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A Lucky Child (2007) is a memoir written by Thomas Buergenthal, in the vein of Night by Elie Wiesel or My Brother's Voice (2003) by Stephen Nasser, in which he recounts the astounding story of his surviving the Holocaust as a ten-year-old child owing to his wits and some remarkable strokes of luck.
Aaron ha-Levi Oettingen was a Galician rabbi; born about the beginning of the eighteenth century; died in Lemberg about 1769.
Abba Hushi (Also: Aba Khoushy; אבא חושי; born Abba Schneller; 1898 – 24 March 1969) was an Israeli politician who served as mayor of Haifa for eighteen years between 1951 and 1969.
Abraham David ben Asher Anshel Wahrman (1770 at Nadvirna–1840 at Buchach) (Hebrew: אברהם דוד מבוטשאטש), was a Galician Talmudist.
Abraham (Avraham) ben Samuel Firkovich (Hebrew אברהם בן שמואל - Avraham ben Shmuel; Karayce: Аврагъам Фиркович - Avragham Firkovich) (1786–1874) was a famous Karaite writer and archeologist, collector of ancient manuscripts, and a Karaite Hakham.
Abraham Goldfaden אַבֿרהם גאָלדפֿאַדען; (born Avrum Goldnfoden; the Romanian spelling Avram Goldfaden is common; 24 July 1840 in Starokostiantyniv – 9 January 1908 in New York City) was a Russian-born Jewish poet, playwright, stage director and actor in the languages Yiddish and Hebrew, author of some 40 plays.
Abraham Morris "Abe" Lilienfeld (November 13, 1920 – August 6, 1984) was an American epidemiologist and professor at the Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health.
Abraham Adolph Salz (born around 1841 in Tarnów, death around 1941) was a Galician Zionist, lawyer and initially leader of the Chowewe Zion.
Abraham Haim Schalit (אברהם שליט) (born 1898, died 1979) was an Israeli historian and a scholar of the Second Temple period.
Abraham Stupp (אברהם סטופ, 1897 – 26 September 1968) was an Israeli politician who served as a member of the Knesset for the General Zionists between 1951 and 1955.
Achille Delaere (born 1868, Lendelede, Belgium) was a Flemish priest who served on the Canadian prairies.
The Act Zluky (Акт Злуки,, "Unification Act") was an agreement signed on January 22, 1919, by the Ukrainian People's Republic and the West Ukrainian People's Republic on the St. Sophia Square in Kiev.
Adalbert Czerny (25 March 1863 – 3 October 1941) was an Austrian pediatrician and is considered co-founder of modern pediatrics.
Adam Jozef Aleksander Epler (born December 1, 1891, in Lwów, Austrian Galicia; died October 24, 1965, in London) was a Colonel of Artillery of the Polish Army, posthumously promoted to Generał brygady.
Adam Ignacy Koc (31 August 1891 – 3 February 1969) was a Polish politician, MP, soldier, journalist and freemasoner.
Adam Pribićević (Адам Прибићевић; 24 December 1880 – 7 February 1957) was a Serbian publisher, writer, and politician.
Baroness Adelma Vay or von Vay (also Vay de Vaya), born Countess Adelaide von Wurmbrand-Stuppach (October 21, 1840 – May 24, 1925), was a medium and pioneer of spiritualism in Slovenia and Hungary.
Administrative division of Polish territories during World War II can be divided into several phases, when territories of the Second Polish Republic were administered first by Nazi Germany (in the west) and Soviet Union (in the east), then (following German invasion of the Soviet Union) in their entirety by Nazi Germany and finally (following Soviet push westwards) by the Soviet Union again.
The three consecutive partitions of Poland carried out in the late 18th century by the Austrian, Prussian and the Russian empires, between 1772 and 1795, resulted in the complete disappearance of sovereign Poland from the map of Europe until the end of World War One in 1918.
The Gaue (Singular: Gau) were the de facto administrative sub-divisions of Nazi Germany, eclipsing the de jure Länder (states) of Weimar Germany in 1934.
Adolf Beck (1 January 1863, Kraków – 1942, Lwów) was a Polish Jew, physician of and professor of physiology at the University of Lwów.
Lieutenant General Sir Adrian Paul Ghislain Carton de Wiart (5 May 1880 – 5 June 1963) was a British Army officer born of Belgian and Irish parents.
Afanasii Ivanovich Seredin-Sabatin (Афанасий Иванович Середин-Сабатин) was a Russian-born steersman-pilot and reporter for an English newspaper, but is best known as the first European (Russian) architect to live and work in the Korean Empire from (approximately) 1890 to 1904.
Count Agenor Maria Adam Gołuchowski (March 25, 1849March 28, 1921) was a Polish statesman.
Count Agenor Romuald Gołuchowski (8 February 1812, Skala-Podilska, Galicia - 3 August 1875, Lwów, Galicia) was a Polish-Austrian conservative politician, member of parliament of Austria, Minister of Interior and governor of Galicia, and father of Agenor Maria Gołuchowski and Adam Gołuchowski.
Aglaja Orgeni, real name Anna Maria von Görger St.
Agrarianism is a social philosophy or political philosophy which values rural society as superior to urban society, the independent farmer as superior to the paid worker, and sees farming as a way of life that can shape the ideal social values.
Aharon Rokeach (19 December 1880Israel, Yosef (2005). "Rescuing the Rebbe of Belz". NY:Mesorah Publications, Ltd.. – 18 August 1957) was the fourth Rebbe of the Belz Hasidic dynasty.
Aharon Roth or Aaron Rote (אהרן ראטה) known as Reb Arele (1894 − 1947), was a Hungarian Hasidic rebbe and Talmudic scholar.
Ahatanhel Yukhymovych Krymsky (Агатангел Юхимович Кримський, Агафангел Ефимович Крымский; – 25 January 1942) was an Ukrainian Orientalist, linguist and polyglot (knowing up to 35 languages), literary scholar, folklorist, writer, and translator.
Alan Jeffrey "Jerry" Nussbaum (born December 17, 1947) is an American linguist of the Indo-European languages and a classical philologist, best known for his work on the language of the Homeric epics and modern and Proto-Indo-European nominals.
Albert Lacombe (28 February 1827 – 12 December 1916), commonly known in Alberta simply as Father Lacombe, was a French-Canadian Roman Catholic missionary who traveled among and evangelized the Cree and also visited the Blackfoot First Nations of northwestern Canada.
Albert Schickedanz (or Schikedanz) (October 14, 1846 – July 11, 1915) was an Austro-Hungarian architect and painter in the Eclectic style.
Aleksander Brückner (29 January 1856 – 24 May 1939) was a Polish scholar of Slavic languages and literatures (Slavistics), philologist, lexicographer and historian of literature.
Aleksander Józef Skrzyński (19 March 1882 – 25 September 1931) was a Polish politician, from Zagórzany, Gorlice, Galicia, who served as the 13th Prime Minister of Poland from 1925 to 1926.
Iskander Mirza Huzman Beg Sulkiewicz (December 8, 1867 – September 18, 1916), known as Aleksander Sulkiewicz, was a Polish politician of Lipka Tatar ethnicity who campaigned for Polish independence and co-founded the Polish Socialist Party.
Aleksander Zawadzki, born Józef Antoni Zawadzki, (6 May 1798 in Bielsko, Cieszyn Silesia – 5 June 1868 in Brno) was a Polish naturalist, author of flora and fauna lists of the Galicia region and the neighbourhood of Lviv (Lwów).
The history of the Alekseevskaya Women's Gymnasium dates back to September 1905, when a note by P. P. Filevsky (the first historian of the city of Taganrog) was sent to the City Duma, in which he substantiated the urgent need to establish another female gymnasium in Taganrog.
Aleksei Alekseevich Brusilov (Алексе́й Алексе́евич Бруси́лов; – 17 March 1926) was a Russian general most noted for the development of new offensive tactics used in the 1916 Brusilov Offensive, which was his greatest achievement.
Aleksei Ilyich Kravchenko (1889, Pokrovskaya Sloboda, Saratov region, Russia - 1940 Moscow, Russia) was a Russian painter, illustrator, draughtsman and printmaker.
Alexander Alexandrovich Bashilov (Александр Александрович Башилов) (August 31, 1777 in Hlukhiv - December 31, 1847 in Moscow) was a Russian general officer of Napoleonic Wars period, later engaged in urban planning of Moscow and its suburbs.
Alexander Chizhevsky Алекса́ндр Леони́дович Чиже́вский (also Aleksandr Leonidovich Tchijevsky) (7 February 1897 – 20 December 1964) was a Soviet-era interdisciplinary scientist, a biophysicist who founded "heliobiology" (study of the sun’s effect on biology) and "aero-ionization" (study of effect of ionization of air on biological entities).
Alexander Oscar Gettler (August 13, 1883 – August 4, 1968) was a toxicologist with the Office of Chief Medical Examiner of the City of New York (OCME) between 1918 and 1959, and the first forensic chemist to be employed in this capacity by a U.S. city.
Alexander Vasilyevich Gorbatov (Алекса́ндр Васи́льевич Горба́тов) (21 March 1891 – 7 December 1973) was a Russian and Soviet officer who served as an officer in the Imperial Russian Army during the First World War and as a Colonel-General in the Red Army during the Second World War.
Alexander Adolf August Karl von Linsingen (10 February 1850 – 5 June 1935) was a German general during World War I.
Alexander (Aleksander) Wagner (7 August 1868 – 1942) was a Polish chess correspondence master and theoretician.
Baron Alexander Wassilko von Serecki (December 17, 1827, Berhometh, Austria – August 20, 1893, Lopuszna (Lăpușna), Austria-Hungary), descendent of an old Moldavian boyar family, was an Austro-Hungarian-born ethnic Romanian statesman, Landeshauptmann of the Duchy of Bukovina and member of the Herrenhaus, the Upper House of the Imperial Council of Austria.
Alfred Aberdam (1894–1963) was a painter of School of Paris, born in Lviv, capital of Galicia, Austro-Hungarian Empire.
Count Alfred Józef Potocki (29 July 1817 or 1822, Łańcut - 18 May 1889, Paris) was a Polish nobleman (szlachcic), landowner, and a liberal-conservative monarchist Austrian politician and Prime Minister.
Count Alfred Wojciech Potocki hr.
Alfred Zachariewicz (26 August 1871 – 11 July 1937), was a Polish architect.
Ali Çetinkaya, also known as "Kel" Ali Bey (1878 – 21 February 1949) was an Ottoman-born Turkish army officer and politician who served eight terms in the Grand National Assembly of Turkey, including a period in 1939–40 as his country's first Minister of Transport.
The All-Russian nation (obshcherusskiy narod), also known as the pan-Russian nation or the triune Russian nation (triyedinyy russkiy narod) is a Russophile and Russian irredentist ideology which sees the Russian nation as comprising the three historical and geographic regions of Kievan Rus' (Great Russia, Little Russia and White Russia) and branches of Rus' people, which include modern East Slavs (namely, Russians, Ukrainians and Belarusians), rather than only modern Russia and ethnic Russians.
The Allies of World War I, or Entente Powers, were the countries that opposed the Central Powers in the First World War.
Alter Kacyzne (31 May 1885 in Vilnius, Russian Empire – 7 July 1941 in Ternopil, General Government for the Occupied Polish Territories) was a Jewish (Yiddish) writer, poet and photographer.
American Jewish cuisine comprises the food, cooking, and dining customs associated with American Jews.
American Jews, or Jewish Americans, are Americans who are Jews, whether by religion, ethnicity or nationality.
This article describes some views of notable Orthodox Jewish figures who supported anarchism, as well as various themes within the scope of the Orthodox Jewish tradition or among the practicing Orthodox Jews that are generally considered important from the anarchist worldview.
Count András Hadik de Futak (Andreas Reichsgraf Hadik von Futak; futaki Hadik András gróf; Andrej Hadík; October 16, 1710 – March 12, 1790) was a Hungarian nobleman and Field MarshalDarrell Berg (editor): The Correspondence of Christian Gottfried Krause: A Music Lover in the Age Sensibility, Ashgate Publishing Ltd, 2009 of the Habsburg Army.
Andreas Karaczay de Vályeszáka or Andreas Karaiczay de Wallje Szaka or András Karacsaj de Válje-Szaka (30 November 1744 – 22 March 1808) served in the Austrian army beginning in the Seven Years' War.
Andriy II Yuriyevych or Andrew of Galicia (Андрій II Юрієвич) (unknown – 1323) was the last Rus' king of Galicia-Volhynia in 1308–1323 (according to other sources since 1315).
Bishop Andrew J. Roborecki (Андрій Роборецький; 12 December 1910 in Velyki Mosty, Austro-Hungarian Empire (present day in Sokal Raion, Lviv Oblast, Ukraine) – 24 October 1982 in Toronto, Canada) was a Ukrainian-born Canadian Ukrainian Greek Catholic hierarch.
Andriy Melnyk (Андрій Ме́льник) (December 12, 1890 – November 1, 1964) was a Ukrainian military and political leader.
Andrii Ivanovych Sadovyi (Андрій Іванович Садовий, Andríj Ivanovych Sadovýj) is a Ukrainian politician.
Andrychów (list, list, hist. also Andrychau) is the largest town in Wadowice County in southern Poland, in Little Beskids, in historical region Lesser Poland, with 22,257 inhabitants.
Andrzej Grzegorczyk (22 August 1922 – 20 March 2014) was a Polish logician, mathematician, philosopher, and ethicist noted for his work in computability, mathematical logic, and the foundations of mathematics.
Andrzej Kusionowicz Grodyński (22 October 186124 July 1925), baptized as Andrzej Szymon Kusionowicz, was a Polish lawyer who worked as a Silesian circuit judge based in Cieszyn for much of his career.
Andrzej Stasiuk (born 25 September 1960 in Warsaw, Poland) is one of the most successful and internationally acclaimed contemporary Polish writers, journalists and literary critics.
Anny Ondra (15 May 1903 – 28 February 1987) was a Czech film actress.
The Antes or Antae (Áνται) were an early Slavic tribal polity which existed in the 6th century lower Danube and northwestern Black Sea region (modern-day Moldova and central Ukraine).
Anthony Hlynka (May 28, 1907 – April 25, 1957) was a Canadian journalist, publisher, immigration activist and politician.
Anthony Petrushevych (January 18, 1821 – September 23, 1913) (Петруше́вич Анто́ній Степа́нович) was a Ukrainian and Polish historian, linguist, researcher of the history of Galicia, a priest of the UGCC.
