoot doctor

Barefoot doctors are farmers who received minimal basic medical and paramedical training and worked in rural villages in China.

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Bark beetle

A bark beetle is one of about 220 genera with 6,000 species of beetles in the subfamily Scolytinae.

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Bark-binding is a disease in trees, cured by slitting the bark, or cutting it along the grain of the tree.

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Barnet Burns

Barnet Burns (November 1805 – 26 December 1860) was an English sailor, trader, and showman who became one of the first Europeans to live as a Pākehā Māori and to receive the full Māori facial tattoo.

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Bas-Congo virus

The Bas-Congo virus (BASV), named after the former DRC province of Bas-Congo (now Kongo Central), in which it was first discovered, is a novel rhabdovirus associated with a small outbreak of hemorrhagic fever in Mangala village in 2009.

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Basal metabolic rate

Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is the rate of energy expenditure per unit time by endothermic animals at rest.

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Bathroom privileges

Bathroom privileges refers to the rules or the possibility of the use of a toilet.

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Battle Blaze

is a medieval fighting game released for the Arcade and Super Nintendo Entertainment System by Sammy Studios.

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Bedlington Terrier

The Bedlington Terrier is a breed of small dog named after the mining town of Bedlington, Northumberland in North East England.

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Beech bark disease

Beech bark disease is a disease that causes mortality and defects in beech trees in the eastern United States and Europe.

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Beef cattle

Beef cattle are cattle raised for meat production (as distinguished from dairy cattle, used for milk production).

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Beekeeping in the United States

Beekeeping in the United States dates back to the 1860s.

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Bees Act 1980

The Bees Act 1980 (citation 1980 c.12) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.

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Behavior change (public health)

Behavior change, in the context of public health, refers to efforts to change people's personal habits to prevent disease.

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Behavioral medicine

Behavioral medicine is concerned with the integration of knowledge in the biological, behavioral, psychological, and social sciences relevant to health and illness.

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Bengal cat

The Bengal is a domestic cat breed developed to look like exotic jungle cats such as leopards, ocelots, margays and clouded leopards.

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Benignity (from Latin benignus "kind, good", itself deriving from bonus "good" and genus "origin") is any condition that is harmless in the long run.

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Benzodiazepine dependence

Benzodiazepine dependence or benzodiazepine addiction is when one has developed one or more of either tolerance, withdrawal symptoms, drug seeking behaviors, such as continued use despite harmful effects, and maladaptive pattern of substance use, according to the DSM-IV.

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Berberis, commonly known as barberry, is a large genus of deciduous and evergreen shrubs from tall, found throughout temperate and subtropical regions of the world (apart from Australia).

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Berberis vulgaris

Berberis vulgaris, also known as common barberry, European barberry or simply barberry, is a shrub in the genus Berberis.

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Berk–Tabatznik syndrome

Berk–Tabatznik syndrome is a medical condition with an unknown cause that shows symptoms of short stature, congenital optic atrophy and brachytelephalangy.

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Berylliosis, or chronic beryllium disease (CBD), is a chronic allergic-type lung response and chronic lung disease caused by exposure to beryllium and its compounds, a form of beryllium poisoning.

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Best Comeback Athlete ESPY Award

The Best Comeback Athlete ESPY Award has been presented annually since 1993 to the sportsperson, irrespective of gender, contesting a team sport professionally under the auspices of one of the four North American leagues or an individual sport on either an amateur or professional basis primarily in the United States or internationally under the auspices of an sport governing body adjudged to have made the most significant, profound, or impressive comeback from serious illness, injury, personal or familial hardship, retirement, or significant loss of form.

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Betty Anyanwu-Akeredolu

Betty Anyanwu-Akeredolu (b. 1953) is an aquaculturist, philanthropist, and the First Lady of Ondo State in Nigeria.

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BIA 10-2474

BIA 10-2474 is an experimental fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitor developed by the Portuguese pharmaceutical company Bial-Portela & Ca. SA.

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Bioactive glass

Bioactive glasses are a group of surface reactive glass-ceramic biomaterials and include the original bioactive glass, bioglass.

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Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.

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Biodefense and Pandemic Vaccine and Drug Development Act of 2005

The Biodefense and Pandemic Vaccine and Drug Development Act of 2005, nicknamed "Bioshield Two" and sponsored by Senator Richard Burr (R-North Carolina), aims shorten the pharmaceutical development process for new vaccines and drugs in case of a pandemic, and to protect vaccine makers and the pharmaceutical industry from legal liability for vaccine injuries.

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Biodiversity hypothesis of health

According to the biodiversity hypothesis, reduced contact of people with natural environment and biodiversity may adversely affect the human commensal microbiota and its immunomodulatory capacity.

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Bioenvironmental Engineering

Bioenvironmental Engineering is a process of using engineering principles to reduce and solve environmental health risks and dangers caused by human activity It may comprise four general areas of work: radiation, industrial hygiene, environmental protection and emergency response.

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Biological organisation

Biological organization is the hierarchy of complex biological structures and systems that define life using a reductionistic approach.

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Biological therapy for inflammatory bowel disease

Biological therapy refers to the use of medication that is tailored to specifically target an immune or genetic mediator of disease.

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Biologics for immunosuppression

Biologics for immunosuppression (often called "biologics" or "biological therapy") are a class of immunosuppressive drugs which chemically are biopharmaceutical treatments.

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Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.

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Biology and consumer behaviour

Consumer behaviour is the study of the motivations surrounding a purchase of a product or service.

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A biomarker, or biological marker, generally refers to a measurable indicator of some biological state or condition.

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Biomedical scientist

A biomedical scientist is a scientist trained in biology, particularly in the context of medicine.

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A biopsy is a medical test commonly performed by a surgeon, interventional radiologist, or an interventional cardiologist involving extraction of sample cells or tissues for examination to determine the presence or extent of a disease.

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Biotechnology is the broad area of science involving living systems and organisms to develop or make products, or "any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use" (UN Convention on Biological Diversity, Art. 2).

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Biotechnology and Agricultural Trade Program

Biotechnology and Agricultural Trade Program — The 2002 farm bill (P.L. 107-171 Sec. 3204) authorizes appropriations of up to $6 million annually for technical assistance and public and private sector project grants to remove or mitigate significant foreign regulatory nontariff barriers to U.S. exports involving: agricultural commodities produced through biotechnology.

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Biovista Inc.

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Biphasic disease

A biphasic disease is a disease which has two distinct phases.

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Bird collections

Bird collections are curated repositories of scientific specimens consisting of birds and their parts.

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Birdie & Bogey

Birdie & Bogey is a 2004 Christian drama film directed by Mike Norris.

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Birth control in Africa

Most of the countries with the lowest rates of contraceptive use; highest maternal, infant, and child mortality rates; and highest fertility rates are in Africa.

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Birth credit

A "choice-based, marketable, birth license plan" or "birth credits" for population control has been promoted by urban designer and environmental activist Michael E. Arth since the 1990s.

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Birth spacing

Birth spacing, pregnancy spacing, or inter-pregnancy interval refers to how soon after a prior pregnancy a woman becomes pregnant or gives birth again.

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Black carbon

Chemically, black carbon (BC) is a component of fine particulate matter (PM ≤ 2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter).

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Black comedy

Black comedy, also known as dark comedy or gallows humor, is a comic style that makes light of subject matter that is generally considered taboo, particularly subjects that are normally considered serious or painful to discuss.

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Black Jack (manga)

is a manga written and illustrated by Osamu Tezuka in the 1970s, dealing with the medical adventures of the title character, doctor Black Jack.

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Black Sea hostage crisis

The Black Sea hostage crisis took place January 16–19, 1996 on the Black Sea during the First Chechen War.

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Blackleg (disease)

Blackleg, black quarter, quarter evil, or quarter ill (gangraena emphysematosa) is an infectious bacterial disease most commonly caused by Clostridium chauvoei, a Gram-positive bacterial species.

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Blessed Martyrs of Drina

The Blessed Martyrs of Drina (Drinske mučenice, Дринске мученицe) are the professed Sisters of the Congregation of the Daughters of Divine Charity, who lost their lives during World War II.

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Blood donation in India

Blood donations in India are conducted by several organizations and hospitals by organizing blood donation camps.

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Blood lipids

Blood lipids (or blood fats) are lipids in the blood, either free or bound to other molecules.

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Blood plasma fractionation

Blood plasma fractionation refers to the general processes of separating the various components of blood plasma, which in turn is a component of blood obtained through blood fractionation.

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Blood test

A blood test is a laboratory analysis performed on a blood sample that is usually extracted from a vein in the arm using a hypodermic needle, or via fingerprick.

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Bloodletting (or blood-letting) is the withdrawal of blood from a patient to prevent or cure illness and disease.

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Blue cod

The blue cod (Parapercis colias) is a temperate marine fish of the family Pinguipedidae.

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Blue diaper syndrome

Blue diaper syndrome is a rare, autosomal recessive metabolic disorder characterized in infants by bluish urine-stained diapers.

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Body fluid

Body fluid, bodily fluids, or biofluids are liquids within the bodies of living people.

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BOINC Credit System

Within the BOINC platform for volunteer computing, the BOINC Credit System helps volunteers keep track of how much CPU time they have donated to various distributed computing projects.

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Bombus ruderatus

Bombus ruderatus, the large garden bumblebee or ruderal bumblebee, is a species of long-tongued bumblebee found in Europe and in some parts of northern Africa.

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Bone erosion

Bone erosion is the loss of bone from disease processes.

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A bonfire is a large but controlled outdoor fire, used either for informal disposal of burnable waste material or as part of a celebration.

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Boris Rosenthal

Boris Rosenthal (1881–1938) was a character actor and operetta lyricist in the Yiddish theater.

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Bornaprine (Brand Name: Sormodrem) is a synthetic anticholinergic medication that is primarily used to treat Parkinson's disease.

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Bornholm disease

Bornholm disease or epidemic pleurodynia or epidemic myalgia is a disease caused by the Coxsackie B virus or other viruses.

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Boston's sign

Boston's sign is the spasmodic lowering of the upper eyelid on downward rotation of the eye, indicating exophthalmic goiter.

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Botanical drug

A botanical drug is defined in the United States Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act as a botanical product that is marketed as diagnosing, mitigating, treating, or curing a disease; a botanical product in turn, is a finished, labeled product that contains ingredients from plants.

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Botulism is a rare and potentially fatal illness caused by a toxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum.

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Bout can mean.

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Bovine herpesvirus 4

Bovine herpesvirus 4 is a member of the Herpesviridae family.

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Brain mapping

Brain mapping is a set of neuroscience techniques predicated on the mapping of (biological) quantities or properties onto spatial representations of the (human or non-human) brain resulting in maps.

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Brattleboro Retreat

The Brattleboro Retreat is a private not-for-profit mental health and addictions hospital that provides comprehensive inpatient, partial hospitalization, and outpatient treatment services for children, adolescents, and adults.

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Breast milk

Breast milk is the milk produced by the breasts (or mammary glands) of a human female to feed a child.

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Breastfeeding, also known as nursing, is the feeding of babies and young children with milk from a woman's breast.

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Brisbane Water National Park

The Brisbane Water National Park is a protected national park that is located in the Central Coast region of New South Wales, in eastern Australia.

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British Chinese

British Chinese (also known as Chinese British, Chinese Britons) are people of Chineseparticularly Han Chineseancestry who reside in the United Kingdom, constituting the second or third largest group of overseas Chinese in Europe apart from the Chinese diaspora in France and the overseas Chinese community in Russia.

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British Thoracic Society

The British Thoracic Society (BTS) was formed in 1982 by the amalgamation of the British Thoracic Association and the Thoracic Society.

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Brno death march

The Brno death marchRozumět dějinám, Zdeněk Beneš, p. 208 (Brünner Todesmarsch) is traditional German term for the forced expulsion of the German inhabitants of Brno (Brünn) after World War II.

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Broken Embraces

Broken Embraces (Los abrazos rotos) is a 2009 Spanish romantic thriller film written, produced, and directed by Pedro Almodóvar.

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Broome County Alms House

The Broome County Alms House, was located in the town of Dickinson, three miles north of Binghamton in Broome county, New York.

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Bruno Brivonesi

Bruno Brivonesi (July 16, 1886 – 1970) was an Italian admiral during World War II.

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Bryan Simpson United States Courthouse

The Bryan Simpson United States Courthouse is a courthouse and U.S. federal government facility in Jacksonville, Florida.

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Buckeye rot of tomato

Buckeye rot of tomato is caused by the pathogen Phytophthora parasitica. It is a fungus that thrives in warm, wet conditions and lives in the soil.

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Bud Collyer

Bud Collyer (June 18, 1908 – September 8, 1969) was an American radio actor/announcer who became one of the nation's first major television game show stars.

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Bundibugyo ebolavirus

The species Bundibugyo ebolavirus is the taxonomic home of one virus, Bundibugyo virus (BDBV), that forms filamentous virions and is closely related to the infamous Ebola virus (EBOV).

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Bundibugyo virus

Bundibugyo virus (BDBV) is a close relative of the much more commonly known Ebola virus (EBOV).

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Bur oak blight

Bur oak blight (BOB) is a fungal disease that is relatively new to the plant pathogen landscape.

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Burkitt's lymphoma

Burkitt lymphoma is a cancer of the lymphatic system, particularly B lymphocytes found in the germinal center.

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Burrill Bernard Crohn

Burrill Bernard Crohn (June 13, 1884 – July 29, 1983) was an American gastroenterologist and made the first major advance to identify the disease that now bears his name.

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Byeongsin chum

Byeongsin chum (병신춤, lit. the dance of the handicapped) is a Korean folk dance that was performed by the lower class peasants to satirize the Korean nobility (Yangban) by depicting them as the handicapped persons and sick persons such as paraplegics, midgets, hunchbacks, the deaf, the blind, lepers, as well as characters from Pansori and other Korean folklore.

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Chromosome 9 open reading frame 152 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the C9orf152 gene.

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Cadang-cadang is a disease caused by Coconut cadang-cadang viroid (CCCVd), a lethal viroid of coconut (Cocos nucifera), anahaw (Saribus rotundifolius) buri (Corypha utan), and African oil palm (Elaeis guineensis).

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Calcium encoding

Calcium encoding (also referred to as Ca2+ encoding or calcium information processing) is an intracellular signaling pathway used by many cells to transfer, process and encode external information detected by the cell.

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Calf (leg)

The calf (Latin: sura) is the back portion of the lower leg in human anatomy.

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Calico (company)

Calico is a research and development biotech company founded on September 18, 2013 by Bill Maris and backed by Google with the goal of combating aging and associated diseases.

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California mussel

The California mussel (Mytilus californianus) is a large edible mussel, a marine bivalve mollusk in the family Mytilidae.

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Cambridge Biomedical Campus

The Cambridge Biomedical Campus, located at the southern end of Hills Road on the southern edge of Cambridge, England, is the largest centre of health science and medical research in Europe.

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Camellia sinensis

Camellia sinensis is a species of evergreen shrub or small tree whose leaves and leaf buds are used to produce tea.

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Camillus de Lellis

Saint Camillus de Lellis, M.I., (25 May 1550 – 14 July 1614) was a Roman Catholic priest from Italy who founded a religious order dedicated to the care of the sick.

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Camptodactyly is a medical condition that causes one or more fingers to be permanently bent.

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Camurati–Engelmann disease

Camurati–Engelmann disease (CED) is a very rare autosomal dominant genetic disorder that causes characteristic anomalies in the skeleton.It is also known as progressive diaphyseal dysplasia.

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Canada Labour Code

The Canada Labour Code (Code canadien du travail) is an Act of Parliament of the Canadian government to consolidate certain statutes respecting labour.

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Canadian Association for Laboratory Animal Science

The Canadian Association for Laboratory Animal Science (CALAS), a not-for-profit membership association was formed in 1962 with a vision to elevate the standards of laboratory animal science and to enhance animal well-being.

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Canadian Association of Gastroenterology

The Canadian Association of Gastroenterology (CAG) was founded in 1962 to promote the study of the digestive tract in health and disease.

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Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety

The Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety (CCOHS) is an independent departmental corporation under Schedule II of the Financial Administration Act and is accountable to Parliament through the Minister of Labour.

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Canadian health claims for food

Canadian health claims by Health Canada, the department of the Government of Canada responsible for national health, has allowed five scientifically verified disease risk reduction claims to be used on food labels and on food advertising.

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Canadian Health Network

The Canadian Health Network (CHN) was established in 1999 as a national, bilingual health promotion service operated by the Public Health Agency of Canada and major health organizations across Canada.

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Canadian Perinatal Network

The Canadian Perinatal Network (CPN) is made up of Canadian researchers who collaborate on research issues relating to perinatal care.

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Canadian Spinal Research Organization

The Canadian Spinal Research Organization is a nationally registered charity whose mission is improve the physical quality of life for persons with spinal cord injuries (SCI) and related neurological deficits, as well as reduce the number of spinal cord injuries through awareness and prevention programs.

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Canadian Stem Cell Foundation

The Canadian Stem Cell Foundation is an independent, non-profit organization established in 2008 and situated in Ottawa, Ontario.

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Cancer signs and symptoms

Cancer symptoms are changes in the body caused by the presence of cancer.

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Candesartan (rINN) is an angiotensin II receptor antagonist used mainly for the treatment of hypertension.

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Candida albicans

Candida albicans is an opportunistic pathogenic yeast that is a common member of the human gut flora.

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Canine distemper

Canine distemper (sometimes termed hardpad disease) is a viral disease that affects a wide variety of animal families, including domestic and wild species of dogs, coyotes, foxes, pandas, wolves, ferrets, skunks, raccoons, and large cats, as well as pinnipeds, some primates, and a variety of other species.

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Canine glaucoma

Canine glaucoma refers to a group of diseases in dogs that affect the optic nerve and involve a loss of retinal ganglion cells in a characteristic pattern.

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Canine influenza

Canine influenza (dog flu) is influenza occurring in canine animals.

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Cannabis in Tanzania

Cannabis in Tanzania is illegal, but remain the most common drug and produced for different usage, such as domestic usage and exporting.

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Cap Anson

Adrian Constantine Anson (April 17, 1852 – April 14, 1922), nicknamed "Cap" (for "Captain") and "Pop", was a Major League Baseball (MLB) first baseman.

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Captaincy General of Chile

The General Captaincy of Chile (Capitanía General de Chile) or Gobernación de Chile, was a territory of the Spanish Empire, from 1541 to 1818.

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Captive breeding

Captive breeding is the process of maintaining plants or animals in controlled environments, such as wildlife reserves, zoos, botanic gardens, and other conservation facilities.

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Cardiac fibroma

Cardiac fibroma, also known as cardiac fibromatosis, is a rare benign tumor of the heart that occurs primarily in infants and children.

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Cardiac function curve

A cardiac function curve is a graph showing the relationship between right atrial pressure (x-axis) and cardiac output (y-axis).

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Cardiology (from Greek καρδίᾱ kardiā, "heart" and -λογία -logia, "study") is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the heart as well as parts of the circulatory system.

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Cardiovascular & pulmonary physiotherapy

Physiotherapists treating patients following uncomplicated coronary artery bypass surgery (also called coronary artery bypass graft surgery, or CABG) surgery continue to use interventions such as deep breathing exercises that are not supported by best available evidence.

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Cardiovascular disease in Australia

Cardiovascular disease, including heart disease, is a major cause of death in Australia.

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Cardiovascular disease in China

Cardiac disease in China is on the rise.

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Care work

Care work is a sub-category of work that includes all tasks that directly involve care processes done in service of others.

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A caregiver or carer is an unpaid or paid member of a person's social network who helps them with activities of daily living.

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Caregiver tax credit

The Caregiver Tax Credit (CTC) is a tax credit available in Canada to individuals who provide in-home support for a relative who is a dependent, is over 18 and resides with the supporting relative in his/her residence at some time in the year.

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Caribbean Public Health Agency

The creation of the new Caribbean Public Health Agency (CARPHA) was approved by the Caribbean Heads of Government in March 2010.

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Carlos Chagas

Carlos Justiniano Ribeiro Chagas, or Carlos Chagas (July 9, 1879 – November 8, 1934), was a Brazilian sanitary physician, scientist and bacteriologist who worked as a clinician and researcher.

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Carol Vance Unit

Carol S. Vance Unit (J2, previously the Harlem II Unit and the Jester II Unit) is a Texas Department of Criminal Justice (TDCJ) prison located in unincorporated central Fort Bend County, Texas.

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Carter Center

The Carter Center is a nongovernmental, not-for-profit organization founded in 1982 by former U.S. President Jimmy Carter.

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Cartridge (respirator)

A respirator cartridge or canister is a container that cleans pollution from air.

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Case report

In medicine, a case report is a detailed report of the symptoms, signs, diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of an individual patient.

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Casualty (person)

A casualty in military usage is a person in military service, combatant or non-combatant, who becomes unavailable for duty due to several circumstances, including death, injury, illness, capture or desertion.

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Catarina Parda

Catarina Parda (born in 1862) was an enslaved Brazilian who worked as a prostitute.

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Catarrh, or catarrhal inflammation, is inflammation of the mucous membranes in one of the airways or cavities of the body, usually with reference to the throat and paranasal sinuses.

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Cause (medicine)

Cause, also known as etiology and aetiology, is the reason or origination of something.

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Causes of the 1948 Palestinian exodus

The causes and explanations of the exodus of Palestinian Arabs that arose during the 1947–1948 Civil War in Mandatory Palestine and the 1948 Arab–Israeli War are a matter of great controversy between historians, journalists and commentators of the Arab–Israeli conflict.

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Cavitary pneumonia

Cavitary pneumonia is a disease in which the normal lung architecture is replaced by a cavity.

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CDC classification system for HIV infection

The CDC Classification System for HIV Infection is the medical classification system used by the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to classify HIV disease and infection.

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Cecil Helman

Cecil Helman (born 4 January 1944 in Cape Town, South Africa, died 15 June 2009) was a South African doctor, author, and medical anthropologist.

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Celestial stem

The ten Celestial or Heavenly Stems are a Chinese system of ordinals that first appear during the Shang dynasty, ca.

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Cell death

Cell death is the event of a biological cell ceasing to carry out its functions.

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Cell Population Data

Leukocytes are one type of Blood cells, the other two being Red blood cells and Platelets.

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Cellular communication (biology)

Cellular communication is an umbrella term used in biology and more in depth in biophysics, biochemistry and biosemiotics to identify different types of communication methods between living cells.

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Cenesthopathy (from the Ancient Greek koinos „common“ and αἴσθησις aísthēsis „feeling“, „perception“) is a rare medical term used to refer to the feeling of being ill and this feeling is not localized to one region of the body.

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Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition

The Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN, pronounced sif'-san) is the branch of the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) that regulates food, dietary supplements, and cosmetics.

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Central venous catheter

A central venous catheter (CVC), also known as a central line, central venous line, or central venous access catheter, is a catheter placed into a large vein.

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Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters

The Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters (CRED) is a research unit of the Université catholique de Louvain (UCL).

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Centronuclear myopathy

Centronuclear myopathies (CNM) are a group of congenital myopathies where cell nuclei are abnormally located in skeletal muscle cells.

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Ceratopogonidae, or biting midges, are a family of small flies (1–4 mm long) in the order Diptera.

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Cerebral contusion

Cerebral contusion, Latin contusio cerebri, a form of traumatic brain injury, is a bruise of the brain tissue.

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CGMP-specific phosphodiesterase type 5

cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase type 5 is an enzyme from the phosphodiesterase class.

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Chametz (also chometz,, ḥameṣ, ḥameç and other spellings transliterated from חָמֵץ / חמץ) are leavened foods that are forbidden on the Jewish holiday of Passover.

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Chanson réaliste

Chanson réaliste (realist song) refers to a style of music performed in France primarily from the 1880s until the end of World War II.

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Chaos (Warhammer)

In Games Workshop's Warhammer Fantasy and Warhammer 40,000 fictional universes, Chaos refers to the malevolent entities which live in a different timespace, known as the Warp in Warhammer 40,000 and as the Realm of Chaos in Warhammer Fantasy.

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Charged GBH

Charged GBH, commonly known as GBH, are an English street punk band which was formed in 1978 by vocalist Colin Abrahall, guitarist Colin "Jock" Blyth, bassist Sean McCarthy (replaced by Ross Lomas after two shows) and Drummer Andy "Wilf" Williams.

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Charles McNeil (physician)

Charles McNeil FRCPE FRCP RSE (21 September 1881–27 April 1964) was a physician specialising in paediatrics, in particular neonatal paediatrics.

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Charlie Moreno

Charlie Moreno (born November 8, 1978 in El Paso, Texas) is an American stand-up comic and an actor.

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Chauntea, The Grain Goddess, The Great Mother or Earthmother, is a fictional deity of the Forgotten Realms campaign setting, for the Dungeons and Dragons fantasy role-playing game.

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Chemoprevention (also Chemoprophylaxis) refers to the administration of a medication for the purpose of preventing disease or infection.

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Chemotherapy regimen

A chemotherapy regimen is a regimen for chemotherapy, defining the drugs to be used, their dosage, the frequency and duration of treatments, and other considerations.

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Cheng Sait Chia

Cheng Sait Chia (1940–1981) was a Chinese-Canadian poet whose work was only ever published posthumously.

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Cheonjeyeon Waterfalls

Cheonjeyeon Waterfall is a three-tier waterfall located on Jeju Island.

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Cheshiahud (also Cheslahud, Lake John Cheshiahud, or Chudups John) and his family on Lake Union, Seattle, Washington in the 1880s are, along with Princess Angeline, among the few late-19th century Dkhw'Duw'Absh (people of the Duwamish tribe) about whom a little is known.

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Chest (journal)

Chest is a peer-reviewed medical journal covering chest diseases and related issues, including pulmonology, cardiology, thoracic surgery, transplantation, breathing, airway diseases, and emergency medicine.

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Chest pain

Chest pain is pain in any region of the chest.

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Chromatin Interaction Analysis by Paired-End Tag Sequencing (ChIA-PET) is a technique that incorporates chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-based enrichment, chromatin proximity ligation, Paired-End Tags, and High-throughput sequencing to determine de novo long-range chromatin interactions genome-wide.

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Child and family services

Child and family services is a government and/or non-profit organisation designed to better the well being of individuals who come from unfortunate situations, environmental or biological.

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Child bone fracture

A child bone fracture or a pediatric fracture is a medical condition in which a bone of a child (a person younger than the age of 18) is cracked or broken.

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Child health and nutrition in Africa

Child health and nutrition in Africa is concerned with the health care of children through adolescents in the various countries of Africa.

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Child poverty

Child poverty refers to the state of children living in poverty.

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Child's Dream Foundation

Child's Dream Foundation is a charitable not-for-profit organization founded by Daniel Siegfried and Marc Jenni in 2003.

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Childhood phobias

A childhood phobia is an exaggerated, intense fear “that is out of proportion to any real fear” found in children.

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Children Without Worms

Children Without Worms (CWW) is a global collaborative health programme among two pharmaceutical giants, Johnson & Johnson and GlaxoSmithKline, and a nonprofit organisation, the Task Force for Global Health.

