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Olea, Richard David Semba, Richard Doll, Richard Grucza, Richard Mead, Richard Peto, Richmal Oates-Whitehead, Rickettsialpox, Ridit scoring, Right to know, Risk factor, Risk factors for breast cancer, Risk governance, Ritam Chowdhury, Robert A. Hahn, Robert Bailey (epidemiologist), Robert Edgar Hope-Simpson, Robert J. McDermott, Robert Kezaala, Robert Kudicke, Robert Lewis Morgan, Robert M. Jacobson, Robert McCarrison, Robert R. Redfield, Robert S. Galen, Robert Shope, Robert W. McCollum, Rocket net, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Rollins School of Public Health, Ronald Ross, Ronald Theodore Reuther, Rongwei Fu, Rory Collins, Ross Upshur, Rotarod performance test, Roxana Moslehi, Roy M. Anderson, Royal College of General Practitioners, Royal Military College of Canada, Royal Society of Thailand, Rudolf Kraus, Sabin Manuilă, Saccharin, Sackville Street, London, Sadamichi Hirasawa, Saint Boniface Hospital, Saint Louis University College for Public Health and Social Justice, Salim Yusuf, Salmonella, Salome Karwah, Salt and cardiovascular disease, San Francisco in the 1970s, Sander Greenland, Sandra Eades, Sandro Galea, Sandy Cairncross, Sanitary epidemiological reconnaissance, Sanjay Sharma (ophthalmologist), Santé Diabète, Sarah Cleaveland, Sarah Darby, SARS conspiracy theory, Sausapor, Sbrana Psychiatric Hospital, Scan statistic, School of Mathematics, University of Manchester, Scientific Committee on Occupational Exposure Limit Values, Scientist, Season of birth, Sema Sgaier, Sergei Shlyk, Serial interval, Serology, Seth Berkley, Seven Countries Study, Sexology, Sexual network, Sexually transmitted infection, Sharon Peacock, Shaw Prize, Sheela Basrur, Shots On-Line, Shuji Ogino, Shyam Swarup Agarwal, Side effects of bicalutamide, Sievert, Sigismond Jaccoud, Simin Liu, Simon Carpenter, Simon I. 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Claire Wang, Yale School of Public Health, Yang Tingzhong, Yasmin Altwaijri, Yaws, Yoram Chaiter, Young Epidemiology Scholars, Yuri Heifetz, Yuriy Shcherbak, Yuval Neria, ZAMBART Project, Zamfara State lead poisoning epidemic, Zeda Rosenberg, Zero-based numbering, Zhang Zhaohuan, Zika virus outbreak timeline, Zinaida Vissarionovna Ermol'eva, Zlatibor Lončar, 1491: New Revelations of the Americas Before Columbus, 1775 in science, 1811 in science, 1813, 1850s, 1854, 1854 Broad Street cholera outbreak, 1854 in science, 1854 in the United Kingdom, 1880 in science, 1920 in science, 1928 in science, 1928 in the United States, 1945 in science, 1949 in science, 1968 Thule Air Base B-52 crash, 1984 in science, 1987 Carroll County Cryptosporidiosis outbreak, 19th century, 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo(4,5-b)pyridine, 2000 New Year Honours, 2001 United Kingdom foot-and-mouth outbreak, 2008 Chinese milk scandal, 2008 Irish pork crisis, 2008 Summer Olympics torch relay route, 2008 Zimbabwean cholera outbreak, 2009 flu pandemic, 2009 flu pandemic by country, 2009 flu pandemic in Asia, 2009 Jeddah floods, 2010s Haiti cholera outbreak, 2011 Queen's Birthday Honours (Australia), 20th century, 20th century in science, 2x2 Project, 4-digit UNESCO Nomenclature, 4-Hydroxynonenal. 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A2 milk is cow's milk that mostly lacks a form of β-casein proteins called A1 and instead has mostly the A2 form.
Aalborg University Hospital is the largest hospital in the North Denmark Region, Denmark.
Aarhus County Hospital or Aarhus Sygehus, Tage-Hansens Gade is a hospital in Aarhus, situated on Tage-Hansens Gade in the neighbourhood of Vesterbro in the inner city.
Aarhus Municipal Hospital or Aarhus Sygehus, Nørrebrogade is a hospital in Aarhus, situated on Nørrebrogade in the district Midtbyen.
Abby Lippman (December 11, 1939 – December 26, 2017) was a Canadian feminist and epidemiologist who served as a professor in the Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Occupational Health at McGill University.
Aberdeen Maternity Hospital (AMH) is a specialist maternity hospital in Aberdeen, Scotland.
Abraham Morris "Abe" Lilienfeld (November 13, 1920 – August 6, 1984) was an American epidemiologist and professor at the Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health.
Abram Salmon Benenson (1914 – December 15, 2003) was an authority in public health, preventive medicine, military medicine, and "shoe-leather" epidemiology.
In epidemiology, the absolute risk reduction, risk difference or absolute effect is the change in the risk of an outcome of a given treatment or activity in relation to a comparison treatment or activity.
Aburi Girls' Senior High School, formerly Aburi Girls' Secondary School, also known as ABUGISS, is an all-girls' senior high boarding school located south of Aburi in the Eastern Region of Ghana.
An angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor (ACE inhibitor) is a pharmaceutical drug used primarily for the treatment of hypertension (elevated blood pressure) and congestive heart failure.
Ackworth School is an independent school located in the village of High Ackworth, near Pontefract, West Yorkshire, England.
An acquired characteristic is a non-heritable change in a function or structure of a living biotic material caused after birth by disease, injury, accident, deliberate modification, variation, repeated use, disuse, or misuse, or other environmental influences.
Acrocyanosis is persistent blue or cyanotic discoloration of the extremities, most commonly occurring in the hands, although it also occurs in the feet and distal parts of face.
Activities of daily living (ADLs or ADL) is a term used in healthcare to refer to people's daily self care activities.
Adam Ruins Everything is an American educational comedy television series starring Adam Conover that debuted on September 29, 2015, with a 12-episode season on truTV.
Adele Chandler Green AC (born 1952/3) is an Australian epidemiological senior scientist at the QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute in Brisbane and is the institute's Head of Cancer and Population Studies Group.
Adenovirus infections most commonly cause illness of the respiratory system; however, depending on the infecting serotype, they may also cause various other illnesses and presentations.
Adolf Gottstein (2 November 1857 in Breslau – 3 March 1941) was a German social hygienist and epidemiologist.
Adolfo García-Sastre, Ph.D., is a Professor of Medicine and Microbiology and co-director of the Global Health & Emerging Pathogens Institute at The Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai in New York City.
Adolfo Lutz (6 October 1855 – 18 December 1940) was a Brazilian physician, father of tropical medicine and medical zoology in Brazil, and a pioneer epidemiologist and researcher in infectious diseases.
Adriano de Bernardi Schneider, best known as Adriano Schneider (born August 20, 1988) is a Brazilian researcher who has been involved in the fight against the Zika virus in the United States since the last epidemic in Brazil in 2015.
Adrien Achille Proust (18 March 1834 – 26 November 1903) was a French epidemiologist and hygienist.
The Adverse Childhood Experiences Study (ACE Study) is a research study conducted by the American health maintenance organization Kaiser Permanente and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
The Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS) is a computerized information database designed to support the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) post-marketing safety surveillance program for all approved drug and therapeutic biologic products.
A number of studies have demonstrated adverse reactions in pets after administering vaccines to both dogs and cats.
Aedes albopictus (Stegomyia albopicta), from the mosquito (Culicidae) family, also known as (Asian) tiger mosquito or forest mosquito, is a mosquito native to the tropical and subtropical areas of Southeast Asia; however, in the past few decades, this species has spread to many countries through the transport of goods and international travel.
The African Institute for Mathematical Sciences (AIMS) is a tertiary education and research institute in Muizenberg, South Africa, established in September 2003, and an associated network of linked institutes in Senegal, Ghana, Cameroon, Tanzania and Rwanda.
The African Journal of Infectious Diseases covers research on the pathogenesis, diagnosis, epidemiology, and treatment of infectious diseases, the impact of infectious agents on the environment, and related disciplines.
In epidemiology and demography, age adjustment, also called age standardization, is a technique used to allow populations to be compared when the age profiles of the populations are quite different.
Female fertility is affected by age.
The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) is a federal public health agency within the United States Department of Health and Human Services.
AIDS is a peer-reviewed scientific journal that is published by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins (London, United Kingdom).
The AIDS Activities Coordinating Office (AACO) is a part of the Philadelphia Department of Public Health.
Aileen Joy Plant (died 27 March 2007) was a leading Australian infectious diseases epidemiologist.
Ain W Zain also known as Ain Wazein (عين و زين) is a Lebanese village in the Chouf District in the Mount Lebanon Governorate.
Alan Donald Lopez (born 1951) is an Australian global and public health scholar and epidemiologist who focuses on the measurement of population health and the global descriptive epidemiologist of tobacco.
Alberto Granado Jiménez (August 8, 1922March 5, 2011) was an Argentine–Cuban biochemist, doctor, writer, and scientist.
Alberto Adrego Pinto is a full professor at the Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Sciences, University of Porto (Portugal).
Albhy Galuten (born December 27, 1947) is an American technology executive and futurist, Grammy Award-winning record producer, composer, musician, orchestrator and conductor.
Alcohol intoxication, also known as drunkenness or alcohol poisoning, is negative behavior and physical effects due to the recent drinking of ethanol (alcohol).
Aldous Leonard Huxley (26 July 1894 – 22 November 1963) was an English writer, novelist, philosopher, and prominent member of the Huxley family.
Alessandro Liberati (Genoa, Italy, 27 April 1954 – Bologna, Italy, 1 January 2012) was an Italian healthcare researcher and clinical epidemiologist, and founder of the Italian Cochrane Centre.
Alexander Duncan Langmuir (12 September 1910 – 22 November 1993) was an American epidemiologist.
Alexander 'Sandy' Wiseman MacAra (4 May 1932 – 21 June 2012) was a British professor of epidemiology at Bristol University and chairman of British Medical Association (BMA) from 1993 to 1998.
Alfred (Al) Sommer is a prominent American ophthalmologist and epidemiologist at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.
Alfredo Kanthack BA (Lond), BSc, BS, MA (Cantab), MB, MD, LRCP, FRCP, FRCS (1863-1898) was a Brazilian-born microbiologist and pathologist who worked in England.
Alfredo Morabia (born 2 November 1952) is a Swiss American doctor, epidemiologist, and historian.
Rear Admiral Ali S. Khan is a Pakistani-American practicing physician and former Director of the Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (PHPR) at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Alice Segers Whittemore is an American epidemiologist and biostatistician who studies the effects of genetics and lifestyle on cancer, after an earlier career as a pure mathematician studying group theory.
Dr Alice Mary Stewart, née Naish (4 October 19063 June 2002) was a physician and epidemiologist specialising in social medicine and the effects of radiation on health.
Sir Alimuddin Zumla MD, PhD, FRCP, FRCPath, FRSB (born 15 May 1955) is a British Zambian professor of infectious diseases and international health at University College London Medical School.
Alison P. Galvani (born ca. 1977) is an American epidemiologist.
All India Institute of Hygiene and Public Health (AIIH&PH), is a pioneering Indian institute for research and training in public health and allied sciences in Kolkata.
Allan Steven Detsky is a Canadian physician and health policy expert.
Allen Taylor is an American scientist and Professor of Nutrition, Development, Molecular and Chemical Biology, and Ophthalmology.
Allergies, also known as allergic diseases, are a number of conditions caused by hypersensitivity of the immune system to typically harmless substances in the environment.
Alok Bhargava (born 13 July 1954) is an Indian econometrician.
The Warren Alpert Medical School (formerly known as Brown Medical School, previously known as Brown University School of Medicine) is the medical school of Brown University, located in Providence, Rhode Island, United States.
Alternative medicine, fringe medicine, pseudomedicine or simply questionable medicine is the use and promotion of practices which are unproven, disproven, impossible to prove, or excessively harmful in relation to their effect — in the attempt to achieve the healing effects of medicine.--> --> --> They differ from experimental medicine in that the latter employs responsible investigation, and accepts results that show it to be ineffective. The scientific consensus is that alternative therapies either do not, or cannot, work. In some cases laws of nature are violated by their basic claims; in some the treatment is so much worse that its use is unethical. Alternative practices, products, and therapies range from only ineffective to having known harmful and toxic effects.--> Alternative therapies may be credited for perceived improvement through placebo effects, decreased use or effect of medical treatment (and therefore either decreased side effects; or nocebo effects towards standard treatment),--> or the natural course of the condition or disease. Alternative treatment is not the same as experimental treatment or traditional medicine, although both can be misused in ways that are alternative. Alternative or complementary medicine is dangerous because it may discourage people from getting the best possible treatment, and may lead to a false understanding of the body and of science.-->---> Alternative medicine is used by a significant number of people, though its popularity is often overstated.--> Large amounts of funding go to testing alternative medicine, with more than US$2.5 billion spent by the United States government alone.--> Almost none show any effect beyond that of false treatment,--> and most studies showing any effect have been statistical flukes. Alternative medicine is a highly profitable industry, with a strong lobby. This fact is often overlooked by media or intentionally kept hidden, with alternative practice being portrayed positively when compared to "big pharma". --> The lobby has successfully pushed for alternative therapies to be subject to far less regulation than conventional medicine.--> Alternative therapies may even be allowed to promote use when there is demonstrably no effect, only a tradition of use. Regulation and licensing of alternative medicine and health care providers varies between and within countries. Despite laws making it illegal to market or promote alternative therapies for use in cancer treatment, many practitioners promote them.--> Alternative medicine is criticized for taking advantage of the weakest members of society.--! Terminology has shifted over time, reflecting the preferred branding of practitioners.. Science Based Medicine--> For example, the United States National Institutes of Health department studying alternative medicine, currently named National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health, was established as the Office of Alternative Medicine and was renamed the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine before obtaining its current name. Therapies are often framed as "natural" or "holistic", in apparent opposition to conventional medicine which is "artificial" and "narrow in scope", statements which are intentionally misleading. --> When used together with functional medical treatment, alternative therapies do not "complement" (improve the effect of, or mitigate the side effects of) treatment.--> Significant drug interactions caused by alternative therapies may instead negatively impact functional treatment, making it less effective, notably in cancer.--> Alternative diagnoses and treatments are not part of medicine, or of science-based curricula in medical schools, nor are they used in any practice based on scientific knowledge or experience.--> Alternative therapies are often based on religious belief, tradition, superstition, belief in supernatural energies, pseudoscience, errors in reasoning, propaganda, fraud, or lies.--> Alternative medicine is based on misleading statements, quackery, pseudoscience, antiscience, fraud, and poor scientific methodology. Promoting alternative medicine has been called dangerous and unethical.--> Testing alternative medicine that has no scientific basis has been called a waste of scarce research resources.--> Critics state that "there is really no such thing as alternative medicine, just medicine that works and medicine that doesn't",--> that the very idea of "alternative" treatments is paradoxical, as any treatment proven to work is by definition "medicine".-->.
Aluminium hydroxide, Al(OH)3, is found in nature as the mineral gibbsite (also known as hydrargillite) and its three much rarer polymorphs: bayerite, doyleite, and nordstrandite.
Alvan R. Feinstein (December 4, 1925 – October 25, 2001) was a clinician, a researcher and an epidemiologist who made significant impact on clinical investigation, especially on the field of clinical epidemiology that he helped define.
Alzheimer Research Forum (ARF), or Alzforum is a website which uses web technology to accelerate research into Alzheimer's disease.
Alzheimer's disease (AD), also referred to simply as Alzheimer's, is a chronic neurodegenerative disease that usually starts slowly and worsens over time.
The American College of Epidemiology (ACE) is an American organization incorporated in 1979 to support and promote the work of American epidemiologists.
The American Epidemiological Society is an American honorary society dedicated to epidemiology.
The American Journal of Epidemiology (AJE) is a peer-reviewed journal for empirical research findings, opinion pieces, and methodological developments in the field of epidemiological research.
The American Public Health Association (APHA) is a Washington, D.C.-based professional organization for public health professionals in the United States.
The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (ASBMB) is a learned society that was founded on December 26, 1906 at a meeting organized by John Jacob Abel (Johns Hopkins University).
The American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (ASBMR) is a professional, scientific and medical society established in 1977 to promote excellence in bone and mineral research and to facilitate the translation of that research into clinical practice.
Anal cancer is a cancer (malignant tumor) which arises from the anus, the distal opening of the gastrointestinal tract.
Anatol Rapoport (Анато́лий Бори́сович Рапопо́рт; May 22, 1911January 20, 2007) was a Russian-born American mathematical psychologist.
Ancel Benjamin Keys (January 26, 1904 – November 20, 2004) was an American physiologist who studied the influence of diet on health.
And the Band Played On is a 1993 American television film docudrama directed by Roger Spottiswoode.
Lt Col Anderson Gray McKendrick DSc FRSE (8 September 1876 – 30 May 1943) was a Scottish military physician and epidemiologist pioneered the use of mathematical methods in epidemiology.
André van der Merwe is a South African urologist.
Andrée Laberge (born 1953) is a Quebec researcher and writer.
Andreas Roland Grüntzig (25 June 1939 – 27 October 1985) was a German radiologist and cardiologist, with foundational interest, training and research in epidemiology, angiology.
Sir Andrew Paul Haines, (born 26 February 1947) is a British epidemiologist and academic.
Andrew Oswald (born 27 November 1953, eldest son of the late Professor Ian Oswald) was until recently the acting research director at the IZA Institute in Bonn and is a professor of economics at the University of Warwick, UK.
Andrew Spielman, Sc.D. (24 February 1930 – 20 December 2006) was a prominent American public health entomologist and Professor of Tropical Public Health in the Department of Immunology and Infectious Disease at the Harvard School of Public Health (HSPH).
Andrey Vitalievich Korotayev (Андре́й Вита́льевич Корота́ев; born 17 February 1961) is a Russian anthropologist, economic historian, comparative political scientist, demographer and sociologist, with major contributions to world-systems theory, cross-cultural studies, Near Eastern history, Big History, and mathematical modelling of social and economic macrodynamics.
Andy Comeau (born October 19, 1970) is an American actor.
Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a parasitic nematode (roundworm) that causes angiostrongyliasis, the most common cause of eosinophilic meningitis in Southeast Asia and the Pacific Basin.
The Animal Research Institute, Yeerongpilly (ARI) was a government science complex at Yeerongpilly, Queensland, Australia, serving the agricultural sector of Queensland.
Animal testing, also known as animal experimentation, animal research and in vivo testing, is the use of non-human animals in experiments that seek to control the variables that affect the behavior or biological system under study.
Anita Kaplan Bahn (1920 – July 19, 1980) was an American epidemiologist, biostatistician, and cancer researcher.
Ann John is a Professor in Public Health and Psychiatry at the Swansea University Medical School.
Anna Charlotte Ruys or Charlotte Defresne-Ruys (1898 – 1977) was a Dutch professor of bacteriology and epidemiology.
Anastasia Katherine "Anna" Donald (née Courtice; 7 April 1966 – 1 February 2009) was an Australian pioneer in the field of evidence-based medicine as well as an epidemiologist and company director.
The Annals of Epidemiology is a peer-reviewed journal devoted to epidemiological research and is published as the official journal for American College of Epidemiology.
Annals of Human Biology is a bimonthly academic journal that publishes review articles on human population biology, nature, development and causes of human variation.
Anne B. Newman M.D., M.P.H, (born 1955) is a distinguished scientist who researches Epidemiology and Gerontology.
Dame Anne Mandall Johnson DBE (born 30 January 1954) is a British epidemiologist, known for her work in the areas of HIV, sexually transmitted infections and infectious diseases.
Annette Jane Dobson (born 1945) is a Professor of Biostatistics in the University of Queensland's Centre for Longitudinal and Life Course Research (CLLR) in the School of Population Health.
Adodo Anselm Gbenga (born 1969) is a Nigerian scholar who is a pioneer of Alternative medicine in Africa.
Antônio da Silva Mello (May 10, 1886 - September 19, 1973), best known as A. da Silva Mello was a Brazilian physician and writer.
Anthony or (rarely) Anthoney can be a surname.
Anthropometry (from Greek ἄνθρωπος anthropos, "human", and μέτρον metron, "measure") refers to the measurement of the human individual.
Anti-consumerism is a sociopolitical ideology that is opposed to consumerism, the continual buying and consuming of material possessions.
Anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis, also known as NMDA receptor antibody encephalitis, is an acute form of brain inflammation.
After German doctors became the first to identify the link between smoking and lung cancer, Germany initiated a strong anti-tobacco movement and led the first public anti-smoking campaign in modern history.
The relationship between antidepressant use and suicide risk is the target of medical research.
The number of new psychiatric drugs, and especially antidepressants on the market in Japan, is significantly less than Western countries.
Anton Drasche (1 July 1826 – 23 August 1904) was an Austrian internist and epidemiologist.
Anton Weichselbaum (8 February 1845 – 23 October 1920) was an Austrian pathologist and bacteriologist born near the town of Langenlois.
Antonio Bernardo is an Italian-American neurosurgeon and academic physician.
Apocarotenal, or trans-β-apo-8'-carotenal, is a carotenoid found in spinach and citrus fruits.
The appendix (or vermiform appendix; also cecal appendix; vermix; or vermiform process) is a blind-ended tube connected to the cecum, from which it develops in the embryo.
Applied science is the application of existing scientific knowledge to practical applications, like technology or inventions.
Approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) constitutes a class of computational methods rooted in Bayesian statistics.
Archibald Leman Cochrane CBE (12 January 1909 – 18 June 1988) was a Scottish doctor noted for his book Effectiveness and Efficiency: Random Reflections on Health Services.
Archives of Osteoporosis is a peer-reviewed medical journal published by Springer Science+Business Media.
Arterivirus is the only genus of viruses in the family Arteriviridae, which is within the order Nidovirales.
Arthur L. Kellermann (born 1955) is an American physician, epidemiologist, professor and dean of the F. Edward Hébert School of Medicine at the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences.
Sir Arthur Salusbury MacNalty (20 October 1880 – 11 April 1969) was the 8th Chief Medical Officer (the British office equivalent of the Surgeon General of the United States).
Sir Arthur Mitchell, KCB FRSELLD MD (19 January 1826 – 12 October 1909) was a Scottish doctor involved in the study and care of patients with mental illness.
Arup Kumar Kundu (Bengali "অরূপ কুমার কুন্ডু") (born 2nd January 1958) is an educationist, Indian Rheumatologist, clinician, orator, academician, teacher and author.
Litigation related to asbestos injuries and property damages has been claimed to be the longest-running mass tort in U.S. history.
Aspartame (APM) is an artificial non-saccharide sweetener used as a sugar substitute in some foods and beverages.
Asperger syndrome (AS), also known as Asperger's, is a developmental disorder characterized by significant difficulties in social interaction and nonverbal communication, along with restricted and repetitive patterns of behavior and interests.
Atmospheric dispersion modeling is the mathematical simulation of how air pollutants disperse in the ambient atmosphere.
During the final stage of World War II, the United States detonated two nuclear weapons over the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on August 6 and 9, 1945, respectively.
In epidemiology, the attack rate is the biostatistical measure of frequency of morbidity, or speed of spread, in an at risk population.
In epidemiology, attributable risk or excess risk is the difference in rate of a condition between an exposed population and an unexposed population.
Aubrey Sheiham (12 September 1936 – 24 November 2015) was a South African-born British academic, emeritus professor of Dental Public Health, School of Life and Medical Sciences, University College London.
Augustus Young (born 1943 in Cork, Ireland) is an Irish poet.
Sir Austin Bradford Hill FRS (8 July 1897 – 18 April 1991), English epidemiologist and statistician, pioneered the randomized clinical trial and, together with Richard Doll, demonstrated the connection between cigarette smoking and lung cancer.
Austin Flint I (October 20, 1812 – March 13, 1886) was an American physician.
Autism Speaks is an autism advocacy organization in the United States that sponsors autism research and conducts awareness and outreach activities aimed at families, governments, and the public.
for explicitly cited references.
Auxology, sometimes called auxanology (from Greek αὔξω, auxō, or αὐξάνω, auxanō, "grow"; and -λογία, -logia), is a meta-term covering the study of all aspects of human physical growth.
Émil August Goeldi (var. Göldi, var. Emílio Augusto Goeldi) (August 28, 1859 – July 5, 1917 in Bern), was a Swiss-Brazilian naturalist and zoologist.
Éric Dewailly (1957 – June 17, 2014) was a Canadian epidemiologist and medical researcher from Quebec.
Éric Fombonne (Paris, 1954), MD, FRCP, is a French psychiatrist and epidemiologist based in Montreal.
A "B" reader is a physician certified by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) as demonstrating proficiency in classifying radiographs of the pneumoconioses.
Bernard Timothy Walsh, MD, FAED, is William and Joy Ruane Professor of Pediatric Psychopharmacology in the Department of Psychiatry at Columbia University, and Director of the Division of Clinical Therapeutics at New York State Psychiatric Institute, and the author and editor and co-editor of five books on adolescent health and eating disorders.
The Bachelor of Science in Public Health (BSPH) (or Bachelor of Public Health) is an undergraduate degree that prepares students to pursue careers in the public, private, or non-profit sector in areas such as public health, environmental health, health administration, epidemiology, nutrition, biostatistics, or health policy and planning.
Bacterial phylodynamics is the study of immunology, epidemiology, and phylogenetics of bacterial pathogens to better understand the evolutionary role of these pathogens.
Barbara Maughan is a Professor of Developmental Epidemiology at the Social, Genetic, and Developmental Psychiatry Centre, Institute of Psychiatry.
Barbara Ruth Holland is a New Zealand born Australian scientist.
Barbara Snell Dohrenwend (March 26, 1927 – June 28, 1982) was an American epidemiologist and social psychologist.
The Barcelona Biomedical Research Park ("PRBB") is an agglomeration of six public research centres and is located alongside the Hospital del Mar de Barcelona.
In epidemiology, the basic reproduction number (sometimes called basic reproductive ratio, or incorrectly basic reproductive rate, and denoted R0, r nought) of an infection can be thought of as the number of cases one case generates on average over the course of its infectious period, in an otherwise uninfected population.
Basil Stuart Hetzel (13 June 1922 – 4 February 2017) was an Australian medical researcher who made a major contribution to combating iodine deficiency, a major cause of goitre and cretinism worldwide.
Becca R. Levy is a Professor of Epidemiology (Social and Behavioral Sciences) at Yale School of Public Health and Professor of Psychology at Yale University.
Bedworth is a market town in the borough of Nuneaton and Bedworth, Warwickshire, England.
Behavioral medicine is concerned with the integration of knowledge in the biological, behavioral, psychological, and social sciences relevant to health and illness.
The Belgian Cancer Registry Foundation is a Belgian institution which collects epidemiological data concerning new cancer cases in Belgium.
Belroi is an unincorporated community in Gloucester County, in the U.S. state of Virginia.
Bengeo is a suburb and former village on the northwest edge of the county town of Hertford in Hertfordshire, England.
Professor Benjamin Oluwakayode Osuntokun (1935–1995), was a researcher and neurologist from Okemesi, Ekiti State, Nigeria.
Bennet Ifeakandu Omalu (born September 1968, Bennet Omalu Foundation website.) is a Nigerian-American physician, forensic pathologist, and neuropathologist who was the first to discover and publish findings of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) in American football players while working at the Allegheny County Coroner's Office in Pittsburgh.
Bernhard Mann (born in Stuttgart, Germany, 3 December 1950) is a Social Scientist and Master of Public Health, Professor emeritus of Health and Social Management at the FHM Bielefeld - University of Applied Sciences, former Professor of Health Management and Vice-President at the University of Applied Sciences Bamberg, Adjunct Professor of Sociology and Public Health at the University of Koblenz-Landau, at the Berlin School of Public Health - Charité, Medical University and at several Universities of Educational Cooperation as well as of Applied Sciences.
Bernice Eddy (1903–1989) was an American virologist and epidemiologist.
Berton Roueché (April 16, 1910 – April 28, 1994) was a medical writer who wrote for The New Yorker magazine for almost fifty years.