Anti-Ukrainian sentiment or Ukrainophobia is animosity towards Ukrainians, Ukrainian culture, language or Ukraine as a nation.
Anton Aškerc (9 January 1856 – 10 June 1912) was an ethnic Slovene poet and Roman Catholic priest who worked in Austria, best known for his epic poems.
Anton Ehrenzweig (27 November 1908 – 5 December 1966) was an Austrian-born British theorist on modern art and modern music.
Anton Günther (17 November 1783, Lindenau, Bohemia (now part of Cvikov, Czech Republic) – 24 February 1863, Vienna) was an Austrian Roman Catholic philosopher whose work was condemned by the church as heretical tritheism.
Antoni Rehman aka Anton Rehman (13 May 1840 Kraków – 13 January 1917 Lwow, Galicia) was a Polish geographer, geomorphologist, botanist and explorer.
Antoni Władysław Jakubski (1885–1962) was a Polish zoologist and explorer.
Antonietta Brandeis (also known as Antonie Brandeisova and Antonio Brandeis) (1848–1926), was a Czech-born Italian landscape, genre and portrait painter, as well as a painter of religious subjects for altarpieces.
The following events occurred in April 1915.
Archdiocese of Halyč may refer to the following Catholic ecclesiastical jurisdictions in Slavic Galicia with archiepiscopal (co-)see at Halych, western Ukraine.
Archduchess Eleonora of Austria (28 November 1886 – 26 May 1974) was a daughter of Archduke Charles Stephen of Austria and a first cousin of King Alphonso XIII of Spain.
Archduchess Immaculata of Austria Inmmaculata, Erzherzogin von Österreich-Toskana;(9 September 1892 – 3 September 1971) was a daughter of Archduke Leopold Salvator of Austria.
Archduchess Margaretha of Austria (Margaretha, Erzherzogin von Österreich-Toskana;(8 May 1894 – 21 January 1986) was a daughter of Archduke Leopold Salvator of Austria and Infanta Blanca of Spain. She was member of the Tuscan branch of the Imperial House of Habsburg, an Archduchess of Austria and Princess of Tuscany by birth. After the fall of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, she lived in exile, first in Barcelona and from the 1930s until the end of her life in Italy. In 1937, she married an Italian diplomat, Marchese Francesco Maria Taliani de Marchio. The couple, who had married in their forties, did not have children.McIntosh, The Unknown Habsburgs, p. 53.
Archduke Charles Stephen of Austria (Erzherzog Karl Stephan von Österreich, Arcyksiążę Karol Stefan Habsburg; 5 September 1860 – 7 April 1933) was a member of the House of Habsburg, a Grand Admiral in the Austro-Hungarian Navy and candidate for the Polish crown.
Archduke Ferdinand Karl Joseph of Austria-Este (25 April 1781 – 5 November 1850) was the third son of Archduke Ferdinand of Austria-Este and of his wife Princess Maria Beatrice Ricciarda d'Este, last member and heiress of the House of Este.
Archduke Franz Salvator of Austria, in Italian Francesco Salvatore Maria Giuseppe Ferdinando Carlo Leopoldo Antonio di Padova Giovanni Battista Gennaro Lodovico Gonzaga Raniero Benedetto Bernardo, in German Franz Salvator Maria Joseph Ferdinand Karl Leopold Anton von Padua Johann Baptist Januarius Aloys Gonzaga Rainer Benedikt Bernhard (Altmünster, 21 August 1866 – Vienna, 20 April 1939), was a member of the Tuscan branch of the House of Habsburg.
Archduke Joseph August Viktor Klemens Maria of Austria, Prince of Hungary and Bohemia (9 August 1872 – 6 July 1962) was a Feldmarschall (Field Marshal) of the Austro-Hungarian Army and for a short period head of state of Hungary.
Archduke Peter Ferdinand Salvator Karl Ludwig Maria Joseph Leopold Anton Rupert Pius Pancraz of Austria, Prince of Hungary and Bohemia, Prince of Tuscany) (12 May 1874, Salzburg, Austria-Hungary – 8 November 1948, St. Gilgen, Salzburg, Austria) was an Austro-Hungarian archduke and an army commander in the Austro-Hungarian Army during World War I. He was also the titular Grand Duke of Tuscany from 2 May 1921 to 8 November 1948.
Archduke Rainer of Austria Rainer, Erzherzog von Österreich-Toskana; (21 November 1895 – 25 May 1930) was a member of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine, a member of the Tuscan branch of the Imperial House of Habsburg, an Archduke of Austria and Prince of Tuscany by birth.
Archduke Wilhelm Franz of Austria, later Wilhelm Franz von Habsburg-Lothringen (10 February 1895 – 18 August 1948), also known as Basil the Embroidered (Vasyl Vyshyvani), was an Austrian archduke, a colonel of the Ukrainian Sich Riflemen, and a poet.
Count Wilhelm Archibald Douglas (19July 1883 – 5July 1960) was a Swedish Army lieutenant general and nobleman who served as Chief of the Army from 1944 to 1948.
There were many areas annexed by Nazi Germany both immediately before and throughout the course of World War II.
European Argentines belong to several communities which trace their origins to various migrations from Europe, and which have contributed to the country's cultural and demographic variety.
The Ashkenazi Ari Synagogue, located in Safed, Israel, was built in memory of Rabbi Isaac Luria (1534 - 1572), who was known by the Hebrew acronym "the ARI".
Arieh Sharon (אריה שרון; May 28, 1900 – July 24, 1984) was an Israeli architect and winner of the Israel Prize for Architecture in 1962.
The Armenian alphabet (Հայոց գրեր Hayoc' grer or Հայոց այբուբեն Hayoc' aybowben; Eastern Armenian:; Western Armenian) is an alphabetical writing system used to write Armenian.
The Armenian Catholic Church (translit; Ecclesia armeno-catholica), improperly referred to as the Armenian Uniate Church, is one of the Eastern particular churches sui iuris of the Catholic Church.
Armenians in Austria refers to ethnic Armenians living in Austria.
Armenians in Poland have an important and historical presence going back to the 14th century.
Armenians in Ukraine are ethnic Armenians who live in Ukraine.
The Army Group North Ukraine (Heeresgruppe Nordukraine) was a major ground force formation of the German armed forces.
Arnold Perlmutter (1859–1953) was a composer for Yiddish theatre, born in Zlotshev, Galitsia.
Art Nouveau is an international style of art, architecture and applied art, especially the decorative arts, that was most popular between 1890 and 1910.
Generaloberst Arthur Freiherr Arz von Straußenburg (16 June 1857 – 1 July 1935) was an Austro-Hungarian Colonel General and last Chief of the General Staff of the Austro-Hungarian Army.
Arthur Josef Stanislaus Berson (6 August 1859 – 3 December 1942) was a German meteorologist and pioneer of aerology who was a native of Neu Sandez, Galicia (now Nowy Sącz, Poland).
Arthur Karl Greiser (22 January 1897 – 21 July 1946) was a Nazi German politician, SS-Obergruppenführer and Reichsstatthalter (Reich Governor) of the German-occupied territory of Wartheland.
Arthur Kober (August 25, 1900 – June 12, 1975) was an American humorist, author, press agent, and screenwriter.
Arthur Kornberg (March 3, 1918 – October 26, 2007) was an American biochemist who won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1959 for his discovery of "the mechanisms in the biological synthesis of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)" together with Dr.
Arthur Murray (born Moses Teichman, April 4, 1895 – March 3, 1991) was an American ballroom dancer and businessman, whose name is most often associated with the dance studio chain that bears his name.
Aryeh Leib HaCohen Heller (1745 – 1812) (אריה לייב בן יוסף הכהן הלר) was a Rabbi, Talmudist, and Halachist in Galicia.
An askari was a local soldier serving in the armies of the European colonial powers in Africa, particularly in the African Great Lakes, Northeast Africa and Central Africa.
Asriel Günzig (also known as Azriel Günzig, Ezriel Günzig, Israel Günzig, Izrael Günzig, or J. Günzig) (עזריאל גינציג) was a rabbi, scholar, bookseller, editor and writer.
Association of Law Students’ Library of the Jagiellonian University (pol. Towarzystwo Biblioteki Słuchaczów Prawa Uniwersytetu Jagiellońskiego – TBSP UJ) is the oldest and one of the biggest student scientific associations in Poland.
Astacus (from the Greek αστακός, astacós, meaning "lobster" or "crayfish") is a genus of crayfish found in Europe and western Asia, comprising three extant and four extinct, fossil species.
Astacus leptodactylus, the Danube crayfish, Galician crayfish, Turkish crayfish or narrow-clawed crayfish is a species of crayfish imported and introduced to Central Europe in 19th century from the Caspian Sea region.
The following events occurred in August 1914.
August von Fligely (26 September 1810 – 12 April 1879) was an Austrian officer and cartographer.
Anton Ludwig August von Mackensen (6 December 1849 – 8 November 1945), born August Mackensen, was a German field marshal.
Augustus III (August III Sas, Augustas III; 17 October 1696 5 October 1763) was King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1734 until 1763, as well as Elector of Saxony in the Holy Roman Empire from 1733 until 1763 where he was known as Frederick Augustus II (Friedrich August II).
Austeria (aka The Inn) is a Polish feature film directed by Jerzy Kawalerowicz, produced by Zespół Filmowy "Kadr" and released in 1983.
Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy in English-language sources, was a constitutional union of the Austrian Empire (the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council, or Cisleithania) and the Kingdom of Hungary (Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen or Transleithania) that existed from 1867 to 1918, when it collapsed as a result of defeat in World War I. The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867.
Austria–Ukraine relations (Українсько-австрійські відносини, Osterreich-Ukraina Beziehungen) are foreign relations between Austria and Ukraine.
Nationality law (German: Staatsbürgerschaftsgesetz) in the Republic of Austria is based on the principle of jus sanguinis.
The Austrian Parliament Building (Parlamentsgebäude, colloquially das Parlament) in Vienna is where the two houses of the Austrian Parliament conduct their sessions.
Austrians (Österreicher) are a Germanic nation and ethnic group, native to modern Austria and South Tyrol that share a common Austrian culture, Austrian descent and Austrian history.
The Austro-Hungarian Army (Landstreitkräfte Österreich-Ungarns; Császári és Királyi Hadsereg) was the ground force of the Austro-Hungarian Dual Monarchy from 1867 to 1918.
The Austro-Polish War or Polish-Austrian War was a part of the War of the Fifth Coalition in 1809 (a coalition of the Austrian Empire and the United Kingdom against Napoleon's French Empire and Bavaria).
Avraham Sharon (אברהם שרון; September 10, 1878 – October 17, 1957) was an Israeli philosopher, musician, scholar and publicist.
Avraham Yissachar Dov Hakohen Rabinowicz (also Avraham Yissachar Ber Rabinowicz, Rabinowitz, Rabinowich, or Rabinovitch) (November 15, 1843 – September 5, 1892) was the second Rebbe of the Radomsk Hasidic dynasty.
Azara (Misiones) is a village and municipality in Misiones Province in north-eastern Argentina.
Baron Ádám Récsey de Récse (récsei báró Récsey Ádám, Adam Retsey von Retse; 10 February 1775 – 26 October 1852) was a Hungarian general, joined the army of Habsburg Monarchy, and briefly a politician who was appointed illegally as the Prime Minister of Hungary by King Ferdinand V during the Revolution of 1848, serving in this capacity from 3 October to 7 October 1848.
Árpád Pédery (February 1, 1891 in Budapest – October 21, 1914 in Luzsek, Galicia) was a Hungarian gymnast who competed in the 1912 Summer Olympics.
Árva County (Árva vármegye, Comitatus Arvensis, Oravská stolica/župa, Komitat Arwa, Komitat Orawa) was an administrative county (comitatus) of the Kingdom of Hungary since the 14th century until 1918/1920.
Łupków Pass or Lupkov Pass (Przełęcz Łupkowska, Lupkovský priesmyk) is a significant mountain pass in the Carpathian Mountains on the border between Poland and Slovakia, and close to the western border of Ukraine.
Mehmed Said (1877, Gaziantep, Aleppo Vilayet – 28 March 1920), better known as Şahin Bey, was the commander of the Turkish revolutionaries that were stationed in the city of Gaziantep during the Turkish War of Independence.
Żabcze is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Dołhobyczów, within Hrubieszów County, Lublin Voivodeship, in eastern Poland, close to the border with Ukraine.
Żabno is a town and municipality on the river Dunajec in southern Poland, north of Tarnów.
Żary is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Krzeszowice, within Kraków County, Lesser Poland Voivodeship, in southern Poland.
Żurawce is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Lubycza Królewska, within Tomaszów Lubelski County, Lublin Voivodeship, in eastern Poland, close to the border with Ukraine.
Życie was an illustrated weekly established in 1897 and published in Kraków and Lwów in the Austrian partition of Poland.
Babi Yar (Бабин Яр, Babyn Yar; Бабий Яр, Babiy Yar) is a ravine in the Ukrainian capital Kiev and a site of massacres carried out by German forces and by local Ukrainian collaborators during their campaign against the Soviet Union in World War II.
Badeni is the name of a Polish aristocratic family.
Bandinelli Palace (Palazzo Bandinelli; Палац Бандінеллі; Kamienica Bandinellich we Lwowie) is a late Renaissance townhouse (kamienica) facing Market Square in Lviv, Ukraine.
Baranów Sandomierski is a small town in southern Poland, in the Subcarpathian Voivodship, Tarnobrzeg County on the Vistula River, with 1,440 inhabitants (02.06.2009).
Barbara Joan "Barbra" Streisand (born April 24, 1942) is an American singer, songwriter, actress, and filmmaker.
Baruch ben Yehoshua Yechezkel Feivel Fränkel-Te'omim, Boruch Frankel Thumim (1760–1828) was a rabbi, Talmudist at Vishnitsa, Austrian Galicia, and at Leipnik, Moravia, during the 1st half of the 19th century.
Archbishop Basil Volodymyr Ladyka, O.S.B.M. (Василь Володимир Ладика; 2 August 1884 in Drohobych, Austro-Hungarian Empire (present day Lviv Oblast, Ukraine) – 1 September 1956 in Winnipeg, Canada) was a Ukrainian-born Canadian Ukrainian Greek Catholic hierarch.
The Bastarnae (Latin variants: Bastarni, or Basternae; Βαστάρναι or Βαστέρναι) were an ancient people who between 200 BC and 300 AD inhabited the region between the Carpathian mountains and the river Dnieper, to the north and east of ancient Dacia.