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Chimelong Ocean Kingdom

Chimelong Ocean Kingdom is a theme park situated in Hengqin, Zhuhai, People's Republic of China. It is designed by PGAV Destinations. The park broke ground on 28 November 2010 and soft-opened on 28 January 2014. The grand opening occurred on 29 March 2014. The first phase of the park cost RMB 10 billion to build. It is part of the Chimelong International Ocean Resort, which aims to become the "Orlando of China". According to TEA and AECOM, it is the 11th most visited theme park in the world in 2017, with over 9.7 million visitors. Among its attractions are a wide range of amusements rides, animal shows, as well as the world's second largest oceanarium with a total of 48.75 million litres (10.72 million UK gal; 12.87 million US gal) of water.

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Chin Fung Kee

Chin Fung Kee (1920–1990) was a respected and outstanding Malaysian civil engineer in engineering practice, as well as engineering research and education.

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China Center of Adoption Affairs

The China Center of Adoption Affairs (CCAA) was established on June 24, 1996 by China's Ministry of Civil Affairs.

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Choice involves decision making.

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Chorea acanthocytosis

Chorea-acanthocytosis (ChAc, also called Choreoacanthocytosis), is a rare hereditary disease caused by a mutation of the gene that directs structural proteins in red blood cells.

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Christian Identity

Christian Identity (also known as Identity Christianity) is a racist, anti-Semitic, and white supremacist interpretation of Christianity which holds that only Germanic, Anglo-Saxon, Celtic, Nordic, Aryan people and those of kindred blood are the descendants of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob and hence the descendants of the ancient Israelites (primarily as a result of the Assyrian captivity).

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Christmas in August

Christmas in August is a 1998 South Korean romance drama film.

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Chromosomal crossover

Chromosomal crossover (or crossing over) is the exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes that results in recombinant chromosomes during sexual reproduction.

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Chromosome engineering

Chromosome engineering is "the controlled generation of chromosomal deletions, inversions, or translocations with defined endpoints." By combining chromosomal translocation, chromosomal inversion, and chromosomal deletion, chromosome engineering has been shown to identify the underlying genes that cause certain diseases in mice.

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Chronic condition

A chronic condition is a human health condition or disease that is persistent or otherwise long-lasting in its effects or a disease that comes with time.

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Chronic disease in China

Chronic, non-communicable diseases account for an estimated 80% of total deaths and 70% of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) lost in China.

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Chronic enteropathy associated with SLCO2A1 gene

Chronic enteropathy associated with SLCO2A1 gene is a rare autosomal recessive enteropathy that was first described in 1968.

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Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy

Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is an acquired immune-mediated inflammatory disorder of the peripheral nervous system.

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Chronic periodontitis

Chronic periodontitis is a common disease of the oral cavity consisting of chronic inflammation of the periodontal tissues that is caused by accumulation of profuse amounts of dental plaque, that may or may not be caused genetically.

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Chuángshén (床神 "Bed God") is the Chinese deity of the bedchamber.

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Chugworth Academy

Chugworth Academy was an adult webcomic by Dave Cheung (art and writing) and Jamal Joseph Jr.

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Chytridiomycosis is an infectious disease in amphibians, caused by the chytrid fungi Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis and Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans, a nonhyphal zoosporic fungus.

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A ciliopathy is a genetic disorder of the cellular cilia or the cilia anchoring structures, the basal bodies, or of ciliary function.

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A cilium (the plural is cilia) is an organelle found in eukaryotic cells.

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Citalopram (brand names: Celexa, Cipramil and others) is an antidepressant drug of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class.

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Class of the Titans

Class of the Titans is a Canadian animated television series created by Studio B Productions and Nelvana Limited.

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Classic Maya collapse

In archaeology, the classic Maya collapse is the decline of Classic Maya civilization and the abandonment of Maya cities in the southern Maya lowlands of Mesoamerica between the 8th and 9th centuries, at the end of the Classic Maya Period.

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Classification of obesity

Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it has an adverse effect on health.

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Classification of Pharmaco-Therapeutic Referrals

The Classification of Pharmaco-Therapeutic Referrals (CPR) is a taxonomy focused to define and group together situations requiring a referral from pharmacists to physicians (and vice versa) regarding the pharmacotherapy used by the patients.

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Classification of transsexual and transgender people

The classification of transsexual people and people with other gender atypicalities has been done since the mid-1960s.

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Classification rule

Given a population whose members each belong to one of a number of different sets or classes, a classification rule or classifier is a procedure by which the elements of the population set are each predicted to belong to one of the classes.

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Cleanliness is both the abstract state of being clean and free from dirt, and the habit of achieving and maintaining that state.

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Clifford Craig Medical Research Trust

The Clifford Craig Medical Research Trust was established in 1992 by the community of Northern Tasmania to be an independent, non-profit organisation interested in discovering and sharing better treatments of disease.

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Clifton Forbes

Clifton Forbes (February 18, 1946 – March 1, 2010) was an Olympic athlete, who represented Jamaica at the 1968 Summer Olympics in Mexico City.

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Climate appraisal

A climate appraisal is a unique, location-based report for a specific property on climate change (from global warming) and other environmental risks.

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Climate change and agriculture

Climate change and agriculture are interrelated processes, both of which take place on a global scale.

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Climate Change Denial: Heads in the Sand

Climate Change Denial: Heads in the Sand is a non-fiction book about climate change denial, coauthored by Haydn Washington and John Cook, with a foreword by Naomi Oreskes.

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Climate change in Sweden

The issue of climate change in Sweden has received significant public and political attention and the mitigation of its effects has been high on the agenda of the three latest Governments of Sweden, the former Cabinet of Göran Persson (−2006), the previous Cabinet of Fredrik Reinfeldt (2006–2014) and the current Löfven cabinet (2014–).

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Climate change, industry and society

This article is about climate change, industry and society.

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Clinical endpoint

In a clinical research trial, a clinical endpoint generally refers to occurrence of a disease, symptom, sign or laboratory abnormality that constitutes one of the target outcomes of the trial, but may also refer to any such disease or sign that strongly motivates the withdrawal of that individual or entity from the trial, then often termed humane (clinical) endpoint.

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Clinical governance

Clinical governance is a systematic approach to maintaining and improving the quality of patient care within the National Health Service, (NHS).

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Clinical pharmacy

Clinical pharmacy is the branch of pharmacy in which doctor of pharmacy provide patient care that optimizes the use of medication and promotes health, wellness, and disease prevention.

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Clinically isolated syndrome

A clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) is a clinical situation of an individual's first neurological episode, caused by inflammation or demyelination of nerve tissue.

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ClinLife is an international patient portal for clinical trials.

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Clipping (gardening)

In gardening, clipping is equivalent to pruning, the practice of removing diseases, over mature or otherwise unwanted portions from a plant.

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Clodomiro Picado Twight

Clodomiro Picado Twight (April 17, 1887 - May 16, 1944), also known as "Clorito Picado", was a Costa Rican scientist, born in Nicaragua, who was recognized for his research and discoveries.

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Clostridium is a genus of Gram-positive bacteria, which includes several significant human pathogens, including the causative agent of botulism and an important cause of diarrhea, Clostridium difficile.

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Clubroot is a common disease of cabbages, broccoli, cauliflower, Brussels sprouts, radishes, turnips, stocks, wallflowers and other plants belonging to the family Brassicaceae (Cruciferae).

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Clusterin (apolipoprotein J) is a 75 - 80 kDa disulfide-linked heterodimeric protein associated with the clearance of cellular debris and apoptosis.

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Codependency is a controversial and likely pseudoscientific concept for a dysfunctional helping relationship where one person supports or enables another person's addiction, poor mental health, immaturity, irresponsibility, or under-achievement.

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Coffee is a brewed drink prepared from roasted coffee beans, which are the seeds of berries from the Coffea plant.

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Coffeehouse (event)

A coffeehouse is a social event, often held to raise funds for and/or generate awareness of a social cause or other event.

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Cognitive epidemiology

Cognitive epidemiology is a field of research that examines the associations between intelligence test scores (IQ scores or extracted ''g''-factors) and health, more specifically morbidity (mental and physical) and mortality.

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COLD-PCR (co-amplification at lower denaturation temperature-PCR) is a modified Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) protocol that enriches variant alleles from a mixture of wildtype and mutation-containing DNA.

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College of Veterinary Sciences and Animal Husbandry, Selesih

The College of Veterinary Sciences & Animal Husbandry, one of the constituent colleges of the Central Agricultural University, was established through the promulgation of an ordinance (No. M-2 of 1995, dated 20 February) and became functional with the admission of first batch of students to BVSc & AH degree course in the 1997.

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Colonial Chile

In Chilean historiography, Colonial Chile (la colonia) is the period from 1600 to 1810, beginning with the Destruction of the Seven Cities and ending with the onset of the Chilean War of Independence.

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Columbus Day

Columbus Day is a national holiday in many countries of the Americas and elsewhere which officially celebrates the anniversary of Christopher Columbus's arrival in the Americas on October 12, 1492.

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Columnaris (also referred to as cottonmouth) is a symptom of disease in fish which results from an infection caused by the Gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacterium Flavobacterium columnare.

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Combination therapy

Combination therapy or polytherapy is therapy that uses more than one medication or modality (versus monotherapy, which is any therapy taken alone).

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Combined sewer

A combined sewer is a sewage collection system of pipes and tunnels designed to also collect surface runoff.

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Common cold

The common cold, also known simply as a cold, is a viral infectious disease of the upper respiratory tract that primarily affects the nose.

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Common torpedo

The common torpedo (Torpedo torpedo), also known as ocellate torpedo or eyed electric ray, is a species of electric ray in the family Torpedinidae.

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Community reinforcement approach and family training

Community reinforcement approach and family training (CRAFT) is a behavior therapy approach for treating addiction.

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Community-acquired pneumonia

Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) refers to pneumonia (any of several lung diseases) contracted by a person with little contact with the healthcare system.

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In medicine, comorbidity is the presence of one or more additional diseases or disorders co-occurring with (that is, concomitant or concurrent with) a primary disease or disorder; in the countable sense of the term, a comorbidity (plural comorbidities) is each additional disorder or disease.

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Compensation scheme for radiation-linked diseases

The Compensation scheme for radiation-linked diseases is a workers compensation scheme administered by the UK government.

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Complete blood count

A complete blood count (CBC), also known as a complete blood cell count, full blood count (FBC), or full blood exam (FBE), is a blood panel requested by a doctor or other medical professional that gives information about the cells in a patient's blood, such as the cell count for each cell type and the concentrations of various proteins and minerals.

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Complication (medicine)

Complication, in medicine, is an unfavorable evolution or consequence of a disease, a health condition or a therapy.

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Complications of hypertension

Main complications of persistent high blood pressure Complications of hypertension are clinical outcomes that result from persistent elevation of blood pressure.

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Complications of pregnancy

Complications of pregnancy are health problems that are caused by pregnancy.

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Component causes

A component cause of a disease is an event required for the disease to develop.

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Computer accessibility

In human–computer interaction, computer accessibility (also known as accessible computing) refers to the accessibility of a computer system to all people, regardless of disability type or severity of impairment.

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Condition or conditions may refer to.

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Conditioned taste aversion

Conditioned taste aversion occurs when an animal associates the taste of a certain food with symptoms caused by a toxic, spoiled, or poisonous substance.

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Confessions and Lamentations

"Confessions and Lamentations" is an episode from the second season of the science fiction television series Babylon 5.

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Congenital adrenal hyperplasia

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) are any of several autosomal recessive diseases resulting from mutations of genes for enzymes mediating the biochemical steps of production of mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids or sex steroids from cholesterol by the adrenal glands (steroidogenesis).

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Conjugate gaze palsy

Conjugate gaze palsies are neurological disorders affecting the ability to move both eyes in the same direction.

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Conscience-in-Media Award

The Conscience-in-Media Award is presented by the American Society of Journalists and Authors (ASJA) to journalists that the society deems worthy of recognition for their distinctive contributions.

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Conservation-reliant species

Conservation-reliant species are animal or plant species that require continuing species-specific wildlife management intervention such as predator control, habitat management and parasite control to survive, even when a self-sustainable recovery in population is achieved.

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Constitution of Cyprus

The Constitution of Cyprus is a document, ratified on August 16, 1960, that serves as the framework for the Cypriot government.

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Construct (philosophy)

A construct in the philosophy of science is an ideal object, where the existence of the thing may be said to depend upon a subject's mind.

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Consulate-General of Denmark in Saint Petersburg

The Consulate-General of Denmark in Saint Petersburg is the diplomatic mission of Denmark in Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation.

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Contact a Family

Contact (registered as Contact a Family) is a UK-based registered charity for families with disabled children offering support, advice and information regardless of the child's medical condition or situation.

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Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia

Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) is a cause of major economic losses to goat producers in Africa, Asia and the Middle East.

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Contagious disease

A contagious disease is a subset category of transmissible diseases, which are transmitted to other persons, either by physical contact with the person suffering the disease, or by casual contact with their secretions or objects touched by them or airborne route among other routes.

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Contraction band necrosis

Contraction band necrosis is a type of uncontrolled cell death (necrosis) unique to cardiac myocytes and thought to arise in reperfusion from hypercontraction, which results in sarcolemmal rupture.

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Contrast-enhanced ultrasound

Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) is the application of ultrasound contrast medium to traditional medical sonography.

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Controlled burn

A controlled or prescribed burn, also known as hazard reduction burning, backfire, swailing, or a burn-off, is a wildfire set intentionally for purposes of forest management, farming, prairie restoration or greenhouse gas abatement.

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Controversy surrounding psychiatry

As long as psychiatry has existed it has been subject to controversy.

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Convalescence is the gradual recovery of health and strength after illness or injury.

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Convict ship

A convict ship was any ship engaged on a voyage to carry convicted felons under sentence of penal transportation from their place of conviction to their place of exile.

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Conway, New Hampshire

Conway is a town in Carroll County, New Hampshire, United States.

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Copper in health

Copper is an essential trace element that is vital to the health of all living things (humans, plants, animals, and microorganisms).

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Coquillettidia perturbans

Coquillettidia perturbans is a species of mosquito that have been documented in Africa, Asia, Australia, Europe, North America, and South America.

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Corchorus olitorius

Jute mallow or nalta jute (Corchorus olitorius, also known as "Jew's mallow", "tossa jute", "bush okra", "krinkrin", "molokhia", and "West African sorrel", among many other local names, often invoking the most important traits) is a species of shrub in the family Malvaceae.

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Corn crake

The corn crake, corncrake or landrail (Crex crex) is a bird in the rail family.

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Cornus nuttallii

Cornus nuttallii, the Pacific dogwood or mountain dogwood, is a species of dogwood native to western North America from the lowlands of southern British Columbia to the mountains of southern California, with an inland population in central Idaho.

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Correlates of immunity/correlates of protection

Correlates of immunity/protection to a virus or other infectious pathogen are measurable signs that a person (or other potential host) is immune, in the sense of being protected against becoming infected and/or developing disease.

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Corticosteroids are a class of steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal cortex of vertebrates, as well as the synthetic analogues of these hormones.

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The Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations 2002, as amended is a United Kingdom Statutory Instrument that states general requirements on employers to protect employees and other persons from the hazards of substances used at work by risk assessment, control of exposure, health surveillance and incident planning.

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Cosmetics are substances or products used to enhance or alter the appearance of the face or fragrance and texture of the body.

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Cost-Effectiveness Analysis Registry

The Cost-Effectiveness Analysis Registry was developed by the Center for the Evaluation of Value and Risk in Health at the Institute for Clinical Research and Health Policy Studies, Tufts Medical Center, Boston, MA.

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Cotton fever

Cotton fever is a condition that is often associated with intravenous drug use, specifically with the use of cotton to filter drugs like heroin.

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Count Orlok

Count Orlok (Graf Orlok) is the main antagonist and title character portrayed by German actor Max Schreck (1879–1936) in the classic 1922 silent film Nosferatu, eine Symphonie des Grauens.

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Course (medicine)

In medicine the term course generally takes one of two meanings, both reflecting the sense of "path that something or someone moves along...process or sequence or steps".

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Craniofacial prosthesis

Craniofacial prostheses are prostheses made by individuals trained in anaplastology or maxillofacial prosthodontics who medically help rehabilitate those with facial defects caused by disease (mostly progressed forms of skin cancer, and head and neck cancer), trauma (outer ear trauma, eye trauma) or birth defects (microtia, anophthalmia).

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Craniosynostosis (from cranio, cranium; + syn, together; + ostosis relating to bone) is a condition in which one or more of the fibrous sutures in an infant (very young) skull prematurely fuses by turning into bone (ossification), thereby changing the growth pattern of the skull.

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Crazy Sexy Cancer

Crazy Sexy Cancer is a documentary film created by actress/photographer Kris Carr.

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Creative Visualization (New Age)

Creative Visualization is a term used by New Age, popular psychology, and self-help authors and teachers in two contexts.

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Credé's maneuver

Credé's maneuver is a technique used to void urine from the bladder of an individual who, due to disease, cannot do so without aid.

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Critical Path Institute

Critical Path Institute (C-Path) is an independent, non-profit organization committed to transformational improvement of the drug development process.

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The Cronartiaceae are a family of rust fungi in the order Uredinales.

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Cronartium is a genus of rust fungi in the family Cronartiaceae.

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Crop Trust

The Crop Trust, officially known as the Global Crop Diversity Trust, is an international nonprofit organization which works to preserve crop diversity in order to protect global food security.

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Crude drug

Crude drugs are vegetable or animal drugs that contain natural substances that have undergone only the processes of collection and drying.

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Cryptosporidiosis, also known as crypto, is a parasitic disease caused by Cryptosporidium, a genus of protozoan parasites in the phylum Apicomplexa.

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Culex pipiens

Culex pipiens (the common house mosquito or northern house mosquito) is a species of blood-feeding mosquito of the family Culicidae.

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The Culicinae are the most extensive subfamily of mosquitoes (Culicidae) and have species in every continent except Antarctica, but are highly concentrated in tropical areas.

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Culture of the Marquesas Islands

The Marquesas Islands were colonized by seafaring Polynesians as early as 300 AD, thought to originate from Samoa.

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Culture-bound syndrome

In medicine and medical anthropology, a culture-bound syndrome, culture-specific syndrome, or folk illness is a combination of psychiatric and somatic symptoms that are considered to be a recognizable disease only within a specific society or culture.

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Curative care

Curative care or curative medicine is the health care given for medical conditions where a cure is considered achievable, or even possibly so, and directed to this end.

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A cure is a substance or procedure that ends a medical condition, such as a medication, a surgical operation, a change in lifestyle or even a philosophical mindset that helps end a person's sufferings; or the state of being healed, or cured.

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Curing (food preservation)

Curing is any of various food preservation and flavoring processes of foods such as meat, fish and vegetables, by the addition of combinations of salt, nitrates, nitrites,.

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Cushing's disease

Cushing's disease is a cause of Cushing's syndrome characterised by increased secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from the anterior pituitary (secondary hypercortisolism).

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Cutaneous condition

A cutaneous condition is any medical condition that affects the integumentary system—the organ system that encloses the body and includes skin, hair, nails, and related muscle and glands.

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Cyborg data mining

Cyborg data mining is the practice of collecting data produced by an implantable device that monitors bodily processes for commercial interests.

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Cyclospora cayetanensis

Cyclospora cayetanensis is a protozoan that causes disease in humans, and perhaps primates.

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Cysteine protease

Cysteine proteases, also known as thiol proteases, are enzymes that degrade proteins.

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Cystinuria is an inherited autosomal recessive disease that is characterized by high concentrations of the amino acid cysteine in the urine, leading to the formation of cystine stones in the kidneys, ureter, and bladder.

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Cytomegalovirus vaccine

A Cytomegalovirus vaccine is a vaccine to prevent cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection or to prevent it re-activation in those who are already infected.

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Da Costa's syndrome

Da Costa's syndrome, which was colloquially known as soldier's heart, is a syndrome with a set of symptoms that are similar to those of heart disease, though a physical examination does not reveal any physiological abnormalities.

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DAM (chemotherapy)

DAM in the context of chemotherapy is an acronym that means a chemotherapy regimen most often used as an induction regimen in acute myelogenous leukemia, usually for those who are refractory to the standard "7+3" induction regimen or who has relapsed.

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Dance therapy

Dance/movement therapy (DMT) in USA/ Australia or dance movement psychotherapy (DMP) in the UK is the psychotherapeutic use of movement and dance to support intellectual, emotional, and motor functions of the body.

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Dandy–Walker syndrome

Dandy–Walker syndrome (DWS) is a rare group of congenital human brain malformations.

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Daniel Bernoulli

Daniel Bernoulli FRS (8 February 1700 – 17 March 1782) was a Swiss mathematician and physicist and was one of the many prominent mathematicians in the Bernoulli family.

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Darier's sign

Darier's sign is a change observed after stroking lesions on the skin of a person with systemic mastocytosis or urticaria pigmentosa.

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DAT (chemotherapy)

DAT in the context of chemotherapy is an acronym that means a chemotherapy regimen most often used as an induction regimen in acute myelogenous leukemia, usually for those who are refractory to the standard "7+3" induction regimen or who has relapsed.

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Davi Kopenawa Yanomami

Davi Kopenawa Yanomami, name also written Davi Kobenawä Yanomamö (born Toototobi, Brazil, c. 1956), is a Yanomami shaman and Portuguese-speaking spokesperson for the Yanomami Indians in Brazil.

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David Caldicott

David Caldicott is an Irish emergency medicine consultant at the Emergency Department of the Calvary Hospital in Canberra, Australian Capital Territory.

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David Duncan Main

Dr David Duncan Main (1856-1934) was a British doctor, best known for his medical missionary work in Hangzhou, the capital of the south-eastern Chinese Province Zhejiang, during the late 1800s and early 1900s.

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David Gorski

David Henry Gorski is an American surgical oncologist, professor of surgery at Wayne State University School of Medicine, and a surgical oncologist at the Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute, specializing in breast cancer surgery.

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David Reich (geneticist)

David Emil Reich (born 14 July 1974) is a geneticist known for his research into the population genetics of ancient humans, including their migrations and the mixing of populations, discovered by analysis of genome-wide patterns of mutations.

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Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, commonly known as DDT, is a colorless, tasteless, and almost odorless crystalline chemical compound, an organochlorine, originally developed as an insecticide, and ultimately becoming infamous for its environmental impacts.

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De Gradibus

De Gradibus was an Arabic book published by the Arab physician Al-Kindi (c. 801–873 CE).

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De Loys' Ape

De Loys' Ape, given the proposed scientific names Ameranthropoides loysi and Ateles loysi, is an alleged large primate reported by Swiss geological explorer François de Loys in South America.

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De Medicina

De Medicina is a 1st-century medical treatise by Aulus Cornelius Celsus, a Roman encyclopedist and possibly (but not likely) a practicing physician.

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De rerum natura

De rerum natura (On the Nature of Things) is a first-century BC didactic poem by the Roman poet and philosopher Lucretius (c. 99 BC – c. 55 BC) with the goal of explaining Epicurean philosophy to a Roman audience.

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Dead Sea

The Dead Sea (יָם הַמֶּלַח lit. Sea of Salt; البحر الميت The first article al- is unnecessary and usually not used.) is a salt lake bordered by Jordan to the east and Israel and Palestine to the west.

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Deadliest single days of World War I

The First World War was fought on many fronts around the world from the battlefields of Europe to the far-flung colonies in the Pacific and Africa.

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Deaf culture

Deaf culture is the set of social beliefs, behaviors, art, literary traditions, history, values, and shared institutions of communities that are influenced by deafness and which use sign languages as the main means of communication.

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Dear Brother

is a Japanese manga series by Riyoko Ikeda.

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Death is the cessation of all biological functions that sustain a living organism.

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Death anxiety (psychology)

Death anxiety is anxiety caused by thoughts of death.

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Death Domain database

The Death Domain database is a secondary database of protein-protein interactions (PPI) of the death domain superfamily.

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Death in children's literature

Death in children’s literature has changed over the course of history as both the average lifespan has increased and society’s morals and beliefs and conceptions of children have changed.

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Death of Desire

Death of Desire is a metal band formed in Bruchsal, Germany in 2008, featuring Mayhem drummer Hellhammer and vocalist Dawn Desirée.

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Death Risk Rankings

Death Risk Rankings was a website that approximated the likelihood of a European or American person dying within a twelve-month span.

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Death's Messengers

"Death's Messengers" (German: "Die Boten des Todes") is a German fairy tale collected by the Brothers Grimm, tale number 177.

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Decline in amphibian populations

The decline in amphibian populations is an ongoing mass extinction of amphibian species worldwide.

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Deep fried Oreo

A Deep Fried Oreo is a dessert or snack consisting of an Oreo which is dipped in batter and deep-fried.

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Defaunation is the loss of animals from ecological communities.

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Deficit irrigation

Deficit irrigation (DI) is a watering strategy that can be applied by different types of irrigation application methods.

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Degenerative disease

Degenerative disease is the result of a continuous process based on degenerative cell changes, affecting tissues or organs, which will increasingly deteriorate over time, whether due to normal bodily wear or lifestyle choices such as exercise or eating habits.

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Delayed density dependence

In population ecology delayed density dependence describes a situation where population growth is controlled by negative feedback operating with a time lag.

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Delusional disorder

Delusional disorder is a generally rare mental illness in which the patient presents delusions, but with no accompanying prominent hallucinations, thought disorder, mood disorder, or significant flattening of affect.

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Demineralized bone matrix

Demineralized bone matrix (DBM) is allograft bone that has had the inorganic mineral removed, leaving behind the organic "collagen" matrix.

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Demographic economics

Demographic economics or population economics is the application of economic analysis to demography, the study of human populations, including size, growth, density, distribution, and vital statistics.

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Demographics of British Bangladeshis

British Bangladeshis are people who have immigrated from Bangladesh to the United Kingdom.

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Demyelinating disease

A demyelinating disease is any disease of the nervous system in which the myelin sheath of neurons is damaged.

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Denis Periša

Denis Periša (born July 23, 1983) is a political activist, whistle blower and computer hacker from Šibenik, Croatia.

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Denis Wirtz

Denis Wirtz is the Vice Provost for Research and Theophilus Halley Smoot Professor of Engineering Science at Johns Hopkins University.

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Dennis Hood

Dennis Garry Edward Hood (born 12 January 1970) is an Australian politician.

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Denominator data

In epidemiology, data or facts about a population is called denominator data.

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Dental hygienist

A dental hygienist or oral hygienist is a licensed dental professional, registered with a dental association or regulatory body within their country of practice.

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Dental instruments

Dental instruments are tools that dental professionals use to provide dental treatment.

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Dental laser

A dental laser is a type of laser designed specifically for use in oral surgery or dentistry.

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Dentistry is a branch of medicine that consists of the study, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases, disorders, and conditions of the oral cavity, commonly in the dentition but also the oral mucosa, and of adjacent and related structures and tissues, particularly in the maxillofacial (jaw and facial) area.

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Department of Zoology, University of Oxford

The Department of Zoology at the University of Oxford, England, is a large university zoology department.

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Dependency need

Dependency need is "the vital, originally infantile needs for mothering, love, affection, shelter, protection, security, food, and warmth." (Segen, 1992) A dependency need is thought to be characterized by two components: (1) It is a real need of an organism, something that must be present in order for the organism to be able to thrive, (2) It is something that an individual cannot provide for him or herself.

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Derrick Lonsdale

Derrick Lonsdale (born 1924) Fellow of the American College of Nutrition (FACN), Fellow of the American College for Advancement in Medicine (FACAM) is a pediatrician and researcher into the benefits of certain nutrients in preventing disease and psychotic behavior.