Betsy Jane Becker is an American researcher on meta-analysis and educational psychometrics.
Mary Elizabeth (Betz) Halloran is an American biostatistician who works as a professor of biostatistics, professor of epidemiology, and adjunct professor of applied mathematics at the University of Washington.
Dame Beulah Rosemary Bewley (2 September 1929 – 20 January 2018) was a British public health physician and ex-President of the Medical Women's Federation on the General Medical Council.
Bias is disproportionate weight in favour of or against one thing, person, or group compared with another, usually in a way considered to be unfair.
Biodemography is the science dealing with the integration of biological theory and demography.
Bioidentical hormone replacement therapy (BHRT), also known as bioidentical hormone therapy or natural hormone therapy, is the use of hormones that are identical on a molecular level with endogenous hormones in hormone replacement therapy.
In epidemiology and biomedicine, the term biological plausibility refers to the proposal of a causal association — a relationship between a putative cause and an outcome — that is consistent with existing biological and medical knowledge.
Biomedical sciences are a set of applied sciences applying portions of natural science or formal science, or both, to knowledge, interventions, or technology that are of use in healthcare or public health.
A biomedical scientist is a scientist trained in biology, particularly in the context of medicine.
bioRxiv (pronounced "bio-archive") is an open access preprint repository for the biological sciences co-founded by John Inglis and Richard Sever in November 2013.
Biostatistics is the application of statistics to a wide range of topics in biology.
The birth–death process is a special case of continuous-time Markov process where the state transitions are of only two types: "births", which increase the state variable by one and "deaths", which decrease the state by one.
Bivalvia, in previous centuries referred to as the Lamellibranchiata and Pelecypoda, is a class of marine and freshwater molluscs that have laterally compressed bodies enclosed by a shell consisting of two hinged parts.
The Black Death, also known as the Great Plague, the Black Plague, or simply the Plague, was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, resulting in the deaths of an estimated people in Eurasia and peaking in Europe from 1347 to 1351.
Black Wind is an adventure novel by Clive Cussler and Dirk Cussler.
Bloomberg Distinguished Professorships (BDPs) were established as part of a $350 million gift by Michael Bloomberg, JHU Class of 1964, to Johns Hopkins University in 2013.
BMC Endocrine Disorders is an open access peer-reviewed scientific journal publishing original research articles in all aspects of the prevention, diagnosis and management of endocrine disorders, as well as related molecular genetics, pathophysiology, and epidemiology.
The body fat percentage (BFP) of a human or other living being is the total mass of fat divided by total body mass, times 100; body fat includes essential body fat and storage body fat.
Bogaletch "Boge" Gebre is an Ethiopian scientist and activist.
Boho Interactive is an Australian science-theatre company originally based in Canberra, Australia.
Bonifacio Lopez Mencias (14 May 1888 – c. January 1944) was a Filipino physician, epidemiologist, guerrilla sympathizer, and martyr.
Borrelia lusitaniae is a bacterium of the spirochete class of the genus Borrelia, which has a diderm (double-membrane) envelope.
The Boston Collaborative Drug Surveillance Program (BCDSP), established in 1966, was a pioneer in the field of drug epidemiology, pharmacoepidemiology.
Boston is a town and small port in Lincolnshire, on the east coast of England, approximately 100 miles (160 km) north of London.
The Bradford Hill criteria, otherwise known as Hill's criteria for causation, are a group of 9 principles, established in 1965 by the English epidemiologist Sir Austin Bradford Hill.
The Bradshaw Lectures are prestigious lectureships given at the invitation of the Royal College of Physicians and the Royal College of Surgeons of England.
The branches of microbiology can be classified into pure and applied sciences.
Branko Kopjar is a physician and epidemiologist at the University of Washington.
Breakfast is the first meal of a day, most often eaten in the early morning before undertaking the day's work.
Breast augmentation and augmentation mammoplasty (colloquially known as a "boob job") are plastic surgery terms for the breast-implant and the fat-graft mammoplasty approaches used to increase the size, change the shape, and alter the texture of the breasts of a woman.
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment is a scientific journal focused on the treatment of and investigations in breast cancer.
Brian MacMahon (23 August 1923 – 5 December 2007) was a British-born United States epidemiologist who chaired the Department of Epidemiology of the Harvard School of Public Health from 1958 until 1988.
Professor Brian Derek Perry, OBE (born 11 March 1946) is a British veterinary surgeon and epidemiologist renowned for the integration of veterinary epidemiology and agricultural economics, as a tool for disease control policy and strategy development, and specialised in international agricultural development.
The Bristol stool scale is a diagnostic medical tool designed to classify the form of human faeces into seven categories.
The British Doctors' Study was a prospective cohort study which ran from 1951 to 2001, and in 1956 provided convincing statistical proof that tobacco smoking increased the risk of lung cancer.
The British Journal of Cancer is a twice-monthly professional medical journal of Cancer Research UK (a registered charity in the United Kingdom), published on their behalf by the Nature Publishing Group (a division of Macmillan Publishers Ltd).
The British Sleep Society.
The Bt brinjal is a suite of transgenic brinjals (also known as an eggplant or aubergine) created by inserting a crystal protein gene (Cry1Ac) from the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis into the genome of various brinjal cultivars.
Buckaroo Banzai is the lead character, played by Peter Weller, of the eponymous 1984 cult film, The Adventures of Buckaroo Banzai Across the 8th Dimension.
The Buenos Aires National Academy of Medicine is an Argentine non-profit organization and learned society.
Busia District is a district in the Eastern region of Uganda.
Busselton is a city in the South West region of Western Australia.
CAB Direct is a source of references for the applied life sciences It incorporates two bibliographic databases: CAB Abstracts and Global Health.
Cadang-cadang is a disease caused by Coconut cadang-cadang viroid (CCCVd), a lethal viroid of coconut (Cocos nucifera), anahaw (Saribus rotundifolius) buri (Corypha utan), and African oil palm (Elaeis guineensis).
Caerphilly (Caerffili) is a town in South Wales, at the southern end of the Rhymney Valley.
The Caerphilly Heart Disease Study, also known as the Caerphilly Prospective Study (CaPS), is an epidemiological prospective cohort, set up in 1979 in a representative population sample drawn from Caerphilly, a typical small town in South Wales, UK.
Calcofluor-white is a special fluorescent stain that binds strongly to structures containing cellulose and chitin.
The California Department of Pesticide Regulation, also known as DPR or CDPR, is one of six boards and departments of the California Environmental Protection Agency (Cal/EPA).
The Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, commonly referred to as OEHHA (pronounced oh-EEE-ha), is a specialized department within the cabinet-level California Environmental Protection Agency (CalEPA) with responsibility for evaluating health risks from environmental chemical contaminants.
Proposition 29, the California Cancer Research Act, is a California ballot measure that was defeated by California voters at the statewide election on June 5, 2012.
Calliphora loewi is part of the family Calliphoridae, bottle flies and blowflies, and in the genus Calliphora, blue bottle flies.
Camilla Stoltenberg (born 5 February 1958) is a Norwegian physician and researcher.
The Canadian Perinatal Network (CPN) is made up of Canadian researchers who collaborate on research issues relating to perinatal care.
The Canadian Society for Epidemiology and Biostatistics (CSEB), or Société Canadienne d’épidémiologie et de biostatistique (SCEB), was founded in 1990 to promote epidemiology and biostatistics research in Canada; encourage the use of epidemiologic data in formulating public health policy; increase the level of epidemiology and biostatistics funding available through federal, provincial, and private sources; facilitate communications among epidemiologists and biostatisticians; and assist faculty or schools of medicine and public health to improve training in epidemiology and biostatistics.
Cancer Causes & Control is a peer-reviewed medical journal published by Springer Science+Business Media, covering research on the epidemiology, causes, and control of cancer.
Cancer Council Queensland is Queensland's foremost anti-cancer organisation.
Cancer Council Victoria is a not-for-profit organisation which aims to reduce the impact of cancer in Victoria.
Cancer Epidemiology (formerly known as Cancer Detection & Prevention) is a peer reviewed journal devoted to epidemiological cancer research.
Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention is a peer-reviewed medical journal devoted to research in the field of cancer epidemiology.
Cancer research is research into cancer to identify causes and develop strategies for prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and cure.
Cancer slope factors (CSF) are used to estimate the risk of cancer associated with exposure to a carcinogenic or potentially carcinogenic substance.
Cancer survival rates vary by the type of cancer, stage at diagnosis, treatment given and many other factors, including country.
Cancer Wars was a six-part documentary that aired on PBS in May 25, 1998.
Carbon black (subtypes are acetylene black, channel black, furnace black, lamp black and thermal black) is a material produced by the incomplete combustion of heavy petroleum products such as FCC tar, coal tar, ethylene cracking tar, with the addition of a small amount of vegetable oil.
Carl Looft (né Knutsen; 9 February 1863 – 10 April 1943) was a Norwegian physician, and among the first pediatricians in Norway.
Carla Makhlouf Obermeyer is a medical anthropologist and epidemiologist specializing in the study of fertility and HIV.
Carlo Catassi, (born April 19, 1953) is an Italian gastroenterologist, epidemiologist and researcher.
Carlo La Vecchia (born February 27, 1955) is an Italian epidemiologist.
Carlos Castillo-Chavez (born 1952) is the current Rector at Yachay Tech University, in Ecuador, a newly founded research intensive university.
Carlos Justiniano Ribeiro Chagas, or Carlos Chagas (July 9, 1879 – November 8, 1934), was a Brazilian sanitary physician, scientist and bacteriologist who worked as a clinician and researcher.
Carnaby Street is a pedestrianised shopping street in Soho in the City of Westminster, Central London.
Carol Z. Garrison was the 6th President of the University of Alabama at Birmingham.
Carol Jagger (born December 1951) is professor of the epidemiology of ageing at Newcastle University.
Caroline Frances Finch AO is widely regarded as Australia’s leading sports injury epidemiologist and sports injury prevention researcher.
Carotenoids, also called tetraterpenoids, are organic pigments that are produced by plants and algae, as well as several bacteria and fungi.
The Cartwright Inquiry was a Commission of Inquiry held in New Zealand from 1987 – 1988.
In epidemiology, a case fatality rate (CFR)—or case fatality risk, case fatality ratio or just fatality rate—is the proportion of deaths within a designated population of "cases" (people with a medical condition) over the course of the disease.
Casein ("kay-seen", from Latin caseus, "cheese") is a family of related phosphoproteins (αS1, αS2, β, κ).
A catastrophic injury is a severe injury to the spine, spinal cord, or brain, and may also include skull or spinal fractures.
Cathy H. Wu, PhD is the Edward G. Jefferson Chair and professor and director of the Center for Bioinformatics & Computational Biology (CBCB) at the University of Delaware.
Causal inference is the process of drawing a conclusion about a causal connection based on the conditions of the occurrence of an effect.
Causality (also referred to as causation, or cause and effect) is what connects one process (the cause) with another process or state (the effect), where the first is partly responsible for the second, and the second is partly dependent on the first.
Causality: Models, Reasoning and Inference (2000; updated 2009) is a book by Judea Pearl.
Cause, also known as etiology and aetiology, is the reason or origination of something.
Many causes of autism have been proposed, but understanding of the theory of causation of autism and the other autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is incomplete.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a degenerative disorder of the central nervous system.
The causes of schizophrenia have been the subject of much debate, with various factors proposed and discounted or modified.
C-C chemokine receptor type 2 (CCR2 or CD192 (cluster of differentiation 192) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCR2 gene. CCR2 is a chemokine receptor.
CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CEBPB gene.
The Columbia University Center for Radiological Research (CRR) was founded more than 75 years ago to better understand the human health risks associated with exposure to ionizing radiation exposure.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is the leading national public health institute of the United States.
A vigorous ground-based cellular and animal model research program will help quantify the risk to the CNS from space radiation exposure on future long distance space missions and promote the development of optimized countermeasures.
The Centre for Applied Genomics is a genome centre in the Research Institute of The Hospital for Sick Children, and is affiliated with the University of Toronto.
The Centre for Health Protection is an agency under the Department of Health in Hong Kong and responsible for health and safety.
The Centre for Menstrual Cycle and Ovulation Research (CeMCOR) is a health research centre in Vancouver.
The Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters (CRED) is a research unit of the Université catholique de Louvain (UCL).
Centro Studi GISED is an Italian research association with legal personality registered with no.
The CEREMADE (CEntre de REcherche en MAthématiques de la DÉcision, French for Research Centre in Mathematics of Decision) is a research centre in Mathematics within Université Paris-Dauphine.
Cervical cancer is a cancer arising from the cervix.
Ceteris paribus or caeteris paribus is a Latin phrase meaning "other things equal".
Chagas disease, also known as American trypanosomiasis, is a tropical parasitic disease caused by the protist Trypanosoma cruzi.
Chandler Burr (born December 30, 1963) is an American journalist, author, and museum curator.
Charles C. Branas is the chair of the department of epidemiology at Columbia University's Mailman School of Public Health, a position he assumed on January 1, 2017.
Charles William "Charlie" Dunnett (24 August 1921 – May 18, 2007) was a Canadian statistician.
Charles "Chip" Lawrence is an American bioinformatician and mathematician, who is the pioneer in developing novel statistical approaches to biological sequence analysis.
Charles Value Chapin, M.D. (January 17, 1856 – January 31, 1941) was an American pioneer in public health research and practice during the Progressive Era.
Chen Chien-jen (born 6 June 1951) is the Vice President of the Republic of China (Taiwan).
The Chernobyl disaster, also referred to as the Chernobyl accident, was a catastrophic nuclear accident.
Chernobyl: Consequences of the Catastrophe for People and the Environment is a translation of a 2007 Russian publication by Alexey V. Yablokov, Vassily B. Nesterenko, and Alexey V. Nesterenko, edited by Janette D. Sherman-Nevinger, and originally published by the New York Academy of Sciences in 2009 in their Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences series.
Chi-Ming Chow, MD, MSc, FRCPC, FACC, FASE, is a Canadian cardiologist at St. Michael's Hospital in Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Chikungunya is an infection caused by the chikungunya virus (CHIKV).
Child protection is the protection of children from violence, exploitation, abuse and neglect.
Child psychopathology refers to the scientific study of mental disorders in children and adolescents.
The Childhood Autism Spectrum Test, abbreviated as CAST and formerly titled the Childhood Asperger Syndrome Test, is a tool to screen for Asperger syndrome and related social and communication conditions falling on the Autism Spectrum in children aged 4–11 years, in a non-clinical setting.
The Children’s Cancer and Leukaemia Group is an organization focused on childhood cancer.
The Children’s Oncology Group (COG), a clinical trials group supported by the National Cancer Institute (NCI), is the world’s largest organization devoted exclusively to pediatric cancer research.
Chimney sweep's cancer, also called soot wart, is a squamous cell carcinoma of the skin of the scrotum.
Sock Chin Gouk is a research scientist with the Victorian Department of Environment and Primary Industries in Melbourne.
The China–Cornell–Oxford Project was a large observational study conducted throughout the 1980s in rural China, jointly funded by Cornell University, the University of Oxford, and the government of China.
Chlorpyrifos (CPS), sold under many brandnames, is an organophosphate pesticide used to kill a number of pests including insects and worms.
Cholera is an infection of the small intestine by some strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae.
Chris Beyrer is a professor of epidemiology at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health in Baltimore, Maryland, in the United States.
Christl Ann Donnelly is a professor of Statistical Epidemiology at Imperial College London.
Christopher Busby (born 1 September 1945) is a British scientist and expert on the health effects of internal ionising radiation.
Christopher Dye FRS, FMedSci is a British biologist, epidemiologist and public health specialist who has held positions at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, the World Health Organization, Gresham College London and the University of Oxford.
Professor Christos Pantelis is an Australian professor of medicine who is the Director of the Melbourne Neuropsychiatry Centre.
Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI or CCVI) is a term developed by Italian researcher Paolo Zamboni in 2008 to describe compromised flow of blood in the veins draining the central nervous system.
Chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia (CMML) is a type of leukaemia, which are cancers of the blood-forming cells of the bone marrow.
Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) of mule deer, white-tailed deer, elk (or "wapiti"), moose, and reindeer.
Male circumcision is the removal of the foreskin from the human penis.
Cissy Kityo Mutuluuza, (née Cissy Kityo), is a Ugandan physician, epidemiologist, and medical researcher.
Claire Veronica Broome (born August 24, 1949) is an American epidemiologist, specializing in public health surveillance and vaccine evaluation, who has contributed to the development and effective utilization of key vaccines against pathogens causing pneumonia and meningitis.
Clalit, also Klalit (שירותי בריאות כללית, General Health Services; previously – קופת חולים כללית, General Sick Fund), is the largest of Israel's four state-mandated health service organizations, charged with administering health care services and funding for its members (all Israeli citizens resident in the country must be a member of one of the four providers).
Clare Rustad (born May 27, 1983) is a Canadian former soccer midfielder.
Dr S. Claiborne "Clay" Johnston is the Dean of the Dell Medical School and Frank and Charmaine Denius Distinguished Dean's Chair at the University of Texas, Austin.
Clement Adebamowo was born in Lagos, Nigeria, and graduated BM ChB Hons from the University of Jos, Nigeria, having earned a distinction at every examination.
The Clerk family is a Ghanaian historic family that produced a number of pioneering scholars and clergymen on the Gold Coast.
Climate change in the US state of Washington is a subject of study and projection today.
Clinical audit is a process that has been defined as "a quality improvement process that seeks to improve patient care and outcomes through systematic review of care against explicit criteria and the implementation of change".
In epidemiology, a clinical case definition, a clinical definition, or simply a case definition lists the clinical criteria by which public health professionals determine whether a person's illness is included as a case in an outbreak investigation—that is, whether a person is considered directly affected by an outbreak.
A clinical coder – also known as clinical coding officer, diagnostic coder, medical coder or medical records technician – is a health information professional whose main duties are to analyse clinical statements and assign standard codes using a classification system.
Clinical Epidemiology is a peer-reviewed medical journal covering research in epidemiology.
Clinical Infectious Diseases is a peer-reviewed medical journal published by Oxford University Press covering research on the pathogenesis, clinical investigation, medical microbiology, diagnosis, immune mechanisms, and treatment of diseases caused by infectious agents.
A clinical officer (CO) is a gazetted officer who provides medical care and treatment.
Clinical study design is the formulation of trials and experiments, as well as observational studies in medical, clinical and other types of research (e.g., epidemiological) involving human beings.
Clinical trials are experiments or observations done in clinical research.
The Clinical Trial Services Unit (CTSU) is a medical research institute within Oxford University in the United Kingdom.
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI or C-dif) is a symptomatic infection due to the spore-forming bacterium, Clostridium difficile.
Clubes de Ciencia is a non-profit organization founded in 2014 that organizes hands-on week-long workshops in STEM to kids in developing countries at no cost.
Coccidioides posadasii is a pathogenic fungus that, along with Coccidioides immitis, is the causative agent of coccidioidomycosis, or valley fever in humans.
The term cohort effect is used in social science to describe variations in the characteristics of an area of study (such as the incidence of a characteristic or the age at onset) over time among individuals who are defined by some shared temporal experience or common life experience, such as year of birth, or year of exposure to radiation.
A cohort study is a particular form of longitudinal study that sample a cohort (a group of people who share a defining characteristic, typically those who experienced a common event in a selected period, such as birth or graduation), performing a cross-section at intervals through time.
Colin Pittendrigh (October 13, 1918 – March 19, 1996) "Colin Pittendrigh, 'Father of biological clock,' dies at 77", March 25, 1996, accessed April 9, 2011.
Colin L. Soskolne is a Canadian epidemiologist and author who was born, raised and educated in South Africa.
The combined oral contraceptive pill (COCP), often referred to as the birth control pill or colloquially as "the pill", is a type of birth control that is designed to be taken orally by women.
The Commission on Health Research for Development was an independent international initiative with the aim of improving health and development in what were then called ‘developing countries’.
Communities That Care (CTC) is a program of the Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP) in the office of the United States Government's Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA).
Community Ophthalmology was described as a new discipline in medicine promoting eye health and blindness prevention through programs utilizing methodologies of public health, community medicine and ophthalmology in 1978.
In the context of network theory, a complex network is a graph (network) with non-trivial topological features—features that do not occur in simple networks such as lattices or random graphs but often occur in graphs modelling of real systems.
Complex systems biology (CSB) is a branch or subfield of mathematical and theoretical biology concerned with complexity of both structure and function in biological organisms, as well as the emergence and evolution of organisms and species, with emphasis being placed on the complex interactions of, and within, bionetworks, and on the fundamental relations and relational patterns that are essential to life.
Not to be confused with computer engineering. Computational science and engineering (CSE) is a relatively new discipline that deals with the development and application of computational models and simulations, often coupled with high-performance computing, to solve complex physical problems arising in engineering analysis and design (computational engineering) as well as natural phenomena (computational science).
Computational epidemiology is a multidisciplinary field that uses techniques from computer science, mathematics, geographic information science and public health to better understand issues central to epidemiology such as the spread of diseases or the effectiveness of a public health intervention.
Conan Christopher O'Brien (born April 18, 1963) is an American television host, comedian, writer, and producer.
Conditional logistic regression is an extension of logistic regression that allows one to take into account stratification and matching.
In statistics, a confounder (also confounding variable, confounding factor or lurking variable) is a variable that influences both the dependent variable and independent variable causing a spurious association.
Conservation medicine is an emerging, interdisciplinary field that studies the relationship between human and animal health, and environmental conditions.
CONSORT (Consolidated Standards Of Reporting Trials) encompasses various initiatives developed by the CONSORT Group to alleviate the problems arising from inadequate reporting of randomized controlled trials.
Consumerism is a social and economic order and ideology that encourages the acquisition of goods and services in ever-increasing amounts.
In epidemiology, contact tracing is the identification and diagnosis of people who may have come into contact with an infected person.
Contagion is a 2011 U.S. medical thriller-disaster film directed by Steven Soderbergh.
Contaminated haemophilia blood products were a serious public health problem in the late 1970s up to 1985.
Contingent contagionism was a concept in 19th-century medical writing and epidemiology before the germ theory, used as a qualified way of rejecting the application of the term "contagious disease" for a particular infection.
Diagnoses of autism have become more frequent since the 1980s, which has led to various controversies about both the cause of autism and the nature of the diagnoses themselves.
Coprolalia is involuntary swearing or the involuntary utterance of obscene words or socially inappropriate and derogatory remarks.
Dr Corran McLachlan (1 April 1944 – 9 August 2003) was a New Zealand based research scientist and entrepreneur.
In statistics, many statistical tests calculate correlations between variables and when two variables are found to be correlated, it is tempting to assume that this shows that one variable causes the other.
The Corrupted Blood incident was a virtual pandemic in the MMORPG World of Warcraft, which began on September 13, 2005, and lasted for one week.
The critical community size (CCS) is the minimum size of a closed population within which a human-to-human, non-zoonotic pathogen can persist indefinitely.
In social dynamics, critical mass is a sufficient number of adopters of an innovation in a social system so that the rate of adoption becomes self-sustaining and creates further growth.
Critical Reviews in Microbiology is an international, peer-reviewed academic journal that publishes comprehensive review articles covering all areas of medical microbiology.
Cross-species transmission, (CST) or spillover, is the ability for a foreign virus, once introduced into an individual of a new host species, to infect that individual and spread throughout a new host population.
Cryptosporidiosis, also known as crypto, is a parasitic disease caused by Cryptosporidium, a genus of protozoan parasites in the phylum Apicomplexa.
Cryptosporidium is a genus of apicomplexan parasitic alveolates that can cause a respiratory and gastrointestinal illness (cryptosporidiosis) that primarily involves watery diarrhea (intestinal cryptosporidiosis) with or without a persistent cough (respiratory cryptosporidiosis) in both immunocompetent and immunodeficient humans.
Csaba P. Kovesdy is an American nephrologist and a Professor of Medicine-Nephrology at the University of Tennessee Health Science Center, University of Tennessee Health Science Center faculty facepage as well as Chief of Nephrology at the Memphis Veterans Affairs Medical Center.
The cultural assimilation of Native Americans was an assimilation effort by the United States to transform Native American culture to European–American culture between the years of 1790 and 1920.
Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry is a cross-cultural peer-reviewed medical journal published quarterly by Springer Science+Business Media.
Cumulative incidence or incidence proportion is a measure of frequency, as in epidemiology, where it is a measure of disease frequency during a period of time.
Cylindrospermopsin (abbreviated to CYN, or CYL) is a cyanotoxin produced by a variety of freshwater cyanobacteria.
Daniel German "Dan" Blazer (born February 23, 1944 in Nashville, Tennessee) is the J.P. Gibbons Professor of Psychiatry Emeritus at Duke University School of Medicine.
Daniel Krewski is an Academic who is Professor of Medicine and Professor of Epidemiology and Community Medicine at the University of Ottawa, where his focus is health risk assessment in the Institute of Population Health.
Dan Sperber (born 20 June 1942, Cagnes-sur-Mer) is a French social and cognitive scientist.
Danica Mae McKellar (born January 3, 1975) is an American actress, voice actress, mathematics writer, and education advocate.
Daniel Feikin (born 1965) is an American epidemiologist.
Danny Dorling (born 16 January 1968) is a British social geographer and is the Halford Mackinder Professor of Geography of the School of Geography and the Environment of the University of Oxford.
Darold A. Treffert is a psychiatrist who specializes in the epidemiology of autism spectrum disorders and savant syndrome.
David Amiel Freedman (5 March 1938 – 17 October 2008) was Professor of Statistics at the University of California, Berkeley.
David A. Savitz is a professor of Community Health in the Epidemiology Section of the Program in Public Health, Vice President for Research, and Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology, at The Alpert Medical School of Brown University, and Associate Director for Perinatal Research in The Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Women & Infants Hospital, both in Providence, Rhode Island.
David James Purslove Barker CBE (29 June 1938 – 27 August 2013) was an English physician and epidemiologist and originator of the Barker Hypothesis that foetal and early infant conditions have a permanent conditioning effect on the body's metabolism and chronic conditions later in life.
David Bodian (15 May 1910 – 18 September 1992) was an American medical scientist at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine who worked in polio research.
David Critcherson Miller (March 9, 1917 – March 27, 1997) was an American physician and epidemiologist who attended to Albert Schweitzer until the humanitarian's death and later devoted his life to famine and medical relief efforts together with his wife, who was Schweitzer's only child.
David DuPuy Celentano (born 1951) is a noted epidemiologist and professor who has contributed significantly to the promotion of research on HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs).
David George Clayton, born 13 June 1944, is a British statistician and epidemiologist.
David Davis Rutstein (1909-1986) was a long-time faculty member at Harvard Medical School and an advocate for preventive medicine.
David J. Dausey is an American epidemiologist, professor and academic administrator.
David F. Duncan (born in Kansas City, Missouri on June 26, 1947) is president of Duncan & Associates, a firm providing consultation on research design and data collection for behavioral and policy studies.
David J. Graham is an American epidemiologist who is the Associate Director of the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA)Office of Drug Safety.
David H. Rosen (born February 25, 1945 in Port Chester, New York) is an American psychiatrist, Jungian analyst, and author, who was the first holder of the McMillan Professorship in Analytical Psychology, Professor of Psychiatry & Behavioral Science, and Professor of Humanities in Medicine at Texas A&M University.
David Mark Hillis (born December 21, 1958 in Copenhagen, Denmark) is an American evolutionary biologist, and the Alfred W. Roark Centennial Professor of Biology at the University of Texas at Austin.
David John Hunter, MBBS, MPH, ScD, was Acting Dean of the Faculty and before that Dean for Academic Affairs at the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health in Boston, and Vincent L. Gregory Professor in Cancer Prevention, Emeritus.
David Christopher Kelly (14 May 1944 – 17 July 2003) was a Welsh scientist and authority on biological warfare, employed by the British Ministry of Defence, and formerly a weapons inspector with the United Nations Special Commission in Iraq.
David Michaels is an epidemiologist and Professor in the Department of Environmental and Occupational Health (EOH) at the Milken Institute School of Public Health of the George Washington University.