Batiar (also sometimes spelled as baciar), a popular name for a certain class of inhabitants of the formerly Polish city of Lwów.
The Battle of Asiago (Battle of the Plateaux) or the Trentino Offensive (in Italian: Battaglia degli Altipiani), nicknamed Strafexpedition ("Punitive expedition") by the Austrians, was a counteroffensive launched by the Austro-Hungarians on the Italian Front on 15 May 1916, during World War I. It was an unexpected attack that took place near Asiago in the province of Vicenza (now in northeast Italy, then on the Italian side of the border between the Kingdom of Italy and Austria-Hungary) after the Fifth Battle of the Isonzo (March 1916).
The Battle of Austerlitz (2 December 1805/11 Frimaire An XIV FRC), also known as the Battle of the Three Emperors, was one of the most important and decisive engagements of the Napoleonic Wars.
The Battle of Lawica was one of battles of the Greater Poland Uprising (1918–19).
Battle of Łowczówek was a battle during World War I, fought on 22–25 December 1914 at Łowczówek, between the First Brigade of the Polish Legions, fighting for Austria-Hungary, and troops of Imperial Russia.
The Battle of Beersheba (Birüssebi Muharebesi, Schlacht von Birüssebi)The several battles fought for the Gaza to Beersheba line between 31 October and 7 November were all assigned the title Third Battle of Gaza, although they took place many miles apart, and were fought by different corps.
The Battle of Borowe Mlyny, one of many skirmishes of the January Uprising, took place on April 16, 1863, near the village of Borowe Mlyny in southeastern part of Russian-controlled Congress Poland.
The Battle of Brześć Litewski (also known as the Siege of Brześć, Battle of Brest-Litovsk or simply Battle of Brześć) was a World War II battle involving German and Polish forces that took place between 14 and 17 September 1939, near the town of Brześć Litewski (now Brest, Belarus).
The Battle of Chroberz, one of many skirmishes of the January Uprising, took place on March 17, 1863, near the village of Chroberz in southwestern corner of Russian-controlled Congress Poland.
The Battle of Dürenstein (Schlacht bei Dürnstein; also known as Dürrenstein, Dürnstein and Diernstein), on 11 November 1805, was an engagement in the Napoleonic Wars during the War of the Third Coalition.
The Battles of Dunajetz occurred in May 1915 as part of the Gorlice–Tarnów Offensive during World War I. They were fought between the Russians (who were camped out along the line of the Dunajec river, the right tributary of the Vistula) and a force led by German General August von Mackensen to push the Russians out of Galicia and Vistula land (what is now Poland).
The Battle of Fajslawice, one of many clashes of the January Uprising, took place on August 24, 1863, near the village of Fajslawice, which at that time belonged to Russian-controlled Congress Poland.
The Battle of Galicia, also known as the Battle of Lemberg, was a major battle between Russia and Austria-Hungary during the early stages of World War I in 1914.
The Battle of Gnila Lipa took place early in the World War I on 29–30 August 1914, when the Imperial Russian Army invaded Galicia and engaged the defending Austro-Hungarian Army.
The Battle of Grunwald, First Battle of Tannenberg or Battle of Žalgiris, was fought on 15 July 1410 during the Polish–Lithuanian–Teutonic War.
The Battle of Hareira and Sheria was fought on 6–7 November 1917 when the Egyptian Expeditionary Force attacked and captured the Yildirim Army Group's defensive systems protecting Hareira and Sheria in the centre of the Gaza to Beersheba line, during the Southern Palestine Offensive of the Sinai and Palestine Campaign in World War I. These defensive systems, which had successfully repelled frontal attacks during the Second Battle of Gaza, became vulnerable, after a six months' stalemate, to a flanking manoeuvre by the XX Corps on 6 November.
The Battle of Huta Krzeszowska was one of many clashes of the January Uprising.
The Battle of Igolomia, one of many skirmishes of the January Uprising, took place on March 21, 1863, near the village of Igolomia in southwestern corner of Russian-controlled Congress Poland.
The Battle of Kobylanka, one of many skirmishes of the January Uprising, took place on May 1 and May 6, 1863, in the Kobylanka Forest, located near the village of Borowiec, which at that time belonged to Russian-controlled Congress Poland.
The Battle of Kock was the final battle in the invasion of Poland at the beginning of World War II in Europe.
The Battle of Komorow, one of many clashes of the January Uprising, took place on June 20, 1863, near the village of Komorow (now Swietokrzyskie Voivodeship), which at that time belonged to Russian-controlled Congress Poland.
The Battle of Kowel (also known as the Battle of Kovel or the Battle of Kovel-Stanislav) took place during World War I, from 24 July to 8 August 1916.
The Battle of Krechowce (Polish: Bitwa pod Krechowcami) took place on 24 July 1917, during World War I. Polish uhlans, who fought in the Imperial Russian Army, were ordered to halt the advance of German Army, which tried to capture the city of Stanisławów, located at that time in Austrian Galicia.
Battle of Lemberg (Lviv, Lwów) (in Polish historiography called Defense of Lwów) begun on 1 November 1918 and lasted till May 1919 and was a six months long conflict between the attacking forces of the West Ukrainian People's Republic and local Polish civilian population assisted later by regular Polish Army forces for the control over the city of Lviv (Lwów, Lemberg), in what was then eastern part of Galicia and now is western part of Ukraine.
The Battle of Limanowa took place from 1 December to 13 December 1914, between the Austro-Hungarian Army and the Russian Army near the town of Limanowa (south-east of Kraków).
The Battle of Lutsk took place during World War I, from June 4 to June 6, 1916.
The Battle of Miropol took place on May 16–17, 1863, near the town of Miropol, Volhynia, Russian Empire, during the January Uprising.
The Battle of Mołotków (Polish: Bitwa pod Mołotkowem) took place on October 29, 1914, near the village of Mołotków (Molotkiv), Austrian Galicia (current Ukraine).
The Battle of Nagysalló was fought on 19 April 1849, was one of the battles of the Spring Campaign in the Hungarian War of Independence from 1848–1849, fought between the Habsburg Empire and the Hungarian Revolutionary Army.
The Battle of Passchendaele (Flandernschlacht, Deuxième Bataille des Flandres), also known as the Third Battle of Ypres, was a campaign of the First World War, fought by the Allies against the German Empire.
The Battle of Pieskowa Skala, one of many skirmishes of the January Uprising, took place on March 4, 1863, near Pieskowa Skala in southwestern corner of Russian-controlled Congress Poland.
The Battle of Podhajce (October 6–16, 1667) was fought in the town of Podhajce in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (nowadays Pidhaitsi, western Ukraine), and the area surrounding it as part of the Polish-Tartar War and the Great Turkish War.
The Battle of Przemyśl - a struggle for the control over the city of Przemyśl in former Austro-Hungarian Galicia and local river crossings on the San river, between Ukrainian and Polish militias and regular troops, from 2 to 12 November 1918, during the Polish-Ukrainian War.
Battle of Pyliavtsi (Пилявцi; Piławce); September 23, 1648) was the third significant battle of the Khmelnytsky Uprising. Near the site of the present-day village of Pyliava, which at that time belonged to the Kingdom of Poland, and now lies in central-western Ukraine, Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth forces met a numerically superior force of Ukrainian Cossacks and Crimean Tatars under the command of Bohdan Khmelnytsky and Tugay Bey. The Commonwealth forces were dealt a third consecutive defeat.
The Battle of Radzymin took place on April 25, 1809 during the brief Polish–Austrian War.
The Battle of Rafajlowa took place in the night of January 23–24, 1915, during World War I. The 2nd Brigade, Polish Legions, which was part of the Austro-Hungarian Army repelled a night raid of the Russian Imperial Army, which was aimed at blocking all passes through Gorgany mountain range in Eastern Carpathians.
The Battle of Ramales, a battle of the First Carlist War, occurred at Ramales in Cantabria on May 12, 1839.
Battle of Rawa (also written as -Rava, -Rawa-Ruska, -Rava-Ruska, or -Rava-Russka) was an early stage World War I battle between Austria-Hungary and Russia, between September 3–11, 1914.
The Battle of Salicha was a clash between Polish insurgent forces and units of the Imperial Russian Army during the January Uprising.
The Battle of Sharon fought between 19 and 25 September 1918, began the set piece Battle of Megiddo half a day before the Battle of Nablus, in which large formations engaged and responded to movements by the opposition, according to pre-existing plans, in the last months of the Sinai and Palestine Campaign of World War I. The fighting took place over a wide area from the Mediterranean Sea east to the Rafat salient in the Judean Hills.
The Battle of Skala, one of many skirmishes of the January Uprising, took place on 5 March 1863 near the town of Skała in the southwestern corner of Russian-controlled Congress Poland.
The Battle of Tabsor was fought on 19–20 September 1918 beginning the Battle of Sharon, which along with the Battle of Nablus formed the set piece Battle of Megiddo fought between 19 and 25 September in the last months of the Sinai and Palestine Campaign of the First World War.
The Battle of Tel el Khuweilfe, part of the Southern Palestine Offensive, began on 1 November 1917, the day after the Egyptian Expeditionary Force (EEF) victory at the Battle of Beersheba during the Sinai and Palestine Campaign of World War I. After the Stalemate in Southern Palestine a series of coordinated attacks were launched by British Empire units on the Ottoman Empire's German commanded Yildirim Army Group's front line, which stretched from Gaza inland to Beersheba.
The Battle of Teugen-Hausen or the Battle of Thann was an engagement that occurred during the War of the Fifth Coalition, part of the Napoleonic Wars.
The Battle of Wagram (5–6 July 1809) was a military engagement of the Napoleonic Wars that ended in a costly but decisive victory for Emperor Napoleon I's French and allied army against the Austrian army under the command of Archduke Charles of Austria-Teschen.
The Battle of Zaleszczyk was an armed insurrection in Zalishchyky (At the time known by its Polish name of "Zaleszczyk") by Galician insurgents against Austrian soldiers during the Austro-Polish War on June 18, 1809.
The Battle of Zawichost (1205) was a battle fought between Roman the Great of Galicia-Volhynia and Leszek I the White of Lesser Poland, along with his brother, Konrad I of Masovia.
Batu Khan (Бат хаан, Bat haan, Бату хан, Bá dū, хан Баты́й, Μπατού; c. 1207–1255), also known as Sain Khan (Good Khan, Сайн хаан, Sayn hân) and Tsar Batu, was a Mongol ruler and founder of the Golden Horde, a division of the Mongol Empire.
Bălți (Belz, Bielce, Бельцы,, Бєльці,, בעלץ) is a city in Moldova.
Błażowa (בלאזשאוו) is a town in Rzeszów County, Subcarpathian Voivodeship, Poland, with a population of 2,121 inhabitants (02.06.2009).
--> The Beaver Hills are a range of hills located in the Canadian province of Saskatchewan.
Bełżec is a village in Tomaszów Lubelski County, Lublin Voivodeship, in eastern Poland.
The Belgian Expeditionary Corps of Armoured Cars in Russia (Corps Expeditionnaire des Autos-Canons-Mitrailleuses Belges en Russie) was a Belgian military formation during the First World War which was sent to Russia to fight the German Army on the Eastern Front.
Belz (Белз; Bełz ; בעלז &thinsp) is a small city in Sokal Raion of Lviv Oblast (region) of Western Ukraine, near the border with Poland, is located between the Solokiya river (a tributary of the Bug River) and the Rzeczyca stream.
Bełz Voivodeship (Województwo bełskie, Palatinatus Belzensis) was a unit of administrative division and local government in Poland from 1462 to the Partitions of Poland in 1772–1795.
Benjamin Edward Meara Stiller (born November 30, 1965) is an American actor, comedian, writer, producer, and director.
Ben-Zion Witler (1907–1961), also Ben-Tsion Vitler, BenZion Wittler, was a Jewish singer, actor, coupletist, comedian and composer.
Benedict, son of Korlát (Korlát fia Benedek; died after 1221) was a Hungarian distinguished nobleman, who served as voivode of Transylvania twice, from 1202 to 1206 and 1208 to 1209.
Benjamin Fondane or Benjamin Fundoianu (born Benjamin Wechsler, Wexler or Vecsler, first name also Beniamin or Barbu, usually abridged to B.; November 14, 1898 – October 2, 1944) was a Romanian and French poet, critic and existentialist philosopher, also noted for his work in film and theater.
Benjamin Marcus Bloch (בנימין מרכוס בלוך, (April 1, 1900 – April 26, 1959 Weizmann Wonder Wander magazine, February 27, 2012.) was an Israeli physicist, known mainly for his work at the Weizmann Institute of Science.
Benjamin Israel Murmelstein (9 June 1905 – 27 October 1989) was an Austrian rabbi.
Benno or Beno Straucher (August 11, 1854 – November 5, 1940) was a Bukovina-born Austro-Hungarian lawyer, politician and Jewish community representative, who spent the final part of his career in Romania.
Benzion Shalom Eliezer Freshwater (born 1948) is a British billionaire property investor of Haredi Jewish descent.
Berdyhiv (Бердихів) – a village (selo) in the Lviv Oblast (province), Yavoriv Raion of Western Ukraine.
Berechiah Berak ben Isaac Eisik Shapira (died 1664) was a Galician preacher who was educated by Nathan Shapira, rabbi of Cracow, and was appointed preacher of that city, where he spent most of his life.
Bereg (Береґ) was an administrative county (comitatus) of the Kingdom of Hungary.
Berek Joselewicz (September 17, 1764 – May 15, 1809) was a Jewish-Polish merchant and a colonel of the Polish Army during the Kościuszko Uprising.
Berezhany (Бережани, Brzeżany, Brezhan, בּז'יז'אני/בּז'ז'ני Bzhezhani/Bzhizhani) is a city of regional significance located in the Ternopil Oblast (province) of western Ukraine.
The Berezhany Raion (Бережанський район) is a raion (district) in the westernmost corner of Ternopil Oblast (province) in western Ukraine, area traditionally known as Halychyna (Galicia).
Bernard Siegel (April 19, 1868 – July 9, 1940) was an Austro-Hungarian born American character actor, whose career spanned both the silent film era, as well as carrying over into the beginning of sound pictures.
Berta Lask (17 November 1878 – 28 March 1967) was a German writer, playwright and journalist.