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Designer baby

A designer baby is a human embryo which has been genetically modified, usually following guidelines set by the parent or scientist, to produce desirable traits.

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Desire discrepancy

Sexual desire discrepancy (SDD) is the difference between one's desired frequency of sexual intercourse and the actual frequency of sexual intercourse within a relationship.

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Developing country

A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.

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Developmental disability

Developmental disability is a diverse group of chronic conditions that are due to mental or physical impairments that arise before adulthood.

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Dewi Sri

Dewi Sri, or Shridevi (Dewi literally means goddess) (Javanese: ꦢꦺꦮꦶꦱꦿꦶ), Nyai Pohaci Sanghyang Asri (Sundanese) is the Javanese, Sundanese, and Balinese pre-Hindu and pre-Islam era goddess of rice and fertility, still widely worshipped on the islands of Bali and Java.

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DHAP (chemotherapy)

DHAP in context of chemotherapy is an acronym for chemotherapy regimen that is used for remission induction in cases of relapsed or refractory non-Hodgkin lymphoma and Hodgkin's lymphoma.

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Diabetes insipidus

Diabetes insipidus (DI) is a condition characterized by large amounts of dilute urine and increased thirst.

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Diabetes mellitus and deafness

Diabetes mellitus and deafness (DAD) or maternally inherited diabetes and deafness (MIDD) or Mitochondrial Diabetes is a subtype of diabetes which is caused from a point mutation at position 3243 in human mitochondrial DNA, which consists of a circular genome.

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Diabetic neuropathy

Diabetic neuropathies are nerve damaging disorders associated with diabetes mellitus.

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Diagnosis code

In health care, diagnosis codes are used as a tool to group and identify diseases, disorders, symptoms, poisonings, adverse effects of drugs & chemicals, injuries and other reasons for patient encounters.

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DiagnosisPro is a medical expert system.

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In medicine, dialysis (from Greek διάλυσις, diàlysis, "dissolution"; from διά, dià, "through", and λύσις, lỳsis, "loosening or splitting") is the process of removing excess water, solutes and toxins from the blood in those whose native kidneys have lost the ability to perform these functions in a natural way.

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Diane Gifford-Gonzalez

Diane Gifford-Gonzalez is an American archaeologist who specializes in the field of zooarchaeology.

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Diethylcarbamazine (DEC) is a medication used in the treatment of filariasis including lymphatic filariasis, tropical pulmonary eosinophilia, and loiasis.

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Diethylstilbestrol (DES), also known as stilbestrol or stilboestrol, is an estrogen medication which is mostly no longer used.

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A dietitian (or dietician) is an expert in dietetics; that is, human nutrition and the regulation of diet.

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Differential diagnosis

In medicine, a differential diagnosis is the distinguishing of a particular disease or condition from others that present similar clinical features.

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Differential staining

Differential Staining is a staining process which uses more than one chemical stain.

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Digenea (Gr. Dis – double, Genos – race) is a class of trematodes in the Platyhelminthes phylum, consisting of parasitic flatworms (known as flukes) with a syncytial tegument and, usually, two suckers, one ventral and one oral.

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Digital therapeutics

Digital therapeutics, a subset of digital health, is a health discipline and treatment option that utilizes a digital and often online health technologies to treat a medical or psychological condition.

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Dilbert (character)

Dilbert is a fictional character and the main character and protagonist of the Dilbert comic strip.

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Dimensional models of personality disorders

In personality pathology, dimensional models of personality disorders (also known as the dimensional approach to personality disorders, dimensional classification, and dimensional assessments) conceptualize personality disorders as quantitatively rather than qualitatively different from normal personality.

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Diplomatic illness

Diplomatic illness is the practice amongst diplomats and government ministers of feigning illness, or another debilitating condition, to avoid engaging in diplomatic or social engagements.

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Diprotodon, meaning "two forward teeth", is the largest known marsupial to have ever lived.

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Dipsalut is the Independent Public Health Body of Girona Provincial Council and a local public administration.

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Dirk Bumann

Dirk Bumann is a German infection biologist and professor at the Biozentrum of the University of Basel, Switzerland.

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Dirty Money Project

The Dirty Money Project is a scientific research project of New York University, a comprehensive study of the DNA on banknotes which aims to understand the role of banknotes in spreading diseases among humans, especially on those who live in an urban region.

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Disability benefits

Disability benefits are funds provided from public or private sources to a person who is ill or who has a disability.

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Disability management program

A disability management program, or DMP, is used by employers to assist employees who are unable to work due to injury or illness.

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Disability-adjusted life year

The disability-adjusted life year (DALY) is a measure of overall disease burden, expressed as the number of years lost due to ill-health, disability or early death.

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Disc protrusion

A disc protrusion is a disease condition which can occur in some vertebrates, including humans, in which the outermost layers of the anulus fibrosus of the intervertebral discs of the spine are intact, but bulge when one or more of the discs are under pressure.

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Discourse to the Greeks concerning Hades

Discourse to the Greeks concerning Hades is a short treatise believed to be the work of Hippolytus of Rome.

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Discovery and development of beta-blockers

β adrenergic receptor antagonists (also called beta-blockers or β-blockers) were initially developed in the 1960s, for the treatment of angina pectoris but are now also used for hypertension, congestive heart failure and certain arrhythmias.

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Discovery and development of direct thrombin inhibitors

Direct thrombin inhibitors (DTIs) are a class of anticoagulant drugs that can be used to prevent and treat embolisms and blood clots caused by various diseases.

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Discovery and development of triptans

Triptans is a word commonly used for a class of anti-migraine drugs that are selective 5-hydroxytryptamine/serotonin1B/1D (5-HT1B/1D) agonists.

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Disease (disambiguation)

A disease is an abnormal condition that affects the body of an organism.

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Disease burden

Disease burden is the impact of a health problem as measured by financial cost, mortality, morbidity, or other indicators.

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Disease diffusion mapping

Disease diffusion occurs when a disease is transmitted to a new location.

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Disease informatics

Disease Informatics is the application of Information science in defining the diseases with least error, identifying most of the targets to combat a cluster of diseases (Disease Causal Chain), and designing a holistic solution (Health strategy) to the problem.

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Disease management (health)

Disease management is defined as "a system of coordinated healthcare interventions and communications for populations with conditions in which patient self-care efforts are significant."Congressional Budget Office.

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Disease model of addiction

The disease model of addiction describes an addiction as a disease with biological, neurological, genetic, and environmental sources of origin.

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Disease Models & Mechanisms

Disease Models & Mechanisms is a monthly peer-reviewed open access medical journal focusing on the use of model organisms to provide insight into the mechanisms, diagnosis, and treatment of human disease.

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Disease Ontology

The Disease Ontology (DO) is a formal ontology of human disease.

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Disease surveillance

Disease surveillance is an epidemiological practice by which the spread of disease is monitored in order to establish patterns of progression.

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Disease theory of alcoholism

The modern disease theory of alcoholism states that problem drinking is sometimes caused by a disease of the brain, characterized by altered brain structure and function.

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Disease X

Disease X is the code name for an unknown pathogen which may cause disease and potentially an epidemic in future.

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Diseases of affluence

Diseases of affluence is a term sometimes given to selected diseases and other health conditions which are commonly thought to be a result of increasing wealth in a society.

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Diseases of poverty

Diseases of poverty is a term sometimes used to collectively describe diseases, disabilities, and health conditions that are more prevalent among the poor than among wealthier people.

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Disgust is an emotional response of revulsion to something considered offensive, distasteful, or unpleasant.

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Dishonored 2

Dishonored 2 is an action-adventure stealth video game developed by Arkane Studios and published by Bethesda Softworks.

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Disorder may refer to.

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Disorders of consciousness

Disorders of consciousness are medical conditions that inhibit consciousness.

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Dispositional affect

Dispositional affect, similar to mood, is a personality trait or overall tendency to respond to situations in stable, predictable ways.

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Disseminated disease

Disseminated disease refers to a diffuse disease-process, generally either infectious or neoplastic.

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Divers diseases

Divers diseases can mean.

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DNA microarray

A DNA microarray (also commonly known as DNA chip or biochip) is a collection of microscopic DNA spots attached to a solid surface.

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DnaJ homolog subfamily A member 3, mitochondrial, also known as Tumorous imaginal disc 1 (TID1), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DNAJA3 gene on chromosome 16.

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Doctor's visit

A doctor's visit, also known as "physician office visit" or "ward round", is a meeting between a patient with a physician to get health advice or treatment for a symptom or condition.

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DOHaD China

DOHaD China, a membership of the International Society for Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (an International Society for DOHaD), a non-profit organization, was set up in 2008 and made up of various scientists and clinicians (17 main council members), whose main research concentration is the developmental origins of health and disease.

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Dolichostenomelia is a human condition or habitus in which the limbs are unusually long.

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Domesticated hedgehog

The most common species of domesticated hedgehog is the white-bellied or four-toed hedgehog or called African pygmy hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris).

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Dominions II: The Ascension Wars

Dominions II: The Ascension Wars is a 4X turn-based, computer strategy game.

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Donnie Brooks

Donnie Brooks (February 6, 1936 – February 23, 2007), born John Dee Abohosh, was an American pop music singer.

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Dopaminergic means "related to dopamine" (literally, "working on dopamine"), dopamine being a common neurotransmitter.

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Doppler ultrasonography

Doppler ultrasonography is medical ultrasonography that employs the Doppler effect to generate imaging of the movement of tissues and body fluids (usually blood), and their relative velocity to the probe.

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Dorit Rubinstein Reiss

Dorit Rubinstein Reiss is a Professor of Law at UC Hastings College of Law.

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Dosage form

Dosage forms (also called unit doses) are pharmaceutical drug products in the form in which they are marketed for use, with a specific mixture of active ingredients and inactive components (excipients), in a particular configuration (such as a capsule shell, for example), and apportioned into a particular dose.

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Double-dead meat

Double-dead meat is the Filipino appellation for meat taken from an animal that has died of disease.

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Dr. Livesey (character)


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Drinabant (INN; AVE-1625) is a drug that acts as a selective CB1 receptor antagonist, which was under investigation varyingly by Sanofi-Aventis as a treatment for obesity, schizophrenia, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and nicotine dependence.

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Dropsy (fish disease)

Dropsy is a disease in fish caused by the buildup of fluid inside the body cavity or tissues.

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Droxidopa (INN; trade name Northera; also known as L-DOPS, L-threo-dihydroxyphenylserine, L-threo-DOPS and SM-5688) is a synthetic amino acid precursor which acts as a prodrug to the neurotransmitter norepinephrine (noradrenaline).

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A drug is any substance (other than food that provides nutritional support) that, when inhaled, injected, smoked, consumed, absorbed via a patch on the skin, or dissolved under the tongue causes a temporary physiological (and often psychological) change in the body.

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Drug education

Drug education is the planned provision of information, resources, and skills relevant to living in a world where psychoactive substances are widely available and commonly used for a variety of both medical and non-medical purposes, some of which may lead to harms such as overdose, injury, infectious disease (such as HIV or hepatitis C), or addiction.

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Drug interaction

A drug interaction is a situation in which a substance (usually another drug) affects the activity of a drug when both are administered together.

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Drug repositioning

Drug repositioning (also known as drug repurposing, re-profiling, re-tasking or therapeutic switching) is the application of known drugs and compounds to treat a different disease.

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Drug resistance

Drug resistance is the reduction in effectiveness of a medication such as an antimicrobial or an antineoplastic in curing a disease or condition.

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Dryness (medical)

Dryness is a medical condition in which there is local or more generalized decrease in normal lubrication of the skin or mucous membranes.

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Dual diagnosis

Dual diagnosis (also called co-occurring disorders, COD, or dual pathology) is the condition of suffering from a mental illness and a comorbid substance abuse problem.

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Dual systems model

The dual systems model, also known as the maturational imbalance model, is a theory arising from developmental cognitive neuroscience which posits that increased risk-taking during adolescence is a result of a combination of heightened reward sensitivity and immature impulse control.

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Dust storm

A dust storm is a meteorological phenomenon common in arid and semi-arid regions.

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Duwamish people

The Duwamish (Dxʷdəwʔabš) are a Lushootseed-speaking Native American tribe in western Washington, and the indigenous people of metropolitan Seattle, where they have been living since the end of the last glacial period (c. 8000 BCE, 10,000 years ago).

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Dyscrasia (or dyskrasia) is a concept from ancient Greek medicine, meaning bad mixture.

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Dysfunctional uterine bleeding

Dysfunctional uterine bleeding (DUB) is abnormal genital tract bleeding based in the uterus and found in the absence of demonstrable structural or organic disease.

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Dyskinesia refers to a category of movement disorders that are characterized by involuntary muscle movements, including movements similar to tics or chorea and diminished voluntary movements.

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Dystrophy is the degeneration of tissue, due to disease or malnutrition, most likely due to heredity.

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In Mixtec mythology, Dzahui or Dzavui was the god of rain.

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Early childhood caries

Early Childhood Caries (ECC), formerly known as nursing bottle caries, baby bottle tooth decay, night bottle mouth and night bottle caries, is a disease that affects teeth in children aged between birth and 71 months.

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Early goal-directed therapy

Early goal-directed therapy was introduced by Emanuel P. Rivers in The New England Journal of Medicine in 2001 and is a technique used in critical care medicine involving intensive monitoring and aggressive management of perioperative hemodynamics in patients with a high risk of morbidity and mortality.

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Early in the Morning (Larry Santos song)

"Early In The Morning" is the lost might-have-been second single, written and performed by soft-and-smooth-voiced pop singer Larry Santos that his record company, Casablanca Records, forgot to release on 7" vinyl, taken from both his 1975 album, Larry Santos and the 1976 follow-up, You Are Everything I Need.

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Early intervention in psychosis

Early intervention in psychosis is a clinical approach to those experiencing symptoms of psychosis for the first time.

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An earthquake (also known as a quake, tremor or temblor) is the shaking of the surface of the Earth, resulting from the sudden release of energy in the Earth's lithosphere that creates seismic waves.

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East Karelian concentration camps

East Karelian concentration camps were special internment camps in the areas of the Soviet Union occupied by the Finnish military administration during the Continuation War.

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East Tennessee Children's Hospital

East Tennessee Children's Hospital is a private, independent, not-for-profit, 152-bed pediatric medical center in Knoxville, Tennessee.

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Eastern Front (World War II)

The Eastern Front of World War II was a theatre of conflict between the European Axis powers and co-belligerent Finland against the Soviet Union, Poland and other Allies, which encompassed Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Northeast Europe (Baltics), and Southeast Europe (Balkans) from 22 June 1941 to 9 May 1945.

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Eating (also known as consuming) is the ingestion of food, typically to provide a heterotrophic organism with energy and to allow for growth.

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Eccentric training

An eccentric contraction is the motion of an active muscle while it is lengthening under load.

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Ecgfrith of Mercia

Ecgfrith was king of Mercia from 29 July to December 796.

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Echinococcus multilocularis

Echinococcus multilocularis is a small cyclophyllid tapeworm found extensively in the northern hemisphere.

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Echinostoma hortense

Echinostoma hortense is an intestinal fluke of the class Trematoda, which has been found to infect humans in East Asian countries such as Korea, China, and Japan.

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Ecological health

Ecological health is a term that has been used in relation to both human health and the condition of the environment.

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Ecological Imperialism: The Biological Expansion of Europe, 900–1900

Ecological Imperialism: The Biological Expansion of Europe, 900-1900 is a 1986 book written by Austin, Texas Professor Emeritus of History, Geography, and American Studies Alfred Crosby, in which he explains the relative ease with which Europeans conquered the Neo-Europes was due to biology rather than military conquest.

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Ecology of Banksia

The ecology of Banksia refers to all the relationships and interactions among the plant genus Banksia and its environment.

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Economic development

economic development wikipedia Economic development is the process by which a nation improves the economic, political, and social well-being of its people.

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Economic importance of bacteria

Bacteria are economically important as these microorganisms are used by humans for many purposes and are harmful in causing disease and spoiling food.

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Ecosystem services

Ecosystem services are the many and varied benefits that humans freely gain from the natural environment and from properly-functioning ecosystems.

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Ectropion is a medical condition in which the lower eyelid turns outwards.

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Edd Gould

Edward Duncan Ernest Gould (28 October 1988 – 25 March 2012) was a British animator and artist.

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Edible mushroom

Edible mushrooms are the fleshy and edible fruit bodies of several species of macrofungi (fungi which bear fruiting structures that are large enough to be seen with the naked eye).

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Eduard Heinrich Henoch

Eduard Heinrich Henoch (June 16, 1820, Berlin – August 26, 1910) was a German physician.

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Edward Constant Séguin

Edward Constant Séguin, M.D. (January 20, 1843 in Paris - February 19, 1898 in New York) was an American neurologist and a founder of the American Neurological Association in 1875.

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Effects of global warming on human health

The effects of global warming include its effects on human health.

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Egg taphonomy

Egg taphonomy is the study of the decomposition and fossilization of eggs.

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Eggshell skull

The eggshell rule (or thin skull rule) is a well-established legal doctrine in common law, used in some tort law systems, with a similar doctrine applicable to criminal law.

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Egyptian medical papyri

Egyptian medical papyri are ancient Egyptian texts written on papyrus which permit a glimpse at medical procedures and practices in ancient Egypt.

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Ehrlich's reagent

Ehrlich's reagent or Ehrlich reagent is a reagent that contains ''p''-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde (DMAB) and thus can act as an indicator to presumptively identify indoles and urobilinogen.

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Eikev, Ekev, Ekeb, Aikev, or Eqeb (— Hebrew for "if," the second word, and the first distinctive word, in the parashah) is the 46th weekly Torah portion (parashah) in the annual Jewish cycle of Torah reading and the third in the Book of Deuteronomy.

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Elastography is a medical imaging modality that maps the elastic properties and stiffness of soft tissue.

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Elastosis perforans serpiginosa

Elastosis perforans serpiginosa is a unique perforating disorder characterized by transepidermal elimination of elastic fibers and distinctive clinical lesions, which are serpiginous in distribution and can be associated with specific diseases.

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Eleanor Josephine Macdonald

Eleanor Josephine Macdonald (4 March 1906 – 26 July 2007) was a pioneer American cancer epidemiologist and cancer researcher influenced and mentored by Edwin Bidwell Wilson and Shields Warren.

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Electrodiagnostic medicine

Electrodiagnosis (EDX) is a method of medical diagnosis that obtains information about diseases by passively recording the electrical activity of body parts (that is, their natural electrophysiology) or by measuring their response to external electrical stimuli (evoked potentials).

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Eli Todd


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Ellis Island

Ellis Island, in Upper New York Bay, was the gateway for over 12 million immigrants to the U.S. as the United States' busiest immigrant inspection station for over 60 years from 1892 until 1954.

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Ellis–van Creveld syndrome

Ellis–van Creveld syndrome (also called chondroectodermal dysplasia or mesoectodermal dysplasia but see 'Nomenclature' section below) is a rare genetic disorder of the skeletal dysplasia type.

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Emanuel Vigeland

Emanuel Vigeland (2 December 1875 – 22 December 1948) was a multitalented Norwegian artist.

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An embolism is the lodging of an embolus, a blockage-causing piece of material, inside a blood vessel.

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EMDEX (Essential Medicines InDEX) is the most commonly used reference source of drug and therapeutic information by healthcare professionals in Nigeria.

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Emerald Hill, Singapore

Emerald Hill is a neighbourhood and a conservation area located in the planning areas of Newton and Orchard in Singapore.

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Emeran Mayer

Emeran Anton Mayer (born July 26, 1950 in Traunstein, Germany) is a gastroenterologist, lecturer, author, editor, neuroscientist, documentary filmmaker and a professor in the Departments of Medicine, Physiology and Psychiatry at the David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA He is a pioneer of medical research into brain gut interactions.

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Emergency (Philippine TV series)

Emergency was an informative news and public affairs television show in the Philippines hosted by Arnold Clavio, and aired every Friday evenings on GMA Network.

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Emergency medical dispatcher

An emergency medical dispatcher is a professional telecommunicator, tasked with the gathering of information related to medical emergencies, the provision of assistance and instructions by voice, prior to the arrival of emergency medical services (EMS), and the dispatching and support of EMS resources responding to an emergency call.

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Emergency medical services

Emergency medical services, also known as ambulance services or paramedic services (abbreviated to the initialism EMS, EMAS, EMARS or SAMU in some countries), are a type of emergency service dedicated to providing out-of-hospital acute medical care, transport to definitive care, and other medical transport to patients with illnesses and injuries which prevent the patient from transporting themselves.

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Emergency Medical Services for Children

The Emergency Medical Services for Children (EMSC) program is a US federal government health initiative.

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Emergency Medical Services for Children Reauthorization Act of 2014

The Emergency Medical Services for Children Reauthorization Act of 2014 is a bill that would amend the Public Health Service Act to reauthorize the Emergency Medical Services for Children Program through FY2019.

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Emergency medicine

Emergency medicine, also known as accident and emergency medicine, is the medical specialty concerned with caring for undifferentiated, unscheduled patients with illnesses or injuries requiring immediate medical attention.

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Emergency tourniquet

--> Emergency tourniquets are cuff-like devices designed to stop severe traumatic bleeding before or during transport to a care facility.

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Emergent virus

An emergent virus is a virus that has adapted and emerged as a new disease/pathogenic strain, with attributes facilitating pathogenicity in a field not normally associated with that virus.

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Emetophobia is a phobia that causes overwhelming, intense anxiety pertaining to vomiting.

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Emil Kraepelin

Emil Kraepelin (15 February 1856 – 7 October 1926) was a German psychiatrist.

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Emmeline Pankhurst

Emmeline Pankhurst (née Goulden; 15 July 1858 – 14 June 1928) was a British political activist and leader of the British suffragette movement who helped women win the right to vote.

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Emotions in the workplace

Emotions in the workplace play a large role in how an entire organization communicates within itself and to the outside world.

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Empiric school

The Empiric school of medicine (Empirics, Empiricists, or Empirici, Ἐμπειρικοί) was an ancient school of medicine in ancient Greece and Rome.

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Employment discrimination

Employment discrimination is a form of discrimination based on race, gender, religion, national origin, physical or mental disability, age, sexual orientation, and gender identity by employers.

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Employment discrimination law in the United States

Employment discrimination law in the United States derives from the common law, and is codified in numerous state and federal laws, particularly the Civil Rights Act 1964, as well as in the ordinances of counties and municipalities.

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Encephalopathy (from ἐγκέφαλος "brain" + πάθος "suffering") means any disorder or disease of the brain, especially chronic degenerative conditions.

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End of Watch Call

The Last Radio Call is a funerary tradition used by some U.S Police forces and Fire Fighters in the United States of America.

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End Water Poverty

End Water Poverty is an international campaign calling for sanitation and potable water for all.

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Endangered language

An endangered language, or moribund language, is a language that is at risk of falling out of use as its speakers die out or shift to speaking another language.

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Endocrine pathology

Endocrine pathology is the subspecialty of surgical pathology which deals with the diagnosis and characterization of neoplastic and non-neoplastic diseases of organs of the endocrine system, including the thyroid, parathyroids, exocrine pancreas, and adrenal glands.

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Endonuclease G, mitochondrial is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ENDOG gene.

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Endogenous infection

In medicine, an endogenous infection is a disease arising from an infectious agent already present in the body but previously asymptomatic.

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Endometrosis is a chronic degenerative syndrome of the lining of the uterus (the endometrium) in mares.

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Endoscopic vessel harvesting

Endoscopic vessel harvesting (EVH) is a surgical technique that may be used in conjunction with coronary artery bypass surgery (commonly called a "bypass").

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An endotype is a subtype of a condition, which is defined by a distinct functional or pathobiological mechanism.

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An enema is the injection of fluid into the lower bowel by way of the rectum.

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An enemy or a foe is an individual or a group that is verified as forcefully adverse or threatening.

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English Poor Laws

The English Poor Laws were a system of poor relief which existed in England and Wales that developed out of late-medieval and Tudor-era laws being codified in 1587–98.

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Enhancer RNA

Enhancer RNAs (eRNAs) represent a class of relatively short non-coding RNA molecules (50-2000 nucleotides) transcribed from the DNA sequence of enhancer regions.

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Ennis House

The Ennis House is a residential dwelling in the Los Feliz neighborhood of Los Angeles, California, United States, south of Griffith Park.

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Entropion is a medical condition in which the eyelid (usually the lower lid) folds inward.

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Environmental disease

In epidemiology, environmental diseases are diseases that can be directly attributed to environmental factors (as distinct from genetic factors or infection).

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Environmental effects of cocoa production

The environmental effects of cocoa production.

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Environmental impact of Gulf wars

Note: Various sources name these wars differently.

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Environmental issues in Iran

Environmental issues in Iran include, especially in urban areas, vehicle emissions, refinery operations, and industrial effluents which contribute to poor air quality.

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Environmental issues in Kazakhstan

Kazakhstan has serious environmental issues such as radiation from nuclear testing sites, the shrinking of the Aral sea, and desertification of former agricultural land.

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Environmental issues in Peru

The principal environmental issues in Peru are water pollution, soil erosion, pollution and deforestation.

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Eosinophilia is a condition in which the eosinophil count in the peripheral blood exceeds.

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Eosinophilic pneumonia

Eosinophilic pneumonia (EP) is a disease in which an eosinophil, a type of white blood cell, accumulates in the lung.

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Eperisone (formulated as the eperisone hydrochloride salt) is an antispasmodic drug.

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Epicrates maurus

Epicrates maurus is a species of non-venomous constrictor, in the family Boinae, found in Amazon region of South America.

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An epidemic (from Greek ἐπί epi "upon or above" and δῆμος demos "people") is the rapid spread of infectious disease to a large number of people in a given population within a short period of time, usually two weeks or less.

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Epidemiology is the study and analysis of the distribution (who, when, and where) and determinants of health and disease conditions in defined populations.

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Epidemiology of cancer

The epidemiology of cancer is the study of the factors affecting cancer, as a way to infer possible trends and causes.

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Epidemiology of depression

The epidemiology of depression has been studied across the world.

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Epigenetic clock

An epigenetic clock is a type of a molecular age estimation method based on DNA methylation levels.

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Epigenetic therapy

Epigenetic therapy is the use of drugs or other epigenome-influencing techniques to treat medical conditions.

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Epigenetics in insects

Epigenetic mechanisms are regulatory mechanisms, which change expression levels of genes.

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Epineurial repair

Epineurial repair is a common surgical procedure to repair a nerve laceration via the epineurium, the connective tissue surrounding nerve fibers originating from the spinal cord.

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Episcleritis is a benign, self-limiting inflammatory disease affecting part of the eye called the episclera.

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In epizoology, an epizootic (from Greek: epi- upon + zoon animal) is a disease event in a nonhuman animal population, analogous to an epidemic in humans.

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Epizootiology, epizoology, or veterinary epidemiology is the study of disease patterns within animal populations.

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Equine dentistry

Equine dentistry is the practice of dentistry in horses, involving the study, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases, disorders and conditions of the oral cavity, maxillofacial area and the adjacent and associated structures.

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Eran Elhaik

Eran Elhaik (born 1980 in Israel) is an Israeli-American geneticist and bioinformatician.