David Rudyard Williams (born June 12, 1954 in Aruba) is the Florence Sprague Norman and Laura Smart Norman Professor of Public Health at the Harvard School of Public Health, as well as a Professor of African and African American Studies and of Sociology at Harvard University.
David Lawrence Sackett, (November 17, 1934 – May 13, 2015) was an American-Canadian medical doctor and a pioneer in evidence-based medicine.
David Judson Sencer (November 10, 1924 – May 2, 2011) was an American public health official who orchestrated the 1976 immunization program against swine flu.
David A. Snowdon (born 1952), is an epidemiologist and professor of neurology at the Sanders-Brown Center on Aging at the University of Kentucky.
David Waltner-Toews (born 1948) is a Canadian epidemiologist, essayist, poet, fiction writer, veterinarian, and a specialist in the epidemiology of food and waterborne diseases, zoonoses and ecosystem health.
The composer Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart died on 5 December 1791 at the age of 35.
Deborah Susan Asnis, M.D., (July 17, 1956 – September 12, 2015) was an American infectious disease specialist and H.I.V. clinical researcher, who is credited with reporting the first human cases of West Nile virus in the United States.
The decay-missing-filled (DMF) index or decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) index is one of the most common methods in oral epidemiology for assessing dental caries prevalence as well as dental treatment needs among populations and has been used for about 75 years.
The deductive-nomological model (DN model), also known as Hempel's model, the Hempel–Oppenheim model, the Popper–Hempel model, or the covering law model, is a formal view of scientifically answering questions asking, "Why...?".
Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is a type of dementia accompanied by changes in behavior, cognition and movement.
Demography (from prefix demo- from Ancient Greek δῆμος dēmos meaning "the people", and -graphy from γράφω graphō, implies "writing, description or measurement") is the statistical study of populations, especially human beings.
Denise Kandel (née Bystryn; born February 27, 1933) is an American medical sociologist and epidemiologist.
In epidemiology, data or facts about a population is called denominator data.
A dentist, also known as a dental surgeon, is a surgeon who specializes in dentistry, the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases and conditions of the oral cavity.
Dentistry is a branch of medicine that consists of the study, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases, disorders, and conditions of the oral cavity, commonly in the dentition but also the oral mucosa, and of adjacent and related structures and tissues, particularly in the maxillofacial (jaw and facial) area.
The Department of Defense Serum Repository (also referred to as the DoD Serum Repository or simply DoDSR) is a biological repository operated by the United States Department of Defense containing over 50,000,000 human serum specimens, collected primarily from applicants to and members of the United States Uniformed Services.
The Department of Epidemiology, Columbia University is one of six departments at Columbia University’s Mailman School of Public Health, located on the Columbia University Medical Center campus in New York City.
Dependency need is "the vital, originally infantile needs for mothering, love, affection, shelter, protection, security, food, and warmth." (Segen, 1992) A dependency need is thought to be characterized by two components: (1) It is a real need of an organism, something that must be present in order for the organism to be able to thrive, (2) It is something that an individual cannot provide for him or herself.
Depersonalization disorder (DPD), also known as depersonalization/derealization disorder, is a mental disorder in which the person has persistent or recurrent feelings of depersonalization or derealization.
Depleted uranium (DU; also referred to in the past as Q-metal, depletalloy or D-38) is uranium with a lower content of the fissile isotope U-235 than natural uranium.
Devra Lee Davis, (born June 7, 1946) is an American epidemiologist and writer.
Diana Sarfati is a New Zealand public health physician and epidemiology academic.
Diana M. Zuckerman (born 16 June 1950) is an American health policy analyst who focuses on the implications of policies for public health and patients’ health.
Dietary factors are recognized as having a significant effect on the risk of cancers, with different dietary elements both increasing and reducing risk.
Dimitrios Trichopoulos (Δημήτριος Τριχόπουλος; December 9, 1938 – December 1, 2014), was a Mediterranean Diet expert and tobacco harms researcher.
Dipsalut is the Independent Public Health Body of Girona Provincial Council and a local public administration.
In mathematics and computer science, a directed acyclic graph (DAG), is a finite directed graph with no directed cycles.
A disease is any condition which results in the disorder of a structure or function in an organism that is not due to any external injury.
Disease burden is the impact of a health problem as measured by financial cost, mortality, morbidity, or other indicators.
A disease cluster is an unusually high incidence of a particular disease or disorder occurring in close proximity in terms of both time and geography.
Disease management is defined as "a system of coordinated healthcare interventions and communications for populations with conditions in which patient self-care efforts are significant."Congressional Budget Office.
Disease surveillance is an epidemiological practice by which the spread of disease is monitored in order to establish patterns of progression.
Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD) is a mental disorder in children and adolescents characterized by a persistently irritable or angry mood and frequent temper outbursts that are disproportionate to the situation and significantly more severe than the typical reaction of same-aged peers.
DNA sequencing is the process of determining the precise order of nucleotides within a DNA molecule.
Donald Pinkston "Don" Francis (born October 24, 1942) is an American epidemiologist who worked on the Ebola outbreak in Africa in the late 1970s, and HIV/AIDS researcher.
Sir (Ernest) Donald Acheson (17 September 1926 – 10 January 2010) was an Irish-born physician and epidemiologist who served as Chief Medical Officer of the United Kingdom from 1983 to 1991.
Seymour Donald Mayneord Court CBE, MB ChB, DCH, MRCP, MD, FRCP, Hon FRCGP (born 4 January 1912 in Wem, died 9 September 1994 in Newcastle upon Tyne) was a deeply religious British, paediatrician who was known for his achievements in the fields of respiratory disease and the epidemiology of disease in childhood.
Donald Ainslie Henderson (September 7, 1928 – August 19, 2016) was an American medical doctor, educator, and epidemiologist who directed a 10-year international effort (1967–1977) that eradicated smallpox throughout the world and launched international childhood vaccination programs.
Donald R. Hopkins (born September 25, 1941) is a Bahamian American physician, a MacArthur Fellow and is the Vice President and Director of Health Programs at The Carter Center.
The Donald Reid Medal is awarded triennially by the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine in recognition of distinguished contributions to epidemiology.
Dorothy Millicent Horstmann (July 2, 1911 – January 11, 2001) was an American epidemiologist, virologist and pediatrician whose research on the spread of poliovirus in the human bloodstream helped set the stage for the development of the polio vaccine.
Dorothy Pamela (DeMontmerency) Warburton (12 January 1936 – 26 April 2016) was a Canadian geneticist whose research focused on fetal chromosomal abnormalities and reasons for miscarriage.
Dorry Segev is the Marjory K. and Thomas Pozefsky Professor of Surgery at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Professor of Epidemiology at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, and Associate Vice Chair of the Department of Surgery at Johns Hopkins Hospital.
Douglas James Wiebe is associate professor of epidemiology at the Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics in the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania.
Drinking water quality in the United States is generally good.
Drona Prakash Rasali (द्रोण प्रकाश रसाली, born in Humin, Palpa) was a Nepalese student who stood "Board last" topping School Leaving Certificate i.e. national board examinations, commonly abbreviated as SLC, held in 1972.
Dual inheritance theory (DIT), also known as gene–culture coevolution or biocultural evolution, was developed in the 1960s through early 1980s to explain how human behavior is a product of two different and interacting evolutionary processes: genetic evolution and cultural evolution.
Dubăsari district is a district in the east of Moldova, with the administrative center at Cocieri.
The Duesberg hypothesis is the claim, associated with University of California, Berkeley professor Peter Duesberg, that various noninfectious factors such as but not limited to, recreational and pharmaceutical drug use are the cause of AIDS, and that HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) is merely a harmless passenger virus.
The Dugway sheep incident, also known as the Skull Valley sheep kill, was a 1968 sheep kill that has been connected to United States Army chemical and biological warfare programs at Dugway Proving Ground in Utah.
The Dutch famine of 1944–45, known in the Netherlands as the Hongerwinter (literal translation: hunger winter), was a famine that took place in the German-occupied Netherlands, especially in the densely populated western provinces north of the great rivers, during the winter of 1944–45, near the end of World War II.
Dynapenia (pronounced dahy-nuh-pē-nē-a, Greek translation for poverty of strength, power, or force) is the loss of muscular strength not caused by neurological or muscular disease that typically is associated with older adults.
E-epidemiology (also known as Digital Epidemiology) is the science underlying the acquisition, maintenance and application of epidemiological knowledge and information using digital media such as the internet, mobile phones, digital paper, digital TV.
Ebola virus disease (EVD), also known as Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) or simply Ebola, is a viral hemorrhagic fever of humans and other primates caused by ebolaviruses.
EcoHealth Alliance is a non-governmental organization which employs a 'One Health' approach to protecting the health of people, animals, and the environment from emerging infectious diseases.
An ecological network is a representation of the biotic interactions in an ecosystem, in which species (nodes) are connected by pairwise interactions (links).
Ecological studies are studies of risk-modifying factors on health or other outcomes based on populations defined either geographically or temporally.
Economic data or economic statistics are data (quantitative measures) describing an actual economy, past or present.
Economic epidemiology is a field at the intersection of epidemiology and economics.
Edmund von Neusser (1 December 1852 Swoszowice – 30 July 1912, Bad Fischau) was an Austrian internist of Polish origin.
Eduardo Wilde (June 15, 1844 – September 5, 1913) was an Argentine physician, politician, and writer, and among the most prominent intellectual figures of the modernizing Generation of '80 in Argentina.
Edward Charles Holmes (born 1965, UK) is an evolutionary biologist and virologist, and since 2012 an National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) Australia Fellow and professor at the University of Sydney.
Edward Settle Godfrey, Jr. (1878–December 13, 1960), son of Edward Settle Godfrey, was a physician and epidemiologist, the founder of the first epidemiological society in the United States.
The effects of long-term benzodiazepine use include drug dependence as well as the possibility of adverse effects on cognitive function, physical health, and mental health.
The effects of pornography on individuals or their sexual relationships differ from person to person, and are often unclear.
The 1986 Chernobyl disaster triggered the release of substantial amounts of radioactivity into the atmosphere in the form of both particulate and gaseous radioisotopes.
Egg allergy is an immune hypersensitivity to proteins found in chicken eggs, and possibly goose, duck, or turkey eggs.
Eleanor Josephine Macdonald (4 March 1906 – 26 July 2007) was a pioneer American cancer epidemiologist and cancer researcher influenced and mentored by Edwin Bidwell Wilson and Shields Warren.
The electrical penetration graph or EPG is a system used by biologists to study the interaction of insects such as aphids, thrips, and leafhoppers with plants.
eLife is a peer-reviewed open access scientific journal for the biomedical and life sciences, It was established at the end of 2012 by the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Max Planck Society, and Wellcome Trust, following a workshop held in 2010 at the Janelia Farm Research Campus.
elin o'Hara slavick is an interdisciplinary artist, professor, curator, critic and activist.
Elioda Tumwesigye is a Ugandan politician, physician, and epidemiologist who has served as minister of science, technology and innovation in the cabinet of Uganda since June 2016.
Elizabeth H. Slate is an American statistician, interested in the Bayesian statistics of longitudinal data and applications to health.
Elizabeth M. Ward is an American scientist and researcher for the American Cancer Society.
Elizabeth Pisani (born 1964) is the director of Ternyata Ltd., a public health consultancy based in London, UK.
Elizabeth Stern (married name Elizabeth Stern Shankman, September 19, 1915 – August 18, 1980) was a Canadian-born American pathologist, especially well known for her insights on the cell's progression from a healthy to a cancerous state.
Elizabeth Tulip Treasure (born January 1958) is Vice-Chancellor of Aberystwyth University in Wales, and a former consultant dentist and professor of dentistry.
Elizabeth M. Whelan (December 4, 1943 – September 11, 2014) was an American epidemiologist best known for challenging government regulations of the consumer products, food, and pharmaceuticals industries that arose from what she said was faulty science.
Howe Elliott McClure, (April 29, 1910, Chicago-December 27, 1998, Camarillo, California) was an American entomologist, ornithologist and epidemiologist who worked on bird transmitted diseases in Asia, especially in Japan, Thailand and Malaya working on a number of diseases associated with birds including Japanese Encephalitis.
Emerging Infectious Diseases (EID) is an open-access, peer-reviewed journal published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
Emerging Themes in Epidemiology is an online open access peer-reviewed medical journal.
Encephalitis lethargica is an atypical form of encephalitis.
Endang Rahayu Sedyaningsih (1 February 1955 – 2 May 2012) was an Indonesian physician, researcher, and author.
In epidemiology, an infection is said to be endemic (from Greek ἐν en "in, within" and δῆμος demos "people") in a population when that infection is constantly maintained at a baseline level in a geographic area without external inputs.
Ennapadam Srinivas Krishnamoorthy FRCP (born December 3, 1966) is a neuropsychiatrist with special interests in Epilepsy and Dementia.
The Entrez Global Query Cross-Database Search System is a federated search engine, or web portal that allows users to search many discrete health sciences databases at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) website.
An “envirome” includes all of the environmental conditions required for successful biological life that affect human health.
Environment may refer to.
In epidemiology, environmental diseases are diseases that can be directly attributed to environmental factors (as distinct from genetic factors or infection).
Environmental epidemiology is a branch of epidemiology concerned with the discovery of the environmental exposures that contribute to or protect against injuries, illnesses, developmental conditions, disabilities, and deaths; and identification of public health and health care actions to manage the risks associated with harmful exposures.
Environmental health is the branch of public health concerned with all aspects of the natural and built environment affecting human health.
Environmental health ethics is a field of study that combines environmental health policies and ethical consideration towards a mutually acceptable goal.
Environmental Health Perspectives (EHP) is a peer-reviewed journal published monthly with support from the U.S. National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS).
Study of the environmental impact of war focuses on the modernization of warfare and its increasing effects on the environment.
Environmental medicine is a multidisciplinary field involving medicine, environmental science, chemistry and others, overlapping with environmental pathology.
Environmental social science is the broad, transdisciplinary study of interrelations between humans and the natural environment.
Environmental toxicants and fetal development is the impact of different toxic substances from the environment on the development of the fetus.
The prefix epi, or ep if followed by a vowel or the letter "h", is derived from the Greek preposition ἐπί meaning: above, on, over, nearby, upon; outer; besides, in addition to; among; attached to; or toward.
Epi Info is statistical software for epidemiology developed by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia (US) and licensed as public domain.
Epi Map is a module that displays geographic maps with data from Epi Info.
EpiData is a group of applications used in combination for creating documented data structures and analysis of quantitative data.
An epidemic (from Greek ἐπί epi "upon or above" and δῆμος demos "people") is the rapid spread of infectious disease to a large number of people in a given population within a short period of time, usually two weeks or less.
The Epidemic Intelligence Service (EIS) is a program of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
Epidemiologic Reviews is an annual peer-reviewed scientific journal covering epidemiology and published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.
The science of epidemiology has matured significantly from the times of Hippocrates, Semmelweis and John Snow.
Epidemiology is the study and analysis of the distribution (who, when, and where) and determinants of health and disease conditions in defined populations.
Epidemiology is the study of the distribution and patterns of health-events, health-characteristics and their causes or influences in defined populations.
Epidemiology is a bi-monthly, peer-reviewed journal for epidemiologic research, published by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Epidemiology and Infection is a peer-reviewed medical journal that contains original reports and reviews on all aspects of infection in humans and animals.
Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences is a quarterly peer-reviewed scientific journal covering psychiatry and epidemiology.
Epidemiological studies of the health effects of low levels of ionizing radiation, in particular the incidence and mortality from various forms of cancer, have been carried out in different population groups exposed to such radiation.
Epidemiology in Country Practice is a book by William Pickles (1885–1969), a rural general practitioner (GP) physician in Wensleydale, North Yorkshire, England, first published in 1939.
The epidemiology of autism is the study of the incidence and distribution of autism spectrum disorders (ASD).
The epidemiology of cancer is the study of the factors affecting cancer, as a way to infer possible trends and causes.
Epidemiological research has shown that between 3% and 18% of children have a psychiatric disorder causing significant functional impairment (reasons for these widely divergent prevalence rates are discussed below) and Costello and colleagues have proposed a median prevalence estimate of 12%.
The epidemiology of depression has been studied across the world.
The epidemiology of herpes simplex is of substantial epidemiologic and public health interest.
Epidemiology of periodontal disease is the study of patterns, causes, and effects of periodontal diseases.
Epidemiology of representations, or cultural epidemiology, provides a conceptual framework for explaining cultural phenomena by how mental representations get distributed within a population.
An estimated 1 million people worldwide die by suicide every year.
Epigenetics of anxiety and stress-related disorders is the field studying the relationship between epigenetic modifications of genes and anxiety and stress-related disorders, including mental health disorders such as generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), post-traumatic stress disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and more.
An epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) is an examination of a genome-wide set of quantifiable epigenetic marks, such as DNA methylation, in different individuals to derive associations between epigenetic variation and a particular identifiable phenotype/trait.
Epizootiology, epizoology, or veterinary epidemiology is the study of disease patterns within animal populations.
Equation-free modeling is a method for multiscale computation and computer-aided analysis.
Eran Elhaik (born 1980 in Israel) is an Israeli-American geneticist and bioinformatician.
Eric L. Feigl-Ding (Eric L. Ding) is an American public health scientist with expertise in epidemiology, nutrition, and health economics, and a Democratic candidate for Congress from Pennsylvania's 10th congressional district.
Erin Brockovich (born Pattee; June 22, 1960) is an American legal clerk and environmental activist, who, despite her lack of formal education in the law, was instrumental in building a case against the Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E) of California in 1993.
Ernest Shalom Tierkel (July 2, 1917 – 1981) was an epidemiologist who crusaded to eradicate rabies from all continents.
Ernst Friedberger (May 17, 1875 - January 25, 1932) was a German immunologist and hygienist born in Giessen.
Ernst Ludwig Wynder, M.D. (April 30, 1922 – July 14, 1999) was an American epidemiology and public health researcher who studied the health effects of smoking tobacco.
Ethel May Newbold (28 August 1882 – 25 March 1933) was an English epidemiologist and statistician.
Ethnicity & Health is a bimonthly peer-reviewed medical journal covering the relationship between ethnicity and health.
Etiology (alternatively aetiology or ætiology) is the study of causation, or origination.
Etonogestrel is a progestin medication which is used as a means of birth control for women.
The European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) is a scientific association founded in Montecatini Terme, Italy in 1965 with Dr.
The European Association for Vision and Eye Research is a multidisciplinary scientific society that aims to encourage research and the dissemination of knowledge concerning the eye and vision by means of meetings, publications and exchange of information.
The European Journal of Cancer Prevention (print:, online) is the official journal of the European Cancer Prevention Organization.
The European Journal of Epidemiology is a monthly peer-reviewed medical journal on the epidemiology of communicable and non-communicable diseases and their control.
The European Menopause and Andropause Society is an institution that promotes the study, and encourages research, of midlife health.
The European Programme for Intervention Epidemiology Training (EPIET) Fellowship provides training and practical experience in intervention epidemiology at the national centres for surveillance and control of communicable diseases in the European Union.
The European Public Health Association (EUPHA) is an umbrella organisation for public health associations and institutes in Europe.
The European Wound Management Association (EWMA) was founded in 1991.
Eurosurveillance is a peer-reviewed open access medical journal covering epidemiology, with a focus on such topics that are of particular relevance to Europe.
Eurotrials, Scientific Consultants is an international, privately owned full-service contract research organization (CRO) providing clinical research, scientific consultancy and development services for the pharmaceutical, biotechnology and medical device industries.
Eva Harris (born August 6, 1965) is a professor in the School of Public Health at the University of California, Berkeley, and the founder and president of the Sustainable Sciences Institute.
The Evans County Heart Study was a long-term cardiovascular study on residents of Evans County, Georgia.
Evidence-based medicine (EBM) is an approach to medical practice intended to optimize decision-making by emphasizing the use of evidence from well-designed and well-conducted research.
Many developing nations have developed national drug policies, a concept that has been actively promoted by the WHO.
Evidence-based practice (EBP) is an interdisciplinary approach to clinical practice that has been gaining ground following its formal introduction in 1992.
Evolution of Infectious Disease is a 1993 book by the evolutionary biologist Paul Ewald.
In statistics, excess risk is a measure of the relationship between a specified risk factor and a specified outcome (such as contracting a disease).
Exercise is any bodily activity that enhances or maintains physical fitness and overall health and wellness.
Experimental epidemiology is a type of epidemiological investigation that uses an experimental model to confirm a causal relationship suggested by observational studies.
In epidemiology and biostatistics, the experimental event rate (EER) is a measure of how often a particular statistical event (such as response to a drug, adverse event or death) occurs within the experimental group (non-control group) of an experiment.
The exposome encompasses the totality of human environmental (i.e. non-genetic) exposures from conception onwards, complementing the genome, first proposed in 2005 by a cancer epidemiologist.
Exposure assessment is a branch of environmental science and occupational hygiene that focuses on the processes that take place at the interface between the environment containing the contaminant(s) of interest and the organism(s) being considered.
Exposure science is the study of an organism's (usually human) contact with chemical, physical, biological agents or other health risk (eg accidental) occurring in their environments, and advances knowledge of the mechanisms and dynamics of events either causing or preventing adverse health outcomes.
Ezekiel Stone Wiggins (December 4, 1839 – August 14, 1910) was a Canadian weather and earthquake predictor known as the "Ottawa Prophet".
Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto (Ribeirão Preto Medical School in Portuguese) is a medical school of the University of São Paulo (USP) located in the city of Ribeirão Preto, state of São Paulo, Brazil, founded 1952.
The Faculty of Dental Medicine of Monastir (FMDM) (Arabic: كلية طب الأسنان بالمنستير) is a dental school in Monastir, Tunisia.
Fairfield Infectious Diseases Hospital, originally known as Queens Memorial Infectious Diseases Hospital, operated from 1904 to its closure in 1996.
The Fall Prevention Center of Excellence (FPCE) is a source of fall prevention information for older adults, families, caregivers, professionals, service providers, researchers, and policymakers.
Fasciolosis is a parasitic worm infection caused by the common liver fluke Fasciola hepatica as well as by Fasciola gigantica.
The federal administration of Switzerland (Bundesverwaltung, Administration fédérale, Amministrazione federale, Tribunal administrativ federal) is the ensemble of agencies that constitute, together with the Swiss Federal Council, the executive branch of the Swiss federal authorities.
The Federal Department of Home Affairs (FDHA,, Département fédéral de l'intérieur,, Departament federal da l'intern) is a department of the federal administration of Switzerland and serves as the Swiss ministry of the interior.
Feline coronavirus (FCoV) is a positive-stranded RNA virus that is infectious to cats worldwide.
Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) is a retrovirus that infects cats.
The fetal origins hypothesis (differentiated from the developmental origins of health and disease hypothesis, which emphasizes environmental conditions both before and immediately after birth) proposes that the period of gestation has significant impacts on the developmental health and wellbeing outcomes for an individual ranging from infancy to adulthood.
Field Epidemiology involves the application of epidemiologic methods to unexpected health problems when a rapid, on-site investigation is necessary for timely intervention.
Field research or fieldwork is the collection of information outside a laboratory, library or workplace setting.
Fiona Juliet Stanley (born 1 August 1946) is an Australian epidemiologist noted for her public health work, and her research into child and maternal health, and birth disorders such as cerebral palsy.
Fiona Stanley Hospital is a state government hospital and teaching facility in Murdoch, Western Australia.
The Florida Department of Health is responsible for protecting the public health and safety of the residents and visitors of the state of Florida.
Biomphalaria glabrata is a species of a freshwater snail, an aquatic gastropod mollusk in the family Planorbidae, the rams horn snails.
Focal infection theory is the historical concept that many chronic diseases, including systemic and common ones, are caused by focal infections.
Research into food choice investigates how people select the food they eat.
Food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) is a questionnaire used to obtain frequency and, in some cases, portion size information about food and beverage consumption over a specified period of time, typically the past month or year.
In epidemiology, force of infection (denoted \lambda) is the rate at which susceptible individuals acquire an infectious disease.
Foreign internal defense (FID) is a term by the militaries of some countries, including the United States, France, and the United Kingdom, to describe an integrated and synchronized, multi-disciplinary (and often joint, interagency, and international as well) approach to combating actual or threatened insurgency in a foreign state.
The discipline of forensic epidemiology (FE) is a hybrid of principles and practices common to both forensic medicine and epidemiology.
A forest plot, also known as a blobbogram, is a graphical display of estimated results from a number of scientific studies addressing the same question, along with the overall results.
Francesca Dominici is an Italian statistician who performs collaborative research on projects that combine big data with health policy and climate change.
Francisella tularensis is a pathogenic species of Gram-negative, rod-shaped coccobacillus, an aerobe bacterium.
Frank Caldwell Garland (June 20, 1950 – August 17, 2010) was an American epidemiologist whose research led to the conclusion that vitamin D deficiency can be a factor increasing risk for breast cancer and colon cancer.
Sir Frank Macfarlane Burnet, (3 September 1899 – 31 August 1985), usually known as Macfarlane or Mac Burnet, was an Australian virologist best known for his contributions to immunology.
Franklin Marshall Matthews White (born 1946) is a Canadian public health scientist focused on capacity building for international and global education, research and development.
Frederick Lowe Soper (December 13, 1893 – February 9, 1977) was an American epidemiologist.
Fred Vargas is the pseudonym of Frédérique Audoin-Rouzeau (born 7 June 1957 in Paris), a French historian, archaeologist and novelist.
Frederick Wabwire-Mangen is a Ugandan physician, public health specialist and medical researcher.
Brigadier General Frederick Fuller Russell (1870, Auburn, New York, USA – December 29, 1960) was a U.S. Army physician who perfected a typhoid vaccine in 1909.
Frederick Griffith was a British bacteriologist whose focus was the epidemiology and pathology of bacterial pneumonia.
Frederick John William Miller (born 5 November 1911 in Newbiggin-by-the-Sea, Northumberland, died 30 March 1996) was a British paediatrician, who made critically important contributions in describing tuberculosis in childhood, including the definition of the treatment and control, of the disease.
Frederick Pei Li (May 7, 1940 – June 12, 2015) was a Chinese-American physician.
The free radical theory of aging (FRTA) states that organisms age because cells accumulate free radical damage over time.
Freeman–Sheldon syndrome (FSS), also termed distal arthrogryposis type 2A (DA2A), craniocarpotarsal dysplasia (or dystrophy), Cranio-carpo-tarsal syndrome, Windmill-Vane-Hand syndrome, or Whistling-face syndrome, was originally described by Freeman and Sheldon in 1938.
The French paradox is a catchphrase, first used in the late 1980s, that summarizes the apparently paradoxical epidemiological observation that French people have a relatively low incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD), while having a diet relatively rich in saturated fats, in apparent contradiction to the widely held belief that the high consumption of such fats is a risk factor for CHD.
Frieda Fraser (30 August 1899 – 29 July 1994) was a Canadian physician, scientist and academic who worked in infectious disease, including research on scarlet fever and tuberculosis.
Fritz de Quervain (4 May 1868 – 24 January 1940) was a Swiss surgeon born in Sion.
Frostbite occurs when exposure to low temperatures causes freezing of the skin or other tissues.
The phrases "further research is needed" (FRIN), "more research is needed" and other variants are commonly used in research papers.
Galea is a surname.
The Gamelan Council – Asia-Pacific Microfinance, Public Health & Development Centre (Gamelan Council) is an international non-governmental, non-profit initiative addressing the microfinance, public health, and international development needs of communities in, on, and around the Pacific Rim.
Gareth Owen Roberts FRS (born 1964) is a statistician and applied probabilist.
The Garki Project was a non-profit study conducted by the World Health Organization from 1969 to 1976 in the Garki Local Government Area of the Jigawa State (then part of the Kano State), Nigeria.
Garlic (Allium sativum) is a species in the onion genus, Allium.
The Garvan Institute of Medical Research is an Australian biomedical research institute located in, Sydney, New South Wales.
Gateway drug theory (alternatively, stepping-stone theory, escalation hypothesis, or progression hypothesis) is a comprehensive catchphrase for the medical theory that the use of a psychoactive drug can be coupled to an increased probability of the use of further drugs.