Bertha Kalich (also spelled Kalish; 17 May 1874 – 18 April 1939) was a Jewish American actress, born in Lemberg, Galicia (now Lviv, Ukraine).
Berthold Müller-Oerlinghausen (10 February 1893 in Oerlinghausen as Berthold Müller – 22 June 1979 in Kressbronn) was a German sculptor.
Bertold Eisner (1875 - 1956) was a Croatian Jewish law professor at the University of Zagreb, pioneer of the Croatian Jurisprudence and writer.
The Bielsko-Biała Museum is a museum for the city of Bielsko-Biała, Poland located in the historical Bielsko Castle.
Bieszczadzka Forest Railway (Polish: Bieszczadzka Kolejka Leśna, lit. Forest Light Railway of Bieszczady) is a narrow gauge railway built in a sparsely populated, forest region of Bieszczady Mountains.
Samuel "Billy" Wilder (June 22, 1906March 27, 2002) was an Austrian-American filmmaker, screenwriter, producer, artist, and journalist whose career spanned more than five decades.
Binczarowa (Білцарьова, Biltsariova; Більцарева, Bil’tsareva) is a village in southern Poland. It is parallel to the stream known as Binczarce.
The Blue Army (Polish: Błękitna Armia), or Haller's Army was a Polish military contingent created in France during the latter stages of World War I. The name came from the French-issued blue military uniforms worn by the soldiers.
Bobov (or Bobover Hasidism) (חסידות באבוב) is a Hasidic community within Haredi Judaism originating in Bobowa, Galicia, in southern Poland, and now headquartered in the neighborhood of Borough Park in Brooklyn, New York.
Bobov-45 (Hebrew: 45-חסידות באבוב) is a Hasidic sect within Haredi Judaism.
Bobowa (באבאוו, Bobov) is a town in the Gorlice County, Poland.
Bochnia (German: Salzberg) is a town of 30,000 inhabitants on the river Raba in southern Poland.
Bochdanowicz is a Polish coat of arms of various noble families in the Galicia region.
Boguchwała is a town in Rzeszów County, Subcarpathian Voivodeship, in south-eastern Poland.
Bogumil Dawison (May 15, 1818February 1, 1872) was a German actor.
Bogumil Vošnjak, also known as Bogomil Vošnjak (9 September 1882 – 18 June 1955), was a Slovene and Yugoslav jurist, politician, diplomat, author, and legal historian.
"Boh predvičnyj narodivsja" (from Бог предвічний народився) is an Ukrainian Christmas carol, which is translated into English as "Eternal God Born Tonight" or sometimes "Pre-eternal God Was Born." It focuses on the incarnation in the story of the nativity.
Zynoviy Bohdan Khmelnytsky (Ruthenian language: Ѕѣнові Богдан Хмелнiцкiи; modern Bohdan Zynoviy Mykhailovych Khmelnytsky; Bohdan Zenobi Chmielnicki; 6 August 1657) was a Polish–Lithuanian-born Hetman of the Zaporozhian Host of the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (now part of Ukraine).
Boleń is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Zielonki, within Kraków County, Lesser Poland Voivodeship, in southern Poland.
Brig. Gen. Bolesław Jerzy Roja (4 April 1876 − 27 May 1940) was an officer of the Polish Legions in World War I, a general, and a politician in the Second Polish Republic, recipient of some of the highest Polish military awards including Virtuti Militari.
Bolesław Wysłouch (1855–1937) was a Polish nobleman, peasant advocate, a socialist, a senator and co-establisher of the original Polish Peasants Party.
Bolesław-Jerzy II (1305/1310 – April 7, 1340) was a ruler of the Polish Piast dynasty who ruled the originally Ruthenian principality of Galicia.
Boleslaw, Bolesław, Boleslav or Boleslaus in Latin, is a male given name of Slavic origin meaning great glory.
The Border Protection Corps (Korpus Ochrony Pogranicza, KOP) was a Polish military formation that was created in 1924 to defend the country's eastern borders against armed Soviet incursions and local bandits.
Boris Anrep (Борис Васильевич Анреп) (born Boris Vasilyevich Anrep; 27 September 1883 – 7 June 1969) was a Russian mosaicist active in Britain, who devoted himself to the art of mosaic.
Boris Kozhin or Borys Kozhyn (Борис Борисович Кожин); 25 October 1944) is the former Commander of the Ukrainian Navy (April 1992 – October 1993). He became the first commander of the revived Ukrainian Navy. Borys Kozhyn was born in Pskov in 1944 in a family of the World War II veteran who was repressed in 1947 and convicted for 25 years, but in 1956 rehabilitated. In 1959 Kozhyn family moved to Lutsk where lived relatives of Borys Kozhyn's mother. Borys' mother herself is from a small of Pidhaitsi (historical region of Halychyna). Upon finishing school in 1961 Kozhyn worked as a mechanic at the Lutsk vehicle maintenance factory. In 1963 he became a champion of Volyn, a vice-champion of Ukraine in cycling and won a bronze medal of the Spartakiad of Peoples of the USSR in road bicycle racing, competition for which in the framework of the spartakiad was taking place in Ternopil. In 1968 Kozhyn graduated the Frunze Naval College in Leningrad with specialty "Antisubmarine armament" as an electrical engineer. Upon graduation (August 1968 - November 1971) he was placed as a commander assistant and commander of an anti-submarine boat PR-201 (predecessor of Poti-class corvette) (military unit 99724) that was part of the Black Sea Fleet division of ships carrying out security of water district (дивизия кораблей ОВР, divizia korablei OVR) in Sevastopol. During that period he also served as a commander assistant of a patrol ship (сторожевой корабль) PR-159 (Petya-class frigate) (military unit 20935) in Donuzlav. In 1971-72 Kozhyn was an academic auditor of the Naval higher special officership classes, Leningrad. In 1972-75 he was a commander of a patrol ship PR-159 in Donuzlav and after that a chief of staff for a brigade of minesweepers (military unit 34234), Black Sea Fleet Naval base in Donuzlav. In 1978-80 Kozhyn was an academic auditor of the Grechko Naval Academy in Leningrad. After that he was a commander of security brigade of water district (military unit 26977), Black Sea Fleet Naval base in Sevastopol. In 1986-92 he served as a chief of staff – commander assistant of the Black Sea Fleet Naval base (military unit 99324) in Donuzlav. During that period in 1987-88 Kozhyn was a member of the Crimean regional council. In February – April 1992 Kozhyn was a commander of the Black Sea Fleet Crimean Naval base (today Southern Naval base) in Donuzlav. On 1 December 1991, the Crimean Naval base voted for the Ukrainian independence referendum with 93% of approval for independence.
The Borshchiv Raion (translit. Borschivs’kyi raion) is a raion (a district within Ternopil Oblast (province) in western Ukraine, an area known as Galicia. The administrative center of the raion is Borshchiv.
Borshchovychi (Борщовичі, Barszczowice) is a village in Pustomyty Raion of Lviv Oblast in Ukraine.
Borys Mykolayovych Martos (May 20, 1879 – September 19, 1977) — Ukrainian politician, pedagogue, economist.
Bosutów is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Zielonki, within Kraków County, Lesser Poland Voivodeship, in southern Poland.
Sigwart Botho Philipp August zu Eulenburg, Count of Eulenburg (10 January 1884 in Munich – 2 June 1915 in Jasło) was the second son of Philip, Prince of Eulenburg (1847–1921) and his wife Auguste, born Countess of Sandels (1853–1941) and a German late romantic composer who fell in the First World War.
Boykos (Бойки, Bojkowie, Pujďáci), or simply Highlanders (verkhovyntsi) are a Ukrainian ethnographic group located in the Carpathian Mountains of Ukraine, Slovakia, Hungary, and Poland.
Branimir Altgayer (born either 8 November 1897 in Przekopane, Galicia; or 8 December 1897 in Kutjevo, Slavonia – died 15 May 1950 (or 15 May 1951) in Zagreb) was a German minority leader in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia and the Independent State of Croatia, and an SS officer during World War II.
Breeches are an article of clothing covering the body from the waist down, with separate coverings for each leg, usually stopping just below the knee, though in some cases reaching to the ankles.
The Broderzinger or Broder singers, from Brody in Ukraine, were Jewish itinerant performers in Austrian Galicia, Romania, and Russia, professional or semiprofessional songwriters and performers,http://www.yivoencyclopedia.org/printarticle.aspx?id.
Bronisław "Bronek" Czech (July 25, 1908 – June 4, 1944) was a Polish sportsman and artist.
Bronislav Gimpel (January 29, 1911 – May 1, 1979)The Penguin Dictionary of Musical Performers, by Arthur Jacobs, Viking, 1990, was a Polish-American violinist, and teacher.
Bronislau "Bronko" Nagurski (November 3, 1908 – January 7, 1990) was a Canadian-born American football player in the National Football League (NFL), renowned for his strength and size.
Bruno Olbrycht (nom de guerre: Olza; 6 October 1895 – 23 March 1951) was a soldier of the Austro-Hungarian Army and officer (later general) of the Polish Army both in the Second Polish Republic and postwar Poland.
The Brusilov Offensive (Брусиловский прорыв Brusilovskiĭ proryv, literally: "Brusilov's breakthrough"), also known as the "June Advance", of June to September 1916 was the Russian Empire’s greatest feat of arms during World War I, and among the most lethal offensives in world history.
Brzesko (בריגעל, Brigel) is a town in southern Poland, in Lesser Poland Voivodeship.
Brzeszcze is a town in Oświęcim County, Lesser Poland Voivodeship in southern Poland, near Oświęcim.
Brzozów (Березів, Bereziv; ברעזשוב Brezhov; lat. Brozovia, or Prozzow) is a town in south-eastern Poland, with 7,677 inhabitants (02.06.2009).
Buchach (Бучач; Buczacz; Betshotsh.or ביטשאטש (Bitshtosh); Buch'ach; Bucaş) is a town located on the Strypa River (a tributary of the Dniester) in Ternopil Oblast (province) of Western Ukraine.
The Budapest Turkish Memorial Cemetery (Budapeşte Türk Şehitliği) is a burial ground of Ottoman soldiers in Hungary.
Budowitz are a klezmer band incorporating 19th century instruments and themes from the folk music of Bessarabia, Galicia and Bukovina, into their music.
Benjamin "Bugsy" Siegel (February 28, 1906 – June 20, 1947) was an American mobster.
Buków is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Haczów, within Brzozów County, Subcarpathian Voivodeship, in south-eastern Poland.
Bukovina (Bucovina; Bukowina/Buchenland; Bukowina; Bukovina, Буковина Bukovyna; see also other languages) is a historical region in Central Europe,Klaus Peter Berger,, Kluwer Law International, 2010, p. 132 divided between Romania and Ukraine, located on the northern slopes of the central Eastern Carpathians and the adjoining plains.
The Bukovina Germans are a German ethnic group who had a noteworthy demographic presence (spanning from 1780 to 1940) in the historic Central European region of Bukovina, which is nowadays divided between northeastern Romania and western Ukraine.
Bukowina is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Ulanów, within Nisko County, Subcarpathian Voivodeship, in south-eastern Poland.
Bukowno is a town in Olkusz County, Lesser Poland Voivodeship, Poland, with 10,564 inhabitants (2008).
Bukowsko (בוקאווסק Bikofsk) is a village in Sanok County, Subcarpathian Voivodeship, Poland.
The Kingdom of Bulgaria participated in World War I on the side of the Central Powers from 14 October 1915, when the country declared war on Serbia, until 30 September 1918, when the Armistice of Thessalonica came into effect.
Busk (Буськ; Busk) is a city located in Busk Raion in Lviv Oblast (region) of western Ukraine.
Bydgoszcz Canal (Bromberger Kanal) is a canal, 24.7 km long, between the cities of Bydgoszcz and Nakło in Poland, connecting Vistula river with Oder river, through Brda and Noteć rivers (the latter ending in the Warta river which itself ends in Oder).
The Byzantine army of the Komnenian era or Komnenian army was the force established by Byzantine emperor Alexios I Komnenos during the late 11th/early 12th century, and perfected by his successors John II Komnenos and Manuel I Komnenos during the 12th century.
Byzantine Rite Christianity in Canada refers to all Eastern Orthodox, Eastern Catholic, and independent groups in Canada who use the Byzantine Rite.
Calder is a village within the Rural Municipality of Calder No. 241, Saskatchewan, Canada.
Call It Sleep is a 1934 novel by Henry Roth.
Canadian Ukrainian is a dialect of the Ukrainian language specific to the Ukrainian Canadian community descended from the first two waves of historical Ukrainian emigration to Western Canada.
Carl Rubin (24 June 1899–7 February 1955) was an Israeli architect known for his work in the international style.
Carlo Sigmund Taube (born 4 July 1897 in Galicia, died 1 October 1944 in Auschwitz-Birkenau) was a pianist, composer, conductor, and victim of the Holocaust.
The Carpathian Mountains or Carpathians are a mountain range system forming an arc roughly long across Central and Eastern Europe, making them the second-longest mountain range in Europe (after the Scandinavian Mountains). They provide the habitat for the largest European populations of brown bears, wolves, chamois, and lynxes, with the highest concentration in Romania, as well as over one third of all European plant species.
Carpathian Ruthenia, Carpatho-Ukraine or Zakarpattia (Rusyn and Карпатська Русь, Karpats'ka Rus' or Закарпаття, Zakarpattja; Slovak and Podkarpatská Rus; Kárpátalja; Transcarpatia; Zakarpacie; Karpatenukraine) is a historic region in the border between Central and Eastern Europe, mostly located in western Ukraine's Zakarpattia Oblast, with smaller parts in easternmost Slovakia (largely in Prešov Region and Košice Region) and Poland's Lemkovyna.
The Carpathian Sich were irregular soldiers of the short-lived state of Carpatho-Ukraine.
Carpatho-Ukraine (Карпа́тська Украї́на, Karpats’ka Ukrayina) was an autonomous region within Czechoslovakia from late 1938 to March 15, 1939.
Castle Risk is a version of the board game Risk that is played on a map of Europe.
The Catholic People's Party (Stronnictwo Katolicko-Ludowe, SKL) was a political party in Poland.
The causes of the Franco-Prussian War are deeply rooted in the events surrounding the German unification.
In the Polish–Soviet War of 1919-1921, Soviet Russia and Soviet Ukraine were in combat with the newly independent Second Polish Republic and the Ukrainian People's Republic.
Cebularz, originating from Jewish cuisine, is a wheat dough pancake, with a diameter of 15-20 cm, topped with diced onion and poppy seed (15-20%), characteristic for Lublin cuisine.