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Ergasilidae is a widespread family of copepods and comprises many species.

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Erythropoiesis (from Greek 'erythro' meaning "red" and 'poiesis' meaning "to make") is the process which produces red blood cells (erythrocytes).

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Eschatology (religious movement)

Eschatology is a Christian movement founded by American writer and practitioner William W. Walter after Walter left Mary Baker Eddy's Christian Science church in 1912.

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Escherichia coli O157:H7

Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a serotype of the bacterial species Escherichia coli and is one of the Shiga toxin–producing types of E. coli.

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ESHAP is an acronym for relatively intensive chemotherapy regimen that is used for salvage therapy in relapsed or refractory lymphomas and Hodgkin's lymphoma.

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Estrogen and neurodegenerative diseases

Neurodegenerative diseases can disrupt the normal human homeostasis and result in abnormal estrogen levels.

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Estrogen insensitivity syndrome

Estrogen insensitivity syndrome (EIS), or estrogen resistance, is a form of congenital estrogen deficiency or hypoestrogenism which is caused by a defective estrogen receptor (ER) – specifically, the estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) – that results in an inability of estrogen to mediate its biological effects in the body.

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Estrogen-dependent condition

An estrogen-dependent condition, disease, disorder, or syndrome, is a medical condition that is, in part or full, dependent on, or is sensitive to, the presence of estrogenic activity in the body.

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Estrous cycle

The estrous cycle or oestrus cycle (derived from Latin oestrus 'frenzy', originally from Greek οἶστρος oîstros 'gadfly') is the recurring physiological changes that are induced by reproductive hormones in most mammalian therian females.

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Eternals (comics)

The Eternals are a fictional race of humanity appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics.

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Ethyl methanesulfonate

No description.

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Etiquette is a code of behavior that delineates expectations for social behavior according to contemporary conventional norms within a society, social class, or group.

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Eucomed is an organisation advocating for the interests of the medical device industry in Europe.

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European early modern humans

European early modern humans (EEMH) in the context of the Upper Paleolithic in Europe refers to the early presence of anatomically modern humans in Europe.

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European Society of Endocrinology

The European Society of Endocrinology (ESE) is a scientific society to promote for the public benefit research, education and clinical practice in endocrinology by the organisation of conferences, training courses and publications, by raising public awareness, liaison with national and international legislators.

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European Voluntary Service

European Voluntary Service (EVS) is the European Commission's project that allows a young person (17–30 years) to become a volunteer in another country for a specified period, normally between 2–12 months.

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Evas sommarplåster

Evas sommarplåster ("Eva's Summer Plaster") is a 2004 Swedish children's television series, broadcast by Sveriges Television and hosted by Eva Funck who tells children how to handle summer-diseases etc.

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Everest ER

The Everest ER is a seasonal tent-based medical clinic at the Everest base camp (17,600 ft/5350m) founded in 2003 by Dr.

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Everychild Foundation

The Everychild Foundation is a private philanthropic foundation based in Pacific Palisades, California.

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Evolutionary medicine

Evolutionary medicine or Darwinian medicine is the application of modern evolutionary theory to understanding health and disease.

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Excess risk

In statistics, excess risk is a measure of the relationship between a specified risk factor and a specified outcome (such as contracting a disease).

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Exchange transfusion

An exchange transfusion is a blood transfusion in which the patient's blood or components of it are exchanged with (replaced by) other blood or blood products.

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Exencephaly, is a type of cephalic disorder wherein the brain is located outside of the skull.

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Exercise addiction

Exercise addiction is a state characterized by a compulsive engagement in any form of physical exercise, despite negative consequences.

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Exercise intolerance

Exercise intolerance is a condition of inability or decreased ability to perform physical exercise at what would be considered to be the normally expected level or duration.

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Exile (Hurts album)

Exile is the second studio album by English synth-pop duo Hurts.

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An exoenzyme, or extracellular enzyme, is an enzyme that is secreted by a cell and functions outside of that cell.

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Exorcism in Christianity

Exorcism in Christianity is the practice of casting out demons from a person they are believed to have possessed.

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Exotic ungulate encephalopathy

Exotic ungulate encephalopathy is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE), or prion disease, identified in infected organs of zoo animals.

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Experimental pathology

Experimental pathology, also known as investigative pathology is the scientific study of disease processes through the microscopic or molecular examination of organs, tissues, cells, or body fluids from diseased organisms.

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Explanatory style

Explanatory style is a psychological attribute that indicates how people explain to themselves why they experience a particular event, either positive or negative.

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Extermination through labour

Extermination through labour is a term sometimes used to describe the operation of concentration camp, death camp and forced labour systems in Nazi Germany, the Soviet Union, North Korea, and elsewhere, defined as the willful or accepted killing of forced labourers or prisoners through excessively heavy labour, malnutrition and inadequate care.

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External risk

External risks are generally something that is uncontrollable by the first party.

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Eye color

Eye color is a polygenic phenotypic character determined by two distinct factors: the pigmentation of the eye's iris and the frequency-dependence of the scattering of light by the turbid medium in the stroma of the iris.

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Facial eczema

Facial eczema, FE, is a disease that mainly affects ruminants such as cattle, sheep, deer, goats and South American camelids (alpaca, llamas).

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Facies (medical)

In medical contexts, a facies is a distinctive facial expression or appearance associated with specific medical conditions.

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Factitious disorder

A factitious disorder is a condition in which a person, without a malingering motive, acts as if they have an illness by deliberately producing, feigning, or exaggerating symptoms, purely to attain (for themselves or for another) a patient's role.

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Factitious disorder imposed on another

Factitious disorder imposed on another (FDIA or FDIoA), also known as Munchausen syndrome by proxy (MSbP), is a condition where a caregiver or spouse fabricates, exaggerates, or induces mental or physical health problems in those who are in their care, with the primary motive of gaining attention or sympathy from others.

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Factitious disorder imposed on self

Factitious disorder imposed on self, also known as Munchausen syndrome, is a factitious disorder wherein those affected feign disease, illness, or psychological trauma to draw attention, sympathy, or reassurance to themselves.

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Factor V Leiden

Factor V Leiden (rs6025) is a variant (mutated form) of human factor V (one of several substances that helps blood clot), which causes an increase in blood clotting (hypercoagulability).

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Factories Act 1961

The Factories Act 1961 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.

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Falls in older adults

Falls in older adults are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality and are an important class of preventable injuries.

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False codling moth

Thaumatotibia (Cryptophlebia) leucotreta, commonly known as the false codling moth, orange moth, citrus codling moth or orange codling moth, is a moth in the Tortricidae family under the order of Lepidoptera.

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Familial aortic dissection

Familial aortic dissection or FAD refers to the splitting of the wall of the aorta in either the arch, ascending or descending portions.

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Familial isolated vitamin E deficiency

Familial Isolated Vitamin E Deficiency also known as Ataxia With Vitamin E Deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disease.

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Family medicine

Family medicine (FM), formerly family practice (FP), is a medical specialty devoted to comprehensive health care for people of all ages; the specialist is named a family physician or family doctor.

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Fanconi syndrome

Fanconi syndrome or Fanconi's syndrome is a syndrome of inadequate reabsorption in the proximal renal tubules of the kidney.

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Fantastic Voyage: Live Long Enough to Live Forever

Fantastic Voyage: Live Long Enough to Live Forever (Rodale Books), published in 2004, is a book authored by Ray Kurzweil and Terry Grossman.

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Fantasy flight

Fantasy flights are charity flights operated by a host airline for locally disadvantaged and terminally ill children to fly to a fictitious destination.

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FAO Country Profiles

The FAO Country Profiles is a multilingual web portal which repackages the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) vast archive of information on its global activities in agriculture and food security in a single area and catalogues it exclusively by country and thematic areas.

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Farmington, New Hampshire

Farmington is a town located in Strafford County, New Hampshire, United States.

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Fatigue is a subjective feeling of tiredness that has a gradual onset.

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Fatty liver

Fatty liver is a reversible condition wherein large vacuoles of triglyceride fat accumulate in liver cells via the process of steatosis (i.e., abnormal retention of lipids within a cell).

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Fatty liver hemorrhagic syndrome

Fatty liver hemorrhagic syndrome (also referred to as fatty liver syndrome), a disease in chickens and other birds, affects only hens (females).

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Fatu Hiva (book)

Fatu-Hiva - Back to Nature is a book published in 1974 by archaeologist and explorer Thor Heyerdahl detailing his experiences and reflections during a one-and-a-half-year stay on the Marquesan island of Fatu Hiva in 1937-38.

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Favid (of "favus" Latin for "honeycomb" or tinea favosa) is a disease usually affecting the scalp, but occurring occasionally on any part of the skin, and even at times on mucous membranes.

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Fecal incontinence

Fecal incontinence (FI), also known as anal incontinence, or in some forms encopresis, is a lack of control over defecation, leading to involuntary loss of bowel contents—including flatus (gas), liquid stool elements and mucus, or solid feces.

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Federal War

The Federal War (Guerra Federal) — also known as the Great War or the Five Year War — was a civil war (1859–1863) in Venezuela between the Conservative party and the Liberal party over the monopoly the Conservatives held over government positions and land ownership, and their intransigence to granting any reforms.

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Federation of European Pharmacological Societies

The Federation of European Pharmacological Societies (EPHAR)"" is a non-profit voluntary association established to advance research and education in the science of pharmacology and to promote co-operation between national/regional pharmacological societies in Europe and surrounding countries.

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Federation of Indian Animal Protection Organisations

Federation of Indian Animal Protection Organisations (FIAPO) is a collective of animal protection organisations in India to help, represent, connect up, and inform, animal protection organisations and activists across India.

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Federation of State Medical Boards

The Federation of State Medical Boards (FSMB) of the United States is a national non-profit organization that represents the 70 state medical and osteopathic boards of the United States and its territories and co-sponsors the United States Medical Licensing Examination.

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Fedotozine (INN; JO 1196 for the (-) tartrate salt) is an opioid drug of the arylacetamide series which acts as a peripherally-specific, selective κ1-opioid receptor agonist with preference for the κ1A subtype.

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A fee is the price one pays as remuneration for rights or services.

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Feline asthma

Feline asthma is a common allergic respiratory disease in cats, affecting at least one percent of all adult cats worldwide.

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Felipa Hernandez Barragan

Felipa Hernandez Barragan (1914–2011) is a Mexican potter known for the making of a set of figures used in the curing of ailments caused by “bad air.”.

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Fermentation theory

The fermentation theory was studied in depth and brought to light first by Louis Pasteur.

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Ferritin is a universal intracellular protein that stores iron and releases it in a controlled fashion.

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Fever, also known as pyrexia and febrile response, is defined as having a temperature above the normal range due to an increase in the body's temperature set-point.

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Fezolinetant (former developmental code name ESN-364) is a small-molecule, orally active, selective neurokinin-3 (NK3) receptor antagonist which is under development by Ogeda (formerly Euroscreen) for the treatment of sex hormone-related disorders.

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Primary fibrinogenolysis is a medical condition that appears with abnormal production of fibrinogen/fibrin degradation products (FDP), degradation of coagulation factors V, VIII, IX, XI and/or degradation of the fibrin present in any pre-existing localized thrombi and hemostatic clots.

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Fibrosing colonopathy

Fibrosing colonopathy is a disease that arises in patients with cystic fibrosis treated with enteric coated pancreatic enzyme supplements.

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Fields' disease

Fields' disease is considered to be one of the rarest known diseases in the world, with only two diagnosed cases in history.

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Filipino-American health

The Filipino American identity comprises principles from both the Philippines and the United States.

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Filippo Giustini

Filippo Giustini (May 8, 1852 – March 18, 1920) was an Italian Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church.

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The family Filoviridae is the taxonomic home of several related viruses (filoviruses or filovirids) that form filamentous infectious viral particles (virions), and encode their genome in the form of single-stranded negative-sense RNA.

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Fin rot

Fin rot is a symptom of disease or the actual disease in fish.

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Finger agnosia

Finger agnosia, first defined in 1924 by Josef Gerstmann, is the loss in the ability "to distinguish, name, or recognize the fingers", not only the patient's own fingers, but also the fingers of others, and drawings and other representations of fingers.

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Finger Lakes Environmental Film Festival

Finger Lakes Environmental Film Festival (FLEFF) is an annual multi-arts, interdisciplinary, cross media festival in Ithaca, New York, dedicated to showcasing global media projects focusing on issues pertaining to sustainability.

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Fire department rehab

Fire department rehab is a vital firefighting service on the fireground, providing firefighters and other emergency personnel with immediate medical attention including rehydration, treatment for smoke inhalation, and the prevention of such life-threatening conditions as heatstroke and heart attack.

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First aid

First aid is the assistance given to any person suffering a sudden illness or injury, with care provided to preserve life, prevent the condition from worsening, or to promote recovery.

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First contact (anthropology)

In anthropology, first contact is the first meeting of two cultures previously unaware of one another.

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First wave of European colonization

The first European colonization wave took place from the early 15th century (Portuguese conquest of Ceuta in 1415) until the early 19th-century (French invasion of Algeria in 1830), and primarily involved the European colonization of the Americas, though it also included the establishment of European colonies in India and in Maritime Southeast Asia.

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Fish disease and parasites

Like humans and other animals, fish suffer from diseases and parasites.

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Five Star Urgent Care

Five Star Urgent Care is a conglomerate of walk-in urgent care clinics that serve as alternatives to emergency rooms across Upstate New York.

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FLAG (chemotherapy)

FLAG is an acronym for a chemotherapy regimen used for relapsed and refractory acute myeloid leukemia (AML).

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Flare (disambiguation)

A flare is a device that produces brilliant light and intense heat without explosion, used for lighting, signaling, decoration or as aerial defense countermeasure Flare may also refer to.

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Fleas are small flightless insects that form the order Siphonaptera.

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Fleming–Tamao oxidation

The Fleming–Tamao oxidation, or Tamao–Kumada–Fleming oxidation, converts a carbon–silicon bond to a carbon–oxygen bond with a peroxy acid or hydrogen peroxide.

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Flocculus (cerebellar)

The flocculus (Latin: tuft of wool, diminutive) is a small lobe of the cerebellum at the posterior border of the middle cerebellar peduncle anterior to the biventer lobule.

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Florida wine

Florida wine refers to wine made from grapes and other fruit grown in the U.S. state of Florida.

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Flowers of sulfur

Flowers of sulfur (older British spelling flowers of sulphur) is a very fine, bright yellow sulfur powder that is produced by sublimation and deposition.

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Fluid balance

Fluid balance is an aspect of the homeostasis of organisms in which the amount of water in the organism needs to be controlled, via osmoregulation and behavior, such that the concentrations of electrolytes (salts in solution) in the various body fluids are kept within healthy ranges.

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Fluperlapine (NB 106-689), also known as fluoroperlapine, is a morphanthridine (11H-dibenzoazepine) atypical antipsychotic with additional antidepressant and sedative effects.

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FMRFamide in Biomphalaria glabrata

Biomphalaria glabrata is a species of a freshwater snail, an aquatic gastropod mollusk in the family Planorbidae, the rams horn snails.

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Focal proliferative nephritis

Focal proliferative nephritis is a type of glomerulonephritis seen in 20% to 35% of cases of lupus nephritis, classified as type III.

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Foix–Alajouanine syndrome

Foix–Alajouanine syndrome is a disorder caused by an arteriovenous malformation of the spinal cord.

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Foldit is an online puzzle video game about protein folding.

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Foodborne illness

Foodborne illness (also foodborne disease and colloquially referred to as food poisoning) is any illness resulting from the food spoilage of contaminated food, pathogenic bacteria, viruses, or parasites that contaminate food, as well as toxins such as poisonous mushrooms and various species of beans that have not been boiled for at least 10 minutes.

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Foot-and-mouth disease

Foot-and-mouth disease or hoof-and-mouth disease (Aphthae epizooticae) is an infectious and sometimes fatal viral disease that affects cloven-hoofed animals, including domestic and wild bovids.

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Forest genetic resources

Forest genetic resources or tree genetic resources are genetic material of shrub and tree species of actual or future value.

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Forest pathology

Forest pathology is the research of both biotic and abiotic maladies affecting the health of a forest ecosystem, primarily fungal pathogens and their insect vectors.

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Forestry is the science and craft of creating, managing, using, conserving, and repairing forests, woodlands, and associated resources to meet desired goals, needs, and values for human and environment benefits.

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Forever and Ever (1977 film)

Forever and Ever or Impetuous Fire (Original title: Jin sheng jin shi), is a 1977 Hong Kong romantic drama film, directed by John Law (Mar Lo).

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Fort Armstrong, Illinois

Fort Armstrong (1816–1836), was one of a chain of western frontier defenses which the United States erected after the War of 1812.

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Four Big Pollution Diseases of Japan

The were a group of man-made diseases all caused by environmental pollution due to improper handling of industrial wastes by Japanese corporations.

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Four Holy Marshals

The Four Holy Marshals (Vier Marschälle Gottes or just Vier Marschälle) are four saints venerated in the Rhineland, especially at Cologne, Liège, Aachen, and Eifel.

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Four sights

The four sights are four things described in the legendary account of Gautama Buddha's life which led to his realization of the impermanence and ultimate dissatisfaction of conditioned existence.

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Frailty index

The frailty index (FI) is used to measure the health status of older individuals - as a proxy measure of aging and vulnerability to poor outcomes.

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François E. Matthes

François Émile Matthes (&ndash) was a geologist and an expert in topographic mapping, glaciers, and climate change.

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Francis Crick Institute

The Francis Crick Institute (formerly the UK Centre for Medical Research and Innovation) is a biomedical research centre in London, which opened in 2016.

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Francis Sejersted

Francis Sejersted (8 February 1936 – 25 August 2015) was a Norwegian history professor and the chairman of the Norwegian Nobel Committee (which awards the Nobel Peace Prize) from 1991 until 1995.

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Franciscan Center of Baltimore

The Franciscan Center of Baltimore, founded by the Franciscan Sisters of Baltimore in 1968, is an emergency outreach agency located in the Baltimore neighborhood of Lower Charles Village, at 101 W. 23rd Street.

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Franklinia is a monotypic genus in the tea plant family, Theaceae.

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Frataxin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FXN gene.

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Freak show

A freak show is an exhibition of biological rarities, referred to in popular culture as "freaks of nature".

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Freak Show (album)

Freak Show is the second studio album by Australian alternative rock band Silverchair.

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Free-living Amoebozoa infection

Free-living amoebae (or "FLA") in the Amoebozoa group are important causes of disease in humans and animals.

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Freshwater environmental quality parameters

Freshwater environmental quality parameters are the natural and man-made chemical, biological and microbiological characteristics of rivers, lakes and ground-waters, the ways they are measured and the ways that they change.

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Friedrich Wilhelm Quirin von Forcade de Biaix

Friedrich Wilhelm Quirin von Forcade de Biaix,Lange, Page 91 Lehmann, Band 1, Page 34, Nr.

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Friends Without a Border

(Friends) is a nonprofit, nongovernmental organization that funds medical treatment and healthcare programs serving disadvantaged children and their families in Southeast Asia.

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Fritz Haarmann

Friedrich Heinrich Karl "Fritz" Haarmann (25 October 1879 – 15 April 1925) was a German serial killer, known as the Butcher of Hanover, the Vampire of Hanover and the Wolf-Man, who committed the sexual assault, murder, mutilation and dismemberment of a minimum of 24 boys and young men between 1918 and 1924 in Hanover, Germany.

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Fritz Lenz

Fritz A Lenz (9 March 1887 in Pflugrade, Pomerania – 6 July 1976 in Göttingen, Lower Saxony) was a German geneticist, member of the Nazi Party,, Jonathan M. Marks.

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Functional disorder

A functional disorder is a medical condition that impairs normal functioning of bodily processes that remains largely undetected under examination, dissection or even under a microscope.

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A is a type of yōkai or Japanese monster.

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Future Evolution

Future Evolution is a book written by paleontologist Peter Ward and illustrated by Alexis Rockman.

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Gabe Lewis

Gabriel Susan "Gabe" Lewis (born in 1982) is a fictional character on the U.S. comedy television series The Office portrayed by Zach Woods.

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Gabriel Miró

Gabriel Miró Ferrer (Alicante, 28 July 1879 - Madrid, 24 May 1930), known as Gabriel Miró, was a Spanish modernist writer.

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Gaizkin was the ancient Basque deity responsible for disease and plague.

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Galactosemia (British galactosaemia, from Greek γαλακτόζη + αίμα, meaning galactose + blood, accumulation of galactose in blood) is a rare genetic metabolic disorder that affects an individual's ability to metabolize the sugar galactose properly.

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Galvez, Louisiana

Galvez is an unincorporated community in Ascension Parish, Louisiana, United States, ten miles (16 km) southeast of Baton Rouge.

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Gambian epauletted fruit bat

The Gambian epauletted fruit bat (Epomophorus gambianus) is a species of megabat in the family Pteropodidae.

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Garden roses

Garden roses are predominantly hybrid roses that are grown as ornamental plants in private or public gardens.

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Gardenia taitensis

Gardenia taitensis, also called Tahitian gardenia or Tiaré flower, is a species of plant in the Rubiaceae family.

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Gastroenterology (MeSH heading) is the branch of medicine focused on the digestive system and its disorders.

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A gastroenterostomy is the surgical creation of a connection between the stomach and the jejunum.

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Gastrointestinal pathology

Gastrointestinal pathology is the subspecialty of surgical pathology which deals with the diagnosis and characterization of neoplastic and non-neoplastic diseases of the digestive tract and accessory organs, such as the pancreas and liver.

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GemOx or GEMOX is an acronym for one of the chemotherapy regimens used in the treatment of relapsed or primary refractory non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and Hodgkin's lymphoma.

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Gender disparities in health

WHO has defined health as "a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity." Identified by the 2012 World Development Report as one of two key human capital endowments, health can influence an individual’s ability to reach his or her full potential in society.

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Gender-bias in medical diagnosis

Gender-biased diagnosing is a controversial sociological observation which asserts that medical and psychological diagnosis may be influenced by the gender of the patient.

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Gene Disease Database

In Bioinformatics, a Gene Disease Database is a systematized collection of data, typically structured to model aspects of reality, in a way to comprehend the underlying mechanisms of complex diseases, by understanding multiple composite interactions between phenotype-genotype relationships and gene-disease mechanisms.

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Gene expression

Gene expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product.

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Gene mapping

Gene mapping describes the methods used to identify the locus of a gene and the distances between genes.

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Gene product

A gene product is the biochemical material, either RNA or protein, resulting from expression of a gene.

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Gene–environment interaction

Gene–environment interaction (or genotype–environment interaction or G×E) is when two different genotypes respond to environmental variation in different ways.

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GeneCards is a database of human genes that provides genomic, proteomic, transcriptomic, genetic and functional information on all known and predicted human genes.

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General anaesthesia

General anaesthesia or general anesthesia (see spelling differences) is a medically induced coma with loss of protective reflexes, resulting from the administration of one or more general anaesthetic agents.

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General medical services

General Medical Services (GMS) is the term used to describe the range of healthcare that is provided by General Practitioners (GPs or family doctors) as part of the National Health Service in the United Kingdom.

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General Practice Extraction Service

The General Practice Extraction Service (GPES or GP Extraction Service) is a British health service outcomes research computer database that collates statistical aggregated data (demographic cohorts) from individual medical records of GPs in England, for purposes independent of an individual's immediate health, such as public health research.

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General practitioner

In the medical profession, a general practitioner (GP) is a medical doctor who treats acute and chronic illnesses and provides preventive care and health education to patients.

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Genetic diversity

Genetic diversity is the total number of genetic characteristics in the genetic makeup of a species.

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Genetic predisposition

A genetic predisposition is a genetic characteristic which influences the possible phenotypic development of an individual organism within a species or population under the influence of environmental conditions.

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Genetic testing

Genetic testing, also known as DNA testing, allows the determination of bloodlines and the genetic diagnosis of vulnerabilities to inherited diseases.

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Genetically modified tree

A genetically modified tree (GMt, GM tree, genetically engineered tree, GE tree or transgenic tree) is a tree whose DNA has been modified using genetic engineering techniques.

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Genitourinary system

The genitourinary system or urogenital system is the organ system of the reproductive organs and the urinary system.

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Genomic convergence

Genomic convergence is a multifactor approach used in genetic research that combines different kinds of genetic data analysis to identify and prioritize susceptibility genes for a complex disease.

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Genset Corporation

Genset, a biotechnology company, was established in 1989 in Paris, France with Pascal Brandys as its first president.

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Genu varum

Genu varum (also called bow-leggedness, bandiness, bandy-leg, and tibia vara), is a varus deformity marked by (outward) bowing at the knee, which means that the lower leg is angled inward (medially) in relation to the thigh's axis, giving the limb overall the appearance of an archer's bow.

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Georg Theodor August Gaffky

Georg Theodor August Gaffky (17 February 1850 – 23 September 1918) was a Hanover born bacteriologist best known for identifying bacillus salmonella typhi as the cause of typhoid disease in 1884.

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George Bodington

George Bodington (1799–1882) was a British general practitioner and pulmonary specialist.

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George Samuel Hurst

George Samuel Hurst (13 October 1927 – 4 July 2010) was a health physicist, scientist, inventor, educator and innovator.

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George W. Carey

George Washington Carey (1845–1924) was an American physician known for a number of 1910s ‘chemistry of life’ publications, a subject which he referred to as biochemistry, particularly his 1919 The Chemistry of Human Life, all generally using a mixture of religion, astrology, physiology, anatomy, and chemistry, themed particularly with a mineral-based theory of human disease.

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Georges Menahem

Georges Menahem is a French sociologist and economist whose work employs methods drawn from economics, sociology and statistics.

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Georges-Fernand Widal

Georges-Fernand-Isidor Widal; (born on March 9, 1862 in Dellys, Algeria and died in Paris on January 14, 1929) was a French physician.

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GeoVax is a biotechnology company established primarily to develop an effective and safe vaccine against HIV-1.

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Gerard Evan

Gerard Ian Evan FRS, FMedSci (born 17 August 1955) is a British biologist and Sir William Dunn Professor of Biochemistry at the University of Cambridge.

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Gerhard Armauer Hansen

Gerhard Henrik Armauer Hansen (29 July 1841 – 12 February 1912) was a Norwegian physician, remembered for his identification of the bacterium Mycobacterium leprae in 1873 as the causative agent of leprosy.

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Geriatric anesthesia

Geriatric anesthesia (or geriatric anaesthesia) is the branch of medicine that studies anesthesia approach in elderly.

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Geriatric rheumatology

Geriatric rheumatology is the branch of medicine that studies rheumatologic disorders in elderly (joints, muscles & other structures around the joints).

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Geriatrics, or geriatric medicine, is a specialty that focuses on health care of elderly people.

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Germ theory of disease

The germ theory of disease is the currently accepted scientific theory of disease.

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German Statutory Accident Insurance

German Statutory Accident Insurance is among the oldest branches of German social insurance.

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Gerontechnology is an interdisciplinary academic and professional field combining gerontology and technology.

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Gerontological nursing

Gerontological nursing is the specialty of nursing pertaining to older adults.

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Gerstmann–Sträussler–Scheinker syndrome

Gerstmann–Sträussler–Scheinker syndrome (GSS) is a very rare, usually familial, fatal neurodegenerative disease that affects patients from 20 to 60 years in age.