The Gatorade Company, Inc. is an American manufacturer of sports-themed beverage and food products, built around its signature line of sports drinks.
Gavin Milroy (1805–1886) was a Scottish physician and medical writer.
Gbemisola Oke (born Gbemisola Aderemi Aderinokun) is a Nigerian professor of Periodontology and Community Dentistry at University of Ibadan.
Gene transfer strategies for medical management of the Osteoarthritis have attracted the attention of scientists due to the complex pathology of this chronic disease.
Gene–environment interaction (or genotype–environment interaction or G×E) is when two different genotypes respond to environmental variation in different ways.
General population has different meanings depending upon the context.
The General Practice Extraction Service (GPES or GP Extraction Service) is a British health service outcomes research computer database that collates statistical aggregated data (demographic cohorts) from individual medical records of GPs in England, for purposes independent of an individual's immediate health, such as public health research.
In statistics, a generalized estimating equation (GEE) is used to estimate the parameters of a generalized linear model with a possible unknown correlation between outcomes.
Genetically modified food controversies are disputes over the use of foods and other goods derived from genetically modified crops instead of conventional crops, and other uses of genetic engineering in food production.
In genetics, a genome-wide association study (GWA study, or GWAS), also known as whole genome association study (WGA study, or WGAS), is an observational study of a genome-wide set of genetic variants in different individuals to see if any variant is associated with a trait.
Geoffrey Arthur Rose CBE (19 April 1926 – 12 November 1993) was an eminent epidemiologist whose ideas have been credited with transforming the approach to strategies for improving health.
A geographic information system (GIS) is a system designed to capture, store, manipulate, analyze, manage, and present spatial or geographic data.
Geography (from Greek γεωγραφία, geographia, literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, the features, the inhabitants, and the phenomena of Earth.
Georg Wildführ (born Linden 30 August 1904 — died Holzhausen 4 August 1984) was an East German Medical microbiologist and Hygienist.
Sir George Buchanan, FRS (5 November 1831 – 5 May 1895) was an English physician, epidemiologist and civil servant.
George Davey Smith (born 9 May 1959) is a British epidemiologist.
George Keble Hirst, M.D. (March 2, 1909 – January 22, 1994) was an American virologist and science administrator who was among the first to study the molecular biology and genetics of animal viruses, especially influenza virus.
George J. Armelagos (May 22, 1936 – May 15, 2014) was an American anthropologist, and Goodrich C. White Professor of Anthropology at Emory University in Atlanta, Georgia.
George Rosen (1910–1977) was an American physician, public health administrator, journal editor, and medical historian.
George Wills Comstock (January 7, 1915 – July 15, 2007) was a public health physician, epidemiologist, and educator.
Georgetown University School of Nursing & Health Studies (NHS) is one of the four undergraduate schools of Georgetown University.
Geostatistics is a branch of statistics focusing on spatial or spatiotemporal datasets.
Gerhard Henrik Armauer Hansen (29 July 1841 – 12 February 1912) was a Norwegian physician, remembered for his identification of the bacterium Mycobacterium leprae in 1873 as the causative agent of leprosy.
Geriatric rheumatology is the branch of medicine that studies rheumatologic disorders in elderly (joints, muscles & other structures around the joints).
The germ theory of disease is the currently accepted scientific theory of disease.
The Deutsche Gesellschaft für Pneumologie und Beatmungsmedizin (DGP, "German Respiratory Society) is the largest and oldest medical professional organization for respiratory disorders in the German-speaking world and serves as a forum for all medical practitioners and scientists in the field of respiratory medicine.
Gilbert Wheeler Beebe (3 April 1912 – 3 March 2003), also known as Gil Beebe, was an American epidemiologist and statistician known for monumental studies of radiation-related mortality and morbidity among populations exposed to ionizing radiation from the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945 and the Chernobyl reactor accident in 1986.
Professor Gio Batta Gori is an epidemiologist and fellow with the Health Policy Center in Bethesda, Maryland which he established in 1997 and where he specializes in risk assessment and scientific research.
Giovanni Maria Lancisi (26 October 1654 – 20 January 1720) was an Italian physician, epidemiologist and anatomist who made a correlation between the presence of mosquitoes and the prevalence of malaria.
Geographic information systems (GISs) and geographic information science (GIScience) combine computer-mapping capabilities with additional database management and data analysis tools.
The GISAID Initiative is widely credited for successfully enabling the rapid sharing of influenza virus data through a unique sharing mechanism, that was recognized for its importance to global health by all G20 health ministers in 2017.
The Glasgow effect refers to the low life expectancy and poor health of residents of Glasgow, Scotland, compared to the rest of the United Kingdom and Europe.
Global health is the health of populations in the global context; it has been defined as "the area of study, research and practice that places a priority on improving health and achieving equity in health for all people worldwide".
Global Infectious Diseases and Epidemiology Online Network (GIDEON) is a web-based program for decision support and informatics in the fields of Infectious Diseases and Geographic Medicine.
Global mental health is the international perspective on different aspects of mental health.
The genomic epidemiological database for global identification of microorganisms or global microbial identifier (GMI) is a platform for storing whole genome sequencing (WGS) data of microorganisms, for the identification of relevant genes and for the comparison of genomes to detect and track-and-trace infectious disease outbreaks and emerging pathogens.
Global radiology, a subspecialty of diagnostic radiology, comprises the study and practice of improving access to radiology resources in poor and developing countries, and addressing global health inequities through the application of radiology.
Most of the terms listed in Wikipedia glossaries are already defined and explained within Wikipedia itself.
A glossary of terms used in clinical research.
The following is a glossary of diabetes which explains terms connected with diabetes.
This is a glossary of environmental science.
This glossary of medical terms is a list of definitions about medicine, its sub-disciplines, and related fields.
Glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine) is a broad-spectrum systemic herbicide and crop desiccant.
Goanet is a mailing list related to the state of Goa, located on the western coast of India.
Good Epidemiological Practices or Good Epidemiology Practices (GEP) was a set of guidelines produced by the U.S. Chemical Manufacturers Association (CMA) in 1991 to improve epidemiologic research practices.
Gordon Henry Guyatt, MD, MSc, FRCP, OC born November 11, 1953) is a Canadian physician and Distinguished University Professor in the Departments of Health Research Methods, Evidence and Impact (formerly Clinical Epidemiology & Biostatistics) and Medicine at McMaster University in Hamilton, Ontario. He is known for his leadership in evidence-based medicine, a term that first appeared in a single-author paper he published in 1991. Subsequently, a 1992 JAMA article that Guyatt led proved instrumental in bringing the concept of evidence-based medicine to the worlds attention. In 2007, The BMJ launched an international election for the most important contributions to healthcare. Evidence-based medicine came 7th, ahead of the computer and medical imaging. Guyatt’s concerns with the role of the medical system, social justice, and medical reform remain central issues that he promoted in tandem with his medical work. On October 9, 2015, he was named to the Canadian Medical Hall of Fame. ----.
Gordon Thallon Stewart (9 February 1919 – 10 October 2016) was a Scottish epidemiologist and public health physician who served as the Henry Mechan Professor of Public Health at the University of Glasgow from 1972 to 1984.
Gottfried Wilhelm (von) Leibniz (or; Leibnitz; – 14 November 1716) was a German polymath and philosopher who occupies a prominent place in the history of mathematics and the history of philosophy.
Alexander Graham Bell Fairchild (August 17, 1906 – February 10, 1994) was an American entomologist, and a member of the Fairchild family, descendants of Thomas Fairchild of Stratford, Connecticut and one of two grandsons of the scientist and inventor, Alexander Graham Bell, for whom he was named, and son of David Fairchild, a botanist and plant explorer.
The Grand Challenges in Global Health (GCGH) is a research initiative launched by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation in search of solutions to health problems in the developing world.
Gregory Minh (Григорий Николаевич Минх; September 7, 1836 – December 12, 1896 in Saratov), was an epidemiologist, pathologist and former professor at the Department of Pathological Anatomy at the University of St. Vladimir.
Group dynamics is a system of behaviors and psychological processes occurring within a social group (intragroup dynamics), or between social groups (intergroup dynamics).
Guidances for statistics in regulatory affairs are applicable to the pharmaceutical industry and medical devices industry.
Guillaume de Baillou (Latin: Ballonius) (1538–1616) was a French physician born in Paris.
Guillermo Gonzalez (born 1963 in Havana, Cuba) is an astrophysicist, proponent of the pseudoscientific principle of intelligent design, and an assistant professor at Ball State University, a public research university, in Muncie, Indiana.
The GuLF Study, or Gulf Long-term Follow-up Study, is a five-year research project examining the human-health consequences of the ''Deepwater Horizon'' oil spill in April 2010.
A gunshot wound (GSW), also known as ballistic trauma, is a form of physical trauma sustained from the discharge of arms or munitions.
Gustav Orreus (1738–1811) was a doctor of Finnish-Swedish origin in the Imperial Russian service.
Guy's Hospital is an NHS hospital in the borough of Southwark in central London.
Henry Trendley Dean (August 25, 1893 – May 13, 1962), was the first director of the United States National Institute of Dental Research and a pioneer investigator of water fluoridation in the prevention of tooth decay.
Harold "Hal" Morgenstern is an American epidemiologist and professor of epidemiology at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor.
Hal V. Barron (born 1962) is an American clinician-scientist and drug developer who will serve as president of research and development at GlaxoSmithKline from March 2018.
Abdol Hamid Ghodse (حمید قدس.‎; 30 April 1938 – 27 December 2012) was an academic in the field of substance abuse and addiction.
Hampton is a suburban area on the north bank of the River Thames, in the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames, England, which includes Hampton Court Palace.
Johan "Hans" Ormel (born 1946 in Wageningen) is a psychiatric epidemiologist known for his scientific work in clinical and health psychology, psychiatry, gerontology and medical sociology.
Hans Otto Friedrich Schlossberger (born 22 September 1887 in Alpirsbach, died 27 January 1960 in Stuttgart) was a German physician, who was known for his research in immunology, medical microbiology, epidemiology and antimicrobial chemotherapy, especially on syphilis, typhus, gas gangrene, diphtheria, erysipeloid of Rosenbach, tuberculosis, malaria and leptospirosis.
Hans Zinsser (November 17, 1878 – September 4, 1940) was an American physician, bacteriologist, and prolific author.
Hari Seldon is a fictional character in Isaac Asimov's ''Foundation'' series.
Harris Pastides (born 1954, Astoria, Queens, New York) is the 28th president of the University of South Carolina.
Harvey Bialy (born 1945, New York City) is an American molecular biologist and AIDS denialist.
Harvey was one of the earliest medical simulators available for training of health care professionals.
Hashem B. El-Serag is a Palestinian-American physician and medical researcher best known for his research in liver cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and the hepatitis C virus.
Head and neck cancer is a group of cancers that starts in the mouth, nose, throat, larynx, sinuses, or salivary glands.
Health is the ability of a biological system to acquire, convert, allocate, distribute, and utilize energy with maximum efficiency.
The health and safety hazards of nanomaterials include the potential toxicity of various types of nanomaterials, as well as fire and dust explosion hazards.
Health and wellbeing boards are statutory bodies introduced in England under the Health and Social Care Act 2012.
Health communication is the study and practice of communicating promotional health information, such as in public health campaigns, health education, and between doctor and patient.
Health Data Insight (HDI) CiC is a social enterprise (community interest company), that researches and data mines NHS England figures to find population health and epidemiological or demographic insights for effective NHS treatments by public health informatics, headquartered in the east of Cambridge.
Health economics is a branch of economics concerned with issues related to efficiency, effectiveness, value and behavior in the production and consumption of health and healthcare.
There has been growing concern over the health effects arising from the September 11 attacks in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan.
Radon is a radioactive, colorless, odorless, tasteless noble gas, occurring naturally as the decay product of radium.
Tobacco use has predominantly negative effects on human health and concern about health effects of tobacco has a long history.
Health geography is the application of geographical information, perspectives, and methods to the study of health, disease, and health care.
A health professional, health practitioner or healthcare provider (sometimes simply "provider") is an individual who provides preventive, curative, promotional or rehabilitative health care services in a systematic way to people, families or communities.
Health psychology is the study of psychological and behavioral processes in health, illness, and healthcare.
Health services research (HSR), also known as health systems research or health policy and systems research (HPSR), is a multidisciplinary scientific field that examines how people get access to health care practitioners and health care services, how much care costs, and what happens to patients as a result of this care.
A health system, also sometimes referred to as health care system or as healthcare system, is the organization of people, institutions, and resources that deliver health care services to meet the health needs of target populations.
Healthcare in Brazil is a constitutional right.
In the past, Kosovo’s capabilities to develop a modern health care system were limited.
Healthism, sometimes called public-healthism, is a neologism to describe a variety of ideological constructs concerning health and medicine.
The healthy user bias is a bias that can damage the validity of epidemiologic studies testing the efficacy of particular therapies or interventions.
Heather Anne Elyse Lilian Munroe-Blum, (born August 25, 1950) is a Canadian academic and businesswoman.
Hege Randi Eriksen (born 18 April 1965) is the Research Director of Uni Health and Professor at the University of Bergen, Norway.
The study of height and intelligence examines correlations between height and human intelligence.
Heinrich Hetsch (2 July 1873, Mainz – 3 December 1947, Bad Homburg) was a German physician and microbiologist.
Helen Scott-Orr is an Australian veterinarian and epidemiologist.
Helena Cronin (born 1942) is a British Darwinian philosopher and rationalist.
Henry Frieze Vaughan (October 12, 1889 – March 14, 1979) was an American epidemiologist with a strong discipline in environmental health, an academic professor, and an administrator.
Henry Whitehead (22 September 1825 – 5 March 1896) was a Church of England priest and the assistant curate of St Luke's Church in Soho, London, during the 1854 cholera outbreak.
Hepatitis B is an infectious disease caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV) that affects the liver.
In HIV–HCV co-infected patients, the Hepatitis C (HCV) viral load is higher than in HCV-mono-infected patients in both the plasma and liver tissue.
Herbert Leonard Ley Jr. (September 7, 1923 – July 22, 2001) was an American physician and the 10th Commissioner and head of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).
Herd immunity (also called herd effect, community immunity, population immunity, or social immunity) is a form of indirect protection from infectious disease that occurs when a large percentage of a population has become immune to an infection, thereby providing a measure of protection for individuals who are not immune.
Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is a disorder that results in recurrent attacks of severe swelling.
Heterocyclic amines are a group of chemical compounds, many of which can be formed during cooking.
Heterogeneous medical condition in medicine are those medical conditions which have several etiologies, like hepatitis or diabetes.
is the Japanese word for the surviving victims of the 1945 atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
High-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) (also called glucose-fructose, isoglucose and glucose-fructose syrup) is a sweetener made from corn starch that has been processed by glucose isomerase to convert some of its glucose into fructose.
Hilda Bastian was originally a health consumer advocate in Australia, originally in the 1980s and 1990s, becoming involved in the consumer health activism movement.
Hildrus Augustus "Gus" Poindexter (May 10, 1901 – April 21, 1987) was a bacteriologist who studied the epidemiology of tropical diseases.
Hinkley groundwater contamination refers to Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E) dumping "roughly 370 million gallons" of chromium-tainted wastewater" into unlined wastewater spreading ponds around the town of Hinkley, California, located in the Mojave Desert (about 121 miles driving distance north-northeast of Los Angeles), from 1952 to 1966 and the ongoing process of restitution and clean-up.
The Hispanic paradox, or Latino paradox, also known as the "epidemiologic paradox," refers to the epidemiological finding that Hispanic and Latino Americans tend to have health outcomes that "paradoxically" are comparable to, or in some cases better than, those of their U.S. non-Hispanic White counterparts, even though Hispanics have lower average income and education.
The history of cancer describes the development of the field of oncology and its role in the history of medicine.
AIDS is caused by a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which originated in non-human primates in Central and West Africa.
The history of medicine shows how societies have changed in their approach to illness and disease from ancient times to the present.
The history of statistics in the modern sense dates from the mid-17th century, with the term statistics itself coined in 1749 in German, although there have been changes to the interpretation of the word over time.
The first recorded outbreak of syphilis in Europe occurred in 1494/1495 in Naples, Italy, during a French invasion.
Tourette syndrome is an inherited neurological disorder with onset in childhood, characterized by the presence of multiple physical (motor) tics and at least one vocal (phonic) tic.
Ho Wang Lee (born 26 October 1928 in Sinhung, South Hamgyong Province, Korea) is a South Korean physician, epidemiologist, and virologist.
Hof is a town located on the banks of the Saale in the northeastern corner of the German state of Bavaria, in the Franconian region, at the Czech border and the forested Fichtelgebirge and Frankenwald upland regions.
Holger Jens Schünemann (born March 8, 1967 in Braunschweig, Germany) is a physician and professor of medicine and Clinical epidemiology.
Homogeneity and heterogeneity are concepts often used in the sciences and statistics relating to the uniformity in a substance or organism.
Hookworm vaccine is a vaccine against hookworm.
Hormesis is any process in a cell or organism that exhibits a response to exposure to increasing amounts of a substance or condition.
A hospital-acquired infection (HAI), also known as a nosocomial infection, is an infection that is acquired in a hospital or other health care facility.
In biology and medicine, a host is an organism that harbours a parasitic, a mutualistic, or a commensalist guest (symbiont), the guest typically being provided with nourishment and shelter.
Host factor is a medical term referring to the traits of an individual person or animal that affect susceptibility to disease, especially in comparison to other individuals.
In parasitology and epidemiology, a host switch (or host shift) is an evolutionary change of host specificity.
The fourth season of House premiered on September 25, 2007 and ended May 19, 2008.
House (also called House, M.D.) is an American television medical drama that originally ran on the Fox network for eight seasons, from November 16, 2004 to May 21, 2012.
How to Have Sex in an Epidemic: One Approach is a 1983 nonfiction manual by Richard Berkowitz and Michael Callen, under the direction of Joseph Sonnabend, to advise men who have sex with men (MSM) about how to avoid contracting the infecting agent which causes AIDS.
Human papillomavirus-positive oropharyngeal cancer (HPV+OPC) is a subtype of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC), associated with the human papillomavirus type 16 virus (HPV16).
Hugh McLeod Gordon (28 March 1909 – 23 April 2002) was a pioneering Australian veterinary scientist and parasitologist.
Hugo Alberto Barrera Saldaña (Ciudad Miguel Alemán, Tamaulipas, 1957) is a Mexican biologist, biochemist, researcher, entrepreneur, professor and academic, most noted for being author of several studies on molecular biology, epidemiology, and biomedicine, among which stand out his publications about the Growth Hormone family, human genome sequencing and development of HPV treatment and diagnostic methods.
Human biology is an interdisciplinary area of study that examines humans through the influences and interplay of many diverse fields such as genetics, evolution, physiology, anatomy, epidemiology, anthropology, ecology, nutrition, population genetics and sociocultural influences.
Human ecology is an interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary study of the relationship between humans and their natural, social, and built environments.
Human geography is the branch of geography that deals with the study of people and their communities, cultures, economies, and interactions with the environment by studying their relations with and across space and place.
Human subject research is systematic, scientific investigation that can be either interventional (a "trial") or observational (no "test article") and involves human beings as research subjects.
Hurricane Lane was the thirteenth named storm, ninth hurricane, and sixth major hurricane of the 2006 Pacific hurricane season.
In medicine, the hygiene hypothesis states a lack of early childhood exposure to infectious agents, symbiotic microorganisms (such as the gut flora or probiotics), and parasites increases susceptibility to allergic diseases by suppressing the natural development of the immune system.
Ian Brossat (born 23 April 1980) is a French politician.
Ian J. Deary FBA, FRSE, FMedSci, is a Scottish psychologist known for work in the fields of intelligence, cognitive ageing, cognitive epidemiology, and personality.
The International Classification of Diseases (ICD) is the code used for the purpose of documenting a person's medical condition.
The classification of all headaches, including migraines, is organized by the International Headache Society, and published in the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD).
Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 3, also known as IGFBP-3, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IGFBP3 gene.
iHunch is a term used to describe the common spinal problem of an excessively kyphotic (hunched) thoracic spine driving neck pain and cervicogenic headache.
The ILO International Classification of Radiographs of Pneumoconioses is a system of classifying chest radiographs (X-rays) for persons with a (or, rarely, more than one) form of pneumoconiosis.
In immunology, an adjuvant is a component that potentiates the immune responses to an antigen and/or modulates it towards the desired immune responses.
Immunology is a branch of biology that covers the study of immune systems in all organisms.
In scientific writing, IMRaD (Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion) refers to a common organization structure.
Incidence in epidemiology is a measure of the probability of occurrence of a given medical condition in a population within a specified period of time.
The index case is the first documented patient in the onset of an epidemiological investigation, or more generally, the first case of a condition or syndrome (not necessarily contagious) to be described in the medical literature, whether or not the patient is thought to be the first person affected.
Science (from Latin scientia, meaning "knowledge") is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe.
This is a list of AIDS-related topics, many of which were originally taken from the public domain U.S. Department of Health Glossary of HIV/AIDS-Related Terms, 4th Edition.
This is a list of terms related to oncology.
The Indian Institute of Horticultural Research (IIHR) is an autonomous organization acting as a nodal agency for basic, strategic, anticipatory and applied research on various aspects of horticulture such as fruits, vegetable, ornamental, medicinal and aromatic plants and mushrooms in India.
The Indian Journal of Community Medicine is a peer-reviewed open-access medical journal published by Medknow Publications on behalf of the Indian Association of Preventive & Social Medicine.
The Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine is a peer-reviewed open-access medical journal published on behalf of the Indian Association of Occupational Health.
Indiana University Bloomington (abbreviated "IU Bloomington" and colloquially referred to as "IU" or simply "Indiana") is a public research university in Bloomington, Indiana, United States.
Indonesia, Etc.: Exploring the Improbable Nation is a travel book published in June 2014.
Indoor tanning involves using a device that emits ultraviolet radiation to produce a cosmetic tan.
The Indus Hospital is a tertiary care multidisciplinary hospital that was constructed starting from 2004 and opened its door for the patients in July 2007.
An infant (from the Latin word infans, meaning "unable to speak" or "speechless") is the more formal or specialised synonym for "baby", the very young offspring of a human.
Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.
Infection control is the discipline concerned with preventing nosocomial or healthcare-associated infection, a practical (rather than academic) sub-discipline of epidemiology.
Infections associated with diseases are those that are associated with possible infectious etiologies, that meet the requirements of Koch's postulates.
In epidemiology, infectivity is the ability of a pathogen to establish an infection.
Influenza, commonly known as "the flu", is an infectious disease caused by an influenza virus.
Influenza research involves investigating molecular virology, pathogenesis, host immune responses, genomics, and epidemiology regarding influenza.
Influenza vaccines, also known as flu shots or flu jabs, are vaccines that protect against infection by Influenza viruses.
In epidemiology, Information bias refers to bias arising from measurement error.
Information design is the practice of presenting information in a way that fosters efficient and effective understanding of it.
The Information Services Division (ISD) is the part of NHS Scotland that provides health information, health intelligence, statistical information and analysis.
Injury prevention is an effort to prevent or reduce the severity of bodily injuries caused by external mechanisms, such as accidents, before they occur.
The Institute for Occupational Safety and Health of the German Social Accident Insurance (German: Institut für Arbeitsschutz der Deutschen Gesetzlichen Unfallversicherung, IFA) is a German institute located in Sankt Augustin near Bonn.
The Institute for Scientific Interchange (Istituto per l'Interscambio Scientifico, ISI Foundation, ISI) is an independent, resident-based research institute known its for work in complexity science, theoretical and mathematical physics.
Institute of Medicine (IoM), in the capital city Kathmandu, is the premier medical institution of Nepal.
The Ulster University's Institute of Nursing and Health Research (INHR), previously known as the University of Ulster's Institute of Nursing Research, is a research institute of Ulster University which is physically located at the Jordanstown, Coleraine and Magee campus'.
The Institute of Occupational Medicine (IOM) was founded in 1969 by the National Coal Board (NCB) as an independent charity in the UK and retains this charitable purpose and status today.
The Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience (IoPPN) is a research institution dedicated to discovering what causes mental illness and diseases of the brain.
Instituto Butantan (in modern Portuguese, Instituto Butantã) is a Brazilian biologic research center affiliated to the São Paulo State Secretariat of Health.
In statistics, econometrics, epidemiology and related disciplines, the method of instrumental variables (IV) is used to estimate causal relationships when controlled experiments are not feasible or when a treatment is not successfully delivered to every unit in a randomized experiment.
The Integrated Disease Surveillance Program (IDSP) is a disease surveillance scheme under the Ministry of Health and Family Affairs in India, assisted by the World Bank.
The Interamerican Society of Cardiology (SIAC for its Spanish acronym) is a nongovernmental association formed by the National Societies of Cardiology of the American Continent.
Interdisciplinarity or interdisciplinary studies involves the combining of two or more academic disciplines into one activity (e.g., a research project).
The International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b) is an international health research organisation located in Dhaka, Bangladesh.
07 The International Centre for Missing & Exploited Children (ICMEC), headquartered in Alexandria, Virginia, with a regional presence in Brazil and Singapore, is a private 501(c)(3) non-governmental, nonprofit global organization.
The International Commission on Trichinellosis (ICT) was created in 1958 in Budapest and is aiming to exchange information on the biology, the pathophysiology, the epidemiology, the immunology, and the clinical aspects of trichinellosis in humans and animals.
The ICEID or International Conference on Emerging Infectious Diseases is a conference for public health professionals on the subject of emerging infectious diseases.
The International Commission on Trichinellosis (ICT) was created in 1958 in Budapest and is aiming to exchange information on the biology, the physiopathology, the epidemiology, the immunology, and the clinical aspects of trichinellosis in humans and animals.
The International Epidemiological Association (IEA) is a worldwide association with more than 2000 members in over 100 different countries, who follow the aims of the association to facilitate communication amongst those engaged in research and teaching of epidemiology throughout the world, and to encourage its use in all fields of health including social, community and preventative medicine.
The International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) is an international agricultural research center founded in the early 1970s to improve the understanding of national agricultural and food policies to promote the adoption of innovations in agricultural technology.
The International Journal of Epidemiology is a bimonthly peer-reviewed medical journal covering research in epidemiology.
Many countries and international organizations offered the United States relief aid in the wake of Hurricane Katrina.
The International Society for Bipolar Disorders (ISBD) is a non-profit organization based in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, where it was founded June 17, 1999.
The International Society for Infectious Diseases (ISID), established in 1986, is a non-profit organization that works to control infectious disease outbreaks and improve the care of patients afflicted with these conditions.
The International Classification of Diseases (ICD) is the international "standard diagnostic tool for epidemiology, health management and clinical purposes." Its full official name is International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. The ICD is maintained by the World Health Organization (WHO), the directing and coordinating authority for health within the United Nations System.
The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) was the largest collaborative epidemiological study of children in the world.
An intrusive thought is an unwelcome involuntary thought, image, or unpleasant idea that may become an obsession, is upsetting or distressing, and can feel difficult to manage or eliminate.
Invalid science consists of scientific claims based on experiments that cannot be reproduced or that are contradicted by experiments that can be reproduced.
The Iquitos Satellite Laboratory (IQTLAB) was established in 2002 in the city of Iquitos, Peru by Dr.
Isaac "Ike" Starr (March 6, 1895 – June 22, 1989), known as the father of ballistocardiography, was an American physician, heart disease specialist, and clinical epidemiologist notable for developing the first practical ballistocardiograph.
Isabelle Boutron (born February 14, 1971) is a professor of epidemiology at the Paris Descartes University and a researcher at the INSERM- Sorbonne Paris Cité Epidemiology and Statistics Research Centre.
In health care facilities, isolation represents one of several measures that can be taken to implement infection control: the prevention of contagious diseases from being spread from a patient to other patients, health care workers, and visitors, or from outsiders to a particular patient (reverse isolation).
Israel Jacob Kligler (24 April 1888 – 23 September 1944) was a microbiologist.
The Israeli paradox is a catchphrase, first used in 1996, to summarize the apparently paradoxical epidemiological observation that Israeli Jews have a relatively high incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD), despite having a diet relatively low in saturated fats, in apparent contradiction to the widely held belief that the high consumption of such fats is a risk factor for CHD.
