21 relations: Bunji Sakita, Color confinement, David Olive, Duality, Everything, History of string theory, Index of physics articles (D), Jean-Loup Gervais, Leonard Susskind, Lippmann–Schwinger equation, List of dualities, Masud Ahmad, Oscillator representation, Paul Frampton, QCD vacuum, Regge theory, S-matrix theory, Veneziano amplitude, Vertex operator algebra, Virasoro algebra, Yoichiro Nambu.

## Bunji Sakita

was a Japanese-American theoretical physicist who made important contributions in quantum field theory, superstring theory and discovered supersymmetry in 1971.

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## Color confinement

In quantum chromodynamics (QCD), color confinement, often simply called confinement, is the phenomenon that color charged particles (such as quarks and gluons) cannot be isolated, and therefore cannot be directly observed in normal conditions below the Hagedorn temperature of approximately 2 trillion kelvin (corresponding to energies of approximately 130–140 MeV per particle).

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## David Olive

David Ian Olive CBE FRS FLSW (16 April 1937 – 7 November 2012) was a British theoretical physicist. Olive made fundamental contributions to string theory and duality theory, he is particularly known for his work on the GSO projection and Montonen–Olive duality. He was Professor of physics at Imperial College, London from 1984 to 1992. In 1992 he moved to Swansea University to help set up the new theoretical physics group. He was awarded the Dirac Prize and Medal of the International Centre for Theoretical Physics in 1997. He was a Founding Fellow of the Learned Society of Wales. He was elected as a fellow of the Royal Society in 1987, and appointed CBE in 2002.

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## Duality

Duality may refer to.

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## Everything

Everything (or every thing), is all that exists; the opposite of nothing, or its complement.

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## History of string theory

The history of string theory spans several decades of intense research including two superstring revolutions.

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## Index of physics articles (D)

The index of physics articles is split into multiple pages due to its size.

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## Jean-Loup Gervais

Jean-Loup Gervais (born 10 September 1936 in Paris) is a French theoretical physicist.

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## Leonard Susskind

Leonard Susskind (born 1940)his 60th birthday was celebrated with a special symposium at Stanford University.

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## Lippmann–Schwinger equation

The Lippmann–Schwinger equation (named after Bernard Lippmann and Julian Schwinger) is one of the most used equations to describe particle collisions – or, more precisely, scattering – in quantum mechanics.

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## List of dualities

In mathematics, a duality, generally speaking, translates concepts, theorems or mathematical structures into other concepts, theorems or structures, in a one-to-one fashion, often (but not always) by means of an involution operation: if the dual of A is B, then the dual of B is A.

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## Masud Ahmad

Muhammad Masud Ahmad, D.Phil, Sc.D, HI (twice), SI (Urdu: محمد مسعود احمد; born 1942), best known as Masood Ahmad, is a Pakistani theoretical physicist and ICTP laureate known for his work in dual resonance and Veneziano model, a strings sting mathematically described the fundamental forces and forms of matter in quantum state.

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## Oscillator representation

In mathematics, the oscillator representation is a projective unitary representation of the symplectic group, first investigated by Irving Segal, David Shale, and André Weil.

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## Paul Frampton

Paul Howard Frampton (born 31 October 1943) is an English particle phenomenologist.

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## QCD vacuum

Th Quantum Chromodynamic Vacuum or QCD vacuum is the vacuum state of quantum chromodynamics (QCD).

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## Regge theory

In quantum physics, Regge theory is the study of the analytic properties of scattering as a function of angular momentum, where the angular momentum is not restricted to be an integer multiple of ħ but is allowed to take any complex value.

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## S-matrix theory

S-matrix theory was a proposal for replacing local quantum field theory as the basic principle of elementary particle physics.

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## Veneziano amplitude

In theoretical physics, the Veneziano amplitude refers to the discovery made in 1968 by Italian theoretical physicist Gabriele Veneziano that the Euler beta function, when interpreted as a scattering amplitude, has many of the features needed to explain the physical properties of strongly interacting mesons, such as symmetry and duality.

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## Vertex operator algebra

In mathematics, a vertex operator algebra (VOA) is an algebraic structure that plays an important role in two-dimensional conformal field theory and string theory.

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## Virasoro algebra

In mathematics, the Virasoro algebra (named after the physicist Miguel Angel Virasoro) is a complex Lie algebra, the unique central extension of the Witt algebra.

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## Yoichiro Nambu

was a Japanese-American physicist and professor at the University of Chicago.

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