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Gestational age

Gestational age is a measure of the age of a pregnancy which is taken from the woman's last menstrual period (LMP), or the corresponding age of the gestation as estimated by a more accurate method if available.

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Ghen War

is a first-person shooter video game for the Sega Saturn console.

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Giant tortoise

Giant tortoises are characteristic reptiles that are currently found on two groups of tropical islands: the Aldabra Atoll and Fregate Island in Seychelles and the Galapagos Islands in Ecuador (a population at the Mascarene Islands was exterminated by the 1900s).

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Gilbert Wheeler Beebe

Gilbert Wheeler Beebe (3 April 1912 – 3 March 2003), also known as Gil Beebe, was an American epidemiologist and statistician known for monumental studies of radiation-related mortality and morbidity among populations exposed to ionizing radiation from the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945 and the Chernobyl reactor accident in 1986.

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Gilles Garnier

Gilles Garnier (died 18 January 1573) was a French hermit and cannibalistic, serial murderer convicted of being a werewolf.

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Gingival enlargement

Gingival enlargement, (also termed gingival overgrowth, hypertrophic gingivitis, gingival hyperplasia, or gingival hypertrophy, and sometimes abbreviated to GO), is an increase in the size of the gingiva (gums).

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Gap junction alpha-1 protein (GJA1), also known as connexin 43 (Cx43), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GJA1 gene on chromosome 6.

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A gland is a group of cells in an animal's body that synthesizes substances (such as hormones) for release into the bloodstream (endocrine gland) or into cavities inside the body or its outer surface (exocrine gland).

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Global Education Magazine

Global Education Magazine is a quarterly peer-reviewed journal formed in 2012 by a group of cognitive analysts.

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Global health

Global health is the health of populations in the global context; it has been defined as "the area of study, research and practice that places a priority on improving health and achieving equity in health for all people worldwide".

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Global Infectious Disease Epidemiology Network

Global Infectious Diseases and Epidemiology Online Network (GIDEON) is a web-based program for decision support and informatics in the fields of Infectious Diseases and Geographic Medicine.

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Global issue

Informally, a global issue is issue that any social, economic, political or environmental problem that adversely affects the global community and our environment, possibly in a catastrophic way.

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Global Press Institute

The Global Press Institute, formerly the Press Institute for Women in the Developing World, is a San Francisco-based 501(c)(3) nonprofit with international operations in 27 countries.

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Globalization or globalisation is the process of interaction and integration between people, companies, and governments worldwide.

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Gloria Yip

Gloria Yip Wan-Yee (born January 13, 1973 in Hong Kong, the elder of two sisters and daughter of prominent businessman Yip Shao) is a Hong Kong actress and singer, best known for her four films with director Lam Ngai Kai, and to Western audiences, her "special appearance" in Lam's Riki-Oh: The Story of Ricky and principal supporting role in the cult classic Saviour of the Soul.

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Glossary of diabetes

The following is a glossary of diabetes which explains terms connected with diabetes.

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Glossary of medicine

This glossary of medical terms is a list of definitions about medicine, its sub-disciplines, and related fields.

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Glossary of philosophy

A glossary of terms used in philosophy.

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Glossary of spirituality terms

This is a glossary of spirituality-related terms.

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Glossary of the Greek military junta

The ideology of the military junta that ruled Greece from 1967 to 1974 was followed by the creation and/or use of special terms that were employed by the junta as propaganda tools and to transmit its message to the Greek people as well as influence their way of thinking and attack the anti-junta movement.

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Glutamate formimidoyltransferase

Glutamate formimidoyltransferase is a methyltransferase enzyme which uses tetrahydrofolate as part of histidine catabolism.

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Gluten-free diet

A gluten-free diet (GFD) is a diet that strictly excludes gluten, a mixture of proteins found in wheat and related grains, including barley, rye, oat, and all their species and hybrids (such as spelt, kamut, and triticale).

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Goa stone

A Goa stone is a man-made bezoar that is considered to have medicinal and talismanic properties.

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Gold salts

Gold salts are ionic chemical compounds of gold.

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Goosebumps Series 2000

Goosebumps Series 2000 is a spin-off of the original Goosebumps series by R. L. Stine.

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Gorham's disease

Gorham's disease (pronounced GOR-amz), also known as Gorham vanishing bone disease and phantom bone disease, is a very rare skeletal condition of unknown cause, characterized by the uncontrolled proliferation of distended, thin-walled vascular or lymphatic channels within bone, which leads to resorption and replacement of bone with angiomas and/or fibrosis.

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Gossypiboma, textiloma or more broadly Retained Foreign Object (RFO) is the technical term for a surgical complications resulting from foreign materials, such as a surgical sponge, accidentally left inside a patient's body.

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Gould's mouse

Gould's mouse (Pseudomys gouldii) lived in eastern inland Australia, and was named after John Gould.

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Grand Ages: Rome

Grand Ages: Rome (previously known as Imperium Romanum 2) is a 2009 city-building and real-time strategy game developed by Haemimont Games and published by Kalypso Media.

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Granuloma inguinale

Granuloma inguinale (also known as donovanosis) is a bacterial disease caused by Klebsiella granulomatis (formerly known as Calymmatobacterium granulomatis) characterized by genital ulcers.

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Grapevine yellows

Grapevine yellows (GY) are diseases associated to phytoplasmas that occur in many grape growing areas worldwide and are of still increasing significance.

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Graphic medicine

Graphic medicine connotes use of comics in medical education and patient care.

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Great Book of Interpretation of Dreams

The Great Book of Interpretation of Dreams (Tafsir al-Ahlam al-kabir) attributed to the 7th century scholar Ibn Sirin which was originally compiled in the 15th century by al-Dārī under the title Selection of Statements on the Exegesis of Dreams.

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Green nails

Green nails may be (1) due to a Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection causing a green nail syndrome or (2) the result of copper in tap water.

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A greenhouse (also called a glasshouse) is a structure with walls and roof made mainly of transparent material, such as glass, in which plants requiring regulated climatic conditions are grown.

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Gregório de Matos

Gregório de Matos e Guerra (Salvador - December 23, 1636 – Recife - November 26, 1696) was a famous Colonial Brazilian Baroque poet.

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Grim & Evil

Grim & Evil is an American animated television series created by Maxwell Atoms for Cartoon Network, and the 11th of the network's Cartoon Cartoons.

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Gross pathology

Gross pathology refers to macroscopic manifestations of disease in organs, tissues, and body cavities.

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Grow Your Own Drugs

Grow Your Own Drugs is a British television documentary series, first broadcast on BBC Two, exploring the many remedies which can be provided by plants.

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Growing Up...

Growing Up... is a series that airs on Animal Planet, a cable and satellite television network co-owned by Discovery Communications, Inc. and BBC Worldwide.

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Growth differentiation factor

Growth differentiation factors (GDFs) are a subfamily of proteins belonging to the transforming growth factor beta superfamily that have functions predominantly in development.

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Guichard Joseph Duverney

Guichard Joseph Duverney or Joseph-Guichard Du Verney (5 August 1648 – 10 September 1730) was a French anatomist.

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Guided imagery

Guided imagery (also known as Guided Affective Imagery, or KIP, Katathym-imaginative Psychotherapy) is a mind-body intervention by which a trained practitioner or teacher helps a participant or patient to evoke and generate mental images that simulate or re-create the sensory perception of sights, sounds, tastes, smells, movements, and images associated with touch, such as texture, temperature, and pressure, as well as imaginative or mental content that the participant or patient experiences as defying conventional sensory categories, and that may precipitate strong emotions or feelings in the absence of the stimuli to which correlating sensory receptors are receptive.

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Guido Fanconi

Guido Fanconi (1 January 1892 – 10 October 1979) was a Swiss pediatrician.

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Guinea (region)

Guinea is a traditional name for the region of the African coast of West Africa which lies along the Gulf of Guinea.

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Gut (band)

Gut is a German grindcore band, often credited as fathers of pornogrind, and known for their over-the-top vocals and morbid, pornographic imagery.

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Gut flora

Gut flora, or gut microbiota, or gastrointestinal microbiota, is the complex community of microorganisms that live in the digestive tracts of humans and other animals, including insects.

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Gwystyl is a character in Lloyd Alexander's fantasy Chronicles of Prydain book series.

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H.R. 3578 (113th Congress)

The bill had the long title "To ensure that any new or revised requirement providing for the screening, testing, or treatment of an airman or an air traffic controller for a sleep disorder is adopted pursuant to a rulemaking proceeding, and for other purposes." It is a bill that would require that "any federal rules on testing of air traffic controllers for sleep disorders are issued under a formal rulemaking process." The bill was introduced into the United States House of Representatives during the 113th United States Congress.

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Habib the Carpenter

Habib the Carpenter, or Habib Al-Najjar, was, according to the belief of some Muslims, a Muslim martyr who lived in Antioch at the time of Jesus.

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HAIR-AN syndrome

HAIR-AN syndrome consists of hyperandrogenism (HA), insulin resistance (IR) and acanthosis nigricans (AN).

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Hale (band)

Hale is a Filipino alternative rock band from Manila, Philippines.

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Hand deformity

A hand deformity is a disorder of the hand that can be congenital or acquired.

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Handroanthus is a genus of flowering plants in the family Bignoniaceae.

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Hans Biebow

Hans Biebow (December 18, 1902 – June 23, 1947) was the chief of German Nazi administration of the Łódź Ghetto in occupied Poland.

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Hans Wagner (medicine)

Hans Wagner (born Zurich, Switzerland; 1905-1989) was an ophthalmologist, and was the first to describe people who suffered from degenerative hyaloidea-retinalis hereditaria.

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Hantu Tinggi

Hantu Tinggi (Tall Ghost) is a usually a formed tree possessed from a Malay demon.

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A haplotype (haploid genotype) is a group of alleles in an organism that are inherited together from a single parent.

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Harry Hill (sportsman)

Harry Hill (1827 – August 27, 1896) was an English-born American businessman, sportsman and saloonkeeper whose establishments were regular meeting places for sportsmen, gamblers and politicians as well as members of the criminal underworld of New York City during the late 19th century.

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Haunted (TV series)

Haunted is an American television program first aired in September 2002 on UPN.

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Hawaiian crow

The Hawaiian crow or alalā (Corvus hawaiiensis) is a species of bird in the crow family, Corvidae, that is currently extinct in the wild, though reintroduction programs are underway.

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Hawazma tribe

Hawazma, part of Sudan's Baggara tribe, are cattle herders who roam the area from the southern parts of North Kurdufan to the southern borders of South Kurdufan, a distance of about 300 kilometers.

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Healing of periapical lesions

Apical periodontitis is typically the body’s defense response to the threat of microbial invasion from the root canal.

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Health is the ability of a biological system to acquire, convert, allocate, distribute, and utilize energy with maximum efficiency.

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Health and Social Care

In the UK, Health and Social Care (often abbreviated to HSC or H&SC) is a term that relates to services that are available from health and social care providers.

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Health blog

Health blogs are niche blogs that cover health topics, events and/or related content of the health industry and the general community.

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Health care

Health care or healthcare is the maintenance or improvement of health via the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, illness, injury, and other physical and mental impairments in human beings.

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Health care in Australia

Health care in Australia is delivered as a mixed system: universal health care (public) and private providers (insurance).

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Health care in Karachi

Health care in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan is administered by both private and public health care providers.

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Health claim

Health claims on food labels and in food marketing are claims by manufacturers of food products that their food will reduce the risk of developing a disease or condition.

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Health crisis

A health crisis or public health crisis is a difficult situation or complex health system that affects humans in one or more geographic areas (mainly occurred in natural hazards), from a particular locality to encompass the entire planet.

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Health Effects from Incarceration of Indigenous Australians

The Australian prisoner population currently retains 22% of indigenous prisoners.

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Health effects of tea

Although health benefits have been assumed throughout the history of using Camellia sinensis as a common beverage, there is no high-quality evidence that tea confers significant benefits.

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Health equity

Health equity refers to the study and causes of differences in the quality of health and healthcare across different populations.

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Health facility

A health facility is, in general, any location where healthcare is provided.

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Health geography

Health geography is the application of geographical information, perspectives, and methods to the study of health, disease, and health care.

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Health in Cuba

Health in Cuba refers to the overall health of the population of Cuba.

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Health in Guatemala

Health in Guatemala is focused on many different systems of prevention and care.

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Health in Guyana

Compared with other neighbouring countries, Guyana ranks poorly in regard to basic health indicators.

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Health in Iraq

Iraq is belonging to WHO health region Eastern Mediterranean and classified as upper middle according to World Bank income classification 2013.

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Health in Libya

A health care crisis currently exists in Libya due to the ongoing conflict.

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Health Protection Agency

The Health Protection Agency (HPA) was a non-departmental public body in the United Kingdom.

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Health risks from dead bodies

The health risks of dead bodies are dangers related to the improper preparation and disposal of cadavers.

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Health Survey for England

The Health Survey for England (HSE) is a statistical survey which is conducted annually in order to collect information concerning health and health-related behaviour of people living in private households in England.

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Healthcare in Canada

Healthcare in Canada is delivered through thirteen provincial and territorial systems of publicly funded health care, informally called Medicare.

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Healthcare in Cuba

The Cuban government operates a national health system and assumes fiscal and administrative responsibility for the health care of all its citizens.

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Healthcare in Kosovo

In the past, Kosovo’s capabilities to develop a modern health care system were limited.

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Healthy diet

A healthy diet is a diet that helps to maintain or improve overall health.

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Healthy digestion

Healthy digestion, also called digestive health, results in the absorption of nutrients from food without distressing symptoms.

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Healthy Life Years

The Healthy Life Years indicator (HLY) is a European structural indicator computed by.

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Healthy People program

Healthy People is a program of a nationwide health-promotion and disease-prevention goals set by the United States Department of Health and Human Services.

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Hearing loss

Hearing loss, also known as hearing impairment, is a partial or total inability to hear.

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Heart rate

Heart rate is the speed of the heartbeat measured by the number of contractions of the heart per minute (bpm).

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Heat stroke

Heat stroke, also known as sun stroke, is a type of severe heat illness that results in a body temperature greater than and confusion.

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Heat-stable enterotoxin

Heat-stable enterotoxins (STs) are secretory peptides produced by some bacterial strains, such as enterotoxigenic ''Escherichia coli'' which are in general toxic to animals.

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Hedonophobia is an excessive fear or aversion to obtaining pleasure.

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Heinrich Landesmann

Heinrich Landesmann, Hieronymus Lorm (9 August 1821, Nikolsburg – 4 December 1902, Brno) was an Austrian poet and philosophical writer.

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Heinz Eggert

Heinz Eggert (born 6 May 1946 in Rostock) is a German theologian and politician (CDU).

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Helicoverpa zea

Helicoverpa zea, commonly known as the corn earworm, is a species (formerly in the genus Heliothis) in the family Noctuidae.

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Helmeted honeyeater

The helmeted honeyeater (Lichenostomus melanops cassidix) is a passerine bird in the honeyeater family.

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Helminthiasis (plural helminthiases), also known as worm infection, is any macroparasitic disease of humans and other animals in which a part of the body is infected with parasitic worms, known as helminths.

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Helminths, also commonly known as parasitic worms, are large multicellular parasites, which can generally be seen with the naked eye when they are mature.

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Hemodynamics or hæmodynamics is the dynamics of blood flow.

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Hemopericardium refers to blood in the pericardial sac of the heart.

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Hemosiderin image of a kidney viewed under a microscope. The brown areas represent hemosiderin Hemosiderin or haemosiderin is an iron-storage complex.

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Hemotherapy or hemotherapeutics is the treatment of disease by the use of blood or blood products from blood donation (by others or for oneself).

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Henry Cotton (doctor)

Henry Andrews Cotton (18 May 1876 – 8 May 1933) was an American psychiatrist and the medical director of New Jersey State Hospital at Trenton (previously the New Jersey State Lunatic Asylum, and now the Trenton Psychiatric Hospital) in Trenton, New Jersey from 1907 to 1930.

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Henry Vincent (gaoler)

Henry Vincent (c. 1796 - 6 May 1869) was the first Superintendent of Rottnest Island Aboriginal Prison, in Western Australia.

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HEPACIVAC stands for “New preventative and therapeutic Hepatitis C vaccines: from pre-clinical to phase 1”.

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Heparin, also known as unfractionated heparin (UFH), is medication which is used as an anticoagulant (blood thinner).

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Hepatitis D

Hepatitis D (hepatitis delta) is a disease caused by the hepatitis D virus (HDV), a small spherical enveloped virusoid.

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Hereditary gingival fibromatosis

Hereditary gingival fibromatosis (HGF), also known as idiopathic gingival hyperplasia, is a rare condition of gingival overgrowth.

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Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type I

Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type I (HSAN I) or hereditary sensory neuropathy type I (HSN I) is a group of autosomal dominant inherited neurological diseases that affect the peripheral nervous system particularly on the sensory and autonomic functions.

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Hermann Rothe

Hermann Rothe (28 December 1882 in Vienna – 18 December 1923 in Vienna) was an Austrian mathematician.

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Hero System Bestiary

Hero System Bestiary is a compilation of creatures for use with Hero System role-playing game rules.

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Herodicus (Ἡρóδιĸος) was a Greek physician of the fifth century BC, and a native of Selymbria.

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Herpes simplex

Herpes simplex is a viral disease caused by the herpes simplex virus.

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Herpesviridae is a large family of DNA viruses that cause diseases in animals, including humans.

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Hessian (soldier)

Hessians were German soldiers who served as auxiliaries to the British Army during the American Revolutionary War.

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Heterochromia iridum

Heterochromia is a difference in coloration, usually of the iris but also of hair or skin.

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Heterogeneous condition

Heterogeneous medical condition in medicine are those medical conditions which have several etiologies, like hepatitis or diabetes.

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Hidayat al-Muta`allemin Fi al-Tibb

Hidayat al-Muta`allemin Fi al-Tibb (A Guide to Medical Learners) is a medical guide written in Persian.

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Hidden Warrior

Hidden Warrior is the second book in the Tamír Triad by Lynn Flewelling.

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Hidradenitis suppurativa

Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS), also known as acne inversa, is a long term skin disease characterized by the occurrence of inflamed and swollen lumps.

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HIG1 domain family member 1A (HIGD1A), also known as hypoglycemia/hypoxia inducible mitochondrial protein1-a (HIMP1-a) and hypoxia induced gene 1 (HIG1), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HIGD1A gene on chromosome 3.

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Hill's Pet Nutrition

Hill's Pet Nutrition, Inc, marketed simply as "Hills" is an American company, a large scale producer of pet nutrition, e.g. dog and cat foods.

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Hippo (philosopher)

Hippo (Ἵππων, Hippon; fl. 5th century BC) was a Pre-Socratic Greek philosopher.

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Hippocampal sclerosis

Hippocampal sclerosis (HS) is a neuropathological condition with severe neuronal cell loss and gliosis in the hippocampus, specifically in the CA-1 (Cornu Ammonis area 1) and subiculum of the hippocampus.

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Hippocratic face

The Hippocratic face (facies Hippocratica) is the change produced in the face by impending death or long illness, excessive evacuations, excessive hunger, and the like.

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Histomoniasis (or histomonosis), also known as blackhead disease, is a commercially important disease of poultry, particularly of chickens and turkeys, due to parasitic infection of a protozoan, Histomonas meleagridis.

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Histopathology (compound of three Greek words: ἱστός histos "tissue", πάθος pathos "suffering", and -λογία -logia "study of") refers to the microscopic examination of tissue in order to study the manifestations of disease.

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Histoplasmosis (also known as "Cave disease", "Darling's disease", "Ohio valley disease", "reticuloendotheliosis", "spelunker's lung" and "caver's disease") is a disease caused by the fungus Histoplasma capsulatum.

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Historical ecology

Historical ecology is a research program that focuses on the interactions between humans and their environment over long-term periods of time, typically over the course of centuries.

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Historiography of the fall of the Western Roman Empire

The causes and mechanisms of the Fall of the Western Roman Empire are a historical theme that was introduced by historian Edward Gibbon in his 1776 book The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire.

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History of Benzedrine

Benzedrine pills, colloquially referred to as bennies, is the brand name of the first pharmaceutical drug that contained amphetamine.

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History of childhood

The history of childhood has been a topic of interest in social history since the highly influential book Centuries of Childhood, published by French historian Philippe Ariès in 1960.

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History of depression

What was previously known as melancholia and is now known as clinical depression, major depression, or simply depression and commonly referred to as major depressive disorder by many Health care professionals, has a long history, with similar conditions being described at least as far back as classical times.

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History of Earth

The history of Earth concerns the development of planet Earth from its formation to the present day.

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History of emerging infectious diseases

The discovery of disease-causing pathogens is an important activity in the field of medical science.

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History of general anesthesia

Attempts at producing a state of general anesthesia can be traced throughout recorded history in the writings of the ancient Sumerians, Babylonians, Assyrians, Egyptians, Greeks, Romans, Indians, and Chinese.

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History of Lycoming County, Pennsylvania

This article details a history of Lycoming County, Pennsylvania.

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History of medical diagnosis

The history of medical diagnosis began in earnest from the days of Imhotep in ancient Egypt and Hippocrates in ancient Greece but is far from perfect despite the enormous bounty of information made available by medical research including the sequencing of the human genome.

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History of Peru

The history of Peru spans 4 millennia, extending back through several stages of cultural development in the mountain region and the coastal desert.

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History of psychopathy

Psychopathy, from psych (soul or mind) and pathy (suffering or disease), was coined by German psychiatrists in the 19th century and originally just meant what would today be called mental disorder, the study of which is still known as psychopathology.

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History of the ambulance

The history of the ambulance begins in ancient times, with the use of carts to transport patients.

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History of the forest in Central Europe

The history of the forest in Central Europe is characterised by thousands of years of exploitation by people.

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History of Thornton Heath

The London suburb of Thornton Heath sits at the base of the southern slopes of the Norwood Hills in a glacial valley which was formed during the last ice age.

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History of Tourette syndrome

Tourette syndrome is an inherited neurological disorder with onset in childhood, characterized by the presence of multiple physical (motor) tics and at least one vocal (phonic) tic.

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History of tracheal intubation

Tracheal intubation (usually simply referred to as intubation), an invasive medical procedure, is the placement of a flexible plastic catheter into the trachea.

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History of water supply and sanitation

The history of water supply and sanitation is one of a logistical challenge to provide clean water and sanitation systems since the dawn of civilization.

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HIT Humanitarian

HIT Humanitarian is a 501(c)3 charitable organization established in 2009 by Heritage Internet Technologies (HIT), a Utah-based IT/web-hosting company (formerly known as Heritage Web Solutions).

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HIV disease progression rates

Following infection with HIV-1, the rate of clinical disease progression varies between individuals.

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HIV-tainted blood scandal (Japan)

The, refers to an event in the 1980s when between one and two thousand haemophilia patients in Japan contracted HIV via tainted blood products.

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HIV/AIDS in Taiwan

Taiwan's epidemic of HIV/AIDS began with the first case reported in December 1984.

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HIV/AIDS in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DR Congo) was one of the first African countries to recognize HIV, registering cases of HIV among hospital patients as early as 1983.

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Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) B27 (subtypes B*2701-2759) is a class I surface antigen encoded by the B locus in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) on chromosome 6 and presents antigenic peptides (derived from self and non-self antigens) to T cells.

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Hochelaga (village)

Hochelaga was a St. Lawrence Iroquoian 16th century fortified village on or near Mount Royal in present-day Montréal, Québec, Canada.

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Hooponopono (ho-o-pono-pono) is a Hawaiian practice of reconciliation and forgiveness.

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Hohlgangsanlage 8

Hohlgangsanlage 8 (often abbreviated to Ho8, also known as the German Underground Hospital or the Jersey War Tunnels) was a partially completed underground hospital complex in St. Lawrence, Jersey, built by German occupying forces during the occupation of Jersey during World War II.

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Holmes and Rahe stress scale

The Holmes and Rahe stress scale is a list of 43 stressful life events that can contribute to illness.

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Homeopathy or homœopathy is a system of alternative medicine developed in 1796 by Samuel Hahnemann, based on his doctrine of like cures like (similia similibus curentur), a claim that a substance that causes the symptoms of a disease in healthy people would cure similar symptoms in sick people.

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Honey is a sweet, viscous food substance produced by bees and some related insects.

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Hong Kong Museum of Medical Sciences

The Hong Kong Museum of Medical Sciences was established in 1996, and is located in a renovated 3-story Edwardian-style building, at 2 Caine Lane at the Mid-levels, Hong Kong Island, Hong Kong.

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Hoover's sign (leg paresis)

Hoover’s sign of leg paresis is one of two signs named for Charles Franklin Hoover.

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Hope is an optimistic state of mind that is based on an expectation of positive outcomes with respect to events and circumstances in one's life or the world at large.

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Hope I

Hope I is an oil painting created by Gustav Klimt in 1903.

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Horrible Histories

Horrible Histories is an educational entertainment franchise encompassing many media including books, magazines, audio books, stage shows, TV shows, and more.

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Horrible Science

Horrible Science is a similar series of books to Horrible Histories, written by Nick Arnold (with the exception of Evolve or Die, which is written by Phil Gates), illustrated by Tony de Saulles and published in the UK and India by Scholastic.

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Hosokawa Harumoto

was a Japanese daimyō of the Muromachi and Sengoku periods, and the head of the Hosokawa clan.

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Hospital Central Militar Mexico

Central Military Hospital is a third level medical institution, highly specialized and extensive experience, provides services not only to military and rights holders, but also to people outside this medical unit, which belongs to and depends directly from the Secretaria De La Defensa Nacional (SEDENA)through the Directorate General of Health.

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Hospital Colônia de Barbacena

"Museu da Loucura" (Museum of Madness), formerly known as Hospital Colônia was a psychiatric hospital founded in 1903.

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Hospital medicine

Hospital medicine in the United States is the medical specialty concerned with the care of acutely ill hospitalized patients.

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Hospital-acquired infection

A hospital-acquired infection (HAI), also known as a nosocomial infection, is an infection that is acquired in a hospital or other health care facility.

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Host (biology)

In biology and medicine, a host is an organism that harbours a parasitic, a mutualistic, or a commensalist guest (symbiont), the guest typically being provided with nourishment and shelter.

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Host factor

Host factor is a medical term referring to the traits of an individual person or animal that affect susceptibility to disease, especially in comparison to other individuals.

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Host–pathogen interaction

The host-pathogen interaction is defined as how microbes or viruses sustain themselves within host organisms on a molecular, cellular, organismal or population level.

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HPV-positive oropharyngeal cancer

Human papillomavirus-positive oropharyngeal cancer (HPV+OPC) is a subtype of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC), associated with the human papillomavirus type 16 virus (HPV16).

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Heat shock proteins are generally responsible for preventing damage to proteins in response to high levels of heat.

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Hugh Lambert

Hugh Lambert (27 May 1944 – December 2005) was an Irish journalist.

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Hugh S. Cumming

Hugh Smith Cumming (August 17, 1869 – December 20, 1948) was an American physician, and soldier.

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Hulda Regehr Clark

Hulda Regehr Clark (18 October 1928 in Rosthern, Saskatchewan – 3 September 2009 in Chula Vista, California), domain registered by Clark's publisher, New Century Press: "On the evening of September 3rd 2009, Dr.