James Michael McGinnis (born 12 July 1944) is a physician, epidemiologist, and long-time contributor to national and international health programs and policy, including continuous policy responsibilities for leadership in disease prevention and health promotion through four Administrations (Carter, Reagan, Bush, Clinton).
John E. "Jack" Wennberg (born June 2, 1934) is the pioneer and leading researcher of unwarranted variation in the healthcare industry.
Jacques Rossouw is a South African-born physician and epidemiologist.
James Benjamin Martel is a physician, surgeon and scientist.
James C. Anthony has been professor in the Department of Epidemiology at Michigan State University's Medical School since October 2003, with service as department chairman until 2009.
James Corson Niederman (born November 27, 1924) is an American epidemiologist whose research identified the Epstein-Barr virus as the cause of infectious mononucleosis in a study published in 1968.
James Eugene Enstrom (born 1943) is an American epidemiologist who has worked at the University of California, Los Angeles since 1976, where he is currently a retired researcher.
James Jurin FRS FRCP (baptised 15 December 168429 March 1750) was an English scientist and physician, particularly remembered for his early work in capillary action and in the epidemiology of smallpox vaccination.
James M. Robins is an epidemiologist and biostatistician best known for advancing methods for drawing causal inferences from complex observational studies and randomized trials, particularly those in which the treatment varies with time.
James Van Gundia Neel (March 22, 1915 – February 1, 2000) was an American geneticist who played a key role in the development of human genetics as a field of research in the United States.
James "Jim" W. Curran is professor of epidemiology and dean of the Rollins School of Public Health at Emory University.
Jan Hajek is a Czech scientist and mathematician, living in the Netherlands.
Jan Paul Vandenbroucke (born March 8, 1950 in Leuven, Belgium) is a Belgian epidemiologist and physician known for his work in clinical epidemiology.
Jane A. Cauley is a Distinguished Professor in the Department of Epidemiology and an Associate Dean for Research at the University of Pittsburgh.
Jane Ellen Norton (born Jane Ellen Bergman, October 12, 1954) was the 46th Lieutenant Governor of the State of Colorado and an unsuccessful candidate for the Republican nomination to challenge U.S. Senator Michael Bennet in the 2010 election.
Jane Worcester (died October 8, 1989) was a biostatistician and epidemiologist who became the second tenured female professor, after Martha May Eliot, and the first female chair of biostatistics in the Harvard School of Public Health.
Janet Howard Darbyshire, CBE FMedSci is a British epidemiologist and science administrator.
Janet Elizabeth Lane-Claypon, Lady Forber (3 February 1877 – 17 July 1967) was an English physician.
Janine Jagger (born 1950) is an American epidemiologist, Becton Dickinson Professor of Research of Internal Medicine and Infectious Diseases, and director of the International Health Care Worker Safety Center at the University of Virginia School of Medicine.
Jay Scott Kaufman (born July 26, 1963) is a professor in the Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics, & Occupational Health at McGill University, where he is also a Canada Research Chair in Health Disparities.
Jørgen Pedersen (1914–1978) was an Epidemiologist.
Jean Golding (born 22 September 1939) is a British epidemiologist, and founder of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC).
Jean Hyacinthe Henri Vincent (22 December 1862 – 23 November 1950) was a French physician who was a native of Bordeaux.
Jean Marie Okwo-Bele, MD, MPH (born February 23, 1957 in Banningville, Belgian Congo (now the Democratic Republic of the Congo)) is a Congolese physician, epidemiologist, and public health expert at the World Health Organization (WHO).
Jean-Jacques Manget (or Johann Jacob Mangetus) (1652–1742) was a Genevan physician and writer.
Jeanette Kuvin Oren is a Jewish American contemporary artist specializing in Judaic art, fiber art, mosaics, stained glass, calligraphy, papercutting and painting.
Jeffrey Alan Fagan (born December 17, 1946) is the Isidor and Seville Sulzbacher Professor of Law at Columbia Law School.
Jeremiah Stamler, M.D. (born October 27, 1919) is a scientist specializing in preventive cardiology and the study of the influence of various risk factors on coronary heart disease and other cardiovascular diseases, and the role of salt and other nutrients in the etiology of hypertension and coronary heart disease.
Jeremiah Mutwalante Twa-Twa (born 29 January 1951) is a Ugandan physician, public health specialist, and politician.
Jerry Michael Linenger (born January 16, 1955) is a retired Captain in the United States Navy Medical Corps, and a former NASA astronaut who flew on the Space Shuttle and Space Station Mir.
Jeremiah Noah "Jerry" Morris (6 May 1910 – 28 October 2009) was a Scottish epidemiologist who established the importance of physical activity in preventing cardiovascular disease.
The Jewish General Hospital (Hôpital général juif), known officially as the Sir Mortimer B. Davis Jewish General Hospital (Hôpital général juif Sir Mortimer B. Davis) since 1978), is an acute-care teaching hospital in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Affiliated with McGill University, it has 637 beds. The Jewish General Hospital, which opened its doors in 1934, was founded as a general hospital, open to all patients regardless of race, religion, language or ethnic background. While part of the Quebec medicare system, and functionally bilingual in French and English, the hospital continues to be run chiefly by members of the Jewish community. At his death in 1928, Mortimer Davis left most of his estate to be used for the construction of a Jewish public hospital that would bear his name. In 1969, the hospital opened the affiliated Lady Davis Institute for Medical Research, one of the largest and most influential research centres in Canada. Among many other medical innovations, in 1974, the JGH was one of the first hospitals in Canada to open a division of colorectal surgery. Among the famous alumni of the hospital is former head nurse Beverley Binder (née Rosen). In 1978, 50 years after Davis's death, $10 million from his estate was donated to the Jewish General Hospital, which was then renamed the Sir Mortimer B. Davis Jewish General Hospital.
Jie Chen is a statistician who works as a professor of biostatistics and epidemiology at the Medical College of Georgia.
Jim van Os (born 1960) is a Dutch professor of Psychiatric Epidemiology and Public Mental Health at Utrecht University Medical Centre, the Netherlands.
JoAnn Elisabeth Manson (born 1953) is a physician, best known for her public leadership and advocacy in the field of women's health.
Joann G. Elmore is an American physician who is a professor of medicine and an adjunct professor of epidemiology at the University of Washington.
Joanna S. Fowler (-) is a Scientist Emeritus at the U.S. Department of Energy's Brookhaven National Laboratory in New York.
A job-exposure matrix (JEM) is a tool used to assess exposure to potential health hazards in occupational epidemiological studies.
Joel Salinas (born July 11, 1983) is an American neurologist, writer, and researcher, who is currently an Assistant Professor of Neurology at Harvard Medical School.
Joel Schwartz (born December 12, 1947 in Long Island, New York) is an American epidemiologist, and Professor of Environmental Epidemiology, at Harvard University, School of Public Health.
Johannes Hallmann (born February 23, 1964 in Zeven, Germany) is a German agricultural scientist of phytomedicine.
John A. McDougall (born May 17, 1947) is an American physician and author who is the co-founder, chairman, and sole board member of San Francisco–based Dr.
John Arthur Reginald Miles (13 May 1913 – 14 February 2004) was a New Zealand microbiologist and epidemiologist.
John Briscoe (July 30, 1948 – November 12, 2014) was a South African-born environmental engineer who was Visiting Professor of the Practice of Environmental Health in the Department of Environmental Health at Harvard School of Public Health.
John Brownstein is a Canadian epidemiologist and Professor of Medicine at the Harvard Medical School as well as the Chief Innovation Officer at Boston Children’s Hospital.
John Charles "Jack" Caldwell (8 December 1928 – 12 March 2016) was a leading demographer, particularly in the fields of fertility transition and health transition.
John Dunning Boice Jr. is an American radiation epidemiologist and health physicist.
John Danesh is a Professor of Epidemiology and Medicine and the head of the Department of Public Health and Primary Care at the University of Cambridge.
John Dix Fisher (March 27, 1797 – March 3, 1850) was a physician and founder of Perkins Institution for the Blind in Boston, Massachusetts.
John Frank, MD, CCFP, MSc, FRCPC, FCAHS, FFPH, FRSE, LLD (born 1949) is a Canadian epidemiologist.
Professor John Grange (born 4 April 1943 at East Dereham, Norfolk) died 10 October 2016 was an English immunologist, epidemiologist, researcher, and academic, and was one of Europe's leading tuberculosis specialists.
John Graunt (24 April 1620 – 18 April 1674) was one of the first demographers, though by profession he was a haberdasher.
John Henryism (JH) is a strategy for coping with prolonged exposure to stresses such as social discrimination by expending high levels of effort which results in accumulating physiological costs.
John Murray Last (born 1926) is an Emeritus Professor at the University of Ottawa, is a preeminent Canadian public health scholar, prolific author, scientist and teacher whose reference texts are used by schools of public health as well as community medicine and epidemiology practitioners throughout the world.
John H. Milsum (August 15, 1925 – November 9, 2008) was a Canadian control engineer who was Professor and first Director at the Biomedical Engineering Department of the McGill University in Montreal, and a Professor at the University of British Columbia.
John Murray (born 1963) is an Australian epidemiologist, and writer.
John Tochukwu Nwangwu is a public health doctor with expertise in infectious diseases and epidemiology, a consultant at the World Health Organization and a professor at both Yale University and Southern Connecticut State University (SCSU).
Professor John Owusu Gyapong is a Ghanaian Professor of Epidemiology.
Professor John Pemberton FRCP (1912-2010) was a British epidemiologist.
John Alfred Ryle (1889–1950) was a British physician and epidemiologist.
John S Marr (born April 1940) is an American physician, epidemiologist, and author.
John S. Rumsfeld (born 16 June 1964) is Chief Innovation Officer for the American College of Cardiology, and Professor of Medicine at the University of Colorado School of Medicine.
John Snow (15 March 1813 – 16 June 1858) was an English physician and a leader in the adoption of anesthesia and medical hygiene.
John Daniel Spengler is an American health scholar currently the Akira Yamaguchi Professor of Environmental Health and Human Habitation at Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health and a Faculty member in the Department of Environmental Science and Public Policy of the Faculty of Arts and Sciences at Harvard University.
John W. Ayers is a research professor and behavioral epidemiologist at the San Diego State University.
The Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health (JHSPH) is part of Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland, United States.
Jon Sudbø (born May 3, 1961) is a Norwegian dentist, physician, and former medical researcher, who was exposed as a scientific fraudster in 2006.
Jonas Edward Salk (October 28, 1914June 23, 1995) was an American medical researcher and virologist.
Jonathan Max Mann (July 30, 1947 – September 2, 1998) was an American physician who was an administrator for the World Health Organization, and spearheaded early AIDS research in the 1980s.
John Corrigan "Jonathan" Wells (born 1942) is an American author and advocate of the pseudoscientific argument of intelligent design.
Jonna Ann Keener Mazet (born December 18, 1967) DVM, MPVM, PhD, is an American epidemiologist and Executive Director of the University of California, Davis One Health Institute.
Joseph Amon (born 1969) is an American epidemiologist and human rights activist and currently director of the at Human Rights Watch.
Joseph Désiré Tholozan was a Franco-Mauritians physician born on October 9, 1820 in Diego Garcia (Mauritius) and died on July 30, 1897 in Tehran (Iran).
Joseph F. (Joe) Holson, an American scientist, business executive, and educator in the disciplines of toxicology and product development, served as President of WIL Research Laboratories for 20 years (1988-2008).
Joseph Frank Payne (1840–1910) was an English physician, known also as a historian of medicine.
Joseph Goldberger (Goldberger József) (July 16, 1874 – January 17, 1929) was an American physician and epidemiologist in the United States Public Health Service (PHS).
Joseph Bishop Keller (July 31, 1923 – September 7, 2016) was an American mathematician who specialized in applied mathematics.
Joseph Louis Melnick (October 9, 1914 – January 7, 2001) was an American epidemiologist who performed breakthrough research on the spread of polio, with The New York Times calling him "a founder of modern virology".
Joseph Walter Mountin MD (October 13, 1891 – April 26, 1952) was an American physician and career United States Public Health Service (USPHS) officer who was the founder of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta, Georgia.
Joshua M. Epstein is Professor of Epidemiology at the New York University College of Global Public Health.
The Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes is a peer-reviewed medical journal covering all aspects of research in HIV/AIDS, including basic science, clinical science, and epidemiology.
The Journal of Alzheimer's Disease is a peer-reviewed medical journal published by IOS Press covering the etiology, pathogenesis, epidemiology, genetics, treatment, and psychology of Alzheimer's disease.
The Journal of Biological Systems was founded in 1993 and is published quarterly by World Scientific.
The Journal of Clinical Epidemiology is a peer reviewed journal of Epidemiology that promotes the quality of clinical and patient-oriented health services research through the advancement and application of innovative methods of.
The Journal of Epidemiology is a Japanese peer reviewed journal for epidemiological studies.
The Journal of Epidemiology and Biostatistics is a peer reviewed journal for epidemiological and biostatistical studies.
The Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health is a peer-reviewed public health journal that covers all aspects of epidemiology and public health.
The Journal of Infection is a monthly peer-reviewed medical journal in the field of infectious disease, covering microbiology, epidemiology and clinical practice.
The Journal of Lipid Research is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal that was established in 1959.
The Journal of Urban Health is a bimonthly peer-reviewed public health journal covering epidemiology and public health in urban areas.
Jovan Čokor (1885-1946, Serbian Cyrillic: Јован Чокор) was a Serbian epidemiologist, infectologist, and physician famous for contributing significantly to the works of Robert Koch.
Judith Jacobson is Associate Professor of Clinical Epidemiology at the Columbia Mailman School of Public Health.
Judith Mary Lumley had a career as an academic, author, public health advocate and perinatal researcher, retiring as Professor Emerita at La Trobe University in December 2008.
Julian Ernst Besag FRS (26 March 1945 – 6 August 2010) was a British statistician known chiefly for his work in spatial statistics (including its applications to epidemiology, image analysis and agricultural science), and Bayesian inference (including Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithms).
Julian Parkhill (born 1964) FRS is a Head of Pathogen Genomics at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute and an Honorary Professor of Microbial Genomics at the University of Cambridge.
Julian Peto is an English statistician and cancer epidemiologist.
For the past thirty years Dr.
In viral marketing, the K-factor can be used to describe the growth rate of websites, apps, or a customer base.
Kameshwar Prasad is an Indian neurologist, medical researcher, academic and the head of the department of Neurology at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Delhi (AIIMS), known as a proponent of Evidence-based medicine (EBM) and Evidence-based Healthcare (EBHC).
Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh (born November 11, 1963) is an American physician doing research in nephrology, nutrition, and epidemiology.
Karel Raška (17 November 1909 – 21 November 1987) was a Czech physician and epidemiologist, who headed the successful international effort during the 1960s to eradicate smallpox.
Karel Styblo, MD, (1921 – 13 March 1998) was born in Czechoslovakia.
Karl Friedrich Meyer (19 May 1884 – 27 April 1974) was an American scientist of Swiss origin.
Karl Pearson HFRSE LLD (originally named Carl; 27 March 1857 – 27 April 1936) was an English mathematician and biostatistician. He has been credited with establishing the discipline of mathematical statistics. He founded the world's first university statistics department at University College London in 1911, and contributed significantly to the field of biometrics, meteorology, theories of social Darwinism and eugenics. Pearson was also a protégé and biographer of Sir Francis Galton.
Karl Heinrich Slotta (May 12, 1895 in Breslau, Germany – July 17, 1987 in Coral Gables, Florida), was a biochemist.
Kate Pickett (born 1965), FRSA is a British epidemiologist who is Professor of Epidemiology in the Department of Health Sciences at the University of York and was a National Institute for Health Research Career Scientist from 2007-2012.
Katherine Mayhew Flegal is an American epidemiologist and senior scientist at the Center for Disease Control and Prevention's National Center for Health Statistics.
Kathleen M. Carley is an American social scientist specializing in dynamic network analysis.
Kay Dickersin (born November 10, 1951) is an academic who trained first in cell biology and subsequently epidemiology.
Kay-Tee Khaw, (born 14 October 1950) is a British physician and academic, specialising in the maintenance of health in later life and the causes and prevention of chronic diseases.
Keiji Fukuda (福田 敬二, born 1954) is an American physician with expertise in influenza epidemiology.
Kelly David Brownell (born October 31, 1951) is a clinical psychologist and scholar known for his work on obesity and food policy.
Kelly J. Henning is an epidemiologist and medical doctor currently leading the public health program of Bloomberg Philanthropies.
Ken Strauss (born 1953) is a physician/author who is known both for his writings as well as for his work promoting the careers and works of other artistically-inclined professionals.
Kenneth F. Maxcy (1888–1966) was an American virologist.
The Kent State University College of Public Health was established in 2009.
The Kessler Foundation was established in 1985 and is one of the largest public charities in the United States supporting people with disabilities.
Kevin Andrew Fenton FFPH (born 19 December 1966)"Kevin Fenton." Contemporary Black Biography.
Kevin Michael Gorey is an American epidemiologist and social worker.
The Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (K-SADS) is a semi-structured interview aimed at early diagnosis of affective disorders such as depression, bipolar disorder, and anxiety disorder.
Kimberly Clark Saenz (born November 11, 1973) also known as Kimberly Clark Fowler, is a convicted serial killer.
King's College London GKT School of Medical Education (abbreviated: GKT) is the medical school of King's College London.
KMG Ethiopia, also known as Kembatti Mentti Gezzima-Tope (Kembatta Women Standing Together), is an indigenous non-governmental charitable organization based in Kembata, Ethiopia, dedicated to protecting women's rights, fostering women's health and supporting the environment.
Knowledge translation (KT) is the umbrella term for all of the activities involved in moving research from the laboratory, the research journal, and the academic conference into the hands of people and organizations who can put it to practical use.
Koala retrovirus (KoRV) is a retrovirus that is present in many populations of koalas.
The French Louis Pasteur (1822–1895) and German Robert Koch (1843–1910) are the two greatest figures in medical microbiology and in establishing acceptance of the germ theory of disease (germ theory).
The Kolling Institute of Medical Research is located on the grounds of the Royal North Shore Hospital in St Leonards, Sydney Australia.
Konrad Pesudovs (b 1969) is an Australian optometrist and outcomes researcher in ophthalmology.
Kottarakkara (IAST: Koṭṭārakkara), also transliterated as Kottarakara, is a vast developing town and municipality in Kollam (formerly known as Quilon) District, in Kerala state, India.
Kyle Steenland (born November 5, 1946) is an American epidemiologist and professor in the department of environmental health epidemiology at Emory University's Rollins School of Public Health.
Kyungpook National University School of Medicine (commonly referred to as KNU Med or KNU School of Medicine) is the medical school of Kyungpook National University in Daegu, South Korea.
In epidemiology, lagging (or exposure lagging) means excluding the exposure in a time period before registration of an outcome.
The Lancet, one of the oldest scientific medical journals in the world, published two peer-reviewed studies on the effect of the 2003 invasion of Iraq and subsequent occupation on the Iraqi mortality rate.
Lawrence "Larry" Brilliant (born May 5, 1944) is an American epidemiologist, technologist, philanthropist, and author of "." Brilliant, a technology patent holder, has been the CEO of public companies and venture backed start-ups.
Lars Johan Vatten (born 20 August 1952) is a Norwegian epidemiologist.
Lars Walløe (born 20 May 1938) is a Norwegian academic, chemist, physiologist, and scientific adviser to the Norwegian government.
Lawrence Garfinkel (January 11, 1922 – January 21, 2010) was an American epidemiologist involved in demonstrating the link between smoking and lung cancer.
Learning classifier systems, or LCS, are a paradigm of rule-based machine learning methods that combine a discovery component (e.g. typically a genetic algorithm) with a learning component (performing either supervised learning, reinforcement learning, or unsupervised learning).
Leif Svanström, born 1943, is a Swedish doctor and a specialist in Social medicine.
The Leloir Institute is a non-profit research center in Buenos Aires specializing in biochemistry, cellular biology, molecular biology, and related activities.
Leon Gordis (1934–2015) was an American epidemiologist, professor and author, whose textbook Epidemiology provided a foundation for the understanding of epidemiologic principles and clinical applications.
Leon S. Robertson (born 1936) is a retired injury epidemiologist.
Leonard Andrew Scheele (July 25, 1907 – January 8, 1993) was an American physician and public servant.
Leroy Edgar Burney (December 31, 1906 – July 31, 1998) was an American physician and public health official.
Les Roberts (born 1961) is an American epidemiologist.
Lester Breslow (March 17, 1915, in Bismarck, ND, United States – April 9, 2012, in Los Angeles) was an American physician who promoted public health.
Lidia Rudnicka (born February 19, 1960 in Chicago, Illinois) is a Polish-American dermatologist with contributions to the field of scleroderma research, hair diseases and melanoma prevention.
In actuarial science and demography, a life table (also called a mortality table or actuarial table) is a table which shows, for each age, what the probability is that a person of that age will die before his or her next birthday ("probability of death").
Likoma Island is the larger of two inhabited islands in Lake Malawi (also known as Lake Nyasa), in East Africa, the smaller being the nearby Chizumulu.
Linda P. Fried (born 1949) is an American geriatrician and epidemiologist and the first female Dean of Columbia University’s Mailman School of Public Health.
Linda Walsh (born 1958; née Grimshaw) is a British scientist who specializes in radiation epidemiology.
The linear no-threshold model (LNT) is a model used in radiation protection to quantify radiation exposure and set regulatory limits.
Lisa Anne Bero, born 1958, is an academic who originally trained in pharmacology and went on to a career studying research integrity and how clinical and basic sciences are translated into clinical practice and health policy.
The following outline is provided as an overview of an topical guide to academic disciplines: An academic discipline or field of study is known as a branch of knowledge.
This list of black inventors and scientists documents many of the African Americans who have invented a multitude of items or made discoveries in the course of their lives.
This list of alumni of the University of St Andrews includes graduates, non-graduate former students, and current students of the University of St Andrews, Fife, Scotland.
This list comprises scientists who are Armenian.
This is a list of atheists in science and technology.
The Australian of the Year Award is given annually on Australia Day.
The following is a list of notable past pupils and faculty of the Belen Jesuit Preparatory School.
This is a list of blue plaques erected by the Royal Society of Chemistry.
Stemming from its nickname as "The Heights," persons affiliated with Boston College have been referred to as Heightsmen, Heightswomen, Heightsonians and Eagles, the latter in reference to the University's mascot, the Eagle.
Boston Latin School is a public exam school located in Boston, Massachusetts, that was founded in 1635.
The following is a list and timeline of innovations as well as inventions and discoveries that involved British people or the United Kingdom including predecessor states in the history of the formation of the United Kingdom.
This is a list of alumni of Brooklyn College, a senior college of the City University of New York, located in Brooklyn, New York, United States.
This is a list of Canadians, people who are identified with Canada through residential, legal, historical, or cultural means, grouped by their area of notability.
The following is a list of centenarians – specifically, people who became famous as medical professionals – known for reasons other than their longevity.
This list contains the names of the centers and institutes at the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania in alphabetical order with their external links.
The following is a list of notable alumni and faculty of the City College of New York.
The following is a list of suicide rates by country according to data from the World Health Organization (WHO) and other sources.
This is a list of distributed computing and grid computing projects.
English inventions and discoveries are objects, processes or techniques invented, innovated or discovered, partially or entirely, in England by a person from England (that is, someone born in England - including to non-English parents - or born abroad with at least one English parent and who had the majority of their education or career in England).
The Fellowship of the Australian Academy of Science is made up of about 500 Australian scientists.
Fellowship of the Royal Society is open to scientists, engineers and technologists from the United Kingdom and Commonwealth of Nations, on the basis of having made "a substantial contribution to the improvement of natural knowledge, including mathematics, engineering science and medical science".
Statistics is the mathematical science involving the collection, analysis and interpretation of data.
This is the list of the fields of doctoral studies in the United States used for the annual Survey of Earned Doctorates, conducted by NORC at the University of Chicago for the National Science Foundation and other federal agencies, as used for the 2015 survey.
This List presents a comprehensive source of references for statistical guidance documents and related articles that are relevant to regulatory affairs for those statisticians that work on clinical studies.
A health scare is a widely reported story about the danger of something, usually a consumer good or medical product.
This page lists the reported and registered HIV/AIDS cases by reporting region.
This page is a comprehensive listing and detailing of the various characters who appear, from time to time, in the television series House.
The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is an agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services and is the primary agency of the United States government responsible for biomedical and health-related research.
Italy has been the source of many significant inventions.
This is a list of notable Italian scientists organized by the era in which they were active.
This is a list of Italians, who are identified with the Italian nation through residential, legal, historical, or cultural means, grouped by their area of notability.
This is a list of notable Latin American people, in alphabetical order within categories.
The life sciences or biological sciences comprise the branches of science that involve the scientific study of life and organisms – such as microorganisms, plants, and animals including human beings – as well as related considerations like bioethics.
In Pakistan, a medical school is more often referred to as a medical college.
This list of medical specialty colleges in the United States includes medical societies that represent board certified specialist physicians.
The following is a list of the "E" codes for MeSH.
The following is a list of the "G" codes for MeSH.
The following is a list of the "G" codes for MeSH.
The following is a list of the "G" codes for MeSH.
The following is a list of the "N" codes for MeSH.
Michigan State University alumni number around 552,000 worldwide.
This list of national public health agencies includes national level organizations responsible for public health, infectious disease control, and epidemiology.
This is a List Old Boys of Sydney Boys High School, them being notable alumni – known as "Old Boys" of the academically selective Sydney Boys High School, which is located in Moore Park, New South Wales, Australia.
This is a list of notable former pupils and staff of Emanuel School, London, England.
A list of people notable in the field of pathology.
The following is a list of people who are considered a "father" or "mother" (or "founding father" or "founding mother") of a scientific field.
This is a list of notable people born in, or associated with, Newcastle upon Tyne in England.
This is a list of famous physicians in history.
Before Christopher Columbus and the Spanish Conquistadors landed on the island of "Borikén" (Puerto Rico), the Tainos who inhabited the island depended on their astronomical observations for the cultivation of their crops.
List of Scottish engineers and scientists is a list of notable Scottish scientists born in Scotland or associated with Scotland.
The following is a list of notable people associated with St. Lawrence University, located in the American city of Canton, New York.
This is a list of notable present and former faculty, staff, and students of the University of California, Los Angeles − UCLA.
This is a list of University of Sydney people, including notable alumni and staff.
This is a list of University of Western Australia people, including its notable alumni and staff.
An unusual unit of measurement is a unit of measurement that does not form part of a coherent system of measurement; especially in that its exact quantity may not be well known or that it may be an inconvenient multiple or fraction of base units in such systems.
This is a partial list of notable people affiliated with Wesleyan University.
† not study.
The Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine (LSTM) is a higher education institution and registered charity located in Liverpool, United Kingdom.
Lloyd Saxon Graham (January 14, 1922 – May 19, 2012) was a prominent American epidemiologist.
The London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine (informally the LSHTM) is a public research university on Keppel Street, Bloomsbury, Camden, London, and specialised in public health and tropical medicine and a constituent college of the University of London.
Los Alamos National Laboratory (Los Alamos or LANL for short) is a United States Department of Energy national laboratory initially organized during World War II for the design of nuclear weapons as part of the Manhattan Project.
The Los Angeles County Department of Public Health (DPH) provides public health services to Los Angeles County residents.
Louis Wade Sullivan (born November 3, 1933) is an active health policy leader, minority health advocate, author, physician, and educator.
The Louis-Jeantet Prize for Medicine is awarded annually (starting in 1986) by the Louis-Jeantet Foundation to biomedical researchers in Europe; the awards are made each April.
Louis-René Villermé (10 March 1782 – 16 November 1863) was a French economist and physician.
The Lourdes Medical Bureau (Bureau des Constatations Médicales) is an official medical organization based in Lourdes, France, within the Sanctuary of Our Lady of Lourdes.
The low birth-weight paradox is an apparently paradoxical observation relating to the birth weights and mortality rate of children born to tobacco smoking mothers.
Lucien Abenhaim (born 1951 in Casablanca) is a pharmacoepidemiologist and an expert in public health.