Cec Linder (March 10, 1921 – April 10, 1992) was a Polish-born Canadian film and television actor.
Cypra Cecilia Krieger-Dunaij (9 April 1894 – 17 August 1974) was an Austro-Hungarian (more specifically, Galician)-born mathematician of Jewish ancestry who lived and worked in Canada.
The Cemetery of the Defenders of Lwów (Cmentarz Obrońców Lwowa, Cmentarz Orląt, Cemetery of Eaglets, Orlat Cemetery) is a memorial and a burial place for the Poles and their allies who died in Lviv (Lwów) during the hostilities of the Polish-Ukrainian War and Polish-Soviet War between 1918 and 1920.
The Center for Policy Studies in Ukraine (Центр дослідження політики в Україні) is a non-governmental think tank in Ukraine, headquartered in Lviv.
Central Europe is the region comprising the central part of Europe.
The Centro Israelita do Paraná (Israeli Center of Paraná) is the main gathering place for Jews in the city of Curitiba, Brazil.
Chaim Elozor WaxAlso spelled Waks or Wachs.
Chaim Gross (March 17, 1904 – May 5, 1991) was an American sculptor and educator.
Chaim Levanon (1899–1986; חיים לבנון) was a Polish-born Israeli politician and mayor of Tel Aviv between 13 April 1953 and 1959.
Chaim Yisroel Eiss (חיים ישראל אייז) (1876-1943) was an Agudath Israel activist and writer.
Chaim Zhitlowsky (Yiddish: חײם זשיטלאָװסקי; Хаим Осипович Житловский) (April 19, 1865 - May 6, 1943) was a Jewish socialist, philosopher, social and political thinker, writer and literary critic born in Ushachy, Vitebsk Governorate, Russian Empire (present-day Usachy Raion, Vitebsk Region, Belarus).
Rabbi Chanoch Dov Padwa (17 August 1908 – 16 August 2000) was a world-renowned Orthodox Jewish posek, Talmudist and rabbinic leader.
Chararic or Chararich was the King of Galicia (c. 550 – 558/559) according to Gregory of Tours, who is the only primary source for a Suevic king of this name.
Charles Eugène of Lorraine (25 September 1751 – 2 November 1825) was the head of and last male member of the House of Guise, the cadet branch of the House of Lorraine which dominated France during the Wars of Religion, remained prominent as princes étrangers at court throughout the ancien régime, and participated in the émigré efforts to restore the Bourbons to the throne.
Chłopiatyn is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Dołhobyczów, within Hrubieszów County, Lublin Voivodeship, in eastern Poland, close to the border with Ukraine.
Chłopomania or Khlopomanstvo (Хлопоманство) are historical and literary terms inspired by the Young Poland modernist movement and the Ukrainian Hromady.
Chełm Land (ziemia chełmska or Chełmszczyzna, Холмщина) is a historic region (ziemia) of eastern Poland and the adjacent areas of present-day Ukraine and Belarus.
Chełmek is a town in Lesser Poland Voivodeship in southern Poland.
Cheremkhiv (Черемхів, טשערעמכיוו, Czeremchów), is a village in Kolomyia Raion in the Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast (province) of Ukraine.
The Cheremosh River is a river in western Ukraine, right-bank tributary of the river Prut.
Cheremosh Ukrainian Dance Company (Український Танцювалний Ансамбль "Черемош"., translit. Ukrayinskiy Tantsyuvalniy Ansambl "Cheremosh") is a Ukrainian dance company based in Edmonton, Alberta and a leader of Ukrainian dance in Canada.
Chernivtsi (Černivci; see also other names) is a city in western Ukraine, situated on the upper course of the River Prut.
Chernivtsi Oblast (Чернівецька область, Černivećka oblasť, Regiunea Cernăuți) is an oblast (province) in western Ukraine, consisting of the northern parts of the regions of Bukovina and Bessarabia.
The chief justiceFallenbüchl 1988, p. 147.
Chołodecki (variously spelled as Cholodecki, Hołodecki, Holodecki) is the Polish surname of one of the noble (szlachta) families.
Chortkov (also Chortkow, Tshortkov, Czortkow) is a Hasidic dynasty that originated in Chortkov (Czortków), present-day Ukraine.
The Christian Social Movement in Ukraine was a political movement that existed in Western Ukraine from the end of the 19th century until the 1930s.
The Chronicle of Huru (Cronica lui Huru) was a forged narrative, first published in 1856-1857; it claimed to be an official chronicle of the medieval Moldavian court and to shed light on Romanian presence in Moldavia from Roman Dacia and up to the 13th century, thus offering an explanation of problematic issues relating to the origin of the Romanians and Romanian history in the Dark Ages.
Charles Ellis Schumer (born November 23, 1950) is an American politician of the Democratic Party serving as the senior United States Senator from New York, a seat he was first elected to in 1998.
Chumak (чумак) is a historic occupation on the territory of modern Ukraine as merchants or traders, primarily known for the trade in salt.
The Church of Nativity of the Theotokos – is a historic Greek Catholic chrurch in Sambir city.
The Church of the Nativity in Opočno, Czech Republic, is a Roman Catholic church located on Kupka's Square.
Chwałowice is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Radomyśl nad Sanem, within Stalowa Wola County, Subcarpathian Voivodeship, in south-eastern Poland.
Chyże is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Bełżec, within Tomaszów Lubelski County, Lublin Voivodeship, in eastern Poland.
Ciężkowice (Hardenberg) is a town in Tarnów County, Lesser Poland Voivodeship, Poland, with 4,322 inhabitants (2010).
Cisleithania (Cisleithanien, also Zisleithanien, Ciszlajtánia, Předlitavsko, Predlitavsko, Przedlitawia, Cislajtanija, Цислајтанија, Cislajtanija, Cisleithania, Цислейтанія, transliterated: Tsysleitàniia, Cisleitania) was a common yet unofficial denotation of the northern and western part of Austria-Hungary, the Dual Monarchy created in the Compromise of 1867—as distinguished from Transleithania, i.e. the Hungarian Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen east of ("beyond") the Leitha River.
A civil code is a systematic collection of laws designed to deal with the core areas of private law such as for dealing with business and negligence lawsuits and practices.
Clan Ostoja (ancient Polish: Ostoya) was a powerful group of knights and lords in late-medieval Europe.
Clara Young (born Khaya-Risye Shpikolitser c. 1882 in Zlotshev, Galicia) was a Yiddish theatrical actor.
Coal mining regions are significant resource extraction industries in many parts of the world.
The coat of arms of the city of Lviv features a golden lion beneath a city gate in a blue field.
The state coat of arms of Ukraine (Державний Герб України Derzhavniy Herb Ukrayini), officially referred to as the Sign of Princely State of Volodymyr the Great (Constitution of Ukraine, Article 20) or commonly the Tryzub (Тризуб, "trident") is the national coat of arms of Ukraine, featuring the same colors found on the Ukrainian flag; a blue shield with a gold pitchfork.
Colonel Redl (Oberst Redl (original title); Redl ezredes) is a 1985 drama film by Hungarian director István Szabó.
The Commission for the Study of the Tribal Composition of the Population of the Borderlands of Russia (Комиссия по изучению племенного состава населения России и сопредельных стран, shortened to КИПС, KIPS) was set up in February 1917 by Sergey Oldenburg under the auspices of the Russian Academy of Sciences.
The Common Army (Gemeinsame Armee), as it was officially designated by the Imperial and Royal Military Administration, was the largest part of the Austro-Hungarian land forces from 1867 to 1914, the other two elements being the Imperial-Royal Landwehr (of Austria) and the Royal Hungarian Landwehr (or Magyar Királyi Honvédség, colloquially the Honved).
The Constitutional Democratic Party (Конституционно-демократическая партия, Konstitutsionno-Demokraticheskaya Partiya), also called Constitutional Democrats, formally Party of People's Freedom, was a liberal political party in the Russian Empire, encompassing constitutional monarchists and right-wing republicans.
In the Lviv pogroms of June and July 1941, during World War II, an estimated 4,000–9,000 people were killed within the space of one month in Lviv (also known as Lwów or Lvov), many of them Polish Jews.
The Conversion of Chełm Eparchy, which occurred from January to May 1875, refers to the generally forced conversion of the last Uniate Eparchy in the Russian Empire, which was centered in the Volhynian city of Chełm (Kholm), to the Orthodox faith.
Corneliu Zelea Codreanu (born Corneliu Zelinski; September 13, 1899 – November 30, 1938), commonly known as Corneliu Codreanu, was a Romanian politician who was the founder and charismatic leader of the Iron Guard (also known as the Legionnaire movement), an ultranationalistic and antisemitic organization active throughout most of the interwar period.
Adolphe de WerdinskyAlso written as: Adolph, Werdinskey; Werdinski; Wardinski; Wordenskoi; Werdenskoi (1803–1856) was a central European, according to accounts written at his death, a displaced Polish nobleman, who had served under Józef Bem and was subsequently exiled.
Count Karl Sigmund von Hohenwart (Karl Graf von Hohenwart) (February 12, 1824 in Vienna – April 26, 1899) was an Austrian politician who served as Minister-President of Austria in 1871.
The Crimean Karaites or Krymkaraylar (Crimean Karaim: Кърымкъарайлар sg. къарай – qaray; Trakai Karaim: sg. karaj, pl. karajlar; קראי מזרח אירופה; Karaylar), also known as Karaims and Qarays, are an ethnic group derived from Turkic-speaking adherents of Karaite Judaism in Central and Eastern Europe, especially in the territory of the former Russian Empire.
The Crimean-Nogai raids were slave raids carried out by the Khanate of Crimea and by the Nogai Horde into the region of Rus' then controlled by the Grand Duchy of Moscow (until 1547), by the Tsardom of Russia (1547-1721), by the Russian Empire (1721 onwards) and by the Grand Duchy of Lithuania (part of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth from 1569).
The Triune Kingdom was part of Austria-Hungary during World War I. Its territory was administratively divided between the Austrian and Hungarian parts of the empire; Međimurje and Baranja were in the Hungarian part (Transleithania), the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia was a separate entity associated with the Hungarian Kingdom, Dalmatia and Istria were in the Austrian part (Cisleithania), while the town of Rijeka had semi-autonomous status.
Croatia–Russia relations (Российско-хорватские отношения, Rusko-hrvatski odnosi) refer to bilateral foreign relations between Croatia and Russia.
Curitiba (Tupi: "Pine Nut Land") is the capital and largest city of the Brazilian state of Paraná.
The history of the Curzon Line, with minor variations, goes back to the period following World War I. It was drawn for the first time by the Supreme War Council as the demarcation line between the newly emerging states, the Second Polish Republic, and the Soviet Union.
Resovia Rzeszow is a Polish sports (football, volleyball and basketball) club, based in Rzeszów, Poland.
Cyril Ivanovich Genik (Кирило Іванович Геник, 1857 – February 12, 1925) was a Ukrainian-Canadian immigration agent.
Cyril Sielecki (29 April 1835 28 April 1918), first name also spelled Cyryl, was a Polish priest of the Greek Catholic Diocese of Przemyśl, and an educational and social activist.
Czapka (plural: czapki) is a Polish and Belarusian generic word for a cap.
Czartoryski-Schlössel (Schlössel is roughly translatable as "small palace") was a palace called Weinhaus in the Währing district of Vienna, Austria.
Czaszyn (Чашин, Chashyn) is a Polish village in the Sanok County in the East Małopolska in the Lesser Beskid mountains.
Czchów (טשיכוב-Chekhoiv, Weißenkirchen) is a town in Brzesko County, Lesser Poland Voivodeship, Poland, with 2,205 inhabitants (2004).
Czerna is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Krzeszowice, within Kraków County, Lesser Poland Voivodeship, in southern Poland.
Czudec is a town in Strzyżów County, Subcarpathian Voivodeship, in south-eastern Poland.
Czulice is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Kocmyrzów-Luborzyca, within Kraków County, Lesser Poland Voivodeship, in southern Poland.
Czyżówka is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Trzebinia, within Chrzanów County, Lesser Poland Voivodeship, in southern Poland.
The Dacian bracelets are bracelets associated with the ancient people known as the Dacians, a distinct branch of the Thracians.
The Dacians (Daci; loc Δάοι, Δάκαι) were an Indo-European people, part of or related to the Thracians.
Dagobert Sigismund, Count von Wurmser (7 May 1724 – 22 August 1797) was an Austrian field marshal during the French Revolutionary Wars.
Daniel Auster (דניאל אוסטר ‎, 7 May 1893 – 15 January 1963) was Mayor of Jerusalem in the final years of Mandatory Palestine, the first Jewish mayor of the city, and the first mayor of Jerusalem after Israeli independence.
Daniel of Galicia (Данило Романович (Галицький): Danylo Romanovych (Halytskyi); Old Ruthenian: Данило Романовичъ: Danylo Romanovyčъ; Daniel I Romanowicz Halicki; 1201 – 1264) was a King of Ruthenia, Prince (Knyaz) of Galicia (Halych) (1205–1255), Peremyshl (1211), and Volodymyr (1212–1231).
Danuta Szaflarska (6 February 1915 – 19 February 2017) was a Polish screen and stage actress.
Danylo Lavrentiyovych Shumuk (December 30, 1914 in village Boremschyna, Russian Empire, now in Volyn Oblast, Ukraine – May 21, 2004 in Krasnoarmiisk, Ukraine) was a Ukrainian political activist who served a total of 42 years imprisoned by three different states, Second Polish Republic, Nazi Germany and Soviet Union.
David Heinrich Müller (born 6 July 1846 in Buczacz, Galicia; died 21 December 1912 in Vienna, Austria) was an Austrian orientalist.
David Horowitz Bank of Israel – Previous Governors – David Horowitz.
David Meir Frisch (c. 1812-April 25, 1882) was a 19th-century rabbinical authority.
David Tuviyahu (1898–1975) was the first mayor of the Israeli city of Beersheba.
David Wallach (born January 23, 1946) is a full professor at the Department of Biological Chemistry at Weizmann Institute of Science, Israel, laureate of the 2014 Emet Prize for Life Sciences.
David Joseph Wijnkoop (11 March 1876 – 7 May 1941) was a Dutch communist leader in the first half of the twentieth century.
Dąbrowa Tarnowska is a town in Poland, in Lesser Poland Voivodeship, about north of Tarnów.