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Hulusi Behçet

Hulusi Behçet (Constantinople, 20 February 1889 – 8 March 1948) was a Turkish dermatologist and scientist.

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Humans (taxonomically Homo sapiens) are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina.

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Human cytomegalovirus

Human cytomegalovirus is a species of the virus genus Cytomegalovirus, which in turn is a member of the viral family known as Herpesviridae or herpesviruses.

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Human Disease

Human Disease may refer to.

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Human disease network

A human disease network is a network of human disorders and diseases with reference to their genetic origins or other features.

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Human enhancement

Human enhancement (Augment) is "any attempt to temporarily or permanently overcome the current limitations of the human body through natural or artificial means.

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Human feces

Human feces (or faeces in British English; fæx) are the solid or semisolid remains of the food that could not be digested or absorbed in the small intestine, but has been rotted down by bacteria in the large intestine.

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Human genetic resistance to malaria

Human genetic resistance to malaria refers to inherited changes in the DNA of humans which increase resistance to malaria and result in increased survival of individuals with those genetic changes.

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Human Genome Diversity Project

The Human Genome Diversity Project (HGDP) was started by Stanford University's Morrison Institute and a collaboration of scientists around the world.

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Human Genome Structural Variation

Structural variation in the human genome is operationally defined as genomic alterations, varying between individuals, that involve DNA segments larger than 1 kilo base (kb), and could be either microscopic or submicroscopic.

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Human geography

Human geography is the branch of geography that deals with the study of people and their communities, cultures, economies, and interactions with the environment by studying their relations with and across space and place.

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Human Metabolome Database

The Human Metabolome Database (HMDB) is a comprehensive, high-quality, freely accessible, online database of small molecule metabolites found in the human body.

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Human parasite

Human parasites include various protozoa and worms which may infect humans that cause parasitic diseases.

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Human pathogen

A human pathogen is a pathogen (microbe or microorganism such as a virus, bacterium, prion, or fungus) that causes disease in humans.

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Human physical appearance

Human physical appearance is the outward phenotype or look of human beings.

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Human reproductive system

The human reproductive system usually involves internal fertilization by sexual intercourse.

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Human response to disasters

Human response to disasters has been recorded throughout human history.

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Human Rights Commission of Salt Lake City

The Human Rights Commission of Salt Lake City, Utah, is a commission that works with the city government on issues related to the human rights of its citizens.

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Human Security Report 2005

The Human Security Report 2005 is a report outlining declining world trends of global violence from the early 1990s to 2003.

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Human skeleton

The human skeleton is the internal framework of the body.

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In politics, humanitarian aid, and social science, hunger is a condition in which a person, for a sustained period, is unable to eat sufficient food to meet basic nutritional needs.

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Huntsman Cancer Institute

Huntsman Cancer Institute (HCI) is an NCI-designated cancer research facility and hospital located on the campus of the University of Utah in Salt Lake City, Utah.

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Hurricane Rita

Hurricane Rita was the fourth-most intense Atlantic hurricane ever recorded and the most intense tropical cyclone ever observed in the Gulf of Mexico.

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Hwang Woo-suk

Hwang Woo-suk (황우석, born January 29, 1953)Sources disagree on the birthdate due to confusion between different calendar systems.

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Hybrid cardiac surgery

A hybrid cardiac surgical procedure in a narrow sense is defined as a procedure that combines a conventional surgical part (including a skin incision) with an interventional part, using some sort of catheter-based procedure guided by fluoroscopy (or other, e.g. CT or MRI) imaging in a hybrid OR without interruption.

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Hydrops fetalis

Hydrops fetalis is a condition in the fetus characterized by an accumulation of fluid, or edema, in at least two fetal compartments.

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Hymenoptera training

Sniffer bees or sniffer wasps are insects in the order Hymenoptera that can be trained to perform a variety of tasks to detect substances such as explosive materials or illegal drugs, as well as some human and plant diseases.

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Hyperaldosteronism, also aldosteronism, is a medical condition wherein too much aldosterone is produced by the adrenal glands, which can lead to lowered levels of potassium in the blood (hypokalemia) and increased hydrogen ion excretion (alkalosis).

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Hyperandrogenism, also known as androgen excess, is a medical condition characterized by excessive levels of androgens (male sex hormones such as testosterone) in the female body and the associated effects of the elevated androgen levels.

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Hyperestrogenism, hyperestrogenic state, or estrogen excess, is a medical condition characterized by an excessive amount of estrogenic activity in the body.

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The fibrinolysis system is responsible for removing blood clots.

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Hypergonadotropic hypogonadism

Hypergonadotropic hypogonadism (HH), also known as primary or peripheral/gonadal hypogonadism, is a condition which is characterized by hypogonadism due to an impaired response of the gonads to the gonadotropins, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), and in turn a lack of sex steroid production and elevated gonadotropin levels (as an attempt of compensation by the body).

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Hyperkeratinization American English or hyperkeratinisation in British) is a disorder of the cells lining the inside of a hair follicle. It is the normal function of these cells to detach or slough off (desquamate) from the skin lining at normal intervals. The dead cells are then forced out of the follicle (primarily by the growing hair). However, in hyperkeratinization, this process is interrupted and a number of these dead skin cells do not leave the follicle because of an excess of keratin, a natural protein found in the skin. This excess of keratin, which is influenced by genetics, results in an increased adherence/bonding of dead skin cells together. This cohesion of cells will block or "cap" the hair follicle (leading to keratosis pilaris) or clog the sebaceous/oil duct (leading to acne). Pathogens may also play a role in causing, perpetuating, or simply taking advantage of this phenomenon, such as virulent sub-strains of Propionibacterium acnes and irregular migration of Staphylococcus epidermidis from the outer surface of the skin into the follicle, where commensal strains of P. acnes exclusively habitate. It itches mildly at times, and strongly at others. Very often it cannot be felt at all.

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Hypermetabolism is the physiological state of increased rate of metabolic activity and is characterized by an abnormal increase in the body’s basal metabolic rate.

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Hyperphenylalaninemia is a medical condition characterized by mildly or strongly elevated concentrations of the amino acid phenylalanine in the blood.

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Hyperplasia (from ancient Greek ὑπέρ huper, "over" + πλάσις plasis, "formation"), or hypergenesis, is an increase in the amount of organic tissue that results from cell proliferation.

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Hyperpnea or hyperpnoea is increased depth and rate of breathing.

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Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.

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Hypochromic anemia

Hypochromic anemia, or Hypochromic anaemia, is a generic term for any type of anemia in which the red blood cells (erythrocytes) are paler than normal.

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Hypopharyngeal cancer

Hypopharyngeal cancer is a disease in which malignant cells grow in the hypopharynx (the area where the larynx and esophagus meet).

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Hypoplasia (from Ancient Greek ὑπo- hypo-, "under" + πλάσις plasis, "formation"; adjective form hypoplastic) is underdevelopment or incomplete development of a tissue or organ.

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Hypoprolactinemia is a medical condition characterized by a deficiency in the serum levels of the hypothalamic-pituitary hormone prolactin.

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Hypopyon is a medical condition involving inflammatory cells in the anterior chamber of the eye.

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Iatrochemistry (or chemical medicine) is a branch of both chemistry and medicine (ἰατρός (iatrós) was the Greek word for "physician" or "medicine").

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Iatrogenesis (from the Greek for "brought forth by the healer") refers to any effect on a person resulting from any activity of one or more persons acting as healthcare professionals or promoting products or services as beneficial to health that does not support a goal of the person affected.

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Ibrahim Index of African Governance

The Ibrahim Index of African Governance (IIAG), established in 2007, provides an annual assessment of the quality of governance in African countries.

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ICD-10 Chapter V: Mental and behavioural disorders

ICD-10 is an international statistical classification produced by the World Health Organization.

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ICD-10 Chapter VI: Diseases of the nervous system

ICD-10 is an international statistical classification used in health care and related industries.

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ICD-10 Chapter XIV: Diseases of the genitourinary system

ICD-10 is an international statistical classification used in health care and related industries.

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ICD-10 Chapter XV: Pregnancy, childbirth and the puerperium

ICD-10 is an international statistical classification used in health care and related industries.

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ICD-10 Chapter XVIII: Symptoms, signs and abnormal clinical and laboratory findings

ICD-10 is an international statistical classification used in health care and related industries.

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ICD-10 Clinical Modification

International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-10-CM) provided by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) and the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), for medical coding and reporting in the United States.

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ICE (chemotherapy)

ICE in the context of chemotherapy is an acronym for one of the chemotherapy regimens, used in salvage treatment of relapsed or refractory non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and Hodgkin lymphoma.

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ICU scoring systems

There are several scoring systems in intensive care units (ICUs) today.

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Identification key

In biology, an identification key is a printed or computer-aided device that aids the identification of biological entities, such as plants, animals, fossils, microorganisms, and pollen grains.

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Idiopathic disease

An idiopathic disease is any disease with an unknown cause or mechanism of apparently spontaneous origin.

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Idiopathic pulmonary haemosiderosis

Idiopathic pulmonary haemosiderosis (or idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis; IPH) is a lung disease of unknown cause that is characterized by alveolar capillary bleeding and accumulation of haemosiderin in the lungs.

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An idiosyncrasy is an unusual feature of a person (though there are also other uses, see below).

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Iglesia de San Francisco de Asís (Santa Cruz de Tenerife)

The Iglesia de San Francisco de Asís (Church of St. Francis of Assisi) is a Catholic church located in the city of Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain).

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Ignacio Ellacuría

Ignacio Ellacuría, S.J. (Portugalete, Biscay, Spain, November 9, 1930 – San Salvador, November 16, 1989) was a Jesuit priest, philosopher, and theologian who did important work as a professor and rector at the Universidad Centroamericana "José Simeón Cañas" (UCA), a Jesuit university in El Salvador founded in 1965.

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Ileus is a disruption of the normal propulsive ability of the gastrointestinal tract.

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Ill (ill) may refer to.

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Illness as Metaphor

Illness as Metaphor is a 1978 work of critical theory by Susan Sontag, in which she challenges the victim-blaming in the language often used to describe diseases and those who suffer from them.

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Imaging instruments

Imaging instruments produce diagnostic images.

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Immigrant health in Australia

Immigration is the movement of an individual or group of peoples to a foreign country to live permanently.

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Immortality is eternal life, being exempt from death, unending existence.

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Immune system

The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.

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Immune-mediated inflammatory diseases

An immune-mediated inflammatory disease (IMID) is any of a group of conditions or diseases that lack a definitive etiology, but which are characterized by common inflammatory pathways leading to inflammation, and which may result from, or be triggered by, a dysregulation of the normal immune response.

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Immunity (medical)

In biology, immunity is the balanced state of multicellular organisms having adequate biological defenses to fight infection, disease, or other unwanted biological invasion, while having adequate tolerance to avoid allergy, and autoimmune diseases.

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Immunization, or immunisation, is the process by which an individual's immune system becomes fortified against an agent (known as the immunogen).

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Immunologic adjuvant

In immunology, an adjuvant is a component that potentiates the immune responses to an antigen and/or modulates it towards the desired immune responses.

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Immunology is a branch of biology that covers the study of immune systems in all organisms.

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Immunotherapy is the "treatment of disease by inducing, enhancing, or suppressing an immune response".

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Immunotoxicology (sometimes abbreviated as ITOX) is the study of immune dysfunction resulting from exposure of an organism to a xenobiotic.

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An immunotoxin is a man-made protein that consists of a targeting portion linked to a toxin.

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Impacted wisdom teeth

Impacted wisdom teeth (or impacted third molars) are wisdom teeth which do not fully erupt into the mouth because of blockage from other teeth (impaction).

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IMSAFE is the Aeronautical Information Manual's recommended mnemonic for aircraft pilots to use to assess their fitness to fly.

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In vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy

In vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is a specialized technique associated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

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Inborn errors of steroid metabolism

An inborn error of steroid metabolism is an inborn error of metabolism due to defects in steroid metabolism.

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Incidence (epidemiology)

Incidence in epidemiology is a measure of the probability of occurrence of a given medical condition in a population within a specified period of time.

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Inclusion and exclusion criteria

In a clinical trial, the investigators must specify inclusion and exclusion criteria for participation in the study.

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Inclusion body rhinitis

Inclusion Body Rhinitis, also known as IBR or Cytomegalic Inclusion Disease, is a pig disease caused by porcine cytomegalovirus, which is a member of the herpesvirus family.

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Income protection insurance

Income Protection Insurance (IPI) is an insurance policy, available principally in Australia, Ireland, New Zealand, South Africa, and the United Kingdom, paying benefits to policyholders who are incapacitated and hence unable to work due to illness or accident.

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Index case

The index case is the first documented patient in the onset of an epidemiological investigation, or more generally, the first case of a condition or syndrome (not necessarily contagious) to be described in the medical literature, whether or not the patient is thought to be the first person affected.

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Index of genetics articles

Genetics (from Ancient Greek γενετικός genetikos, “genite” and that from γένεσις genesis, “origin”), a discipline of biology, is the science of heredity and variation in living organisms.

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Index of health articles

Health is the state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and a positive concept emphasizing social and personal resources, as well as physical capacities.

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Index of HIV/AIDS-related articles

This is a list of AIDS-related topics, many of which were originally taken from the public domain U.S. Department of Health Glossary of HIV/AIDS-Related Terms, 4th Edition.

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Index of immunology articles

Immunology is the study of the immune system during health and disease.

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Indian Council of Medical Research

The Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), the apex body in India for the formulation, coordination and promotion of biomedical research, is one of the oldest and largest medical research bodies in the world.

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Indian yellow-nosed albatross

The Indian yellow-nosed albatross (Thalassarche carteri) is a member of the albatross family, and is the smallest of the mollymawks.

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Indigenous horticulture

Indigenous horticulture is practised in various ways across all inhabited continents.

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Indigenous peoples of Siberia

Including the Russian Far East, the population of Siberia numbers just above 40 million people.

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Indoor bioaerosol

Indoor bioaerosol is bioaerosol in an indoor environment.

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Infant food safety

Foodborne illness (also foodborne disease and colloquially referred to as food poisoning) is any illness resulting from the food spoilage of contaminated food, pathogenic bacteria, viruses, or parasites that contaminate food.

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Infantilism (physiological disorder)

In medicine, Infantilism is an obsolete term for various, often unrelated disorders of human development, up to developmental disability, which consist of retention of the physical and/or psychological characteristics of early developmental stages (infant, child) into a relatively advanced age.

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Infantry is the branch of an army that engages in military combat on foot, distinguished from cavalry, artillery, and tank forces.

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Infarction is tissue death (necrosis) due to inadequate blood supply to the affected area.

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Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.

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Infections associated with diseases

Infections associated with diseases are those that are associated with possible infectious etiologies, that meet the requirements of Koch's postulates.

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Infectious salmon anemia virus

Infectious salmon anemia (ISA) is a viral disease of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) that affects fish farms in Canada, Norway, Scotland and Chile, causing severe losses to infected farms.

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Inferno (Dante)

Inferno (Italian for "Hell") is the first part of Dante Alighieri's 14th-century epic poem Divine Comedy.

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Influenza, commonly known as "the flu", is an infectious disease caused by an influenza virus.

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Influenza A virus subtype H1N1

Influenza A (H1N1) virus is the subtype of influenza A virus that was the most common cause of human influenza (flu) in 2009, and is associated with the 1918 outbreak known as the Spanish Flu.

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Ingestion is the consumption of a substance by an organism.

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Injury prevention

Injury prevention is an effort to prevent or reduce the severity of bodily injuries caused by external mechanisms, such as accidents, before they occur.

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InnerChange Freedom Initiative

The InnerChange Freedom Initiative (IFI) is an American Christian prison program operated by Prison Fellowship Ministries (PFM), a 501(c)(3) nonprofit established by Chuck Colson.

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An inotrope is an agent that alters the force or energy of muscular contractions.

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Inpatient care

Inpatient care is the care of patients whose condition requires admission to a hospital.

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Insect ecology

Insect ecology is the scientific study of how insects, individually or as a community, interact with the surrounding environment or ecosystem.

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Insomnia, also known as sleeplessness, is a sleep disorder where people have trouble sleeping.

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Instituto Oncológico Nacional

The National Oncologic Institute or ION (Instituto Oncológico Nacional) is a specialized hospital for cancer treatment, located in Panama City, Panama.

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Intact dilation and extraction

Intact dilation and extraction (Intact D&E) is a surgical procedure that removes an intact fetus from the uterus.

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Intellectual disability

Intellectual disability (ID), also known as general learning disability, and mental retardation (MR), is a generalized neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by significantly impaired intellectual and adaptive functioning.

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Intellectual giftedness

Intellectual giftedness is an intellectual ability significantly higher than average.

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Intelligence quotient

An intelligence quotient (IQ) is a total score derived from several standardized tests designed to assess human intelligence.

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Intensive care unit

Intensive care unit An intensive care unit (ICU), also known as an intensive therapy unit or intensive treatment unit (ITU) or critical care unit (CCU), is a special department of a hospital or health care facility that provides intensive treatment medicine.

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Interactive accommodation process

The interactive accommodation process, or simply interactive process, refers to the collaborative effort involving an employer and employee to determine if the employee can return to work subsequent to an occupational or non-occupational injury, disease or disorder.

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In molecular biology, an interactome is the whole set of molecular interactions in a particular cell.

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Internal bleeding

Internal bleeding (also called internal hemorrhage) is a loss of blood that occurs from the vascular system into a body cavity or space.

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International Anesthesia Research Society

The International Anesthesia Research Society (IARS) is an international, professional medical society dedicated to improving clinical care, education and research in anesthesia, pain management, and perioperative medicine.

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International Classification of Headache Disorders

The International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD) is a detailed hierarchical classification of all headache-related disorders published by the International Headache Society.

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International Commission on Trichinellosis

The International Commission on Trichinellosis (ICT) was created in 1958 in Budapest and is aiming to exchange information on the biology, the pathophysiology, the epidemiology, the immunology, and the clinical aspects of trichinellosis in humans and animals.

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International development

International development or global development is a wide concept concerning level of development on an international scale.

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International Food Policy Research Institute

The International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) is an international agricultural research center founded in the early 1970s to improve the understanding of national agricultural and food policies to promote the adoption of innovations in agricultural technology.

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International Grape Genome Program

The International Grape Genomics Program (IGGP) is a collaborative genome project dedicated to determining the genome sequence of the grapevine Vitis vinifera.

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International health

International health, also called geographic medicine, international medicine, or global health, is a field of health care, usually with a public health emphasis, dealing with health across regional or national boundaries.

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International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement

The International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement is an international humanitarian movement with approximately 17 million volunteers, members and staff worldwide which was founded to protect human life and health, to ensure respect for all human beings, and to prevent and alleviate human suffering.

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International Society for Developmental Origins of Health and Disease

International Society for Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (A International Society for DOHaD), a non-profit organization proposed by David Barker, was set up in 2003 and made up of various scientists and clinicians (31main council members), whose main research concentration is the developmental origins of health and disease.

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International Society of Addiction Medicine

International Society of Addiction Medicine (ISAM), created in 1999, is an organization constituted of professional medical practitioners, physicians and clinicians from 93 countries.

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International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems

The International Classification of Diseases (ICD) is the international "standard diagnostic tool for epidemiology, health management and clinical purposes." Its full official name is International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. The ICD is maintained by the World Health Organization (WHO), the directing and coordinating authority for health within the United Nations System.

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Interstitial cell of Cajal

The interstitial cell of Cajal (ICC) is a type of interstitial cell found in the gastrointestinal tract.

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The interstitium is a contiguous fluid-filled space existing between the skin and the body organs, including muscles and the circulatory system.

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Intestine transplantation

Intestine transplantation, intestinal transplantation, or small bowel transplantation is the surgical replacement of the small intestine for chronic and acute cases of intestinal failure.

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Intraflagellar transport

Intraflagellar transport or IFT is a bidirectional motility along axonemal microtubules that is essential for the formation (ciliogenesis) and maintenance of most eukaryotic cilia and flagella.

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Intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring

Intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IONM) or intraoperative neuromonitoring is the use of electrophysiological methods such as electroencephalography (EEG), electromyography (EMG), and evoked potentials to monitor the functional integrity of certain neural structures (e.g., nerves, spinal cord and parts of the brain) during surgery.

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Intrauterine growth restriction

Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) refers to poor growth of a fetus while in the mother's womb during pregnancy.

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Intravenous regional anesthesia

Intravenous regional anesthesia (IVRA) or Bier block anesthesia is an anesthetic technique for surgical procedures on the body's extremities where a local anesthetic is injected intravenously.

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Intrinsic finality

Intrinsic finality is the idea that there is a natural good for all beings, and that all beings have a natural tendency to pursue their own good.

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Alien species, or species that are not native, invade habitats and alter ecosystems around the world.

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Invasion of Cuba (1741)

The invasion of Cuba took place between 4–5 August and 9 December 1741 during the War of Jenkins' Ear.

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Inverse benefit law

The inverse benefit law states that the ratio of benefits to harms among patients taking new drugs tends to vary inversely with how extensively a drug is marketed.

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Inverted repeat

An inverted repeat (or IR) is a single stranded sequence of nucleotides followed downstream by its reverse complement.

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Investigation or Investigations may refer to.

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Ionomics is the measurement of the total elemental composition of an organism to address biological problems.

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Iowa wine

Iowa wine refers to wine manufactured in the U.S. state of Iowa.

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Iranian labor law

Iranian labor law describes the rules of employment in Iran.

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Iron deficiency

Iron deficiency, or sideropaenia, is the state in which a body has not enough (or not qualitatively enough) iron to supply its eventual needs.

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Irrigated Rice Research Consortium

The Irrigated Rice Research Consortium (IRRC) focuses on agricultural research and extension in irrigated rice-based ecosystems.

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Isatuximab is a monoclonal antibody (mAb) designed for the treatment of cancer.

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Islamic Scholarship & Learning in Central Asia

Islamic Scholarship & Learning in Central Asia during Abbasid Period The educational institutions in Central Asia were graded and comprised elementary schools during the Abbasid Period.

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Isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism

Isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH), also called idiopathic or congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (CHH), as well as isolated or congenital gonadotropin-releasing hormone deficiency (IGD), is a condition which results in a small subset of cases of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH) due to deficiency in or insensitivity to gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) where the function and anatomy of the anterior pituitary is otherwise normal and secondary causes of HH are not present.

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Isotopic labeling

Isotopic labeling (or isotopic labelling) is a technique used to track the passage of an isotope (an atom with a detectable variation) through a reaction, metabolic pathway, or cell.

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Ivor Wood

Ivor Sydney Wood (4 May 1932 – 13 October 2004) was a prolific Anglo-French stop motion director, producer, animator and writer known for his work on children's television series.

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The Ixodidae are the family of hard ticks or scale ticks, one of the two big families of ticks, consisting of over 700 species.

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Izena Island

is located in the East China Sea, north-west of Okinawa Island, in the Ryukyu Islands of Japan.

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Jacinta Duncan

Jacinta Duncan is an Australian science educator who grew up on marginal farming land in the Millewa area in the top North West of Victoria.

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Jake (rescue dog)

Jake (1995 – July 25, 2007) was a well-known American black labrador who served as a search and rescue dog following the September 11 attacks and Hurricane Katrina.

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James Crichton-Browne

Sir James Crichton-Browne MD FRS FRSE (29 November 1840 – 31 January 1938) was a leading British psychiatrist, neurologist and medical psychologist.

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James Underwood

Sir James Cresseé Elphinstone Underwood FMedSci (born 11 April 1942) is a British pathologist who was awarded a knighthood for services to medicine in the 2005 New Year honours list.

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Jan-Åke Gustafsson

Jan-Åke Gustafsson (born 1943, Sweden) is a Swedish scientist and professor in Biology, Biochemistry and Medical Nutrition.

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The Jangil (also Rutland Jarawa) were one of the Andamanese indigenous peoples of the Andaman Islands, located in the Bay of Bengal.

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Jason Atkinson

Jason Atkinson (born November 6, 1970) is an American politician in the US state of Oregon.

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Jean-Marie Beurel

Reverend Father Jean-Marie Beurel (5 February 1813 - 3 October 1872) was a French Catholic priest and missionary who founded the Cathedral of the Good Shepherd, the St Joseph’s Institution and the Convent of the Holy Infant Jesus girls' schools in Singapore.

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Jens Frahm

Jens Frahm (born March 29, 1951 in Oldenburg, Germany) is Director of the (Biomedical NMR Research Inc., not-for-profit) at the Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry in Göttingen, Germany.

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Jeongbang Waterfall

Jeongbang Waterfall is a famous waterfall on Jeju Island.

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Jet's Law

Jet's Law is the first eponymous law to be created in the state of Queensland, Australia.

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Jewish Board of Guardians (United Kingdom)

The Board of Guardians for the Relief of the Jewish Poor or, as it is most generally known, the Jewish Board of Guardians, was a charity established by the upper class Jewish community in the East End of London in 1859.

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Johann Nikolaus Weislinger

Johann Nikolauss Weislinger (1691 – 29 August 1755) was a polemical writer.

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John D. Hamaker

John D. Hamaker (1914–1994), was an American mechanical engineer, ecologist, agronomist and science writer in the fields of soil regeneration, rock dusting, mineral cycles, climate cycles and glaciology.

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John E. Fogarty

John Edward Fogarty (March 23, 1913 – January 10, 1967) was a Congressman from Rhode Island for 26 years.

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John Henryism

John Henryism (JH) is a strategy for coping with prolonged exposure to stresses such as social discrimination by expending high levels of effort which results in accumulating physiological costs.

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John Syer Bristowe

John Syer Bristowe (1827–1895) was an English physician.

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Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation

The Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation (JCVI) is an independent expert advisory committee of the United Kingdom Department of Health.

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Jonathan Shay

Jonathan Shay (born 1941) is a doctor and clinical psychiatrist.

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José Prat

José Diosdado Prat García (10 August 1905 – 17 May 1994) was a Spanish politician and lawyer from 1 March 1979 to 17 November 1982.

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Josemaría Escrivá

Saint Josemaría Escrivá de Balaguer y Albás (9 January 1902 – 26 June 1975) was a Roman Catholic priest from Spain who initiated Opus Dei, an organization of laypeople and priests dedicated to the teaching that everyone is called to holiness by God and that ordinary life can result in sanctity.

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Joseph Babinski

Joseph Jules François Félix Babinski (Józef Julian Franciszek Feliks Babiński; 17 November 1857 – 29 October 1932) was a French neurologist of Polish descent.

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Joseph Bancroft

Joseph Bancroft (21 February 1836 – 16 June 1894) was a surgeon, pharmacologist and parasitologist born in England, who emigrated to Queensland, Australia.

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Joseph Flores (Guamanian politician)

Joseph F. Flores (August 12, 1900 – December 18, 1981) was the fourth civilian appointed Governor of Guam, and was the first Chamorro to hold the office.

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Joseph Goldberger

Joseph Goldberger (Goldberger József) (July 16, 1874 – January 17, 1929) was an American physician and epidemiologist in the United States Public Health Service (PHS).

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Journal of Molecular Medicine

The Journal of Molecular Medicine is a monthly, peer-reviewed, scientific journal published by Springer Science+Business Media.

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Juglans ailantifolia

Juglans ailantifolia (synonyms J. cordiformis and J. sieboldiana and J. mandshurica var. sachalinensis), the Japanese walnut (鬼胡桃 oni-gurumi), is a species of walnut native to Japan and Sakhalin.