Lucy S. Tompkins is a practicing internist, the Lucy Becker Professor of Medicine for infectious diseases at Stanford University, and a professor of microbiology and immunology.
Luko Stulić. Luko Stulić, also Luca Stulli, (1772–1828) was a scientist from the Republic of Ragusa (Republic of Dubrovnik) in today's northern Croatia who first made epidemiological studies of heritable skin disorders.
Lung cancer, also known as lung carcinoma, is a malignant lung tumor characterized by uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung.
Lynn R. Goldman (born April 24, 1951) is the Dean of the Milken Institute School of Public Health at George Washington University.
Maurice Stevenson Bartlett FRS (18 June 1910 – 8 January 2002) was an English statistician who made particular contributions to the analysis of data with spatial and temporal patterns.
Madeleine Blanchet (born 26 April 1934) is a Canadian doctor.
Madelon Lubin Finkel is Professor of Healthcare Policy and Research and Director Office of Global Health Education at Weill Cornell Medical College in New York City.
Mady Hornig (born 1957) is an American psychiatrist and an associate professor of epidemiology at Columbia University's Mailman School of Public Health.
Mahamane Kalil Maiga (born 26 May 1948) is a Malian scientist and politician.
Mahwah is a township in Bergen County, New Jersey, United States.
The Major Depression Inventory (MDI) is a self-report mood questionnaire developed by the World Health Organisation.
Major Greenwood FRS (9 August 1880 – 5 October 1949) was an English epidemiologist and statistician.
Makerere University College of Health Sciences (MakCHS) is a constituent college of Makerere University, Uganda's oldest university.
The Makerere University School of Medicine (MUSM), also known as the Makerere University Medical School, is the school of medicine of Makerere University, Uganda's oldest and largest public university.
Makram Nasri Kaiser, 1930-1996, was a medical and veterinary acarologist who was the world's leading authority on ticks of the genus Hyalomma.
The Malaria Atlas Project, abbreviated as MAP, is a non-profit project funded primarily by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, the Medical Research Council and the Wellcome Trust.
Malcolm Timothy Gladwell (born September 3, 1963) is an English-born Canadian journalist, author, and speaker.
The MALOVA (MALignant OVArian cancer) study is a multidisciplinary Danish study of Ovarian Cancer and encompasses epidemiology, lifestyle factors, biochemistry, and molecular biology with the purpose of identifying risk factors and prognostic factors for Ovarian Cancer.
The use of epidemiological tools in health care management can be described as managerial epidemiology.
María Julia Muñoz (born February 3, 1950) is a Uruguayan doctor in medicine and politician.
Marc B. Schenker, MD, MPH, is a professor of Public Health Sciences and Medicine at the University of California, Davis and the director of the Migration and Health Research Center (MAHRC).
Marc Micozzi, M.D., Ph.D., (born October 27, 1953) is a physician specializing in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), a medical anthropologist and an epidemiologist.
Marc Van Ranst (20 June 1965) is a Belgian virologist and epidemiologist at the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (Leuven, Belgium) and the Rega Institute for Medical Research.
Valentin Louis Georges Eugène Marcel Proust (10 July 1871 – 18 November 1922), known as Marcel Proust, was a French novelist, critic, and essayist best known for his monumental novel À la recherche du temps perdu (In Search of Lost Time; earlier rendered as Remembrance of Things Past), published in seven parts between 1913 and 1927.
Marcello Ferrada de Noli (born 25 July 1943 in Chile) is a Swedish professor emeritus of epidemiology, and medicine doktor in psychiatry (Karolinska Institute, Sweden).
Avraham Marek Klingberg (7 October 1918 – 30 November 2015), known as Marcus A. Klingberg, was an Israeli scientist and the highest ranking Soviet spy ever caught in Israel.
Marcus Terentius Varro (116 BC – 27 BC) was an ancient Roman scholar and writer.
Margaret Rigsby Becklake, (born May 27, 1922) is a Canadian academic and epidemiologist.
Marginal structural models are a class of statistical models used for causal inference in epidemiology.
Mari Soekõrv Palta is a Swedish biostatistician, known for her research on sleep apnea.
Maria Deloria Knoll, PhD, is an internationally recognized expert in the fields of epidemiology, disease surveillance, vaccine trial conduct, and bio-statistics.
Marie Diener-West is the Helen Abbey and Margaret Merrell Professor of Biostatistics and the chair of the Master of Public Health Program at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.
Mario Joaquim Azevedo (born 1940) is a Mozambican novelist, historian, professor, and epidemiologist.
Mark and recapture is a method commonly used in ecology to estimate an animal population's size.
Marsden Wagner (23 February 1930 – 27 April 2014), was a perinatologist and perinatal epidemiologist from California who served as a Director of Maternal and Child Health for the California State Health Department, Director of the University of Copenhagen-UCLA Health Research Center, and Director of Women's and Children's Health for the World Health Organization.
Marshall Warren Nirenberg (April 10, 1927 – January 15, 2010) was a Jewish American biochemist and geneticist.
Marshalyn Yeargin-Allsopp is a medical epidemiologist and chief of the developmental disabilities branch at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, where she has worked since 1981.
Marston Bates (July 23, 1906 – April 3, 1974) was an American zoologist.
Martin T. Schechter (born December 16, 1951) is a Canadian epidemiologist recognized for contributions to HIV research, prevention and treatments and to addiction research.
Mary Guinan, Ph.D., M.D. is the dean of the School of Community Health Sciences at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas.
Mary Story is Professor of Global Health and Community and Family Medicine, and Associate Director of Education and Training, Duke Global Health Institute at Duke University.
Mary Travis Bassett has been the commissioner of the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene since January 2014.
In Electronic Health Records (EHR’s) data masking, or controlled access, is the process of concealing patient health data from certain healthcare providers.
A mass grave is a grave containing multiple human corpses, which may or may not be identified prior to burial.
The Massachusetts Department of Public Health is a governmental agency of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts with various responsibilities related to public health within that state.
MassTag PCR is a modification of PCR based on mass-spectrometric detection of an end product.
Mathematical exposure modeling is an indirect method of determining exposure, particularly for human exposure to environmental contaminants.
Mathematical models can project how infectious diseases progress to show the likely outcome of an epidemic and help inform public health interventions.
Matthew L. Boulton is an American epidemiologist.
Matthew Huxley (19 April 1920 – 10 February 2005) was an epidemiologist and anthropologist, as well as an educator and author.
Matthew Lukwiya (24 November 1957 – 5 December 2000) was a Ugandan physician and the supervisor of St. Mary's Hospital Lacor, outside of Gulu.
Matthew Jason Miller is an American physician and epidemiologist.
Maximilian Stoll (October 12, 1742 – May 25, 1787) was an Austrian physician who was a native of Erzingen, Baden-Württemberg.
The Maxwell Finland Award for Scientific Achievement is an award given annually by the National Foundation for Infectious Diseases to a scientist who has made "outstanding contributions to the understanding of infectious diseases or public health," based on criteria that include "excellence in clinical and/or research activities; participation in the training of future leaders in the field; and positive impact on the health of humankind." The award is named after epidemiologist Maxwell Finland, who investigated antimicrobial resistance.
Michael Bloomberg served as the 108th Mayor of New York City from January 1, 2002 to December 31, 2013.
Media Lens is a British media analysis website established in 2001 by David Cromwell and David Edwards.
Medical anthropology studies "human health and disease, health care systems, and biocultural adaptation".
Medical Associates for Research and Communication (MARC) is a Non-Governmental Organisation that works globally with medical students and researchers with little to no background in research.
Medical education in France is administered by the Unités de formation et de recherche de médecine (UFR).
Medical Emergency Relief International (Merlin) is a former British international non-governmental health charity which sends medical experts to global emergencies.
The discipline of medical entomology, or public health entomology, and also veterinary entomology is focused upon insects and arthropods that impact human health.
Medical geology is an emerging interdisciplinary scientific field studying the relationship between natural geological factors and their effects on human and animal health.
Medical microbiology, the large subset of microbiology that is applied to medicine, is a branch of medical science concerned with the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases.
Medical Officer of Health, Medical Health Officer or District Medical Officer, is a title and commonly used for the senior government official of a health department or agency, usually at a municipal, county/district, state/province, or regional level.
Biomedical research (or experimental medicine) encompasses a wide array of research, extending from "basic research" (also called bench science or bench research), – involving fundamental scientific principles that may apply to a ''preclinical'' understanding – to clinical research, which involves studies of people who may be subjects in clinical trials.
In Canada, a medical school is a faculty or school of a university that trains would-be medical doctors and usually offers a three- to five-year Doctor of Medicine (M.D.) or Doctor of Medicine and Master of Surgery (M.D., C.M.) degree.
Medical statistics deals with applications of statistics to medicine and the health sciences, including epidemiology, public health, forensic medicine, and clinical research.
Medicine is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.
Mei-Ling Ting Lee is a Taiwanese-American biostatistician known for her research on microarrays.
A meme is an idea, behavior, or style that spreads from person to person within a culture—often with the aim of conveying a particular phenomenon, theme, or meaning represented by the meme.
Men who have sex with men (MSM), also known as males who have sex with males, are male persons who engage in sexual activity with members of the same sex, regardless of how they identify themselves; many such men do not sexually identify as gay, homosexual or bisexual.
Menarche (Greek: μήν mēn "month" + ἀρχή arkhē "beginning") is the first menstrual cycle, or first menstrual bleeding, in female humans.
In epidemiology, Mendelian randomization is a method of using measured variation in genes of known function to examine the causal effect of a modifiable exposure on disease in observational studies.
Mervyn Wilfred Susser (26 September 1921 – 14 August 2014) was a South African activist, doctor and epidemiologist.
Mestranol/norethynodrel was the first combined oral contraceptive pill (COCP) being mestranol and norethynodrel.
A meta-analysis is a statistical analysis that combines the results of multiple scientific studies.
Noel Michael Roy Beasley (born 1968) is a British Church of England bishop and epidemiologist.
Michael Brooks (born March 1, 1964) is an American historian and investigative journalist.
Michael A. Fumento (born c. 1959) is an American author, analyst, attorney, investigative journalist, and popular speaker, currently residing in Colombia.
Michael G. Vaughn is a professor of social work at the School of Social Work in the Saint Louis University School of Public Health, where he is also the current (and founding) director of the Ph.D. in social work program.
Michael John Goldacre (born 3 January 1944 in Melbourne, Australia) is a medical doctor and academic.
Sir Michael Gideon Marmot, FBA, FMedSci, FRCP (born 26 February 1945) is Professor of Epidemiology and Public Health at University College London.
Michael T. Osterholm is a public health scientist and a biosecurity and infectious disease expert in the United States.
Sir Michael Llewellyn Rutter CBE FRS FRCP FRCPsych FMedSci (born 15 August 1933) was the first professor of child psychiatry in the United Kingdom.
Michael Shepherd, CBE, FRCP, FRCPsych (Hon), FAPA (Corr), FAPHA (30 July 1923 – 21 August 1995) was one of the most influential and internationally respected psychiatrists of his time, formerly Professor of Epidemiological Psychiatry, Institute of Psychiatry and Consultant Psychiatrist, The Maudsley Hospital, London and author of a number of influential publications in the field of psychiatry, including the seminal work Psychiatric Illness in General Practice.
Michelle Ann Williams is the Dean of the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health.
Migration studies is the academic study of human migration.
Miguel Ángel J. Márquez Ruiz (Born September 11, 1942, in Mexico City, Mexico), is a distinguished Mexican veterinarian with over 50 years of professional practice, who has received international recognition for his contributions to veterinary medicine.
Miguel Ángel Martínez-González (born in 1957 in Málaga, Spain) is a Spanish physician, epidemiologist, professor, and nutrition researcher.
"Military brat" and various "brat" derivatives describe the child of a parent or parents serving full-time in the United States Armed Forces, and can also refer to the subculture and lifestyle of such families.
Milton Terris (April 22, 1915 – October 3, 2002) was an American public health physician and epidemiologist.
Mimi Y. Kim is the Harold and Muriel Block Chair in epidemiology and population health at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, where she heads the division of biostatistics.
, sometimes referred to as, is a neurological syndrome caused by severe mercury poisoning.
The Mini-international neuropsychiatric interview is a short structured clinical interview which enables researchers to make diagnoses of psychiatric disorders according to DSM-IV or ICD-10.
Miquel Porta (Barcelona, 1957) is a Catalan physician, epidemiologist and scholar.
Mirko Dražen Grmek (9 January 1924 – 6 March 2000) was a Croatian and French historian of medicine, writer and scientist.
Mirta Roses Periago is an Argentine epidemiologist who served as Director of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) until January 31, 2013.
The spread of HIV/AIDS has affected millions of people worldwide; AIDS is considered a pandemic.
The MMR vaccine controversy started with the 1998 publication of a fraudulent research paper in The Lancet linking the combined measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine to colitis and autism spectrum disorders.
A mobile phone, known as a cell phone in North America, is a portable telephone that can make and receive calls over a radio frequency link while the user is moving within a telephone service area.
Molecular epidemiology is a branch of epidemiology and medical science that focuses on the contribution of potential genetic and environmental risk factors, identified at the molecular level, to the etiology, distribution and prevention of disease within families and across populations.
Molecular pathological epidemiology (MPE, also molecular pathologic epidemiology) is a discipline combining epidemiology and pathology.
Molecular pathology is an emerging discipline within pathology which is focused in the study and diagnosis of disease through the examination of molecules within organs, tissues or bodily fluids.
The Monash University Accident Research Centre (MUARC) is a research institute in the injury prevention field.
The Monitoring the Future (MTF) study, also known as the National High School Senior Survey, is a long-term epidemiological study that surveys trends in legal and illicit drug use among American adolescents and adults as well as personal levels of perceived risk and disapproval for each drug.
The Montefiore Residency Program in Social Medicine is one of the oldest primary care training programs in the United States.
The Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report is a weekly epidemiological digest for the United States published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
Morten Frisch is a Danish epidemiologist who works as a consultant and senior investigator at the Statens Serum Institut in Copenhagen.
Morton Beiser, CM, MD, FRCP (born November 16, 1936) is a Canadian professor, psychiatrist and epidemiologist known for his research in the fields of immigration and resettlement.
The Moscow Signal was a reported microwave transmission, varying between 2.5–4 gigahertz, directed at the Embassy of the United States, Moscow from 1953–1976, resulting in an international incident.
Moses R Kamya, is a Ugandan physician, academic, researcher and academic administrator, who serves as Professor and Chair of the Department Medicine, Makerere University School of Medicine, a component of Makerere University College of Health Sciences.
MS Explorer of the Seas is a owned and operated by Royal Caribbean International, completed in 2000.
MSCE can mean.
The Multiple Sclerosis International Federation (MSIF) was established in 1967 as an international body linking the activities of National MS societies around the world.
The Munich Security Conference (MSC; Münchner Sicherheitskonferenz) is an annual conference on international security policy that has taken place in Munich, Bavaria since 1963.
Special needs teacher Jane Longhurst was murdered by Graham Coutts on 14 March 2003.
Mycobacterium ulcerans is a slow-growing mycobacterium that classically infects the skin and subcutaneous tissues, giving rise to indolent nonulcerated (nodules, plaques) and ulcerated lesions.
Mycoplasma genitalium, commonly known as Mgen, is a sexually transmitted, small and pathogenic bacterium that lives on the ciliated epithelial cells of the urinary and genital tracts in humans.
Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a very small bacterium in the class Mollicutes.
Mycoses: Diagnosis, Therapy and Prophylaxis of Fungal Diseases is a bimonthly peer-reviewed medical journal covering mycology.
Myelofibrosis, also known as osteomyelofibrosis, is a relatively rare bone marrow cancer.
Myron Scott Cohen (born May 7, 1950 in Chicago, Illinois) is an American physician-scientist who has made substantial contributions to our understanding of the transmission prevention of transmission of HIV. He is best known as chief architect of HIV Prevention Trials Network 052, a large-scale randomized clinical trial which demonstrated proof-of-concept for “treatment as prevention”: treating an HIV-infected person with antiviral drugs makes them less contagious and prevents transmission to their sexual partners. Cohen is J. Herbert Bate Distinguished Professor of Medicine, Microbiology and Immunology, and Epidemiology at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. He is also co-chair of the National Institutes of Health’s.
Nadim Sadek (born October 1962) is a UK-based, Irish-Egyptian marketing-entrepreneur.
Nail polish (also known as nail varnish) is a lacquer that can be applied to the human fingernail or toenails to decorate and protect the nail plates.
Nancy Baxter is a Canadian surgeon and researcher.
Nancy Krieger is a professor of social epidemiology in the Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences at the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health.
Nanotoxicology is the study of the toxicity of nanomaterials.
Nasopharynx cancer or nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is the most common cancer originating in the nasopharynx, most commonly in the postero-lateral nasopharynx or pharyngeal recess or 'Fossa of Rosenmüller' accounting for 50% cases.
Natalia Kanem is the Executive Director of the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA).
Nathan Schellenberg Kline, M.D. (22 March 1916 – 11 February 1983) was an American scientist, researcher in the field of psychology and psychiatrist best known for his work with psychopharmacologic drugs.
The National Birth Defects Prevention Network (NBDPN) was founded in 1997.
The National Breast Cancer Coalition (NBCC) is a grassroots advocacy organization that seeks to improve public policies surrounding breast cancer research, diagnosis and treatment.
The National Cancer Research Institute (NCRI) is a UK-wide partnership between cancer research funders, which promotes collaboration in cancer research.
The National Center for Healthy Housing (NCHH) is a national nonprofit dedicated to creating safe and healthy housing for America’s families.
The National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), formerly known as the National Immunization Program until April 2006, is charged with responsibility for the planning, coordination, and conduct of immunization activities in the United States.
National Centre for Disease Control (NCDC) (previously known as National Institute of Communicable Diseases) is an institute under the Indian Directorate General of Health Services, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare.
National Centre for Emergency Primary Health Care (Nasjonalt kompetansesenter for legevaktmedisin, Nklm) is a Norwegian institution established by the Ministry of Health and Care Services in 2005.
National Development and Research Institute, Inc. (NDRI) is an independent New York City based 501(c)(3) non-profit think tank founded in 1967.
The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) is a survey research program conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) to assess the health and nutritional status of adults and children in the United States, and to track changes over time.
The National Health Laboratory Service (NHLS) is a South African national government institution established in 2001.
The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is the United States federal agency responsible for conducting research and making recommendations for the prevention of work-related injury and illness.
The National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS) is one of the institutes and centers that make up the National Institutes of Health, an agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS).
The National Institute of Epidemiology (NIE) is a medical research organisation located in Chennai, Tamil Nadu.
The National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro-Sciences is a medical institution located in Bangalore, India.
The National Public Health Institute of Finland (KTL, Kansanterveyslaitos, Folkhälsoinstitutet) was a research and expert institute under the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health charged with the task of protecting and promoting health in Finland.
The National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) was a public authority in the UK created by the Radiological Protection Act 1970.
The National Tuberculosis Institute (acronym NTIB) is a Government of India institute, under the Directorate General of Health Services, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, dedicated to advanced research on Tuberculosis.
A natural experiment is an empirical study in which individuals (or clusters of individuals) exposed to the experimental and control conditions are determined by nature or by other factors outside the control of the investigators, but the process governing the exposures arguably resembles random assignment.
The natural history of disease is the course a disease takes in individual people from its pathological onset ("inception") until its eventual resolution through complete recovery or death.
In infectious disease ecology and epidemiology, a natural reservoir, also known as a disease reservoir or a reservoir of infection, is the population of organisms or the specific environment in which an infectious pathogen naturally lives and reproduces, or upon which the pathogen primarily depends for its survival.
Nature Reviews Clinical Oncology is a peer-reviewed journal for oncologists.
Ned Abraham is an Associate Professor of surgery at the Faculty of Medicine, University of New South Wales a general & colorectal surgeon, a clinical academic and a retired Australian Army Reserve Officer.
Nelson Hairston Sr. (16 October 1917 – 31 July 2008) was an American ecologist.
Nephrotic syndrome is a collection of symptoms due to kidney damage.
Network medicine is the application of network science towards identifying, preventing, and treating diseases.
Network science is an academic field which studies complex networks such as telecommunication networks, computer networks, biological networks, cognitive and semantic networks, and social networks, considering distinct elements or actors represented by nodes (or vertices) and the connections between the elements or actors as links (or edges).
Network theory is the study of graphs as a representation of either symmetric relations or asymmetric relations between discrete objects.
A network is an abstract structure capturing only the basics of connection patterns and little else.
Networked advocacy or net-centric advocacy refers to a specific type of advocacy.
Neuroepidemiology is a branch of epidemiology involving the study of neurological disease distribution and determinants of frequency in human populations.
Neuroepidemiology is a bimonthly peer-reviewed medical journal covering the epidemiology of neurological conditions.
Founded in 1860, New York Medical College (known colloquially as "NYMC" or "New York Med"), a member of the Touro College and University System, is a private biomedical health sciences university based in Valhalla, New York, in Westchester County in the lower Hudson Valley region of New York state just 13 miles north of New York City.
In epidemiology, the next-generation matrix is a method used to derive the basic reproduction number, for a compartmental model of the spread of infectious diseases.
Nicholas A. Christakis (born May 7, 1962) is an American sociologist and physician known for his research on social networks and on the socioeconomic and biosocial determinants of behavior, health, and longevity.
Nicholas Talley is a prominent Australian gastroenterologist, researcher and clinical educator in Australia and the United States.
Sir Nicholas John Wald FFPH (born 31 May 1944) is Professor of Environmental and Preventive Medicine at the Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine at Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry.
Nicholas Edward Day, CBE, FRS (born 24 September 1939) is a retired statistician and cancer epidemiologist.
Nicole Grasset (18 April 1927 – 29 August 2009) was a Swiss-French medical virologist and microbiologist-epidemiologist.
Nicotine is a potent parasympathomimetic stimulant and an alkaloid found in the nightshade family of plants.
The NIH Toolbox® for the Assessment of Neurological and Behavioral Function® is a multidimensional set of brief royalty-free measures that researchers and clinicians can use to assess cognitive, sensory, motor and emotional function in people ages 3–85.
Nilanjan Chatterjee is a Bloomberg Distinguished Professor of Biostatistics and Medicine at the Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health and Johns Hopkins School of Medicine.
Nils Yngvar Ustvedt (29 April 1868 – 16 October 1938) was a Norwegian medical doctor and politician for the Conservative Party.
Nitrazepam (brand names Alodorm and Mogadon, among others) is a hypnotic drug of the benzodiazepine class used for short-term relief from severe, disabling anxiety and insomnia.
After his death in 1896, the will of Swedish industrialist Alfred Nobel established the Nobel Prizes.
Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines (NSML) which is part of a group called Ras/MAPK pathway syndromes, is a rare autosomal dominant, multisystem disease caused by a mutation in the protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 11 gene (PTPN11).
Norman Sartorius (born 1935) is a Croatian psychiatrist and university professor.
Nosology is a classification scheme used in medicine to classify diseases.
The nuclear power debate is a long-running controversy about the risks and benefits of using nuclear reactors to generate electricity for civilian purposes.
Nuclear safety is defined by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) as "The achievement of proper operating conditions, prevention of accidents or mitigation of accident consequences, resulting in protection of workers, the public and the environment from undue radiation hazards".
The number needed to harm (NNH) is an epidemiological measure that indicates how many patients on average need to be exposed to a risk-factor over a specific period to cause harm in an average of one patient who would not otherwise have been harmed.
The number needed to treat (NNT) is an epidemiological measure used in communicating the effectiveness of a health-care intervention, typically a treatment with medication.
Nurse practitioners are healthcare professionals educated and trained to provide health promotion and maintenance through the diagnosis and treatment of acute illness and chronic conditions.
The Nurses Health Study (NHS), is a series of prospective studies that examine epidemiology and the long-term effects of nutrition, hormones, environment, and nurses' work-life on health and disease development.
Nurses in Canada practise nursing in a wide variety of specialties, with a wide variety of training and experience.
Nutrition transition is the shift in dietary consumption and energy expenditure that coincides with economic, demographic, and epidemiological changes.
Nutritional epidemiology is a relatively new field of medical research that studies the relationship between nutrition and health.
Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU) is a consortium of American universities headquartered in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, with an office in Washington, D.C., and staff at several other locations across the country.
In fields such as epidemiology, social sciences, psychology and statistics, an observational study draws inferences from a sample to a population where the independent variable is not under the control of the researcher because of ethical concerns or logistical constraints.
The observer-expectancy effect (also called the experimenter-expectancy effect, expectancy bias, observer effect, or experimenter effect) is a form of reactivity in which a researcher's cognitive bias causes them to subconsciously influence the participants of an experiment.
In reproductive health, obstetric transition is a concept around the secular trend of countries gradually shifting from a pattern of high maternal mortality to low maternal mortality, from direct obstetric causes of maternal mortality to indirect causes, aging of maternal population, and moving from the natural history of pregnancy and childbirth to institutionalization of maternity care, medicalization and over medicalization.
Occupational epidemiology is a subdiscipline of epidemiology that focuses on investigations of workers and the workplace.
Occupational safety and health (OSH), also commonly referred to as occupational health and safety (OHS), occupational health, or workplace health and safety (WHS), is a multidisciplinary field concerned with the safety, health, and welfare of people at work.
In statistics, the odds ratio (OR) is one of three main ways to quantify how strongly the presence or absence of property A is associated with the presence or absence of property B in a given population.
Odette Harris is a Professor of Neurosurgery at Stanford University.
The Office for National Statistics (ONS) is the executive office of the UK Statistics Authority, a non-ministerial department which reports directly to the UK Parliament.
The Office International d'Hygiène Publique (OIHP) (International Office of Public Hygiene) was an international organization founded 9 December 1907 and based in Paris, France.
Offshore aquaculture, also known as open ocean aquaculture, is an emerging approach to mariculture or marine farming where fish farms are moved some distance offshore.
Ogobara Doumbo (1 January 1956 – 9 June 2018) was a Malian medical researcher at the University of Mali.
Olanike Kudirat Adeyemo is a Nigerian professor of Veterinary Public Health and Preventive Medicine at University of Ibadan.
Olde Towne East is a neighborhood located in the historical Near East Side of Columbus, Ohio and is one of Columbus' oldest neighborhoods.
Olive oil is a liquid fat obtained from olives (the fruit of Olea europaea; family Oleaceae), a traditional tree crop of the Mediterranean Basin.
Eric Olof "Olle" Hagnell (July 29, 1924 - April 1, 2011) was a Swedish psychiatrist and epidemiologist.
Oly Ilunga Kalenga (born 24 June 1960) is a Belgian–Congolese medical doctor who has been the Democratic Republic of the Congo's Minister of Public Health since 2016.
OpenEpi is a free, web-based, open source, operating system-independent series of programs for use in epidemiology, biostatistics, public health, and medicine, providing a number of epidemiologic and statistical tools for summary data.
The opioid epidemic or opioid crisis is the rapid increase in the use of prescription and non-prescription opioid drugs in the United States and Canada beginning in the late 1990s and continuing throughout the next two decades.
Opportunism is the conscious policy and practice of taking advantage of circumstances – with little regard for principles, or with what the consequences are for others.
Optimal virulence is a concept relating to the ecology of hosts and parasites.
The oral polio vaccine (OPV) AIDS hypothesis posits that the AIDS pandemic originated from live polio vaccines prepared in chimpanzee tissue cultures and then administered to up to one million Africans between 1957 and 1960 in experimental mass vaccination campaigns.
Oral cancer, also known as mouth cancer, is a type of head and neck cancer and is any cancerous tissue growth located in the oral cavity.
Orla Hardiman (BSc MB BCh BAO MD FRCPI FAAN) is an Irish consultant neurologist.
Orthomolecular medicine, a form of alternative medicine, aims to maintain human health through nutritional supplementation.
Oswaldo Gonçalves Cruz, better known as Oswaldo Cruz (August 5, 1872 in São Luís do Paraitinga, São Paulo province, Brazil – February 11, 1917 in Petrópolis, Rio de Janeiro state), was a Brazilian physician, pioneer bacteriologist, epidemiologist and public health officer and the founder of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute.