Dąbrowica (Дубровиця, Dubrovytsia) is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Ulanów, within Nisko County, Subcarpathian Voivodeship, in south-eastern Poland.
Dębowiec is a village in Jasło County, Subcarpathian Voivodeship, in south-eastern Poland.
Debora Vogel (1902 – 1942) was a Polish philosopher and poet.
The following events occurred in December 1914.
Delatyn (Делятин, Delatyn, דעלאטין) is an urban-type settlement in Nadvirna Raion (district) of Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast (region) of Ukraine.
The Denisko uprising, named after Joachim Denisko, was the first Polish rebellion after the failed Kosciuszko Uprising.
Desloch is an Ortsgemeinde – a municipality belonging to a Verbandsgemeinde, a kind of collective municipality – in the Bad Kreuznach district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.
Destruction battalions, colloquially istrebitels (истребители, "destroyers", "exterminators") abbreviated: istrebki (Russian), strybki (Ukrainian) were paramilitary units under the control of NKVD in the western Soviet Union, which performed tasks of internal security on the Eastern Front and after it.
Det 20de Århundre ("The Twentieth Century") was a periodical published by the Norwegian Labour Party.
Administrative divisions development in Ukraine reviews the history of changes in the administrative divisions of Ukraine, in chronological order.
The Devil's Footprints was a phenomenon that occurred during February 1855 around the Exe Estuary in East and South Devon, England.
Dezerter, founded as SS-20 in May 1981 in Warsaw, is one of the most popular punk bands from Poland.
Dezső Kolossváry de Kolosvár (or Desiderius Kolossváry de Kolosvar) (1 May 1854 – 5 April 1919) was a Hungarian military officer in the Austro-Hungarian service and (briefly) a politician.
The Diet of the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, and of the Grand Duchy of Cracow was the regional assembly of the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, a crown land of the Austrian Empire, and later Austria-Hungary.
Dinov (דינאָוו, דינוב) is the name of a Hasidic dynasty, descended from Rabbi Tzvi Elimelech Spira of Dinov (– 1841), also called "the Bnei Yisaschar" after his popular work:.
The Diplomatic history of World War I covers the non-military interactions among the major players during World War I. For the domestic histories see Home front during World War I. For a longer-term perspective see International relations of the Great Powers (1814–1919) and Causes of World War I. For the following era see International relations (1919–1939).
The Directorate, or Directory (Dyrektoriya) was a provisional collegiate revolutionary state committee of the Ukrainian People's Republic, initially formed on November 13–14, 1918 during a session of the Ukrainian National Union in rebellion against Skoropadsky's regime.
Dirmstein is an Ortsgemeinde – a municipality belonging to a Verbandsgemeinde, a kind of collective municipality – in the Bad Dürkheim district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.
Displaced persons camps in post-World War II Europe were camps established after World War II in Germany, Austria, and Italy, primarily for refugees from Eastern Europe and for the former inmates of the Nazi German concentration camps.
The city of Kraków is divided into 18 administrative districts, each with a degree of autonomy within the municipal government.
Divided regions are transnational regions, islands, etc.
Dmytro Dedko (Demetrius Dedko, Дмитро Дедько) was a Lord of Ruthenia in 1340 (1323) – 1349.
Dmytro Ivanovych Dontsov (Дмитро Іванович Донцов) (August 29, 1883 – March 30, 1973) was a Ukrainian nationalist writer, publisher, journalist and political thinker whose radical ideas were a major influence on the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists.
Dmytro Doroshenko (Дмитро Іванович Дорошенко, Dmytro Ivanovych Doroshenko, Дми́трий Ива́нович Дороше́нко; 8 April 1882 – 19 March 1951) was a prominent Ukrainian political figure during the revolution of 1917–1918 and a leading Ukrainian emigre historian during the inter-war period.
Dmytro Hrytsai (a.k.a. "Perebyinis"; Ukrainian: Дмитрó Грицáй-Переб́ийніс; Dorozhiv, Galicia, 1 April 1907 – 22 December 1945, Prague, Czechoslovakia) was a leader in the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists and a general in the Ukrainian Insurgent Army.
Dmytro Klyachkivsky (Клячківський Дмитро (Роман); 4 November 1911 - 12 February 1945), also known by his pseudonyms Klym Savur, Okhrim, and Bilash, was a commander of the Ukrainian Insurgent Army (UPA), first head-commander of the UPA-North.
Dmytro Tabachnyk (Дмитро Володимирович Табачник,; born November 26, 1963) is a Ukrainian politician, and former science and education minister of Ukraine.
Dmytro Vitovsky (Дмитро Вітовський) (8 November 1887, Medukha, Stanislau powiat, Galicia and Lodomeria, Austro-Hungary – 8 July 1919, Racibórz, Silesia, Germany) was a Ukrainian politician and military leader.
Dobczyce is a town in southern Poland, situated since 1999 in the Lesser Poland Voivodeship (previously in Kraków Voivodeship from 1975 to 1998).
Dobrómyl’ (Добро́миль, Dobromil) is a city in Staryi Sambir Raion, Lviv Oblast, Ukraine.
Doctor Zhivagois a novel by Boris Pasternak, first published in 1957 in Italy.
Rabbi Dov Baer ben Avraham of Mezeritch (דֹּב בֶּר מִמֶּזְרִיטְשְׁ) (died December 1772 OS), also known as the Maggid of Mezritch, was a disciple of Rabbi Yisrael Baal Shem Tov, the founder of Hasidic Judaism, and was chosen as his successor to lead the early movement.
Rabbi Dov Berish Weidenfeld (1881–1965) was the Chief Rabbi of Tshebin (Trzebinia), Poland, and after World War II spent his final years in Jerusalem.
Dov Sadan (דב סדן, born on 21 February 1902, died 14 October 1989) was an Israeli literary critic and politician who served as a member of the Knesset for the Alignment between 1965 and 1968.
Dragoljub "Draža" Mihailović (Драгољуб Дража Михаиловић, known to his supporters as Uncle Draža (Чича Дража / Čiča Draža; 27 April 1893 – 17 July 1946), was a Yugoslav Serb general during World War II. A staunch royalist, he retreated to the mountains near Belgrade when the Germans overran Yugoslavia in April 1941 and there he organized bands of guerrillas known as the Chetnik Detachments of the Yugoslav Army. The organisation is commonly known as the Chetniks, although the name of the organisation was later changed to the Yugoslav Army in the Homeland (JVUO, ЈВУО). Founded as the first Yugoslav resistance movement, it was royalist and nationalist, as opposed to the other, Josip Broz Tito's Partisans who were communist. Initially, the two groups operated in parallel, but by late 1941 began fighting each other in the attempt to gain control of post-war Yugoslavia. Many Chetnik groups collaborated or established modus vivendi with the Axis powers. Mihailović himself collaborated with Milan Nedić and Dimitrije Ljotić at the end of the war. After the war, Mihailović was captured by the communists. He was tried and convicted of high treason and war crimes by the communist authorities of the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia, and executed by firing squad in Belgrade. The nature and extent of his responsibility for collaboration and ethnic massacres remains controversial. On 14 May 2015, Mihailović was rehabilitated after a ruling by the Supreme Court of Cassation, the highest appellate court in Serbia.
Dragomirești (Dragomérfalva; דראגאמירעשט) is a town in Maramureș County, Romania.
Drahomanivka (драгоманівка) was a proposed reform of the Ukrainian alphabet and orthography, promoted by Mykhailo Drahomanov.
Dušan Jurkovič (August 23, 1868 – December 21, 1947) was a Slovak architect, ethnographer and artist.
Dubie is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Krzeszowice, within Kraków County, Lesser Poland Voivodeship, in southern Poland.
The Duchy of Bukovina was a constituent land of the Austrian Empire from 1849 and a Cisleithanian crown land of Austria–Hungary from 1867 until 1918.
The Duchy of Warsaw (Księstwo Warszawskie, Duché de Varsovie, Herzogtum Warschau) was a Polish state established by Napoleon I in 1807 from the Polish lands ceded by the Kingdom of Prussia under the terms of the Treaties of Tilsit.
Below is list of Dutch language exonyms for places in non-Dutch-speaking areas of Europe.
The Dyje–Svratka Valley (Czech: Dyjsko-svratecký úval, Thaya-Schwarza Talsenke, Dyjsko-svratecký úval) is a geomorphological feature (specifically a special type of vale) in Moravia (The Czech Republic). The highest prominence over the Dyje–Svratka Valley is Děvín Peak at.
Dyniska is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Ulhówek, within Tomaszów Lubelski County, Lublin Voivodeship, in eastern Poland, close to the border with Ukraine.
Dziekanowice is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Zielonki, within Kraków County, Lesser Poland Voivodeship, in southern Poland.
The early Slavs were a diverse group of tribal societies who lived during the Migration Period and Early Middle Ages (approximately the 5th to the 10th centuries) in Eastern Europe and established the foundations for the Slavic nations through the Slavic states of the High Middle Ages.
Eastern Galicia, or Eastern Halychyna (Східна Галичина) is a geographical region in Western Ukraine (present day oblasts of Lviv, Ivano-Frankivsk and Ternopil) and Poland that has historic importance.
Edgar Chaim Baruch Gluck (born June 14, 1936, Hamburg, Germany) is a Chief Rabbi of Galicia (Central-Eastern Europe).
Edmond Wilhelm Brillant the Levi (אדמונד וילהלם ברילנט; 1916–2004) was a Polish-born Israeli naval architect, Hagana member, among the founding fathers of the Israeli navy and was notable for assisting the Israeli Merchant Marine in several major projects, including the nations' first passenger liner, through the ZIM Navigation company, now Zim Integrated Shipping Services.
Edmund Kalikst Eugeniusz Charaszkiewicz (Poniec, 14 October 1895 – 22 December 1975, London) was a Polish military intelligence officer who specialized in clandestine warfare.
Edmund Franciszek Maurycy Chojecki (Wiski, Podlasie, 15 October 1822 – 1 December 1899, Paris) was a Polish journalist, playwright, novelist, poet and translator.
Edmund Cieczkiewicz (1872-1958) was a Polish painter and graphic designer.
The Edna-Star colony, also called the Nebyliv colony, or the Ukrainian block settlement is the largest and oldest of the Ukrainian Canadian block settlements.
Eduard Bitterlich (17 August 1833, Stupnicka, or Dubliany, Galicia, now Ukraine - 20 May 1872, Pfalzau, now part of Pressbaum), was an Austrian artist.
Eduard Freiherr von Böhm-Ermolli (12 February 1856 – 9 December 1941) was an Austrian general during World War I who rose to the rank of field marshal in the Austro-Hungarian Army.
Eduardo de Zulueta y Dato (born 4 December 1923) is a Spanish Diplomat.
Compulsory education in Poland starts at the age of six from the mandatory "0" reception class (Polish zerówka or klasa 0, literally Year 0).
Edward O'Rourke, full name Eduard Alexander Ladislaus Graf (Count) O'Rourke (Edward Aleksander Władysław O'Rourke; October 26, 1876 in Minsk – June 27, 1943) was a Roman Catholic priest, bishop of Riga and the first head of the bishopric of the Free City of Danzig (Gdańsk).
Marshal Edward Rydz-Śmigły (11 March 1886 – 2 December 1941; nom de guerre Śmigły, Tarłowski, Adam Zawisza), also called Edward Śmigły-Rydz, was a Polish politician, statesman, Marshal of Poland and Commander-in-Chief of Poland's armed forces, as well as painter and poet.
The Eighth Army of the Ottoman Empire (Turkish: Sekizinci Ordu) was one of the field armies of the Ottoman Army.
"Electron" Corporation (Концерн-Електрон) is a diversified, public company and a legal entity in Ukraine, with more than 20 thousand shareholders.
Eliezer Adler, born in 1866, was the founder of the Jewish Community in Gateshead, England.
Eliezer ben Nathan of Mainz (1090–1170), or Ra'aven, was a halakist and liturgical poet.
Eligiusz Niewiadomski (December 1, 1869 in Warsaw – January 31, 1923 in Warsaw) was a Polish modernist painter and art critic who belonged to the right-wing National Democratic Party till 1904 and later continued supporting it.
Elimelech Weisblum of Lizhensk (1717–March 11, 1787), a Rabbi and one of the great founding Rebbes of the Hasidic movement, was known after his hometown, Leżajsk (translit) near Rzeszów in Poland.
Rabbi Dr Elimelekh-Shimon Rimalt (אלימלך-שמעון רימלט, born 1 November 1907, died 5 November 1987) was a Zionist activist and Israeli politician.
Emanuel Ringelblum (November 21, 1900 – March 7, 1944) was a Polish-Jewish historian, politician and social worker, known for his Notes from the Warsaw Ghetto, Notes on the Refugees in Zbąszyn chronicling the deportation of Jews from the town of Zbąszyń, and the so-called Ringelblum's Archives of the Warsaw Ghetto.
Emeric (I) Bebek (Bebek (I.) Imre, Emerik Bubek; died 1395) was a Hungarian powerful baron, who rose to prominence during the last regnal years of King Louis I of Hungary.
Emil Byk (born January 14, 1845, at Janów (now Dolyna), nearby Trembowla (Terebovlia), in Austrian Galicia (now Ukraine) - 1906) was a Polish-Austrian-Jewish lawyer and deputy.
Emil Korytko (7 September 1813 – 31 January 1839) was a Polish political activist in the period of the Great Emigration, who was exiled to Ljubljana, Carniola (now Slovenia) and became an important ethnographer, philologist and translator there.
Emil Leeb (17 June 1881 – 8 September 1969) was a Bavarian-German general who saw active service during both World Wars.
Emil Rebreanu (December 17, 1891 – May 14, 1917) was an Austro-Hungarian Romanian military officer executed during World War I. The protagonist in Forest of the Hanged, a 1922 novel by his brother Liviu Rebreanu, is influenced by his experience.
Emil Ernst August Tietze (15 June 1845, Breslau – 4 March 1931, Vienna) was an Austrian geologist.
The Ems Ukaz, or Ems Ukase (Эмский указ, Emskiy ukaz; Емський указ, Ems’kyy ukaz), was a secret decree (ukaz) of Tsar Alexander II of Russia issued in 1876, banning the use of the Ukrainian language in print, with the exception of reprinting of old documents.
An English exonym is a name in the English language for a place (a toponym), or occasionally other terms, which does not follow the local usage (the endonym).
Ephraim Avigdor Speiser (January 24, 1902 – June 15, 1965) was a Jewish Polish-born American Assyriologist.