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Jul i Valhal

Jul i Valhal (Yule in Valhalla) is a Danish television advent calendar (or Christmas miniseries).

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Jules Henry

Jules Henry (November 29, 1904 – September 23, 1969) was a noted American anthropologist.

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Julie Billiart

Saint Julie Billiart (12 July 1751 — 8 April 1816) was a French religious leader and Catholic saint, who founded and was the first Superior General of the Congregation of the Sisters of Notre Dame de Namur.

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Jungian archetypes

In Jungian psychology, archetypes are highly developed elements of the collective unconscious.

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Justin Champion

Professor Justin Champion is a British academic who was head of the department of history at Royal Holloway, University of London (RHUL) between 2005 and 2010.

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Juvenile cellulitis

Juvenile cellulitis, also known as puppy strangles or juvenile pyoderma, is an uncommon disease of dogs.

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Juvenile hyaline fibromatosis

Juvenile hyaline fibromatosis (also known as "Fibromatosis hyalinica multiplex juvenilis," "Murray–Puretic–Drescher syndrome") is a very rare, autosomal recessive disease due to mutations in capillary morphogenesis protein-2 (CMG-2 gene).

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Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy

Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME), also known as Janz syndrome, is a fairly common form of idiopathic generalized epilepsy, representing 5-10% of all epilepsy cases.

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Juvenile plantar dermatosis

Juvenile plantar dermatosis (also known as "Atopic winter feet," "Dermatitis plantaris sicca," "Forefoot dermatitis," "Moon-boot foot syndrome," and "Sweaty sock dermatitis") is a condition usually seen in children between the ages of 3 and 14, and involves the cracking and peeling of weight bearing areas of the soles of the feet.

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Kaposi's sarcoma

Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is a type of cancer that can form masses in the skin, lymph nodes, or other organs.

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Karim Nayernia

Karim Nayernia (کریم نیرنیا) is an Iranian biomedical scientist and a world expert on stem cell biology.

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Karma (karma,; italic) means action, work or deed; it also refers to the spiritual principle of cause and effect where intent and actions of an individual (cause) influence the future of that individual (effect).

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Kathryn McGee

Kathryn "Kay" McGee (née Greene, May 6, 1920 in Chicago, Illinois – February 16, 2012 in River Forest, Illinois) was an American activist, recognized for founding two of the first organizations for the benefit of those with Down Syndrome.

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Kattupalli is a separate campus in Ervadi dargah, Ramanathapuram district where the graves of the followers who came along with Badhusha Sultan Syed Ibraaheem Shaheed are found.

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Kawasaki disease

Kawasaki disease, also known as mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome, is a disease in which blood vessels throughout the body become inflamed.

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Kazem Sadegh-Zadeh

Kazem Sadegh-Zadeh (کاظم صادق‌زاده; born 23 April 1942) is an analytic philosopher of medicine.

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Kübler-Ross model

The Kübler-Ross model (otherwise known as the five stages of grief) postulates a progression of emotional states experienced by both terminally ill patients after diagnosis and by loved-ones after a death.

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Kürşad Türkşen

Kürşad Türkşen is a senior scientist in chronic disease at Ottawa Health Research Institute and an assistant professor, biochemistry, University of Ottawa.

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KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) is a collection of databases dealing with genomes, biological pathways, diseases, drugs, and chemical substances.

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Ken Currie

Ken Currie (born 1960 in North Shields, Northumberland, England) is a Scottish artist.

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Keratosis pilaris

Keratosis pilaris (KP) (also follicular keratosis, lichen pilaris, or colloquially "chicken skin") is a common, autosomal dominant, genetic condition of the skin's hair follicles characterized by the appearance of possibly pruritic, small, gooseflesh-like bumps, with varying degrees of reddening or inflammation.

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Ketotic hypoglycemia

Ketotic hypoglycemia is a medical term used in two ways: (1) broadly, to refer to any circumstance in which low blood glucose is accompanied by ketosis, and (2) in a much more restrictive way to refer to recurrent episodes of hypoglycemic symptoms with ketosis and, often, vomiting, in young children.

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Kharkiv Medical Academy of Post-graduate Education

Kharkiv Medical Academy of Post-graduate Education is a Ukrainian university in Kharkiv.

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Khmer Rouge rule of Cambodia

The Khmer Rouge period (1975–1979) refers to the rule of Pol Pot, Nuon Chea, Ieng Sary, Son Sen, Khieu Samphan and the Communist Party of Kampuchea over Cambodia, which the Khmer Rouge renamed Democratic Kampuchea.

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Kidney disease

Kidney disease, or renal disease, also known as nephropathy, is damage to or disease of a kidney.

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Kidney stone disease

Kidney stone disease, also known as urolithiasis, is when a solid piece of material (kidney stone) occurs in the urinary tract.

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Kids Wish Network

Kids Wish Network is a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization that grants wishes to children with life-threatening medical conditions.

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Kikinda (Кикинда) is a city and the administrative center of the North Banat District in the autonomous province of Vojvodina, Serbia.

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Kingdom of Tahiti

The Kingdom of Tahiti was founded by paramount chief Pōmare I, who, with the aid of English missionaries and traders, and European weaponry, unified the islands of Tahiti, Moʻorea, Tetiaroa, Mehetia and at its peak included the Tuamotus, Tubuai, Raivavae and other islands of eastern Polynesia.

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Klippel–Feil syndrome

Klippel–Feil syndrome is a rare disease, initially reported in 1884 by Maurice Klippel and André Feil from France, characterized by the congenital fusion of any two of the seven cervical vertebrae.

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Koch's postulates

Koch's postulates are four criteria designed to establish a causative relationship between a microbe and a disease.

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The kouprey (Bos sauveli, from គោព្រៃ,, "forest ox"; also known as kouproh, "grey ox"), is a little-known, forest-dwelling, wild bovine species from Southeast Asia.

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Kraamzorg is a medical service in the Netherlands and Belgium where postnatal care is provided to a new mother and her baby in the initial eight to 10 days immediately after birth.

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Krovim Krovim

Krovim Krovim (קְרוֹבִים קְרוֹבִים; lit. Close Relatives/Near Ones, Dear Ones) is an Israeli television sitcom created by Ephraim Sidon and B. Michael.

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Krypton (comics)

Krypton is a fictional planet appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics.

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Kung (Haida village)

Ḵung (Qañ or Dream Town) is a Haida village, located on the west side of Alexandra Narrows on Graham Island, the largest and northernmost island of Haida Gwaii (X̱aayda gwaayaay) alongside British Columbia, Canada.

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Kyrylo Stetsenko

Kyrylo Hryhorovych Stetsenko (Кирило Григорович Стеценко) (May 12, 1882 – April 29, 1922) was a prolific Ukrainian composer, conductor, critic, and teacher.

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L'Abécédaire de Gilles Deleuze

L'Abécédaire de Gilles Deleuze (“Gilles Deleuze's alphabet book”) is a French television program produced by Pierre-André Boutang in 1988–1989, consisting of an eight-hour series of interviews between Gilles Deleuze and Claire Parnet.

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L'Autre Afrique

L'Autre Afrique was a monthly news magazine published in Paris, France.

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La Joie de vivre

La joie de vivre is the twelfth novel in the Rougon-Macquart series by Émile Zola.

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LabCorp v. Metabolite, Inc

LabCorp v. Metabolite, Inc. is a court case related to the patentability of scientific principles which the U.S. Supreme Court agreed to hear, and later dismissed, in 2006.

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Laboratory specimen

In medicine, a laboratory specimen is a biological specimen taken by sampling, that is, gathered matter of a medical patient's tissue, fluid, or other material derived from the patient used for laboratory analysis to assist differential diagnosis or staging of a disease process.

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Lahore Composting Facility

The Danish Carbon Fund's (DCF) Lahore Composting Facility project is the first of its kind in Pakistan.

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Lake Bosumtwi

Lake Bosumtwi (rightly spelled Bosomtwe) is the only natural lake in Ashanti and Ghana.

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Lake Nicaragua

Lake Nicaragua or Cocibolca or Granada (Lago de Nicaragua, Lago Cocibolca, Mar Dulce, Gran Lago, Gran Lago Dulce, or Lago de Granada) is a freshwater lake in Nicaragua.

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Laloorinu Parayanullathu

Laloorinu Parayanullathu (What Has Laloor To Say) is an Indian documentary film produced by Joseph Paneagaden and directed by Sathish Kalathil under the banner of Digital Film Makers Forum in Malayalam Language.

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Lambdacism (from the Greek letter ''λ'') is a medical condition or speech impediment related to the pronunciation of /l/ or related phonemes.

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Land diving

Land diving (known in the local Sa language as Gol and in Bislama as Nanggol) is a ritual performed by the men of the southern part of Pentecost Island, Vanuatu.

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Landfills in the United States

Municipal solid waste (MSW) – more commonly known as trash or garbage – consists of everyday items people use and then throw away, such as product packaging, grass clippings, furniture, clothing, bottles, food scraps and papers.

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A landrace is a domesticated, locally adapted, traditional variety of a species of animal or plant that has developed over time, through adaptation to its natural and cultural environment of agriculture and pastoralism, and due to isolation from other populations of the species.

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Language death

In linguistics, language death occurs when a language loses its last native speaker.

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Larry Kert

Larry Kert (born Lawrence Frederick Kurt; December 5, 1930 – June 5, 1991) was an American actor, singer, and dancer.

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Lars Hanson

Lars Mauritz Hanson (26 July 1886 – 8 April 1965) was a Swedish film and stage actor, internationally mostly remembered for his motion picture roles during the silent film era.

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Laryngology is a branch of medicine that deals with disorders, diseases and injuries of the vocal apparatus, especially the larynx.

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Latah, from Southeast Asia, is a condition in which abnormal behaviors result from a person experiencing a sudden shock.

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Late years of Pope Pius XII

The late years of the pontificate, of Pope Pius XII were characterized by a hesitancy in personnel decisions.

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Later life of Winston Churchill

After the end of the World War II, Winston Churchill's Conservative Party lost the 1945 election, forcing him to step down as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.

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Laudanum is a tincture of opium containing approximately 10% powdered opium by weight (the equivalent of 1% morphine).

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Laurence H. Snyder

Laurence Hasbrouck Snyder (July 23, 1901 – October 8, 1986) was a pioneer in human genetics and president of the University of Hawaii.

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Law of Maximum

The Law of Maximum also known as Law of the Maximum is a principle developed by Arthur Wallace which states that total growth of a crop or a plant is proportional to about 70 growth factors.

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Lawrence Corey

Lawrence Corey (born February 14, 1947) is professor of Medicine and Laboratory Medicine at the University of Washington, a member of the Vaccine and Infectious Disease Division and past president and director of Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, Washington.

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Léon Rostan

Léon Louis Rostan (17 March 1790 – 4 October 1866) was a French internist and a member of the Académie Nationale de Médecine.

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Löffler's syndrome

Löffler's syndrome or Loeffler's syndrome is a disease in which eosinophils accumulate in the lung in response to a parasitic infection.

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Leaf wetness

Leaf wetness is a meteorological parameter that describes the amount of dew and precipitation left on surfaces.

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Lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase deficiency

Lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase deficiency (LCAT deficiency) is a disorder of lipoprotein metabolism.

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Leishmaniasis is a disease caused by parasites of the Leishmania type.

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Leon Eisenberg

Leon Eisenberg, (August 8, 1922 – September 15, 2009) was an American child psychiatrist, social psychiatrist and medical educator who "transformed child psychiatry by advocating research into developmental problems" He is credited with a number of "firsts" in medicine and psychiatry - in child psychiatry, autism, and the controversies around autism, randomized clinical trials (RCTs), social medicine, global health, affirmative action, and evidence-based psychiatry.

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Leptoconops torrens

Leptoconops torrens is a species of small biting flies in the family Ceratopogonidae ("No-see-ums").

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A lesion is any abnormal damage or change in the tissue of an organism, usually caused by disease or trauma.

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Lespesia archippivora

Lespesia archippivora is a species of tachinid fly, which, like all tachinids, are parasitoids of other arthropods.

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Lettuce mosaic virus

Lettuce mosaic virus (LMV) is a typical potyvirus (genus Potyvirus, family Potyviridae), which causes one of the major virus diseases of lettuce crops worldwide.

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Leucostoma canker

Leucostoma canker is a fungal disease that can kill stone fruit (Prunus spp.). The disease is caused by the plant pathogens Leucostoma persoonii and Leucostoma cinctum (teleomorph) and Cytospora leucostoma and Cytospora cincta (anamorphs).

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Leukocytosis is white cells (the leukocyte count) above the normal range in the blood.

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LGBT rights in Lithuania

Lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) people in Lithuania do not enjoy all the rights that non-LGBT people enjoy.

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LGBT rights opposition

LGBT rights opposition is the opposition to legal rights, proposed or enacted, for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people.

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Life is a characteristic that distinguishes physical entities that do have biological processes, such as signaling and self-sustaining processes, from those that do not, either because such functions have ceased, or because they never had such functions and are classified as inanimate.

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Life-process model of addiction

The life-process model of addiction is the view that addiction is not a disease but rather a habitual response and a source of gratification and security that can be understood only in the context of social relationships and experiences.

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Lifestyle disease

Lifestyle diseases are defined as diseases linked with the way people live their life.

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Lifestyle drug

Lifestyle drug is an imprecise term commonly applied to medications which treat non–life-threatening and non-painful conditions such as baldness, wrinkles, erectile dysfunction, or acne, which the speaker perceives as either not medical problems at all or as minor medical conditions relative to others.

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The lignans are a large group of polyphenols found in plants.

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Linear regression

In statistics, linear regression is a linear approach to modelling the relationship between a scalar response (or dependent variable) and one or more explanatory variables (or independent variables).

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Leucine rich repeat and Immunoglobin-like domain-containing protein 1 also known as LINGO-1 is a protein which is encoded by the LINGO1 gene in humans.

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Lip augmentation

Lip augmentation is a type of cosmetic surgery or non-surgical procedure that aims to alter the appearance of the lips by increasing their fullness through enlargement using fillers.

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Lipodermatosclerosis (also known as "chronic panniculitis with lipomembranous changes", "hypodermitis sclerodermiformis", "sclerosing panniculitis", and "stasis panniculitis") is a skin and connective tissue disease.

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List of abbreviations for diseases and disorders

This is a list of acronyms and initials related to diseases (infectious or non-infectious) and medical disorders.

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List of animals of Yellowstone

Yellowstone National Park in the northwest United States is home to a large variety of mammals, birds, fish, reptiles and amphibians, many of which migrate within the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem.

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List of bacterial vaginosis microbiota

Bacterial vaginosis is caused by an imbalance of the naturally occurring bacteria in the vagina.

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List of battles with most United States military fatalities

The following is a list of the most lethal battles fought by the military of the United States of America.

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List of body horror media

Body horror, biological horror, organic horror or visceral horror is horror fiction in which the horror is principally derived from the unnatural graphic transformation, degeneration or destruction of the physical body.

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List of childhood diseases and disorders

The term childhood disease refers to disease that is contracted or becomes symptomatic before the age of 18 years old.

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List of climate change books

This is a list of climate change books that describe, as a major theme, the effects of human activity on climate change.

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List of concentration and internment camps

This is a list of internment and concentration camps, organized by country.

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List of Dewey Decimal classes

The Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) is structured around ten main classes covering the entire world of knowledge; each main class is further structured into ten hierarchical divisions, each having ten sections of increasing specificity.

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List of diseases (0–9)

This is a list of diseases starting with a digit.

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List of diseases (A)

This is a list of diseases starting with the letter "A".

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List of diseases (B)

This is a list of diseases starting with the letter "B".

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List of diseases (C)

This is a list of diseases starting with the letter "C".

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List of diseases (D)

This is a list of diseases starting with the letter "D".

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List of diseases (E)

This is a list of diseases starting with the letter "E".

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List of diseases (F)

This is a list of diseases starting with the letter "F".

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List of diseases (G)

This is a list of diseases starting with the letter "G".

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List of diseases (H)

This is a list of diseases starting with the letter "H".

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List of diseases (I)

This is a list of diseases starting with the letter "I".

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List of diseases (J)

This is a list of diseases starting with the letter "J".

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List of diseases (K)

This is a list of diseases starting with the letter "K".

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List of diseases (L)

This is a list of diseases starting with the letter "L".

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List of diseases (M)

This is a list of diseases starting with the letter "M".

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List of diseases (N)

This is a list of diseases starting with the letter "N".

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List of diseases (O)

This is a list of diseases starting with the letter "O".

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List of diseases (P)

This is a list of diseases starting with the letter "P".

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List of diseases (Q)

This is a list of diseases starting with the letter "Q".

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List of diseases (R)

This is a list of diseases starting with the letter "R".

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List of diseases (S)

This is a list of diseases starting with the letter "S".

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List of diseases (T)

This is a list of diseases starting with the letter "T".

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List of diseases (U)

This is a list of diseases starting with the letter "U".

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List of diseases (V)

This is a list of diseases starting with the letter "V".

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List of diseases (W)

This is a list of diseases starting with the letter "W".

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List of diseases (X)

This is a list of diseases starting with the letter "X".

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List of diseases (Y)

This is a list of diseases starting with the letter "Y".

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List of diseases (Z)

This is a list of diseases starting with the letter "Z".

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List of diseases of the honey bee

Diseases of the honey bee or abnormal hive conditions include.

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List of disorders

A list of types of disorders.

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List of Emojis

This page is a list of emojis.

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List of eponymously named diseases

An eponymous disease is a disease named after a person: usually the physician who first identified the disease or, less commonly, a patient who suffered from the disease.

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List of esoteric healing articles

Esoteric healing refers to numerous types of alternative therapy which aim to heal disease and disability, using esoteric means, either through faith and human will, or by using pseudoscientific processes.

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List of fictional diseases

This article is a list of fictional diseases, disorders, infections, and pathogens which appear in fiction where they have a major plot or thematic importance.

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List of Forgotten Realms deities

This is a list of Forgotten Realms deities.

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List of gray wolf populations by country

The global wolf population is estimated at 300,000 Once abundant over much of North America and Eurasia, the gray wolf inhabits a smaller portion of its former range because of widespread destruction of its habitat, human encroachment of its habitat, and the resulting human-wolf encounters that sparked broad extirpation.

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List of Greek morphemes used in English

Greek morphemes are parts of words originating from the Greek language.

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List of He-Man and the Masters of the Universe episodes

The following is a list of episodes for the 1980s animated series He-Man and the Masters of the Universe.

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List of Horizon episodes

Horizon is a current and long-running BBC popular science and philosophy documentary programme.

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List of ICD-9 codes 680–709: diseases of the skin and subcutaneous tissue


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List of important publications in medicine

This is a list of important publications in medicine, organized by field.

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List of life sciences

The life sciences or biological sciences comprise the branches of science that involve the scientific study of life and organisms – such as microorganisms, plants, and animals including human beings – as well as related considerations like bioethics.

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List of medical abbreviations: D

Category:Lists of medical abbreviations.

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List of medical roots, suffixes and prefixes

This is a list of roots, suffixes, and prefixes used in medical terminology, their meanings, and their etymology.

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List of MeSH codes

The following is a list of the codes for MeSH (Medical Subject Headings), a comprehensive controlled vocabulary for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences; it can also serve as a thesaurus that facilitates searching.

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List of MeSH codes (C23)

The following is a list of the "C" codes for MeSH.

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List of MeSH codes (E05)

The following is a list of the "E" codes for MeSH.

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List of MeSH codes (G03)

The following is a list of the "G" codes for MeSH.

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List of MeSH codes (L01)

The following is a list of the "L" codes for MeSH.

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List of MeSH codes (N01)

The following is a list of the "N" codes for MeSH.

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List of minor Buffy the Vampire Slayer characters

Buffy the Vampire Slayer is an American franchise which spans several media and genres.

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List of mystery diseases

A mystery disease is a disease for which the cause has not yet been identified.

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List of neuroscience databases

A number of online neuroscience databases are available which provide information regarding gene expression, neurons, macroscopic brain structure, and neurological or psychiatric disorders.

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List of Nova episodes

Nova is an American science documentary television series produced by WGBH Boston for PBS.

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List of phenyltropanes

Phenyltropanes (PTs) are a family of chemical compounds originally derived from structural modification of cocaine.

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List of phobias

The English suffixes -phobia, -phobic, -phobe (from Greek φόβος phobos, "fear") occur in technical usage in psychiatry to construct words that describe irrational, abnormal, unwarranted, persistent, or disabling fear as a mental disorder (e.g. agoraphobia), in chemistry to describe chemical aversions (e.g. hydrophobic), in biology to describe organisms that dislike certain conditions (e.g. acidophobia), and in medicine to describe hypersensitivity to a stimulus, usually sensory (e.g. photophobia).

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List of poisonous plants

Poisonous plants are those plants that produce toxins that deter herbivores from consuming them.

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List of Professor Blastoff episodes

Professor Blastoff was a weekly comedy audio podcast which aired from May 15, 2011 to July 21, 2015.

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List of signs and symptoms of diving disorders

Diving disorders are medical conditions specifically arising from underwater diving.

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List of spatial analysis software

Spatial analysis software is software written to enable and facilitate spatial analysis.

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List of Star Wars creatures

This is a list of creatures in the fictional Star Wars universe.

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List of systemic diseases with ocular manifestations

An ocular manifestation of a systemic disease is an eye condition that directly or indirectly results from a disease process in another part of the body.

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List of The Last Blade characters

This is a list of characters from The Last Blade.

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List of The Magic School Bus episodes

This is a list of episodes of the children's television series The Magic School Bus, which is based on the series of books of the same name written by Joanna Cole.

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List of The Texas Chainsaw Massacre characters

The Sawyers (renamed the Hewitts in the 2003 reboot and its 2006 prequel) are a large, Southern American family of cannibalistic butchers and serial killers in ''The Texas Chainsaw Massacre'' franchise, who live in the Texas backwoods, where they abduct, torture, murder, and eat stranded motorists.

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List of U.S. state reptiles

Twenty-six U.S. states have named an official state reptile.

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List of unsolved problems in biology

This article lists currently unsolved problems in biology.

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List of unsolved problems in neuroscience

There are yet unsolved problems in neuroscience, although some of these problems have evidence supporting a hypothesized solution, and the field is rapidly evolving.

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List of words ending in ology

† not study.

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Listening Books

Listening Books is a UK charity that provides a subsidised subscription online and postal audiobook library service to anyone unable to read a print text due to an illness, disability, learning difficulty or mental illness.

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Lists of diseases

A medical condition is a broad term that includes all diseases and disorders.

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Lithium carbonate

No description.

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Lithotomy from Greek for "lithos" (stone) and "tomos" (cut), is a surgical method for removal of calculi, stones formed inside certain organs, such as the kidneys (kidney stones), bladder (bladder stones), and gallbladder (gallstones), that cannot exit naturally through the urinary system or biliary tract.

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The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.

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Liver disease

Liver disease (also called hepatic disease) is a type of damage to or disease of the liver.

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Living things in culture

Living things including animals, plants, fungi and microbes play many roles in culture.

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Lloviu virus

Lloviu virus (LLOV) is an uncultured virus distantly related to the well-known pathogens Ebola virus and Marburg virus.

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Localized disease

A localized disease is an infectious or neoplastic process that originates in and is confined to one organ system or general area in the body, such as a sprained ankle, a boil on the hand, an abscess of finger.

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Longleaf pine ecosystem

The longleaf pine ecosystem is a diverse fire climax conifer pine dominate habitat that includes many rare plant and animal species found within the southeastern United States.

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Lord's Resistance Army insurgency (2002–05)

The period from 2000 to 2006 of the Lord's Resistance Army insurgency in northern Uganda begins with the assault of the Uganda People's Defence Force (UPDF) upon LRA strongholds in South Sudan.

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Lore (podcast)

Lore is an award-winning, critically acclaimed podcast about non-fiction scary stories.

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Lorenzo Carter

Major Lorenzo Carter was the first permanent settler in Cleveland, Ohio.

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Lori L. Altshuler

Lori Altshuler (August 23, 1957 – November 5, 2015) was a Professor at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences and held the Julia S. Gouw Endowed Chair for Mood Disorders.

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Loss function

In mathematical optimization, statistics, econometrics, decision theory, machine learning and computational neuroscience, a loss function or cost function is a function that maps an event or values of one or more variables onto a real number intuitively representing some "cost" associated with the event.

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Lost River sucker

The Lost River sucker (Deltistes luxatus) is a species of ray-finned fish in the family Catostomidae.

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Lothian birth-cohort studies

The Lothian birth-cohort studies are two ongoing cohort studies which primarily involve research into how childhood intelligence relates to intelligence and health in old age.

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Louis Pasteur

Louis Pasteur (December 27, 1822 – September 28, 1895) was a French biologist, microbiologist and chemist renowned for his discoveries of the principles of vaccination, microbial fermentation and pasteurization.

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Louisiana wine

Louisiana wine refers to wine made from grapes grown in the U.S. state of Louisiana.

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Loung Ung

Loung Ung (Aung Lueng; born April 17, 1970) is a Cambodian-born American human-rights activist and lecturer.

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Low birth weight

Low birth weight (LBW) is defined by the World Health Organization as a birth weight of a infant of 2,499 g or less, regardless of gestational age.

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Lozi mythology

The main function of Lozi mythology is to show that the original Lozi people (the Luyi or Luyana) were dwellers on the Barotse Floodplain of the upper Zambezi River and that they are, therefore, entitled to claim unchallenged title to that homeland.

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Low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1), also known as alpha-2-macroglobulin receptor (A2MR), apolipoprotein E receptor (APOER) or cluster of differentiation 91 (CD91), is a protein forming a receptor found in the plasma membrane of cells involved in receptor-mediated endocytosis.

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The lungs are the primary organs of the respiratory system in humans and many other animals including a few fish and some snails.

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Lycium shawii

Lycium shawii, desert thorn or Arabian boxthorn is a species of thorny shrub adapted to desert environments, and can be found throughout the Arabian peninsula, and some places in Africa.

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Lymph node

A lymph node or lymph gland is an ovoid or kidney-shaped organ of the lymphatic system, and of the adaptive immune system, that is widely present throughout the body.

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Lymphadenopathy or adenopathy is disease of the lymph nodes, in which they are abnormal in size, number, or consistency.

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Lymphocystis is a common viral disease of freshwater and saltwater fish.

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Lymphoid leucosis

Lymphoid leucosis is a disease that affects chickens, caused by the retrovirus Avian leukosis virus.

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Lynching is a premeditated extrajudicial killing by a group.

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Lysis (disambiguation)

Lysis can refer to.

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Macula of retina

The macula or macula lutea is an oval-shaped pigmented area near the center of the retina of the human eye and some other animalian eyes.

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Macular edema

Macular edema occurs when fluid and protein deposits collect on or under the macula of the eye (a yellow central area of the retina) and causes it to thicken and swell (edema).

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Mahwah, New Jersey

Mahwah is a township in Bergen County, New Jersey, United States.

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MAKNA (Majlis Kanser Nasional) or National Cancer Council Malaysia is a not-for-profit social enterprise mainly tasked to pool and utilize every effort, expertise and welfare from every faction of society to fight cancer and to reduce the pain, suffering and morbidity that the cancer patients often experience.