Otis Webb Brawley is an American physician who serves as Chief Medical and Scientific Officer and Executive Vice President of the American Cancer Society.
Otto von Schrön (7 September 1837 – 13 May 1917) was a German physician and epidemiologist born in Hof, Bavaria.
In epidemiology, an outbreak is a sudden increase in occurrences of a disease in a particular time and place.
An academic discipline or field of study is a branch of knowledge that is taught and researched as part of higher education.
Biology – The natural science that involves the study of life and living organisms, including their structure, function, growth, origin, evolution, distribution, and taxonomy.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to clinical research: Clinical research is the aspect of biomedical research that addresses the assessment of new pharmaceutical and biological drugs, medical devices and vaccines in humans.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to medicine: Medicine – science of healing.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to natural science: Natural science – a major branch of science that tries to explain, and predict, nature's phenomena based on empirical evidence.
The following outline is provided as a topical overview of science: Science – the systematic effort of acquiring knowledge—through observation and experimentation coupled with logic and reasoning to find out what can be proved or not proved—and the knowledge thus acquired.
Oxidative stress reflects an imbalance between the systemic manifestation of reactive oxygen species and a biological system's ability to readily detoxify the reactive intermediates or to repair the resulting damage.
Pablo Kuri-Morales (born November 10, 1961, Mexico City) earned his medical degree from the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM).
The Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E) is an investor-owned utility (IOU) with publicly traded stock that is headquartered in the Pacific Gas & Electric Building in San Francisco.
Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology is a bimonthly peer-reviewed medical journal covering epidemiologic research related to paediatrics and perinatology.
A pail closet or pail privy was a room used for the disposal of human excreta, under the "pail system" (or Rochdale system) of waste removal.
Pain is a distressing feeling often caused by intense or damaging stimuli.
Palacký University Olomouc is the oldest university in Moravia and the second-oldest in the Czech Republic.
Paleopathology, also spelled palaeopathology, is the study of ancient diseases.
Pamela Evans (born 1949) is a British author who is also trained as a medical doctor and a published academic.
Pamela Gillies, CBE, FRSA, FAcSS, FRSE (born 1953) is a Scottish academic and educator, appointed as Principal/Vice-Chancellor of Glasgow Caledonian University in March 2006.
Pancreatic acinar metaplasia (PAM) is a common incidental histopathologic finding present in approximately 20-25% of patients undergoing an esophagogastroduodenoscopy.
Pancreatic cancer arises when cells in the pancreas, a glandular organ behind the stomach, begin to multiply out of control and form a mass.
The pandemic severity index (PSI) is a proposed classification scale for reporting the severity of influenza pandemics in the United States.
Panel (data) analysis is a statistical method, widely used in social science, epidemiology, and econometrics to analyze two-dimensional (typically cross sectional and longitudinal) panel data.
Paolo Boffetta (born July 19, 1958) is an Italian epidemiologist.
The Papua New Guinea Institute of Medical Research (PNG IMR) is the principal institution conducting health research in Papua New Guinea with a focus on health problems affecting the country's population.
Parasitic life cycles occur in a variety of forms, all involving the exploitation of one or more hosts.
Parasitology is the study of parasites, their hosts, and the relationship between them.
Parasitology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering the area of parasitology, including the biochemistry, molecular biology, genetics, ecology and epidemiology of eukaryotic parasites, and the relationship between the host and the parasite.
Passive smoking is the inhalation of smoke, called second-hand smoke (SHS), or environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), by persons other than the intended "active" smoker.
The Pasteur Institute (Institut Pasteur) is a French non-profit private foundation dedicated to the study of biology, micro-organisms, diseases, and vaccines.
The pathogenesis of a disease is the biological mechanism (or mechanisms) that leads to the diseased state.
Pathogen infections are among the leading causes of infirmity and mortality among humans and other animals in the world.
Pathogens and Global Health is a peer-reviewed medical journal published by Maney Publishing.
Pathology (from the Ancient Greek roots of pathos (πάθος), meaning "experience" or "suffering" and -logia (-λογία), "study of") is a significant field in modern medical diagnosis and medical research, concerned mainly with the causal study of disease, whether caused by pathogens or non-infectious physiological disorder.
Asthma is a common pulmonary condition defined by chronic inflammation of respiratory tubes, tightening of respiratory smooth muscle, and episodes of bronchoconstriction.
Patricia Happ Buffler (August 1, 1938 — September 26, 2013) was an American epidemiologist and cancer researcher, known for her work on childhood leukemia and environmental health.
Patrick Parfrey, OC (born 1950) is a Canadian physician, specialized as nephrologist and epidemiologist.
Patrick S. Moore (born October 21, 1956) is an Irish and American virologist and epidemiologist who co-discovered together with his wife, Yuan Chang, two different human viruses causing the AIDS-related cancer Kaposi's sarcoma and the skin cancer Merkel cell carcinoma.
Patulous Eustachian tube, also known as patent Eustachian tube or PET, is the name of a physical disorder where the Eustachian tube, which is normally closed, instead stays intermittently open.
Paul Briquet or Pierre Briquet (12 January 1796 to 25 January 1881) was a French physician and psychologist that advanced the reasoned treatment of disturbed people said to be hysterics.
Paul D. Wellstone Muscular Dystrophy Community Assistance, Research and Education Amendments of 2013
The Paul D. Wellstone Muscular Dystrophy Community Assistance, Research and Education Amendments of 2013 is a United States public law that amends the Public Health Service Act to revise the muscular dystrophy research program of the National Institutes of Health (NIH).
Paul Jacques Malouin (27 June 1701 Caen – 3 January 1778 Versailles) was a French chemist and physicist.
Paul M. Gahlinger, (born in Green Bay, Wisconsin) is an American scientist, physician, and author.
Paul M. Ridker is a medical researcher and the Eugene Braunwald Professor of Medicine at Harvard University.
Paul Whelton is an Irish-born American physician and scientist who has made seminal contributions to hypertension and kidney disease epidemiology.
Paulo C. Campos (July 7, 1921 – June 2, 2007) was a Filipino physician and educator noted for his promotion of wider community health care and his achievements in the field of nuclear medicine for which he was dubbed as "The Father of Nuclear Medicine in the Philippines".
Pearl Louella Kendrick (August 24, 1890 – October 8, 1980) was an American bacteriologist.
Pedro L. Alonso (born May 18, 1959, in Madrid, Spain), is a physician, epidemiologist, and researcher expert in diseases that affect vulnerable populations.
Percivall Pott (6 January 1714 in London – 22 December 1788) was an English surgeon, one of the founders of orthopedics, and the first scientist to demonstrate that a cancer may be caused by an environmental carcinogen.
In physics, chemistry and materials science, percolation (from Latin percōlāre, "to filter" or "trickle through") refers to the movement and filtering of fluids through porous materials.
Percolation (from the Latin word percolatio, meaning filtration) is a theoretical model used to understand the way activation and diffusion of neural activity occur within neural networks.
The Percy FitzPatrick Institute of African Ornithology is a South African biological research and conservation institute based at the University of Cape Town.
The Perelman School of Medicine, commonly known as Penn Med, is the medical school of the University of Pennsylvania.
Perfect Sense, formerly known as The Last Word, is a 2011 science fiction drama film directed by David Mackenzie and written by Kim Fupz Aakeson, starring Eva Green and Ewan McGregor.
Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) (conjugate base perfluorooctanoate), also known as C8, is a synthetic perfluorinated carboxylic acid and fluorosurfactant.
A period 6 element is one of the chemical elements in the sixth row (or period) of the periodic table of the elements, including the lanthanides.
Periodontitis as a manifestation of systemic diseases is one of the seven categories of periodontitis as defined by the American Academy of Periodontology 1999 classification system.
Perry N. Halkitis, Ph.D., M.S., MPH (born February 24, 1963) is an American of Greek ancestry public health psychologist and applied statistician known for his research on the health of LGBT populations with an emphasis on HIV/AIDS, substance use, and mental health.
Personality disorders (PD) are a class of mental disorders characterized by enduring maladaptive patterns of behavior, cognition, and inner experience, exhibited across many contexts and deviating from those accepted by the individual's culture.
Pest risk analysis (PRA) is a form of risk analysis conducted by regulatory plant health authorities to identify the appropriate phytosanitary measures required to protect plant resources against new or emerging pests and regulated pests of plants or plant products.
Pesticide regulation in the United States is primarily a responsibility of the Environmental Protection Agency.
Pesticide residue refers to the pesticides that may remain on or in food after they are applied to food crops.
Peter Aaby (Danish, born 1944 in Lund, Sweden) is trained as an anthropologist but also holds a doctoral degree in medicine.
Peter Boyle, FRSE FFPH FRCPS(Glas) FRCP(Edin) FMedSci, (born 8, June 1951) is a British epidemiologist.
Peter Buxtun (sometimes referred to as Peter Buxton; born 1937 in Prague) is a former employee of the United States Public Health Service who became known as the whistleblower responsible for ending the Tuskegee syphilis experiment.
Peter R. Croft is an English physician and a primary care researcher.
Peter Haggett, CBE Sc.D. FBA (b. 24 January 1933) is an eminent British geographer and academic, Professor Emeritus and Senior Research Fellow in Urban and Regional Geography at the School of Geographical Sciences, University of Bristol.
Peter George Smith (born 3 May 1942) CBE BSc DSc HonMFPHM FMedSci, is an eminent epidemiologist and Professor of Tropical Epidemiology at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (LSHTM).
Peter Verveer Tishler, M.D. (born July 18, 1937) is a researcher in human genetics and orphan diseases, educator, and clinician especially in the areas of genetic diseases, including polycystic kidney disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Fabry disease, and the porphyrias.
Pharmacoepidemiology is the study of the uses and effects of drugs in well defined populations.
Pharmacy is the science and technique of preparing and dispensing drugs.
Pharmacy practice research, also known as pharmacy research, is a specialty field within the wider area of health services research, which focuses on examining how and why people access pharmacy services, how much care costs, and what happens to patients as a result of this care.
Philip John Landrigan (born June 14, 1942), is an American epidemiologist and pediatrician and one of the world's leading advocates of children's health.
Philip Alexander Poole-Wilson FRCP, FESC, FACC, FMedSci (26 April 1943 – 4 March 2009) was a British academic cardiologist of international reputation who had particular interest in the management of heart failure.
Philippe Autier (born 29 December 1956) is a Belgian epidemiologist.
Philodendron is a large genus of flowering plants in the Araceae family.
Physician supply refers to the number of trained physicians working in a health care system or active in the labour market.
Phytoestrogens are plant-derived xenoestrogens (see estrogen) not generated within the endocrine system, but consumed by eating phytoestrogenic plants.
Phytophthora ramorum is the oomycete plant pathogen known to cause the disease sudden oak death (SOD).
Pierre-Charles-Alexandre Louis (14 April 178722 August 1872) was a French physician, clinician and pathologist known for his studies on tuberculosis, typhoid fever, and pneumonia, but Louis's greatest contribution to medicine was the development of the "numerical method", forerunner to epidemiology and the modern clinical trial, paving the path for evidence-based medicine.
Pierre Kilebou M'Pelé, MD, MPH, PhD is an African public health personality, HIV/AIDS and Tropical disease specialist, and former WHO Country Representative.
Pipeline planning is a social audit that incorporates stepped wedge cluster randomised controlled trials.
Piriformis syndrome is a condition which is believed to result from compression of the sciatic nerve around the piriformis muscle.
Plagues and Peoples is a book on epidemiological history by William Hardy McNeill published in New York City in 1976.
Stanol esters are a heterogeneous group of phytosterol esters with a saturated sterol ring structure known to reduce the level of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol in blood when ingested.
Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) is a pneumococcal vaccine and a conjugate vaccine used to protect infants, young children, and adults against disease caused by the bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus).
Polio vaccines are vaccines used to prevent poliomyelitis (polio).
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, also polyaromatic hydrocarbons or polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons) are hydrocarbons—organic compounds containing only carbon and hydrogen—that are composed of multiple aromatic rings (organic rings in which the electrons are delocalized).
Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is a synthetic fluoropolymer of tetrafluoroethylene that has numerous applications.
The pool chlorine hypothesis is the hypothesis that long-term attendance at indoor chlorinated swimming pools by children up to the age of about 6–7 years is a major factor in the rise of asthma in rich countries since the late twentieth century.
A pooled analysis is a statistical technique for combining the results of multiple epidemiological studies.
Population health has been defined as "the health outcomes of a group of individuals, including the distribution of such outcomes within the group".
The Population Health Forum is a group based at University of Washington in Seattle, Washington, and composed of academics, citizens, students, and activists from around North America.
Population Impact Measures (PIMs) are biostatistical measures of risk and benefit used in epidemiological and public health research.
Post-chemotherapy cognitive impairment (PCCI) (also known in the scientific community as "CRCIs or Chemotherapy-Related Cognitive Impairments" and in lay terms as chemotherapy-induced cognitive dysfunction or impairment, chemo brain, or chemo fog) describes the cognitive impairment that can result from chemotherapy treatment.
Postpartum infections, also known as childbed fever and puerperal fever, are any bacterial infections of the female reproductive tract following childbirth or miscarriage.
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)Acceptable variants of this term exist; see the Terminology section in this article.
In statistics, a power transform is a family of functions that are applied to create a monotonic transformation of data using power functions.
Prabhat Jha, MD OC, (born February 12, 1965) is an Indian-Canadian epidemiologist and health economist working in the field of global health and founding director of the Centre for Global Health Research at St.
Precious Lunga (born 1974 in Bulawayo, Rhodesia) is a Zimbabwean-born epidemiologist.
Precision medicine (PM) is a medical model that proposes the customization of healthcare, with medical decisions, treatments, practices, or products being tailored to the individual patient.
The Prematurity Research Expansion and Education for Mothers who deliver Infants Early Reauthorization Act or PREEMIE Reauthorization Act is a bill that reauthorizes research programs on preterm births that are run by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Nutrition and weight management before and during:pregnancy has a profound effect on the development of infants.
Prevalence in epidemiology is the proportion of a particular population found to be affected by a medical condition (typically a disease or a risk factor such as smoking or seat-belt use).
Prevent Cancer Foundation (PCF) (formerly the Cancer Research Foundation of America or the Cancer Research and Prevention Foundation) is a United States-based charity, and one of the leading US health organizations devoted to the early detection and prevention of cancer.
The prevention paradox was first formally described in 1981 by the epidemiologist Geoffrey Rose.
Prevention Science is the application of a scientific methodology that seeks to prevent or moderate major human dysfunctions before they occur.
Pride Chigwedere (born 1 August 1974), a Zimbabwean national, is a Harvard trained physician-scientist working in Global Health.
Prince of Wales Hospital is a regional acute government hospital located in Sha Tin, New Territories in Hong Kong.
Privolzhsky Research Medical University (Research Medical University of Volga region, Приволжский исследовательский медицинский университет, old-name: Nizhny Novgorod State Medical Academy, NNSMA) is one of the medical schools in the Russian Federation which is located in the city of Nizhny Novgorod.
Proceedings of the Royal Society is the parent title of two scientific journals published by the Royal Society.
A "product integral" is any product-based counterpart of the usual sum-based integral of classical calculus.
The Master of Public Health (M.P.H.), Master of Science in Public Health (MSPH), Master of Medical Science in Public Health (MMSPH) and the Doctor of Public Health (Dr.P.H.), International Masters for Health Leadership (IMHL) are multi-disciplinary professional degrees awarded for studies in areas related to public health.
The Programa Saúde da Família (PSF), Family Health Program, in Portuguese language is one of the national public health programs in Brazil, which implements a national policy for primary care settings with the aim of substituting part of the traditional model of primary care based on medical specialists.
Promiscuity is the practice of having casual sex frequently with different partners or being indiscriminate in the choice of sexual partners.
The prosecutor's fallacy is a fallacy of statistical reasoning, typically used by the prosecution to argue for the guilt of a defendant during a criminal trial.
The prostate (from Ancient Greek προστάτης, prostates, literally "one who stands before", "protector", "guardian") is a compound tubuloalveolar exocrine gland of the male reproductive system in most mammals.
Protective factors are conditions or attributes (skills, strengths, resources, supports or coping strategies) in individuals, families, communities or the larger society that help people deal more effectively with stressful events and mitigate or eliminate risk in families and communities.
Proteus penneri is a Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium.
Psychiatric epidemiology is a field which studies the causes (etiology) of mental disorders in society, as well as conceptualization and prevalence of mental illness.
Psychiatry is the medical specialty devoted to the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of mental disorders.
Psychological resilience is the ability to successfully cope with a crisis and to return to pre-crisis status quickly.
Puberty is the process of physical changes through which a child's body matures into an adult body capable of sexual reproduction.
Public health is "the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting human health through organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private, communities and individuals".
The Public Health Advisor, or “PHA” is a type of public health worker which was established in 1948 by the United States Public Health Service in the Venereal Disease Control Division.
Public Health England (PHE) is an executive agency of the Department of Health and Social Care in the United Kingdom that began operating on 1 April 2013.
Public health genomics is the use of genomics information to benefit public health.
A public health journal is a scientific journal devoted to the field of public health, including epidemiology, biostatistics, and health care (including medicine, nursing and related fields).
Public health surveillance (also epidemiological surveillance, clinical surveillance or syndromic surveillance) is, according to the World Health Organization (WHO), "the continuous, systematic collection, analysis and interpretation of health-related data needed for the planning, implementation, and evaluation of public health practice.", World Health Organization (accessed January 14, 2016).
P3G (Public Population Project in Genomics and Society) is a not-for-profit international consortium dedicated to facilitating collaboration between researchers and biobanks working in the area of human population genomics.
Pulsed field gel electrophoresis is a technique used for the separation of large deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecules by applying to a gel matrix an electric field that periodically changes direction.
Quantitative biology is an umbrella term encompassing the use of mathematical, statistical or computational techniques to study life and living organisms.
Quarraisha Abdool Karim is a South African epidemiologist who was awarded South Africa's highest honor, the Order of Mapungubwe (Bronze).
A quartile is a type of quantile.
The Quellung reaction, also called the Neufeld reaction, is a biochemical reaction in which antibodies bind to the bacterial capsule of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis, Bacillus anthracis, Haemophilus influenzae, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella.
Dr Ramachandra Kuppayya Hegde (9 July 1931 in Uttara Kannada – 20 July 1991) was an Indian academic and the second Vice Chancellor of University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad.
Robert Palmer Beasley (April 29, 1936 – August 25, 2012) was a physician, public health educator and epidemiologist whose work on hepatitis B involved extensive investigations in Taiwan.
Rachel McDougall Jenkins (born 17 April 1949) is a professor of epidemiology and international mental health policy at the Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London, director of the World Health Organization (WHO) Collaborating Centre and a visiting professor at the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine.
Radiation and Public Health Project is a nonprofit educational and scientific organization founded in 1985 by Jay M. Gould, a statistician and epidemiologist, and Ernest Sternglass.
Radiation hormesis is the hypothesis that low doses of ionizing radiation (within the region of and just above natural background levels) are beneficial, stimulating the activation of repair mechanisms that protect against disease, that are not activated in absence of ionizing radiation.
Radon is a chemical element with symbol Rn and atomic number 86.
Rahul Potluri (born 19 December 1983) is a British physician, researcher and founder of ACALM (Algorithm for Comorbidites, Associations, Length of stay and Mortality) Study Unit, United Kingdom (UK).
The rainbow jersey is the distinctive jersey worn by the reigning world champion in a cycling discipline, since 1927.
Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Veterinary Education and Research (RIVER) (formerly Rajiv Gandhi College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, RAGACOVAS) is a veterinary college in Puducherry (formerly Pondicherry), India.
Rakesh Aggarwal (born 1961) is an Indian gastroenterologist and a Professor of Gastroenterology at the Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences.
Ralph S. Paffenbarger, Jr. (October 21, 1922 – July 9, 2007, Santa Fe, New Mexico) was an epidemiologist, ultramarathoner, and professor at both Stanford University School of Medicine and Harvard University School of Public Health.
Ralph R. Frerichs is Professor Emeritus of Epidemiology at UCLA where he was active as a full-time faculty member in the School of Public Health for 31 years and as the Epidemiology department chair for 13 years, before retiring in late 2008.
The rare disease assumption is a mathematical assumption in epidemiologic case-control studies where the hypothesis tests the association between an exposure and a disease.
A rate ratio (sometimes called an incidence density ratio) in epidemiology, is a relative difference measure used to compare the incidence rates of events occurring at any given point in time.
Rawlinson Road is a residential road in North Oxford, England.
Reactive attachment disorder (RAD) is described in clinical literature as a severe and relatively uncommon disorder that can affect children.
Rebecca M. Jordan-Young (born 1963), is an American sociomedical scientist whose research focuses on sex, gender and sexuality, as well as the epidemiology of HIV/AIDS.
In epidemiological research, recall bias is a systematic error caused by differences in the accuracy or completeness of the recollections retrieved ("recalled") by study participants regarding events or experiences from the past.
In statistics, a receiver operating characteristic curve, i.e. ROC curve, is a graphical plot that illustrates the diagnostic ability of a binary classifier system as its discrimination threshold is varied.
In military operations, reconnaissance or scouting is the exploration outside an area occupied by friendly forces to gain information about natural features and other activities in the area.
Recurrent brief depression (RBD) defines a mental disorder characterized by intermittent depressive episodes, not related to menstrual cycles in women, occurring between approximately 6-12 times per year, over at least one year or more fulfilling the diagnostic criteria for major depressive episodes (DSM-IV and ICD-10) except for duration which in RBD is less than 14 days, typically 2–4 days.
Redwood High School is a public secondary school located in the city of Larkspur, Marin County, California, approximately 11 miles north of San Francisco.
Regression dilution, also known as regression attenuation, is the biasing of the regression slope towards zero (the underestimation of its absolute value), caused by errors in the independent variable.
In statistics, econometrics, political science, epidemiology, and related disciplines, a regression discontinuity design (RDD) is a quasi-experimental pretest-posttest design that elicits the causal effects of interventions by assigning a cutoff or threshold above or below which an intervention is assigned.
The term relative age effect (RAE) is used to describe a bias, evident in the upper echelons of youth sport and academia, where participation is higher amongst those born early in the relevant selection period (and correspondingly lower amongst those born late in the selection period) than would be expected from the normalised distribution of live births.
In statistics and epidemiology, relative risk or risk ratio (RR) is the ratio of the probability of an event occurring (for example, developing a disease, being injured) in an exposed group to the probability of the event occurring in a comparison, non-exposed group.
In epidemiology, the relative risk reduction is a measure calculated by dividing the absolute risk reduction by the control event rate.
Relative survival of a disease, in survival analysis, is calculated by dividing the overall survival after diagnosis by the survival as observed in a similar population not diagnosed with that disease.
Rema Lapouse Award is granted to an outstanding scientist in the area of psychiatric epidemiology in recognition of "significant contributions to the scientific understanding of the epidemiology and control of mental disorders.
Renato Talamini (born 19 November 1948) is an Italian Epidemiologist.
Renaud Piarroux (born 27 September 1960) is a pediatrician specializing in infectious diseases and tropical medicine.
In epidemiology, reporting bias is defined as "selective revealing or suppression of information" by subjects (for example about past medical history, smoking, sexual experiences).
Rescue Engineering (RE) is an interdisciplinary bachelor's- and master's degree at the Technical University of Cologne since 2002 and at the Hamburg University of Applied Sciences (bachelor only) since 2006, this academic degree prepares for working at fire brigades, emergency medical servicees or other aid organisations.
The Research Centre for Emerging and Reemerging Infectious Diseases is part of the Pasteur Institute of Iran.
Respirology is a peer-reviewed medical journal published by Wiley-Blackwell on behalf of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.
The Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria is the official journal of the Associação Brasileira de Psiquiatria (ABP - Brazilian Association of Psychiatry).
Rheumatism or rheumatic disorder is an umbrella term for conditions causing chronic, often intermittent pain affecting the joints and/or connective tissue.
Rhinoplasty (ῥίς rhis, nose + πλάσσειν plassein, to shape), commonly known as a nose job, is a plastic surgery procedure for correcting and reconstructing the form, restoring the functions, and aesthetically enhancing the nose by resolving nasal trauma (blunt, penetrating, blast), congenital defect, respiratory impediment, or a failed primary rhinoplasty.
Rhodosporidium toruloides is an oleaginous yeast.
Ricardo Antonio Olea is a Chilean American research mathematical statistician with the United States Geological Survey since 2006.
Richard D. Semba is an American ophthalmologist.
Sir William Richard Shaboe Doll (28 October 1912 – 24 July 2005) was a British physiologist who became an epidemiologist in the 20th century, turning the subject into a rigorous science.
Richard Grucza is an American epidemiologist and associate professor of psychiatry at Washington University School of Medicine.
Richard Mead (11 August 1673 – 16 February 1754) was an English physician.
Sir Richard Peto (born 14 May 1943) is Professor of Medical Statistics and Epidemiology at the University of Oxford, England.
Richmal Marie Oates-Whitehead (February 1970 – August 2005) was an employee of the British Medical Association.
Rickettsialpox is a mite-borne infectious illness caused by bacteria of the genus Rickettsia (Rickettsia akari).
In econometrics, ridit scoring is a statistical method used to analyze ordered qualitative measurements.
"Right to know", in the context of United States workplace and community environmental law, is the legal principle that the individual has the right to know the chemicals to which they may be exposed in their daily living.
In epidemiology, a risk factor is a variable associated with an increased risk of disease or infection.
Risk factors for breast cancer may be divided into preventable and non-preventable.
Risk governance refers to the institutions, rules conventions, processes and mechanisms by which decisions about risks are taken and implemented.
Ritam Chowdhury is an Indian writer, physician, epidemiologist and biostatistician scientist of Bengali descent.
Robert A. Hahn (born 1945) is an American medical anthropologist and epidemiologist.
Robert C. Bailey is an American epidemiologist and professor of epidemiology at the University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC) School of Public Health.
Robert Edgar Hope-Simpson (1908 – 5 July 2003) was a general practitioner.
Heinrich Robert Hellmuth Kudicke (born 12 December 1876 in Preußisch Eylau, East Prussia, died 8 May 1961) was a German physician, epidemiologist and one of the leading experts on tropical diseases in his lifetime.
Robert Lewis Morgan (born January 5, 1952) is an American Democratic Party politician who served in the New Jersey General Assembly for one term from 2004 to 2006, where he represented the 12th legislative district.
Robert Martin Jacobson (born September 20, 1958) is the medical director of the Population Health Science Program of the Robert D. and Patricia E. Kern Center for the Science of Health Care Delivery.
Major-General Sir Robert McCarrison, CIE, FRCP (15 March 1878 – 18 May 1960) was a Northern Ireland physician and nutritionist in the Indian Medical Service, who was made a Companion of the Indian Empire (CIE) in 1923, (See p.3946 for list heading) received a knighthood in July 1933, and was appointed as Honourable Physician to the King in 1935.
Robert Ray Redfield Jr. (born July 10, 1951) is an American virologist.
Robert S. Galen (born May 29, 1946) is a physician, Professor Emeritus Epidemiology and former Senior Associate Dean in the College of Public Health at The University of Georgia.
Robert Ellis Shope (February 21, 1929 – January 19, 2004) was an American virologist, epidemiologist and public health expert, particularly known for his work on arthropod-borne viruses and emerging infectious diseases.
Robert Wayne McCollum, Jr. (January 29, 1925 – September 13, 2010) was an American virologist and epidemiologist who made pioneering studies into the nature and spread of polio, hepatitis and mononucleosis while at the Yale School of Medicine, after which he served for nearly a decade as Dean of the Dartmouth Medical School.
Rocket nets and cannon nets are types of animal traps used to trap a large number of live animals, usually birds, but they also have been used to catch large animals such as various species of deer.
Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), also known as blue disease, is the most lethal and most frequently reported rickettsial illness in the United States.
The Rollins School of Public Health is the public health school of Emory University.
Sir Ronald Ross (13 May 1857 – 16 September 1932), was a British medical doctor who received the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1902 for his work on the transmission of malaria, becoming the first British Nobel laureate, and the first born outside Europe.