Ephraim Moses Lilien (1874–1925) was an art nouveau illustrator and printmaker particularly noted for his art on Jewish themes.
Erazm Józef Jerzmanowski h. Dołęga (2 June 1844 – 7 February 1909) was an industrialist, philanthropist and patron of art, soldier, who took part in the January Uprising of 1863-1865.
Eric Richard Kandel (born November 7, 1929) is an Austrian-American neuroscientist and a University Professor of biochemistry and biophysics at the College of Physicians and Surgeons at Columbia University.
Erich Friedrich Wilhelm Ludendorff (9 April 1865 – 20 December 1937) was a German general, the victor of the Battle of Liège and the Battle of Tannenberg.
Ernst Paul (1897–1978) was a Sudeten German Social Democratic politician and journalist.
Ernst Reicher (19 September 1885 – 1 May 1936) was a German-Jewish actor, screenwriter, film producer and film director of the silent era.
Ernst Schlange (September 1, 1888 – † 1947) was a Nazi German politician, Gauleiter of Berlin-Brandenburg and a member of the Prussian Landtag.
Esther Bick, née Esteza Lifsza Wander (1902–1983), born in Przemyśl, Galicia, Poland (then part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire), was a physician and child psychoanalyst who had a profound influence on the development of child psychotherapy in England.
The ethno-linguistic composition of Austria-Hungary according to the census of 31 December 1910 was as follows.
Eudoxiu Hurmuzachi (also spelled Eudoxiu Hurmuzache; Eudoxius Freiherr von Hormuzaki) (September 29, 1812, Czernawka (Cernăuca), Austria; February 10, 1874, Czernowitz (Cernăuți), Austria, buried in Dulcești, (Neamț County), Principality of Moldavia) was a Romanian historian, politician (Landeshauptmann of the Duchy of Bucovina) and patriot.
Eugen Binder von Krieglstein (July 6, 1873 – September 17, 1914) was an Austrian journalist, war correspondent and travel writer; he sometimes used the pen names of Eugen Krieglstein or Eugen Binder-Krieglstein.
Yevgeny Bolkhovitinov (Евгений Болховитинов; 1767–1837) was the Orthodox Metropolitan of Kiev and Galicia from 1822.
Eugene Salamin (26 April 19121 April 2009) was a Polish-American painter.
Prince Eustachy Stanisław Sanguszko (28 August 1842 – 2 April 1903) was a Polish noble (szlachcic), conservative politician.
Fabius Mieses (31 October 1824 - 10 October 1898) was a Galician litterateur and philosopher.
Facing the Modern: The Portrait in Vienna 1900 was an exhibition at the National Gallery, London, running from 9 October 2013 through to 12 January 2014.
Faculty of Law and Administration is the oldest unit of the Jagiellonian University.
The family of Gediminas is a group of family members of Gediminas, Grand Duke of Lithuania (ca. 1275–1341), who interacted in the 14th century.
Famines in Galicia were a common occurrence, particularly in the mid to late 19th century, as Galicia became heavily overpopulated.
For the club that originally started playing Morshyn and now plays in Stryi refer to FC Skala Stryi (2004). FC Skala Stryi is a Ukrainian football team.
Feliks Hilary Ludwik Michał Sobański (born 11 January 1833 nr. Hajsyn Podolia - died 29 November 1913 Paris) was a Polish landowner, social activist, supporter of the arts and philanthropist.
Filaret Mykhailovych Kolessa (Філарет Михайлович Колесса) (1871 – February 4, 1947) was a Ukrainian ethnographer, folklorist, composer, musicologist and literary critic.
The First Aliyah (Hebrew: העלייה הראשונה, HaAliyah HaRishona), also known as the agriculture Aliyah, is a term used to describe a major wave of Zionist immigration (aliyah) to Palestine between 1882 and 1903.
The First Battle of the Masurian Lakes was a German offensive in the Eastern Front during the early stages of World War I. It pushed the Russian First Army back across its entire front, eventually ejecting it from Germany.
First Narayever Congregation is a traditional-egalitarian synagogue located at 187 Brunswick Avenue, near The Annex neighbourhood of Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
The First Vienna Award was a treaty signed on November 2, 1938, as a result of the First Vienna Arbitration.
The flag of Ukraine is a banner of two equally sized horizontal bands of blue and yellow (Constitution of Ukraine, Article 20).
Florence Farmborough FRGS (Aylesbury, Buckinghamshire, 15 April 1887 – 18 August 1978, Marple, Greater Manchester) was an author, photographer, nurse, teacher and university lecturer.
Florence Ina MacDowell (c.1870s – 25 April 1939) was an Australian nurse who served in World War I.
The foot (feet; abbreviation: ft; symbol: ′, the prime symbol) is a unit of length in the imperial and US customary systems of measurement.
Football is the number one sport in Ukraine as in most of Europe.
This article gives a detailed listing of all the countries, including puppet states, that have existed in Europe since the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to the present day.
Tustan was a Medieval cliff-side fortress-city and customs site of the 9th—16th centuries, an Old Rus cliff-side defensive complex.
Fortunat Joseph Strowski de Robkowa (16 May 1866 – 11 July 1952) was a French literary historian, essayist and critic.
Fradl Shtok (also Fradel Stock, 1888 – 1952?)Kenvin, Helene.
France Prešeren (2 or 3 December 1800 – 8 February 1849) was a 19th-century Romantic Slovene poet, best known as the poet who has inspired virtually all later Slovene literature and has been generally acknowledged as the greatest Slovene classical author.
Franciszek Fornalski (1781-1863) was a Polish soldier during Napoleonic Wars, chevalier of French Legion d'honneur and Polish Virtuti Militari.
Franciszek Siarczyński (1758–1829) was a Polish Roman Catholic priest, member of the Piarist religious order, historian, geographer, teacher, writer and publicist.
Franciszek Tomasz Tepa (17 September 1829, Lwów - 23 December 1889, Lwów) was a Polish mid-19th century realist painter who specialized in portraits and Orientalist themes.
Frank Taffel (né Shrage Fyvel Tafel, Krystynopol, then Galicia, Austria-Hungary, now Chervonohrad, Ukraine, March 10, 1877; died 7 July 1947, Savannah, Georgia, age 70) was a journalist, a founder of Congregation Beth Jacob (Atlanta), and an advocate of Jewish causes.
František Bubák (22 July 1866, Rovensko pod Troskami – 19 September 1925, Prague) was a Czech mycologist and phytopathologist.
František Gellner (19 June 1881 – disappeared September 1914) was a Czech poet, short story writer, artist and anarchist.
František Kriegel (10 April 1908 — 3 December 1979) was a Czechoslovak politician, physician, and a member of the Communist Party reform wing of Prague Spring (1968).
František Moravec CBE (23 July 1895, Čáslav – 26 July 1966, Washington, D.C.) was Czechoslovak military intelligence officer before and during World War II.
Franz Joseph, Prince of Dietrichstein (Franz Seraph Joseph Carl Johann Nepomuc Quirin; 28 April 1767 – 10 July 1854), was a German prince member of the House of Dietrichstein, Major general, 8th Prince (Fürst) of Dietrichstein zu Nikolsburg, Count of Proskau-Leslie, Baron (Freiherr) of Hollenburg, Finkenstein and Thalberg.
Franz Petrak (9 October 1886, Mährisch-Weißkirchen – 9 October 1973, Vienna) was an Austrian-Czech mycologist.
Franz Joseph von Schlik of Bassano and Weisskirchen (Prague, 23 May 1789 – Vienna, 17 March 1862) was an Count and general in the Austrian Empire.
Franz Stadion, Graf von Warthausen (27 July 1806 – 8 June 1853), son of the Austrian diplomat Johann Philipp von Stadion.
Franz von Hillenbrand was a Roman Catholic German aristocrat.
Franz Wenzel, Graf von Kaunitz-Rietberg (2 July 1742 in Vienna – 19 December 1825 in Vienna) was an Austrian general who saw service in the Seven Years' War and Wars of the French Revolution.
Franz Xaver Wolfgang Mozart (26 July 1791 – 29 July 1844), also known as Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Jr., was the youngest child of six born to Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and his wife Constanze.
Franziska Scanagatta (also called Francesca Scanagatta) (1 August 1776 – 1865) was an Italian woman who disguised herself as a man in order to attend an Austrian officer school in 1794.
Fred Asher Rosenstock (1895–1986) was an Austrian-born American bookseller, book and art collector and publisher in Denver, Colorado from the 1920s through the 1970s.
Below is a list of French language exonyms for places in non-French-speaking areas.
The family of Sigmund Freud, the pioneer of psychoanalysis, lived in Austria and Germany until the 1930s before emigrating to England, Canada and the United States.
Frida Rubiner (born Frida Ichak / Фрида Абрамовна Ицхоки: 28 April 1879 – 22 January 1952) was a political activist (KPD), writer, journalist and translator of important communist Russian texts into German.
Friedrich-Wend, Count of Eulenburg and Hertefeld, known as Prince of Eulenburg and Hertefeld, Count of Sandels (19 September 1881 in Starnberg – 1 August 1963 at Hertefeld Castle in Weeze), was a German aristocratic farmer and estate owner of Liebenberg and Häsen in (Brandenburg) as well as Hertefeld and the Castle of Kolk (Niederrhein).
Friedrich, Prince of Schwarzenberg (kníže Bedřich Schwarzenberg) (1800–1870) had an adventurous career as a soldier, and described his wanderings and campaigns in several interesting works, of which the best known is his Wanderungen eines Lanzknechtes (1844–1845).
Fritz von Scholz (9 December 1896 – 28 July 1944) was a high-ranking member of the Waffen-SS during World War II and a recipient of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves and Swords of Nazi Germany.
Frysztak (פֿריסטיק Fristik; Freistadt) is a village in the Gmina Frysztak, Strzyżów County, Subcarpathian Voivodeship, Poland, from Krosno.
Gabriel (Joseph) Talphir (1901–1990) was an Israeli poet, art critic, publisher, editor and translator.
Maria Gabriela Stefania Korwin-Piotrowska (1857–1921), known as Gabriela Zapolska, was a Polish novelist, playwright, naturalist writer, feuilletonist, theatre critic and stage actress.
Galați (also known by other alternative names) is the capital city of Galați County, in the historical region of Moldavia, eastern Romania.
Galich may refer to.
Galicia may refer to.
Galicia (Galician: Galicia, Galiza; Galicia; Galiza) is an autonomous community of Spain and historic nationality under Spanish law.
Galicia and Lodomeria may refer to.
The Galicia Jewish Museum (Polish: Żydowskie Muzeum Galicja) is located in the historic Jewish district of Kazimierz in Kraków, Poland.
Galicia–Volhynia Wars were several wars fought in the years 1340–1392 over the succession in the Principality of Galicia–Volhynia (in modern Poland and Ukraine).
Galician may refer to.
Galician Jews or Galitzianers are a subdivision of the Ashkenazim geographically originating from Galicia, from western Ukraine (current Lviv, Ivano-Frankivsk, and Ternopil regions) and from the south-eastern corner of Poland (Podkarpackie and Lesser Poland voivodeships).
Galician (galego) is an Indo-European language of the Western Ibero-Romance branch.
The Galician Railway of Archduke Charles Louis (German: k.k.priv. Galizische Carl Ludwig-Bahn (CLB), Polish: Kolej galicyjska im. Karola Ludwika) was a railway system, named after Archduke Charles Louis of Austria.
The Galician Slaughter, also known as the Peasant Uprising of 1846 or the Szela uprising (Galizischer Bauernaufstand; Rzeź galicyjska or Rabacja galicyjska), was a two-month uprising of Galician peasants that led to the suppression of the szlachta uprising (Kraków Uprising) and the massacre of szlachta in Galicia in the Austrian partition in early 1846.
The Galician Soviet Socialist Republic (Galician SSR) was a self declared and short lived political entity that existed from 15 July to 21 September 1920.
The Galician Transversal Railway (German: Galizische Transversalbahn, Polish: Galicyjska Kolej Transwersalna) was a railway system, opened in 1884 in the province of Galicia (Austria-Hungary).
Galicians (galegos, gallegos) are a national, cultural and ethnic group whose historic homeland is Galicia, in the north-west of the Iberian Peninsula.
Galizien may refer to.
Garlica Murowana is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Zielonki, within Kraków County, Lesser Poland Voivodeship, in southern Poland.
Gödöllő (Getterle; Jedľovo) is a town in Pest county, Budapest metropolitan area, Hungary, about northeast from the outskirts of Budapest.
Głęboka is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Kocmyrzów-Luborzyca, within Kraków County, Lesser Poland Voivodeship, in southern Poland.
Głogów Małopolski is a town in Rzeszów County, Subcarpathian Voivodeship, Poland.
The General Government (Generalgouvernement, Generalne Gubernatorstwo, Генеральна губернія), also referred to as the General Governorate, was a German zone of occupation established after the joint invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union in 1939 at the onset of World War II.
The General Jewish Labour Bund in Poland (אַלגעמײַנער ײדישער אַרבעטער בּונד אין פוילין tr: Algemeyner yidisher arbeter bund in poyln, Ogólno-Żydowski Związek Robotniczy "Bund" w Polsce) was a Jewish socialist party in Poland which promoted the political, cultural and social autonomy of Jewish workers, sought to combat antisemitism and was generally opposed to Zionism.
George Adams Kaufmann, also George Adams and George von Kaufmann, (8 February 1894, Maryampol, Galicia, then part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire – 30 March 1963, Edgbaston, UK) was a British mathematician, translator and anthroposophist.
George Augustus Polgreen Bridgetower (11 October 1778 – 29 February 1860) was an Afro-European musician, born in Poland.
George Burns (born Nathan Birnbaum; January 20, 1896March 9, 1996) was an American comedian, actor, singer, and writer.
George Stephen Nestor Luckyj (born Юрій Остапович Луцький, transcribed: Yuriy Ostapovych Lutskyy; Yanchyn, now Ivanivka, Lviv Oblast, 1919 - Toronto, November 22, 2001) was a scholar of Ukrainian literature, who greatly contributed to the awareness of Ukrainian literature in the English-speaking world and to the continuation of legitimate scholarship on the subject during the post-war period.
Gerda Taro (real name Gerta Pohorylle; 1 August 1910, Stuttgart, Germany – 26 July 1937, near Brunete, Spain) was a war photographer, and the companion and professional partner of photographer Robert Capa.