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Maladies (disambiguation)

Maladies may refer to.

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Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease affecting humans and other animals caused by parasitic protozoans (a group of single-celled microorganisms) belonging to the Plasmodium type.

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Malaria antigen detection tests

Malaria antigen detection tests are a group of commercially available rapid diagnostic tests of the rapid antigen test type that allow quick diagnosis of malaria by people who are not otherwise skilled in traditional laboratory techniques for diagnosing malaria or in situations where such equipment is not available.

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Mammea americana

Mammea americana, commonly known as mammee, mammee apple, mamey, mamey apple, Santo Domingo apricot, tropical apricot, or South American apricot, is an evergreen tree of the family Calophyllaceae, whose fruit is edible.

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Management of hypertension

Hypertension is managed using lifestyle modification and antihypertensive medications.

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Management of ulcerative colitis

Management of ulcerative colitis involves first treating the acute symptoms of the disease, then maintaining remission.

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Mania, also known as manic syndrome, is a state of abnormally elevated arousal, affect, and energy level, or "a state of heightened overall activation with enhanced affective expression together with lability of affect." Although mania is often conceived as a "mirror image" to depression, the heightened mood can be either euphoric or irritable; indeed, as the mania intensifies, irritability can be more pronounced and result in violence, or anxiety.

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Manila massacre

The Manila massacre (Filipino: Pagpatay sa Maynila) involved atrocities committed against Filipino civilians in the City of Manila, the capital of the Philippines, by Japanese troops during World War II at the Battle of Manila (February 3, 1945 – March 3, 1945).

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Manley Power

Lieutenant General Sir Manley Power, KCB, ComTE (1773 – 7 July 1826) was a British military leader who fought in a number of campaigns for Britain and rose to the rank of Lieutenant General.

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Marc Lacroix (biochemist)

Marc Guy Albert Marie Lacroix is a biochemist (educated at University of Liège) and a researcher (born 28 April 1963 in Verviers, Wallonia, Belgium) who specializes in breast cancer biology, metastasis and therapy.

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Marfanoid–progeroid–lipodystrophy syndrome

Marfanoid–progeroid–lipodystrophy syndrome (MPL), also known as Marfan lipodystrophy syndrome (MFLS) or progeroid fibrillinopathy, is an extremely rare medical condition which manifests as a variety of symptoms including those usually associated with Marfan syndrome, an appearance resembling that seen in neonatal progeroid syndrome (NPS; also known as Wiedemann–Rautenstrauch syndrome), and severe partial lipodystrophy.

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Margaret and Charles Juravinski Centre

The Margaret and Charles Juravinski Centre offers regional psychiatric care and research in Hamilton, Ontario and to the south-central Ontario population.

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Māri (/mɒrı/, /maari/, மாரி), also known as Mariamman (/mɒrı əˈmʌn/ மாரியம்மன்) and Mariaai (Marathi: मरी आई, मरी माय), both meaning "Mother Mari", spelt also Maariamma (மாரியம்மா), or simply Amman or Aatha (அம்மன், "mother") is the South Indian Hindu goddess of rain.

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Marianne Legato

Marianne J. Legato, MD, FACP, is an internationally known academic physician, author, and lecturer and globally recognized expert in gender-specific medicine, the science of how normal human function and the experience of the same disease vary as a function of gender/biological sex.

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Mariculture is a specialized branch of aquaculture involving the cultivation of marine organisms for food and other products in the open ocean, an enclosed section of the ocean, or in tanks, ponds or raceways which are filled with seawater.

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Marine shrimp farming

Marine shrimp farming is an aquaculture business for the cultivation of marine shrimp or prawns for human consumption.

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Mark 1

Mark 1 is the first chapter of the Gospel of Mark in the New Testament of the Christian Bible.

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Marriage, also called matrimony or wedlock, is a socially or ritually recognised union between spouses that establishes rights and obligations between those spouses, as well as between them and any resulting biological or adopted children and affinity (in-laws and other family through marriage).

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Marriage and health

Marriage and health are closely related.

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Martial arts therapy

Martial arts Therapy refers to the usage of martial arts as an alternative or complementary therapy for a medical disorder.

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Martian (The War of the Worlds)

The Martians, also known as the Invaders, are the fictional race of extraterrestrials from the H.G. Wells novel The War of the Worlds.

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Martin Luther King Jr.

Martin Luther King Jr. (January 15, 1929 – April 4, 1968) was an American Baptist minister and activist who became the most visible spokesperson and leader in the civil rights movement from 1954 until his death in 1968.

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Marty Mann

Marty Mann (October 15, 1904 – July 22, 1980) was an early female member of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and author of the chapter "Women Suffer Too" in the second through fourth editions of the Big Book of AA.

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Masahiro Tanaka

is a Japanese professional baseball starting pitcher for the New York Yankees of Major League Baseball (MLB).

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Mass drug administration

The administration of drugs to whole populations irrespective of disease status is referred to as mass drug administration (MDA).

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Mass grave

A mass grave is a grave containing multiple human corpses, which may or may not be identified prior to burial.

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Mass hysteria

In sociology and psychology, mass hysteria (also known as collective hysteria, group hysteria, or collective obsessional behavior) is a phenomenon that transmits collective illusions of threats, whether real or imaginary, through a population in society as a result of rumors and fear (memory acknowledgement).

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MASS syndrome

MASS syndrome is a medical disorder of the connective tissue similar to Marfan syndrome.

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Massachusetts Department of Public Health

The Massachusetts Department of Public Health is a governmental agency of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts with various responsibilities related to public health within that state.

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Mastitis in dairy cattle

Bovine mastitis is the persistent, inflammatory reaction of the udder tissue due to physical trauma or microorganisms infections.

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Mate choice

Mate choice, also known as intersexual selection, is an evolutionary process in which selection is dependent on the attractiveness of an individual's phenotypic traits.

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Maternal death

Maternal death or maternal mortality is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as "the death of a woman while pregnant or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy, irrespective of the duration and site of the pregnancy, from any cause related to or aggravated by the pregnancy or its management but not from accidental or incidental causes." There are two performance indicators that are sometimes used interchangeably: maternal mortality ratio and maternal mortality rate, which confusingly both are abbreviated "MMR".

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Maternal near miss

A maternal near miss (MNM) is an event in which a pregnant woman comes close to maternal death, but does not die – a "near-miss".

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Maternal–fetal medicine

Maternal–fetal medicine (MFM) (also known as perinatology) is a branch of medicine that focuses on managing health concerns of the mother and fetus prior to, during, and shortly after pregnancy.

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The Matis people (also called Nutioy, Bimbos, Mikitbo, and Mushabo) are an indigenous people of Brazil.

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Matt Holliday

Matthew Thomas Holliday (born January 15, 1980) is an American professional baseball designated hitter and outfielder who is a free agent.

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Maury (TV series)

Maury (sometimes known as The Maury Povich Show) is a syndicated American tabloid talk show hosted by Maury Povich.

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Max Penson

Max Penson (1893–1959) was a noted Russian photojournalist and photographer of the Soviet Union noted for his photographs of Uzbekistan.

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Maxillary first molar

The maxillary first molar is the human tooth located laterally (away from the midline of the face) from both the maxillary second premolars of the mouth but mesial (toward the midline of the face) from both maxillary second molars.

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Maximum life span

Maximum life span (or, for humans, maximum reported age at death) is a measure of the maximum amount of time one or more members of a population have been observed to survive between birth and death.

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Mbuti people

Mbuti or Bambuti are one of several indigenous pygmy groups in the Congo region of Africa.

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Meat is animal flesh that is eaten as food.

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Mecasermin rinfabate

Mecasermin rinfabate (INN, USAN) (brand name Iplex), also known as /, is a drug consisting of recombinant human insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and recombinant human insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) which is used for the treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (Lou Gehrig's disease).

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Mechanism of action of aspirin

Aspirin causes several different effects in the body, mainly the reduction of inflammation, analgesia (relief of pain), the prevention of clotting, and the reduction of fever.

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Meckel syndrome

Meckel syndrome (also known as Meckel–Gruber syndrome, Gruber syndrome, dysencephalia splanchnocystica) is a rare, lethal, ciliopathic, genetic disorder, characterized by renal cystic dysplasia, central nervous system malformations (occipital encephalocele), polydactyly (post axial), hepatic developmental defects, and pulmonary hypoplasia due to oligohydramnios.

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Medical cannabis

Medical cannabis, or medical marijuana, is cannabis and cannabinoids that are recommended by doctors for their patients.

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Medical cannabis research

Medical cannabis research includes any medical research on using cannabis as a treatment for any medical condition.

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Medical case management

Medical case management is a collaborative process that facilitates recommended treatment plans to assure the appropriate medical care is provided to disabled, ill or injured individuals.

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Medical certificate

A medical certificate or doctor's certificate is a written statement from a physician or other medically qualified health care provider which attests to the result of a medical examination of a patient.

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Medical classification

Medical classification, or medical coding, is the process of transforming descriptions of medical diagnoses and procedures into universal medical code numbers.

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Medical consensus

Medical consensus is a public statement on a particular aspect of medical knowledge at the time the statement is made that a representative group of experts agree to be evidence-based and state-of-the-art (state-of-the-science) knowledge.

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Medical diagnosis

Medical diagnosis (abbreviated Dx or DS) is the process of determining which disease or condition explains a person's symptoms and signs.

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Medical education in France

Medical education in France is administered by the Unités de formation et de recherche de médecine (UFR).

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Medical emergency

A medical emergency is an acute injury or illness that poses an immediate risk to a person's life or long-term health.

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Medical encyclopedia

A medical encyclopedia is a comprehensive written compendium that holds information about diseases, medical conditions, tests, symptoms, injuries, and surgeries.

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Medical equipment

Medical equipment (also known as armamentarium) is designed to aid in the diagnosis, monitoring or treatment of medical conditions.

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Medical error

A medical error is a preventable adverse effect of care, whether or not it is evident or harmful to the patient.

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Medical genetics of Jews

The medical genetics of Jews is the study, screening, and treatment of genetic disorders more common in particular Jewish populations than in the population as a whole.

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Medical geology

Medical geology is an emerging interdisciplinary scientific field studying the relationship between natural geological factors and their effects on human and animal health.

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Medical identification tag

A medical identification tag is a small emblem or tag worn on a bracelet, neck chain, or on the clothing bearing a message that the wearer has an important medical condition that might require immediate attention.

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Medical imaging

Medical imaging is the technique and process of creating visual representations of the interior of a body for clinical analysis and medical intervention, as well as visual representation of the function of some organs or tissues (physiology).

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Medical Investigation

Medical Investigation was an American medical drama television series that began September 9, 2004, on NBC.

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Medical literature

Medical literature is the scientific literature of medicine: articles in journals and texts in books devoted to the field of medicine.

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Medical microbiology

Medical microbiology, the large subset of microbiology that is applied to medicine, is a branch of medical science concerned with the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases.

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Medical record

The terms medical record, health record, and medical chart are used somewhat interchangeably to describe the systematic documentation of a single patient's medical history and care across time within one particular health care provider's jurisdiction.

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Medical state

Medical states or medical conditions are used to describe a patient's condition (that is, their clinical status) in a hospital.

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Medical terminology

Medical terminology is language used to precisely describe the human body including its components, processes, conditions affecting it, and procedures performed upon it.

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Medical tourism in Israel

Medical tourism in Israel is medical tourism in which people travel to Israel for medical treatment, which is emerging as an important destination for medical tourists.

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Medical uses of bicalutamide

The medical uses of bicalutamide, a nonsteroidal antiandrogen (NSAA), include the treatment of androgen-dependent conditions and hormone therapy to block the effects of androgens.

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Medical Waste Tracking Act

The Medical Waste Tracking Act of 1988 is a United States federal law concerning the illegal dumping of body tissues, blood wastes and other contaminated biological materials.

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Medicalization or medicalisation (see spelling differences) is the process by which human conditions and problems come to be defined and treated as medical conditions, and thus become the subject of medical study, diagnosis, prevention, or treatment.

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A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.

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Medication therapy management

Medication Therapy Management (MTM) is medical care provided by pharmacists whose aim is to optimize drug therapy and improve therapeutic outcomes for patients.

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Medicine is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.

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Medicine: Prep Manual for Undergraduates

Medicine: Prep Manual for Undergraduates is a book.

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Medieval medicine of Western Europe

Medieval medicine in Western Europe was composed of a mixture of existing ideas from antiquity, spiritual influences and what Claude Lévi-Strauss identifies as the "shamanistic complex" and "social consensus." In the Early Middle Ages, following the fall of the Western Roman Empire, standard medical knowledge was based chiefly upon surviving Greek and Roman texts, preserved in monasteries and elsewhere.

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MedLabNews is a UK quarterly science magazine aimed at scientists and science professionals.

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Mega Man 10

Mega Man 10, known in Japan as, is an action-platform video game developed by Inti Creates and Capcom.

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Megavitamin therapy

Megavitamin therapy is the use of large doses of vitamins, often many times greater than the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) in the attempt to prevent or treat diseases.

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Melanoma, also known as malignant melanoma, is a type of cancer that develops from the pigment-containing cells known as melanocytes.

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Melmoil is a small village in Vellore district near K.V.Kuppam.

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A melodrama is a dramatic work in which the plot, which is typically sensational and designed to appeal strongly to the emotions, takes precedence over detailed characterization.

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Meningoencephalitis (from Greek μῆνιγξ meninx, "membrane", ἐγκέφαλος, enképhalos "brain", and the medical suffix -itis, "inflammation") is a medical condition that simultaneously resembles both meningitis, which is an infection or inflammation of the meninges, and encephalitis, which is an infection or inflammation of the brain.

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Mental Health Act 1983

The Mental Health Act 1983 (c.20) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom which applies to people in England and Wales.

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Mercury in fish

Fish and shellfish concentrate mercury in their bodies, often in the form of methylmercury, a highly toxic organic compound of mercury.

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In folklore, a mermaid is an aquatic creature with the head and upper body of a female human and the tail of a fish.

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MERRF syndrome

MERRF syndrome (or myoclonic epilepsy with ragged red fibers) is a mitochondrial disease.

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Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.

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Meta (academic company)

Meta is a company performing big data analysis of scientific literature.

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Metal toxicity

Metal toxicity or metal poisoning is the toxic effect of certain metals in certain forms and doses on life.

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Metalloprotease inhibitor

Metalloprotease inhibitors are cellular inhibitors of the Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs).

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Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) refers to a group of gram-positive bacteria that are genetically distinct from other strains of Staphylococcus aureus.

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Methodic school

The Methodic school of medicine (Methodics, Methodists, or Methodici, Μεθοδικοί) was an ancient school of medicine in ancient Greece and Rome.

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Methyldopa, sold under the brand name Aldomet among others, is a medication used for high blood pressure.

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MetLife, Inc. is the holding corporation for the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company (MLIC), better known as MetLife, and its affiliates.

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Mevalonate pathway

The mevalonate pathway, also known as the isoprenoid pathway or HMG-CoA reductase pathway is an essential metabolic pathway present in eukaryotes, archaea, and some bacteria.

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Mexico–United States border

The Mexico–United States border is an international border separating Mexico and the United States, extending from the Pacific Ocean to the west and Gulf of Mexico to the east.

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Miasma theory

The miasma theory (also called the miasmatic theory) is an obsolete medical theory that held that diseases—such as cholera, chlamydia, or the Black Death—were caused by a miasma (μίασμα, ancient Greek: "pollution"), a noxious form of "bad air", also known as night air.

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Michael Fossel

Michael B. Fossel, M.D., Ph.D. (born 1950, Greenwich, Connecticut) was a professor of clinical medicine at Michigan State University and is the author of several books on aging, who is best known for his views on telomerase therapy as a possible treatment for cellular senescence.

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Michael Sharpe

Michael Sharpe is a British psychiatrist and academic specialising in the psychiatric aspects of medical illness.

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Michio Kushi

; born 17 May 1926 in Japan, died December 28, 2014, helped to introduce modern macrobiotics to the United States in the early 1950s.

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Microbial ecology

Microbial ecology (or environmental microbiology) is the ecology of microorganisms: their relationship with one another and with their environment.

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Microbial symbiosis and immunity

There are close and often long-term relationships between symbiotic microbes and their host's immune system.

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Microbiology (from Greek μῑκρος, mīkros, "small"; βίος, bios, "life"; and -λογία, -logia) is the study of microorganisms, those being unicellular (single cell), multicellular (cell colony), or acellular (lacking cells).

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Microfluidics deals with the behaviour, precise control and manipulation of fluids that are geometrically constrained to a small, typically sub-millimeter, scale at which capillary penetration governs mass transport.

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A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.

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Microvesicles (circulating microvesicles, or microparticles) are a type of extracellular vesicle, between 50 and 1,000 nanometers (nm) in diameter, found in many types of body fluids as well as the interstitial space between cells.

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Midostaurin (sold under the name Rydapt) is a multi-targeted protein kinase inhibitor that has been investigated for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and advanced systemic mastocytosis.

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Midwifery in Maya society

Midwifery is a women's profession that assists women from pregnancy to newborn care.

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Migraine-associated vertigo

Vestibular migraine (VM) is vertigo associated with a migraine, either as a symptom of migraine or as a related but neurological disorder; when referred to as a disease unto itself, it is also termed migraine-associated vertigo (MAV), migrainous vertigo, or migraine-related vestibulopathy.

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Migration in China

Internal migration in the People's Republic of China is one of the most extensive in the world according to the International Labour Organization.

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Mike Andrews

Michael Jay Andrews (born July 9, 1943) is an American former professional baseball player.

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Military anti-shock trousers

Military anti-shock trousers, or pneumatic anti-shock garments (PASG), are medical devices used to treat severe blood loss.

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Military history of Mexico

The military history of Mexico consists of several millennia of armed conflicts within what is now that nation's territory and includes activities of the Mexican military in peacekeeping and combat related affairs worldwide.

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Millosh Gjergj Nikolla

No description.

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Mind–body interventions

Mind–body interventions are medical and pseudomedical interventions based on the idea of the mind influencing the physical body.

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MINE (chemotherapy)

MINE in the context of chemotherapy is an acronym for one of the chemotherapy regimens used for treatment of relapsed or refractory aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and Hodgkin's lymphoma.

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Mir-16 microRNA precursor family

The miR-16 microRNA precursor family is a group of related small non-coding RNA genes that regulates gene expression.

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Mirko Grmek

Mirko Dražen Grmek (9 January 1924 – 6 March 2000) was a Croatian and French historian of medicine, writer and scientist.

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Misogyny is the hatred of, contempt for, or prejudice against women or girls.

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Mister Blank

Mister Blank is a comic book limited series by Christopher J. Hicks, published by Slave Labor Graphics (under their Amaze Ink imprint).

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MitoMap is a real time haplotyping protocol that analyzes pathogenic variants that cause several mitochondrial diseases.

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MMR vaccine

The MMR vaccine (also known as the MPR vaccine after the Latin names of the diseases) is an immunization vaccine against measles, mumps, and rubella (German measles).

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Mobile incinerator

The role of incineration of waste and equipment used for it has changed radically in the recent years.

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Model organism

A model organism is a non-human species that is extensively studied to understand particular biological phenomena, with the expectation that discoveries made in the organism model will provide insight into the workings of other organisms.

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Models of abnormality

Models of abnormality are general hypotheses as to the nature of psychological abnormalities.

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Models of deafness

Various models of deafness are rooted in either the social or biological sciences.

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Moderation Management

Moderation Management (MM) is a secular non-profit organization providing peer-run non-coercive support groups for anyone who would like to reduce their alcohol consumption.

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Mohammad Va'ez Abaee-Khorasani

Ayatollah Mohammad Va'ez Abaee-Khorasani (محمد عبایی خراسانی) (1940?-October 13, 2004) was an Iranian cleric and reformist politician.

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Molecular Medicine (journal)

Molecular Medicine is a peer-reviewed open access medical journal published by The Feinstein Institute for Medical Research.

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Monirith Chhea

Monirith Chhea (1960s -) is a Cambodian- American artist from Phnom Penh.

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Monoculture is the agricultural practice of producing or growing a single crop, plant, or livestock species, variety, or breed in a field or farming system at a time.

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The order Mononegavirales is the taxonomic home of numerous related viruses.

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Monothematic delusion

A monothematic delusion is a delusional state that concerns only one particular topic.

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Mood disorder

Mood disorder, also known as mood (affective) disorders, is a group of conditions where a disturbance in the person's mood is the main underlying feature.

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Moonshine Valley

Moonshine Valley is a 1922 black-and-white silent American Western film.

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Morbid map

In genetics, a morbid map is a chart or diagram of diseases and the chromosomal location of genes the diseases are associated with.

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Morbidity and mortality

Morbidity and mortality may refer to.

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Morris Krok

Morris Krok (28 April 1931 – October 2005) was a South African author, publisher and health educator.

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Mortality rate

Mortality rate, or death rate, is a measure of the number of deaths (in general, or due to a specific cause) in a particular population, scaled to the size of that population, per unit of time.

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Mosquitoes are small, midge-like flies that constitute the family Culicidae.

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Mosquito control

Mosquito control manages the population of mosquitoes to reduce their damage to human health, economies, and enjoyment.

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Motherisk was a clinical and research program at The Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, established in 1985 as a teratogen information service to provide evidence-based safety information on exposures in pregnancy and lactation.

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A mouse (Mus), plural mice, is a small rodent characteristically having a pointed snout, small rounded ears, a body-length scaly tail and a high breeding rate.

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Mitochondrial carrier homolog 1 (MTCH1), also referred to as presenilin 1-associated protein (PSAP), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MTCH1 gene on chromosome 6.

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Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi

Abū Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariyyā al-Rāzī (Abūbakr Mohammad-e Zakariyyā-ye Rāzī, also known by his Latinized name Rhazes or Rasis) (854–925 CE), was a Persian polymath, physician, alchemist, philosopher, and important figure in the history of medicine.

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Multimedia is content that uses a combination of different content forms such as text, audio, images, animations, video and interactive content.

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Multiple abnormalities

When a patient has multiple abnormalities (multiple anomaly, multiple deformity), they have a congenital abnormality that can not be primarily identified with a single system of the body or single disease process.

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Multiple chemical sensitivity

Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS), also known as idiopathic environmental intolerances (IEI), is a disputed chronic condition characterized by symptoms that the affected person attributes to low-level exposures to commonly used chemicals.

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Multiple morbidities

Multiple morbidities or Multimorbidities is a term which means co-occurring diseases.

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Mumps outbreaks in the 21st century

Mumps outbreaks in the 21st century refers to mumps outbreaks occurring from 2000 through the present day.

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Munchausen by Internet

Munchausen by Internet is a pattern of behavior akin to Munchausen syndrome (renamed factitious disorder imposed on self), a psychiatric disorder, wherein those affected feign disease, illness, or psychological trauma to draw attention, sympathy, or reassurance to themselves.

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Muraqaba (مراقبة, an Arabic word meaning "to watch over", "to take care of", or "to keep an eye"), is the Sufi word for meditation.

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Muscardine is a disease of insects.

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Museum integrated pest management

Museum integrated pest management is the practice of monitoring and managing pest and environmental information with pest control methods to prevent pest damage to collections and cultural heritage.

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A mushroom, or toadstool, is the fleshy, spore-bearing fruiting body of a fungus, typically produced above ground on soil or on its food source.

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Muswell Hill

Muswell Hill is a suburban and low-rise urban district of the north, outer London Boroughs of Haringey and – a small part only – Barnet.

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My Year Without Sex (film)

My Year Without Sex is an Australian drama film written and directed by Sarah Watt, opening the 2009 Adelaide Film Festival and given wider release in May 2009.

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Mycobacterium confluentis

Mycobacterium confluentis is a non-pathogenic bacterium of the oral cavity.

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Mycobacterium flavescens

Mycobacterium flavescens is a species of the phylum actinobacteria (Gram-positive bacteria with high guanine and cytosine content, one of the dominant phyla of all bacteria), belonging to the genus mycobacterium.

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Mycoplasma genitalium

Mycoplasma genitalium, commonly known as Mgen, is a sexually transmitted, small and pathogenic bacterium that lives on the ciliated epithelial cells of the urinary and genital tracts in humans.

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Mycoplasma haemofelis

Mycoplasma haemofelis (formerly Haemobartonella felis) is a gram negative epierythrocytic parasitic bacterium.

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Mydriasis is the dilation of the pupil, usually having a non-physiological cause, or sometimes a physiological pupillary response.

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Myelodysplastic syndrome

Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a group of cancers in which immature blood cells in the bone marrow do not mature and therefore do not become healthy blood cells.

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Myocardial infarction

Myocardial infarction (MI), commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when blood flow decreases or stops to a part of the heart, causing damage to the heart muscle.

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Myology is the study of the muscular system, including the study of the structure, function and diseases of muscle.

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Myopathy is a disease of the muscle in which the muscle fibers do not function properly.

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Myosatellite cell

Myosatellite cells or satellite cells are small multipotent cells with virtually no cytoplasm found in mature muscle.

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Mythology of Heroes

Heroes includes a number of mysterious fictional elements that have been ascribed to science fiction or supernatural phenomena.

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Myxomatosis (sometimes shortened to "myxo" or "myxy") is a disease that affects rabbits, caused by the ''myxoma'' virus.

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NACA score

A NACA score is a scoring system of the severity in cases of medical emergencies such as injuries, diseases or poisonings.

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Nachum Kaplan

Reb Menachem Nachum ben Uzziel Kaplan (1811 in Baisogala – October 25, 1879) was a Lithuanian Talmudist, philanthropist,Jewish Encyclopedia bibliography.

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Nalan Xingde

y Nalan Xingde (January 19, 1655 – July 1, 1685), Manchu name Nara Singde, courtesy name Rongruo (容若), was a Qing dynasty Chinese poet, famous for his ci poetry.

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Nanobiomechanics (also bionanomechanics) is an emerging field in nanoscience and biomechanics that combines the powerful tools of nanomechanics to explore fundamental science of biomaterials and biomechanics.

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NanoGagliato is an invitational gathering of scientists, physicians, business leaders, artists, and researchers to discuss the most current challenges and opportunities in the fields of nanomedicine and the nanosciences, from a multisciplinary perspective.

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Nanoinjection is the process of using a microscopic lance and electrical forces to deliver DNA to a cell.

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Nanonephrology is a branch of nanomedicine and nanotechnology that deals with.

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Napoleonic Wars casualties

The casualties of the Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815), direct and indirect, break down as follows: Note that the following deaths listed include both killed in action as well as deaths from other causes; Deaths from diseases such as those from wounds; of starvation; exposure; drowning; friendly fire; and atrocities; Medical treatments were changed drastically at this time.

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Nariampara Puthiyakavu Devikshethram

Nariampara Puthiyakavu Devikshethram is a Hindu temple located in Nariampara near Kattappana in Idukki district of Kerala state, India.

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The Narikurava (IAST) is an indigenous community from Indian state of Tamil Nadu.

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Narnia (world)

Narnia is a fantasy world created by C. S. Lewis as the primary location for his series of seven fantasy novels for children, The Chronicles of Narnia.

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Nathan W. Levin

Nathan W. Levin is a U.S. American physician and founder of the Renal Research Institute, LLC., a research institute dedicated to improving the outcomes of patients with kidney disease, particularly those requiring dialysis.

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National Adult Reading Test