Ronald Theodore Reuther (1929–2007) was a committed naturalist who spent decades managing and improving several major zoos, and was an aviation enthusiast.
Rongwei (Rochelle) F. Fu is a biostatistician who uses meta-analysis to understand disease incidence, detection, and treatment.
Sir Rory Edwards Collins (born 1955) FMedSci FRS is Professor of Medicine and Epidemiology at the Clinical Trial Service Unit within the University of Oxford and a Fellow of Green Templeton College, Oxford.
Ross Upshur, FRCPC, is a Canadian physician and researcher.
The rotarod performance test is a performance test based on a rotating rod with forced motor activity being applied, usually by a rodent.
Roxana Moslehi is a genetic epidemiologist.
Sir Roy Malcolm Anderson (born 12 April 1947) is a leading British expert on epidemiology.
The Royal College of General Practitioners (RCGP) is the professional body for general (medical) practitioners (GPs/Family Physicians/Primary Care Physicians) in the United Kingdom.
The Royal Military College of Canada (Collège militaire royal du Canada), commonly abbreviated as RMCC or RMC, is the military college of the Canadian Armed Forces, and is a degree-granting university training military officers.
The Royal Society of Thailand (ราชบัณฑิตยสภา), formerly known as the Royal Society of Siam, is the national academy of Thailand in charge of academic works of the government.
Rudolf Kraus (31 October 1868, Jungbunzlau – 15 July 1932) was an Austrian pathologist, bacteriologist and immunologist known for his work with bacterial precipitins.
Sabin Manuilă (or Mănuilă; February 19, 1894 – November 20, 1964) was an Austro-Hungarian-born Romanian statistician, demographer and physician.
Sodium saccharin (benzoic sulfimide) is an artificial sweetener with effectively no food energy that is about 300–400 times as sweet as sucrose but has a bitter or metallic aftertaste, especially at high concentrations.
Sackville Street is a street in central London which today is mainly composed of offices and the rears of retail premises, but once was the home to several important medical figures.
was a Japanese tempera painter.
Saint Boniface Hospital (also called St. B and previously called the Saint-Boniface General Hospital) is Manitoba's second-largest hospital, located in the Saint Boniface neighbourhood of Winnipeg.
Saint Louis University College for Public Health and Social Justice was founded in 2013 by the combining of the School of Social Work, founded in 1930, the School of Public Health, established 1991, and the program in Criminology and Criminal Justice.
Salim Yusuf, (born November 26, 1952) is an Indian-born Canadian physician, the Marion W. Burke Chair in Cardiovascular Disease at McMaster University Medical School.
Salmonella is a genus of rod-shaped (bacillus) Gram-negative bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae.
Salomé Karwah (– February 21, 2017) was a Liberian nurse who was named co-Person of the Year by Time magazine in 2014 for her efforts to combat the West African Ebola virus epidemic in Liberia.
Salt consumption has been intensely studied for its role in human physiology and impact on human health.
San Francisco in the 1970s was a global hub of culture.
Sander Greenland (born January 16, 1951) is an American statistician and epidemiologist known for his contributions to epidemiologic methods, meta-analysis, Bayesian inference and causal inference, among other topics.
Sandra Eades (born 1967) is a Noongar physician, researcher and professor, and the first Aboriginal medical practitioner to be awarded a Doctorate of Philosophy in 2003.
Sandro Galea (born 1971) is an emergency physician and epidemiologist.
Alexander Messent Cairncross OBE (born 8 March 1948) is an epidemiologist at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (LSHTM).
Sanitary epidemiological reconnaissance, synonym epidemiological reconnaissance is a literal name of a concept and routine of finding out disease potential on a territory of arrival of major contingent.
Sanjay Sharma M.D., FRCSC, (born 1967) is a Canadian ophthalmologist, epidemiologist, and Professor of ophthalmology and epidemiology at Queen's University.
Santé Diabète (SD) (Health Diabetes) is a French Non-governmental organization (NGOs) whose headquarters is in Grenoble (France) which is working on strengthening health systems to improve the prevention and management of diabetes in Africa.
Sarah Darby is a British epidemiologist.
The SARS conspiracy theory began to emerge during the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak in China in the spring of 2003, when Sergei Kolesnikov, a Russian scientist and a member of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, first publicized his claim that the SARS coronavirus is a synthesis of measles and mumps.
Sausapor (alternates: SansaporHarper Encyclopedia of Military Biography; Dupuy; HarperCollins 1992; pages.
Sbrana Psychiatric Hospital is a public psychiatric hospital in Lobatse, Botswana.
In statistics, a scan statistic or window statistic is a problem relating to the clustering of randomly positioned points.
The School of Mathematics at the University of Manchester is one of the largest Certainly the Faculty of Mathematics, University of Cambridge is larger.
The Scientific Committee on Occupational Exposure Limit Values (SCOEL) is a committee of the European Commission established in 1995 to advise on occupational exposure limits for chemicals in the workplace within the framework of.
A scientist is a person engaging in a systematic activity to acquire knowledge that describes and predicts the natural world.
The time of a year in which a person is born has been linked to physiological and psychological changes to humans.
Sema K. Sgaier is a scientist, global health expert, and documentary photographer.
Sergei Vladimirovich Shlyk (Сергей Владимирович Шлык; 1966, Rostov-on-Don) is a Russian cardiologist, Doctor of Medical Sciences, Professor.
The serial interval, in the epidemiology of communicable (infectious) diseases, refers to the time between successive cases in a chain of transmission.
Serology is the scientific study of serum and other bodily fluids.
Seth Franklin Berkley, M.D. (born 1956 in New York City, New York) is a medical epidemiologist by training.
The Seven Countries Study is an epidemiological longitudinal study directed by Ancel Keys at what is today the University of Minnesota Laboratory of Physiological Hygiene & Exercise Science (LPHES).
Sexology is the scientific study of human sexuality, including human sexual interests, behaviors and functions.
A sexual network is a social network that is defined by the sexual relationships within a set of individuals.
Sexually transmitted infections (STI), also referred to as sexually transmitted diseases (STD) or venereal diseases (VD), are infections that are commonly spread by sexual activity, especially vaginal intercourse, anal sex and oral sex.
Sharon Peacock is a British microbiologist and professor.
The Shaw Prize is an annual award first presented by the Shaw Prize Foundation in 2004.
Sheela Basrur, (October 17, 1956 – June 2, 2008) was a Canadian physician and Ontario Chief Medical Officer of Health and Assistant Deputy Minister of Public Health.
Shots On-line is a mobile web application that is a resource on immunizations for smartphones and other handheld devices.
is a molecular pathological epidemiologist, pathologist, and epidemiologist.
Shyam Swarup Agarwal (July 5, 1941 – December 2, 2013) was an Indian geneticist, immunologist and the director of Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences (SGPGI-MS), Lucknow.
The side effects of bicalutamide, a nonsteroidal antiandrogen (NSAA), including its frequent and rare side effects, have been well-studied and characterized.
The sievert (symbol: SvNot be confused with the sverdrup or the svedberg, two non-SI units that sometimes use the same symbol.) is a derived unit of ionizing radiation dose in the International System of Units (SI) and is a measure of the health effect of low levels of ionizing radiation on the human body.
Sigismond Jaccoud (20 November 1830 – 26 April 1913) was a Swiss physician.
Liu is a Professor of Epidemiology at Brown University School of Public Health and Professor of Medicine (Endcrinology) at the Brown University Alpert Medical School, and director of the Center for Global Cardiometabolic Health (CGCH).
Simon Iain Hay, (born 15 January 1971, Rinteln, Germany) is a British epidemiologist.
Sir Simon Charles Wessely (born 23 December 1956) is a British psychiatrist.
The Sistema Único de Saúde (Single Health System), better known by the acronym SUS, is Brazil's publicly funded health care system.
Situs ambiguus or situs ambiguous, also known as heterotaxy or heterotaxia, is a rare congenital defect in which the major visceral organs are distributed abnormally within the chest and abdomen.
Sleep epidemiology is an emerging branch of the discipline of epidemiology.
Smallpox vaccine, the first successful vaccine to be developed, was introduced by Edward Jenner in 1796.
Social anxiety disorder (SAD), also known as social phobia, is an anxiety disorder characterized by a significant amount of fear in one or more social situations, causing considerable distress and impaired ability to function in at least some parts of daily life.
The social determinants of health are linked to the economic and social conditions and their distribution among the population that influence individual and group differences in health status.
While epidemiology is "the study of the distribution and determinants of states of health in populations", social epidemiology is "that branch of epidemiology concerned with the way that social structures, institutions, and relationships influence health." This research includes "both specific features of, and pathways by which, societal conditions affect health".
Social exclusion, or social marginalization, is the social disadvantage and relegation to the fringe of society.
The social history of viruses describes the influence of viruses and viral infections on human history.
Social immunity (also termed collective immunity) describes the additional level of disease protection arising in social groups from collective disease defences, performed either jointly or towards one another.
The field of social medicine seeks to implement social care through.
A social network is a social structure made up of a set of social actors (such as individuals or organizations), sets of dyadic ties, and other social interactions between actors.
Social psychiatry is a branch of psychiatry that focuses on the interpersonal and cultural context of mental disorder and mental wellbeing.
Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology is a monthly peer-reviewed medical journal covering the epidemiology of psychiatric disorders.
The Social Security Death Index (SSDI) is a database of death records created from the United States Social Security Administration's Death Master File Extract.
The Society for Epidemiologic Research (abbreviated SER) is a learned society dedicated to epidemiology.
The Society of Global Health Researchers in Action (SOGHR) is a student-run not-for-profit organization dedicated to the support of student and early career researchers in the global health sciences.
Socioeconomic status (SES) is an economic and sociological combined total measure of a person's work experience and of an individual's or family's economic and social position in relation to others, based on income, education, and occupation.
Sociogenomics, also known as social genomics, is the field of research that examines why and how different social factors and processes (e.g., social stress, conflict, isolation, attachment, etc.) affect the activity of the genome.
Sociology is the scientific study of society, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture.
The sociology of health and illness, alternatively the sociology of health and wellness (or simply health sociology), examines the interaction between society and health.
Soho is an area of the City of Westminster, part of the West End of London.
The Sono arsenic filter was invented in 2006 by Abul Hussam, who is a chemistry professor at George Mason University (GMU) in Fairfax, Virginia.
The South African Malaria Initiative (SAMI) was established to facilitate the integration of malaria research and related capacity building in South Africa and the rest of Africa.
Southern Illinois University (known colloquially as SIU or SIU Carbondale) is a public research university located in Carbondale, Illinois, United States.
The Spanish flu (January 1918 – December 1920), also known as the 1918 flu pandemic, was an unusually deadly influenza pandemic, the first of the two pandemics involving H1N1 influenza virus.
The Spanish National Health System (Sistema Nacional de Salud, SNS) is the agglomeration of public health services that has existed in Spain since it was established through and structured by the Ley General de Sanidad (the "General Health Law") of 1986.
Spatial analysis or spatial statistics includes any of the formal techniques which study entities using their topological, geometric, or geographic properties.
Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology is a quarterly peer-reviewed medical journal covering spatial and spatiotemporal aspects of epidemiology.
A spatial decision support system (SDSS) is an interactive, computer-based system designed to assist in decision making while solving a semi-structured spatial problem.
Spatial epidemiology is a subfield of health geography focused on the study of the spatial distribution of health outcomes.
In the United States and Canada, there are nine recognized dental specialties in which some dentists choose to train and practice, in addition to or instead of general dentistry.
Driven by fresh-market use, the consumption of spinach (Spinacia oleracea) has been on the rise in the United States.
The Spodden Valley asbestos controversy arose in May 2004 when approximately of land in Spodden Valley in Rochdale, England, formerly used by Turner Brothers Asbestos Company (later known as Turner & Newall), and the site of the world's largest asbestos textile factory, was sold to MMC Estates, a property developer.
St Leonards School, formerly St Leonards and St Katharines School, is an independent school founded by the University of St Andrews in the nineteenth century.
St Thomas's Hospital Medical School in London was one of the oldest and most prestigious medical schools in the UK.
ST8:USA300 is a strain of community-associated methicillin-resistant ''Staphylococcus aureus'' (MRSA) that has emerged as a particularly antibiotic resistant epidemic that is responsible for rapidly progressive, fatal diseases including necrotizing pneumonia, severe sepsis and necrotizing fasciitis.
In epidemiology, the standardized mortality ratio or SMR, is a quantity, expressed as either a ratio or percentage quantifying the increase or decrease in mortality of a study cohort with respect to the general population.
The Standards of Care for the Health of Transsexual, Transgender, and Gender Nonconforming People are non-binding protocols outlining the usual treatment for individuals who wish to undergo hormonal or surgical transition to the other sex.
Stata is a general-purpose statistical software package created in 1985 by StataCorp.
A state health agency (SHA), or state department of health, is a department or agency of the state governments of the United States focused on public health.
Statens Serum Institut (the State Serum Institute), or SSI for short, is a Danish sector research institute located on the island of Amager in Copenhagen.
Statistical epidemiology is an emerging branch of the disciplines of epidemiology and biostatistics that aims to.
A statistician is a person who works with theoretical or applied statistics.
Statistics is a branch of mathematics dealing with the collection, analysis, interpretation, presentation, and organization of data.
Stephen Chemoiko Chebrot is a Ugandan physician and politician.
Stephen Fleck (September 18, 1912 – December 19, 2002) was a professor in the Psychiatry and Epidemiology and Public Health Departments at the Yale University School of Medicine from 1953 to 1983 and professor emeritus from 1983 until his death.
Stephen S. Morse (born November 22, 1951) is an American epidemiologist, influenza researcher and specialist on emerging infectious diseases, who has served as an adviser on the epidemiology of infectious diseases and on improving disease early warning systems to numerous government and international organizations.
Steve Selvin (born 1941) is an American statistician who is professor of biostatistics at the University of California, Berkeley.
Steven N. Goodman is an American Professor of Medicine and of Health Research and Policy (Epidemiology) at Stanford School of Medicine.
Steven Henry Strogatz (born August 13, 1959) is an American mathematician and the Jacob Gould Schurman Professor of Applied Mathematics at Cornell University.
Steven "Steve" Whitman (1943–2014) was an American social epidemiologist and public health researcher.
Streptococcus iniae is a species of Gram-positive, sphere-shaped bacterium belonging to the genus Streptococcus.
Recent epidemiologic studies confirm that stroke is the most frequent cause of death in the People's Republic of China, with an incidence more than fivefold that of myocardial infarction.
Stuart J. Pocock is a British medical statistician.
The Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP) is a population-based epidemiological study consisting of two independent cohorts (SHIP and SHIP-TREND).
A subclinical infection (sometimes called a preinfection) is an infection that, being subclinical, is nearly or completely asymptomatic (no signs or symptoms).
The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) is a branch of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
A sugar substitute is a food additive that provides a sweet taste like that of sugar while containing significantly less food energy.
The Sumatran rhinoceros, also known as the hairy rhinoceros or Asian two-horned rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis), is a rare member of the family Rhinocerotidae and one of five extant rhinoceroses.
Sunetra Gupta (born 15 March 1965) is a novelist, and Professor of Theoretical Epidemiology at the University of Oxford with an interest in infectious disease agents that are responsible for malaria, HIV, influenza and bacterial meningitis.
A super-spreader is a host—an organism infected with a disease—that infects, disproportionally, more secondary contacts than other hosts who are, also, infected with the same disease.
Suresh H. Moolgavkar M.D., Ph.D. (born 3 January 1943 in Bombay, India) is a mathematician and epidemiologist at the University of Washington and the in Seattle.
The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) is a source of epidemiologic information on the incidence and survival rates of cancer in the United States.
Susan Desmond-Hellmann, MD, MPH, is an oncologist and biotechnology leader who is the Chief Executive Officer of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
Susan Shur-Fen Gau (1962 –), also known as Susan Gau, Shur-Fen Gau, Gau Shur-Fen and in Chinese:高淑芬, is a Taiwanese psychiatrist and academic with specialized in psychiatry, psychology, epidemiology, preventive medicine, occupational therapy, and brain and mind sciences.
In epidemiology a susceptible individual (sometimes known simply as a susceptible) is a member of a population who is at risk of becoming infected by a disease.
The Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute or Swiss TPH, (formerly known as the Swiss Tropical Institute) was founded in 1943 as through the initiative of Professor Rudolf Geigy.
Syed Abdul Mujeeb (Urdu) (12 February 1957 – 6 September 2009) was a medical scientist in the field of Microbiology.
Sylvia Richardson is a French Bayesian statistician.
A syndemic or synergistic epidemic is the aggregation of two or more concurrent or sequential epidemics or disease clusters in a population with biological interactions, which exacerbate the prognosis and burden of disease.
The system safety concept calls for a risk management strategy based on identification, analysis of hazards and application of remedial controls using a systems-based approach.
T-even phages, also known as the E. coli phages, are a group of double-stranded DNA bacteriophages from the family Myoviridae.
Tamara Eugenia Awerbuch-Friedlander is a biomathematician and public health scientist at the Harvard School of Public Health (HSPH) in Boston, Massachusetts.
Targeted immunization strategies are approaches designed to increase the immunization level of populations and decrease the chances of epidemic outbreaks.
Taryn Young is the Director of the Centre for Evidence-based Health Care and Head of the Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics at Stellenbosch University.
TeachAIDS (pronounced) is a nonprofit social enterprise that develops global HIV prevention education technology products, based on an approach invented through research at Stanford University.
The Tecumseh step test is an exercise test that researchers use to determine a subject's cardiovascular fitness level.
Tele-epidemiology is the application of telecommunications to epidemiological research and application, including space-based and internet-based systems.
Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is a chronic disorder of the nervous system characterized by recurrent, unprovoked focal seizures that originate in the temporal lobe of the brain and last about one or two minutes.
Texas Tech University, often referred to as Texas Tech, Tech, or TTU, is a public research university in Lubbock, Texas.
The Canon: A Whirligig Tour of the Beautiful Basics of Science is a book written by American science author Natalie Angier.
The Collaborative Ependymoma Research Network (CERN) Foundation is a Nonprofit organization composed of scientists and adult and pediatric cancer researchers who work together to develop new treatments for Ependymoma, a type of primary brain or spinal cord tumor that occurs in both children and adults, and improve the outcomes and care of patients.
The Diseases Population Index for Lung Cancer Incidence is a tool in epidemiology that enables health care professionals to obtain an overview trends and cross-country comparisons with respect to lung cancer incidence.
The Earth Institute was established at Columbia University in 1995.
The Final Inch is a short documentary about the effort to eradicate polio.
The Ghost Map: The Story of London's Most Terrifying Epidemic – and How it Changed Science, Cities and the Modern World is a book by Steven Berlin Johnson in which he describes the most intense outbreak of cholera in Victorian London (See 1854 Broad Street cholera outbreak) The book incorporated the idea of gemeinschaft, dealing with the effects of an epidemic in a city of common values, language, and traditions.
The Health Improvement Network (THIN) is a large database of anonymised electronic medical records collected at Primary Care clinics throughout the UK.
The Journals of Gerontology are the first scientific journals on aging published in the United States.
The Machine, the former Alpha Rho chapter of Theta Nu Epsilon at the University of Alabama, is a coalition of Panhellenic sororities and IFC fraternities which formed a secret society with some degree of influence over campus and Alabama state politics.
The Morrow Project is a science fiction role-playing game created by Kevin Dockery, Robert Sadler and Richard Tucholka and published by TimeLine Limited.
The Night Eternal is a 2011 vampire horror novel by Guillermo del Toro and Chuck Hogan.
The Ottawa Hospital (L'Hôpital d'Ottawa) is a non-profit, public university teaching hospital in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
The Screwfly Solution is the seventh episode in the second season of Masters of Horror.
The Strain is a 2009 vampire horror novel by Guillermo del Toro and Chuck Hogan.
The Tipping Point: How Little Things Can Make a Big Difference is the debut book by Malcolm Gladwell, first published by Little, Brown in 2000.
The Wandering Jew (Le Juif errant) is an 1844 novel by the French writer Eugène Sue.
The propaganda of the National Socialist German Workers' Party regime that governed Germany from 1933 to 1945 promoted Nazi ideology by demonizing the enemies of the Nazi Party, notably Jews and communists, but also capitalists and intellectuals.
Theodora Emily Colborn(née Decker; March 28, 1927 – December 14, 2014) was Founder and President Emerita of The Endocrine Disruption Exchange (TEDX), based in Paonia, Colorado, and Professor Emerita of Zoology at the University of Florida, Gainesville.
Theobald Smith ForMemRS (July 31, 1859 – December 10, 1934) was a pioneering epidemiologist, bacteriologist, pathologist and professor.
Theodore Solomon Drachman (August 31, 1904 – July 13, 1988) was a public health official and an author.
Theoretical Population Biology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering research on theoretical aspects population biology in its widest sense, including mathematical modelling of populations, ecology, evolution, genetics, demography, and epidemiology.
Theories of the Black Death are a variety of explanations that have been advanced to explain the nature and transmission of the Black Death (1347–69).
Thomas Adeoye Lambo (March 29, 1923 – March 13, 2004) was a Nigerian scholar, administrator and psychiatrist.
Thomas P. Detre, M.D. (17 May 1924 – 9 October 2010) was a psychiatrist and academic at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, eulogized as the "visionary" leader most responsible for UPMC's transformation, beginning in the 1970s, into the top-flight treatment facility, medical school, and research powerhouse that it is today.
Thomas Francis Jr. (July 15, 1900 October 1, 1969) was an American physician, virologist, and epidemiologist.
Thomas Rowe Edmonds (1803–1889) was an English actuary and political economist.
A thought experiment (Gedankenexperiment, Gedanken-Experiment or Gedankenerfahrung) considers some hypothesis, theory, or principle for the purpose of thinking through its consequences.
Thousand Families Study was a major epidemiological study, that arose through observations made by Sir James Spence, one of the first ever full-time paediatricians in the United Kingdom, and from 1942, the first holder of a University Chair of Child Health in England.
The Three Mile Island accident occurred on March 28, 1979, in reactor number 2 of Three Mile Island Nuclear Generating Station (TMI-2) in Dauphin County, Pennsylvania, near Harrisburg.
Three Mile Island Nuclear Generating Station (TMI) is a nuclear power plant located on Three Mile Island in Londonderry Township, Pennsylvania, on the Susquehanna River just south of Harrisburg.
This is a timeline of cardiovascular disease, focusing on scientific development and major worldwide organizations and events concerning CVD.
This page is a timeline of global health, including major conferences, interventions, cures, and crises.
The following is a timeline of the history of London, the capital of England in the United Kingdom.
This is a timeline of yellow fever.
In sociology, a tipping point is a point in time when a group—or a large number of group members—rapidly and dramatically changes its behavior by widely adopting a previously rare practice.
TN status or TN visa is a special non-immigrant status in the United States, Canada, and Mexico that offers expedited work authorization to a citizen of these countries.
An association between tobacco and other drug use has been well established.
Tobacco politics refers to the politics surrounding the use and distribution of tobacco.
A toilet plume is the dispersal of microscopic particles as a result of flushing a toilet.
Toms River: A Story of Science and Salvation is a 2013 non-fiction book by the American author Dan Fagin.
Tourette syndrome (TS or simply Tourette's) is a common neuropsychiatric disorder with onset in childhood, characterized by multiple motor tics and at least one vocal (phonic) tic.
Toxic oil syndrome or simply toxic syndrome (Spanish: síndrome del aceite tóxico or síndrome tóxico) is a musculoskeletal disease most famous for a 1981 outbreak in Spain which killed over 600 people and was likely caused by contaminated colza oil.
Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic disease caused by Toxoplasma gondii.
In medicine, public health, and biology, transmission is the passing of a pathogen causing communicable disease from an infected host individual or group to a particular individual or group, regardless of whether the other individual was previously infected.
Transmission-based precautions are additional infection control precautions in health care, and the latest routine infection prevention and control practices applied for patients who are known or suspected to be infected or colonized with infectious agents, including certain epidemiologically important pathogens.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI), also known as intracranial injury, occurs when an external force injures the brain.
Travel medicine or emporiatrics is the branch of medicine that deals with the prevention and management of health problems of international travelers.
Trichotillomania (TTM), also known as hair pulling disorder, is an impulse control disorder characterised by a long term urge that results in the pulling out of one's hair.
The Trinidad Regional Virus Laboratory (T.R.V.L.) was established in Port of Spain, in 1953 by the Rockefeller Foundation in co-operation with the Government of Trinidad and Tobago.
Trogia is a genus of fungi in the family Marasmiaceae.
Trond Heir (born 5 December 1958) is a Norwegian psychiatrist and military physician.
Tropical Medicine is an interdisciplinary branch of medicine that deals with health issues that occur uniquely, are more widespread, or are more difficult to control in tropical and subtropical regions.
Turning Point Alcohol and Drug Centre is an alcohol and other drugs organisation located in the inner Melbourne(Australia) suburb of Richmond. Established in 1994 in Fitzroy, the organisation provides clinical treatment and support to those with substance addiction issues, as well as conducting clinical and epidemiological research and development. In addition, the organisation provides education and training to health and welfare professionals.http://www.turningpoint.org.au/about_us.html. Turning Point Alcohol and Drug Centre. Accessed 2007-06-29. The organisation's approach to alcohol and other drugs clinical treatment is primarily based upon the medical model of treatment. This includes using an evidence based approach to treatment services and implementing harm minimisation techniques towards relevant client issues. The organisation amalgamated with public health provider Eastern Health in October 2009, and is formally affiliated with Monash University. In addition, Turning Point collaborates with international organisations including The United Nations Office of Drugs and Crime (UNODC); International Network of Drug Treatment and Rehabilitation Resource Centres, California State University; Center for Behavioral Research and Services, Yale University; Center for Interdisciplinary Research on AIDS and The International Harm Reduction Association.
Twin Research and Human Genetics is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published bimonthly by the Cambridge University Press.
Twin studies are studies conducted on identical or fraternal twins.
The University of California, Berkeley School of Public Health, commonly called the UC Berkeley School of Public Health, is one of 14 schools and colleges at the University of California, Berkeley.
The UCL Great Ormond Street Institute of Child Health (ICH) is an academic department of the Faculty of Population Health Sciences of University College London (UCL) and is located in London, United Kingdom.
The UCLA Jonathan and Karin Fielding School of Public Health is the graduate school of public health affiliated with UCLA, and is located within the Center for Health Sciences building on the UCLA campus.
The Umeå Centre for Global Health Research (CGH) is a Centre of Excellence within Umeå University in Northern Sweden.
The UNC Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center is a cancer research and treatment center at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
The United States Academic Decathlon (USAD) is an academic competition for high school students in the United States.
The United States Air Force School of Aerospace Medicine (USAFSAM) is the United States Air Force (USAF) organization focused on education, research, and worldwide operational consultation in aerospace and operational medicine.
The State University of New York at Albany, also known as University at Albany, SUNY Albany or UAlbany, is a public research university with campuses in Albany, Guilderland, and Rensselaer, New York, United States.
The University of California, Irvine School of Medicine (UC Irvine School of Medicine or UCI School of Medicine) is an LCME accredited medical school, co-located in Orange County's cities of Irvine on the University of California, Irvine campus and Orange at the UC Irvine Medical Center.
The University of Community Health, Magway (UCH) (ကျန်းမာရေး တက္ကသိုလ် (မကွေး)) is a public health university under the Ministry of Health and Sports (Myanmar), and located in Magway, Myanmar.
The College of Public Health and Health Profession is the school of public health and other health professions of the University of Florida.
The University of Kentucky College of Public Health is a School of Public Health at the University of Kentucky in Lexington, KY.
The University of Lviv (Львівський університет, Uniwersytet Lwowski, Universität Lemberg, briefly known as the Theresianum in the early 19th-century), presently the Ivan Franko National University of Lviv (Львівський національний університет імені Івана Франка) is the oldest university foundation in Ukraine, dating from 1661 when the Polish King, John II Casimir, granted it its first royal charter.
The University of North Texas Health Science Center (UNTHSC) is a graduate-level institution of the University of North Texas System, located on a 33-acre campus in the Cultural District of Fort Worth, Texas.