The German Confederation (Deutscher Bund) was an association of 39 German-speaking states in Central Europe, created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to coordinate the economies of separate German-speaking countries and to replace the former Holy Roman Empire, which had been dissolved in 1806.
German diaspora (Deutschstämmige; also, under National Socialism: Volksdeutsche) are ethnic Germans and their descendants living outside Germany.
The German Empire (Deutsches Kaiserreich, officially Deutsches Reich),Herbert Tuttle wrote in September 1881 that the term "Reich" does not literally connote an empire as has been commonly assumed by English-speaking people.
German Radio Intelligence Operation during World War II were signals intelligence operations that were undertaken by German Axis forces in Europe during World War II.
The German town law (Deutsches Stadtrecht) or German municipal concerns (Deutsches Städtewesen) was a set of early town privileges based on the Magdeburg rights developed by Otto I. The Magdeburg Law became the inspiration for regional town charters not only in Germany, but also in Central and Eastern Europe who modified it during the Middle Ages.
The German–Polish customs war was a political and economic conflict between the Second Polish Republic and the Weimar Republic, which began in June 1925 (shortly after the death of German president Friedrich Ebert from SPD) and ended officially in March 1934.
Germanisation (also spelled Germanization) is the spread of the German language, people and culture or policies which introduced these changes.
Germanisation in Poland (1939–1945) was an intense process of Germanisation during World War II carried out by Nazi Germany in Occupied Poland.
Ghe with upturn (Ґ ґ; italics: Ґ ґ) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
Gheorghe Asachi (surname also spelled Asaki; March 1, 1788 – November 12, 1869) was a Moldavian, later Romanian prose writer, poet, painter, historian, dramatist and translator.
Giebułtów is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Wielka Wieś, within Kraków County, Lesser Poland Voivodeship, in southern Poland.
Gliniany may refer to the following places.
Golce (Гільці, Hil’tsi) is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Jarocin, within Nisko County, Subcarpathian Voivodeship, in south-eastern Poland.
Golders Green is an area in the London Borough of Barnet in England.
Golus nationalism (Yiddish: גלות נאַציאָנאַליזם Golus natsionalizm after golus), or Diaspora Nationalism, is a national movement of the Jewish people that argued for furthering Jewish national and cultural life in the large Jewish centers throughout the world, while at the same time seeking recognition for a Jewish national identity from world powers.
The Gorlice–Tarnów Offensive during World War I was initially conceived as a minor German offensive to relieve Russian pressure on the Austro-Hungarians to their south on the Eastern Front, but resulted in the Central Powers' chief offensive effort of 1915, causing the total collapse of the Russian lines and their retreat far into Russia.
Gottfried Alexander Maximilian Walter Kurt Freiherr von Cramm (English: Baron Gottfried von Cramm,; 7 July 1909 – 8 November 1976), was a German amateur tennis champion who won the French Open twice.
The Grand Duchy of Kraków (Großherzogtum Krakau, Wielkie Księstwo Krakowskie) was created after the incorporation of the Free City of Cracow into Austria on 16 November 1846.
The Eparchy of Križevci is an eparchy (diocese) of the Catholic Church for Eastern Catholics of Byzantine Rite in part of the former Yugoslavia, with its seat in Križevci, Croatia.
The Greek Catholic Eparchy of Mukachevo is an eparchy (diocese) associated with the Ruthenian Greek Catholic Church under an unidentified status.
Gregory Ignatius Zhatkovich (Rusyn: Ґріґорій Жатковіч) (December 2, 1886 – March 26, 1967) was an American lawyer and political activist for Rusyns in the United States and Europe.
Grossinger's Catskill Resort Hotel was a resort in the Catskill Mountains in the Town of Liberty, near the village of Liberty, New York.
Grupo SM is a Spanish publisher with a strong presence in Latin America.
Guido Lorraine (2 September 1912 – 31 December 2009) was a Polish-born actor, musician and singer, known primarily for his roles in war films.
Gwiazdka Cieszyńska ("Cieszyn Star") was a weekly Polish magazine published in Cieszyn (Teschen), Silesia in 1851-1939.
Haczów (Гачів, Hachiv) is a village in Brzozów County, Subcarpathian Voivodeship, in south-eastern Poland.
The haidamakas, also haidamaky or haidamaks (singular haidamaka, Гайдамаки, Haidamaky) were cossack paramilitary bands of commoners, peasants, craftsmen, former Cossacks, and impoverished noblemen in the 18th-century Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Haim Nathan Dembitzer (June 29, 1820, Krakow: "Jewish Civil Registry of Krakow", Town: Krakow, Year: 1820, Akt (record) #: 145, Record Type: birth, Surname: Dembitzer, Given Name: Chaim Nattan, Father: Salomon, Mother: Nechel, Mother's Father: Moyzes. – November 20, 1892, Krakow) was a Polish Galician rabbi and historian.
Halberstam (האלבערשטאם‎, הלברשטם&lrm) is a Jewish surname, used by several branches of the Halberstadt family.
Hälleflinta (a Swedish word meaning rock-flint), a white, grey, yellow, greenish or pink, fine-grained rock consisting of an intimate mixture of quartz and feldspar.
Halszka Wasilewska, sometimes called Halina, (21 March 1899 – 8 February 1961), WW2 Nom-de-guerre Krystyna, was one of the first women to attain the rank of Major in the Polish Armed Forces.
Halych (Halyč; Halici; Halicz; Galič; Halytsch) is a historic city on the Dniester River in western Ukraine.
Halych Raion (Галицький район) is a raion (district) of Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast (region) in Ukraine.
Halychny the name of the inhabitants of Galicia.
HaMa'apil (הַמַּעְפִּיל, lit. The illegal immigrant) is a kibbutz in central Israel.
Johanna "Hannah" Arendt (14 October 1906 – 4 December 1975) was a German-born American philosopher and political theorist.
Hanoch Yelon (חנוך ילון) (born 1886; died 18 January 1970) was an Israeli linguist and leading Talmudic researcher.
Hans Kelsen (October 11, 1881 – April 19, 1973) was an Austrian jurist, legal philosopher and political philosopher.
Leutnant Hans Martin Pippart (14 May 1888 – 11 August 1918) Iron Cross was a pioneer aircraft manufacturer and early pilot.
Hans Ritter von Hemmer, (26 June 1869 – 15 December 1931), son of Colonel Anthony Hemmer, was an officer in the Royal Bavarian Army and Knight Commander of the Military Order of Max Joseph.
Johannes Friedrich "Hans" von Seeckt (22 April 1866 – 27 December 1936) was a German military officer who served as Chief of Staff to August von Mackensen, and was a central figure in planning the victories Mackensen achieved for Germany in the east during the First World War.
Harry Kandel (1885–1943) was an American clarinetist and bandleader, one of the pioneers of modern klezmer music.
Harry Weinberg (1908–1990, aged 82) was a billionaire businessman who founded The Harry and Jeanette Weinberg Foundation, Inc., a private charitable foundation, with over $2 billion in assets in 2018 and headquartered in Owings Mills, Maryland, and Honolulu, Hawaii.
Hasidism, sometimes Hasidic Judaism (hasidut,; originally, "piety"), is a Jewish religious group.
The Haskalah, often termed Jewish Enlightenment (השכלה; literally, "wisdom", "erudition", Yiddish pronunciation Heskole) was an intellectual movement among the Jews of Central and Eastern Europe, with certain influence on those in Western Europe and the Muslim world.
Háry János is a Hungarian folk opera (that is, a spoken play with songs, in the manner of a Singspiel) in four acts by Zoltán Kodály to a Hungarian libretto by Béla Paulini (1881–1945) and Zsolt Harsányi, based on the comic epic The Veteran (Az obsitos) by János Garay.
Hedwig Gorski (born July 18, 1949) is an American performance poet and an avant-garde artist who labels her aesthetic as "American futurism." The term "performance poetry," a precursor to slam poetry, is attributed to her.
Heidemarie Martha Stefanyshyn-Piper (born February 7, 1963) is an American Naval officer, engineer, and a former NASA astronaut.
The Heim ins Reich (meaning "back home to the Reich") was a foreign policy pursued by Adolf Hitler during World War II, beginning in 1938.
Heinrich Nebenzahl (1870–1938) was an Austrian-born film producer.
Count Heinrich von Bellegarde, Viceroy of Lombardy-Venetia (Heinrich Joseph Johannes, Graf von Bellegarde or sometimes Heinrich von Bellegarde) (29 August 175622 July 1845), of a noble Savoyard family, was born in Saxony, joined the Saxon army and later entered Habsburg military service, where he became a general officer during in the Habsburg border wars, the French Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Wars.
Henrik Galeen (7 January 1881 – 30 July 1949) was an Austrian-born actor, screenwriter and film director considered an influential figure in the development of German Expressionist cinema during the silent era.
Henryk Floyar-Rajchman (December 7, 1893 - March 22, 1951) was a Polish statesman and a founding member of the Józef Piłsudski Institute of America for Research in the Modern History of Poland created in New York City in July 1943.
Henryk Minkiewicz (19 January 1880 – 9 April 1940) was a Polish socialist politician and a General of the Polish Army.
Henryk (Tauber) Fuchsbrunner (8 July 1917 – 3 January 2000) was a Polish Jewish prisoner at Auschwitz-Birkenau death camp during the Holocaust, who gave detailed testimony at the end of World War II.
Herbert Masaryk (1 May 1880, Vienna – 15 March 1915, Prague) was a Czech Post-Impressionist painter; son of the future founder and President of Czechoslovakia, Tomáš Masaryk, and his American-born wife, Charlotte Garrigue.
Herman Diamand (March 30, 1860 in Lviv – February 26, 1931 in Lviv) was a Polish lawyer and socialist politician, Member of the Imperial Council in Vienna, where he held XI and XII terms; during the Second Polish Republic he was a Member of Parliament of the Legislative, and for the first and second Sejm.
Herman Potočnik (pseudonym Hermann Noordung; 22 December 1892 – 27 August 1929) was a Slovene rocket engineer and pioneer of cosmonautics (astronautics).
Herman Wohl (1877–1936) was born in Otinya near Stanislavov (now called Ivano-Frankivsk) in eastern Galicia, now Ukraine.
Sir Hermann Gollancz (1852 – 15 October 1930) was a British rabbi and Hebrew scholar.
Hermann Freiherr Kövess von Kövessháza (kövessházi báró Kövess Hermann; 30 March 1854 – 22 September 1924) was the final, and completely ceremonial, Commander-in-Chief of the Austro-Hungarian Army.
Hermann Ungar (April 20, 1893 in Boskovice – October 28, 1929 in Prague) was a Czech-Jewish writer (in the German language) and an officer in Czechoslovakia's Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
Herminia Naglerowa (sometimes wrote under the penname Jan Stycz, born 28 October 1890 in Zaliski near Brody, died 9 October 1957 in London) was a Polish writer and publicist.
Herz Homberg (born at Libeň, near Prague, September 1749; died August 24, 1841 at Prague) was an Austrian-Jewish educator and writer.
Hieronim Ignacy Czarnowski (January 1834 – 28 December 1902) was a Polish chess master and activist.
Rabbi Hillel Lichtenstein (1814-1891) was an Hungarian rabbi and the leader of the extreme Orthodoxy in Hungary.
Jewish population centers have shifted tremendously over time, due to the constant streams of Jewish refugees created by expulsions, persecution, and officially sanctioned killing of Jews in various places at various times.
This article presents the historiography of the Wolyn tragedy as presented by historians in Poland and Ukraine after World War II.
The history of Austria covers the history of Austria and its predecessor states, from the early Stone Age to the present state.
Bălţi is the second largest city in Moldova.
Benndorf is a small village in Germany, first mentioned in 1216.
Bielsko-Biała is a city in southern Poland created after the merging of two closely situated cities, Bielsko and Biała, in 1951.
The history of Christianity in Ukraine dates back to the earliest centuries of the apostolic church and according to Radziwiłł Chronicle Saint Andrew has ascended on hills of the future city of Kiev.
With the arrival of the Hungarians into the heart of the Central European Plain around 899, Slavic tribes of Vistulans, White Croats, and Lendians found themselves under Hungarian rule.
Ivano-Frankivsk (Івано-Франківськ, Ivano-Frankivs'k; Iwano-Frankowsk; Iwano-Frankiwsk; translit, see also other names) is one of administrative centers in western Ukraine with almost 350 years of history as a city settlement.
The today's city of Katowice in Poland started as a conglomerate of a number of small farming and industrial village communities from the 13th century.
The history of Kiev, the largest city and the capital of Ukraine, is documented as going back at least 1,400 years.
Kraków (Cracow) is one of the largest and oldest cities in Poland, with the urban population of 756,441 (2008).
Liberalism, the belief in freedom and human rights, is historically associated with thinkers such as John Locke and Montesquieu.
The history of Lithuania between 1219 and 1295 concerns the establishment and early history of the first Lithuanian state, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.
Lviv (Ukrainian: Львів, L’viv; Lwów; Lemberg; לעמבערג; Lvov, see also other names) is an administrative center in western Ukraine with more than a millennium of history as a settlement, and over seven centuries as a city.
Maramureș (in Romanian; Dacian: Maramarista; Latin: Marmatia; Máramaros; Мармарощина) is a historical region in the north of Transylvania, along the upper Tisa River.
The history of Moldova can be traced to the 1350s, when the Principality of Moldavia, the medieval precursor of modern Moldova and Romania, was founded.
Novi Sad is the second largest city of Serbia.
The history of philosophy in Poland parallels the evolution of philosophy in Europe in general.
The history of Poland has its roots in the migrations of Slavs, who established permanent settlements in the Polish lands during the Early Middle Ages.
In 1795 the third and the last of the three 18th-century partitions of Poland ended the existence of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
The history of Poland from 1939 to 1945 encompasses primarily the period from the Invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany to the end of World War II.
While Poland did not exist as an independent state during World War I, its geographical position between the fighting powers meant that much fighting and terrific human and material losses occurred on the Polish lands between 1914 and 1918.
This article covers the history of Polish Intelligence services dating back to the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
The history of rail transport in Germany can be traced back to the 16th century.
The history of rail transport in Poland dates back to the first half of the 19th century when railways were built under Prussian, Russian, and Austrian rule.
The History of Russia begins with that of the East Slavs.
Under Tsar Nicholas II (reigned 1894–1917), the Russian Empire slowly industrialized while repressing opposition in the political center and on the far left.
Teschen, one of the oldest towns in Silesia, has had a Slav population (Golensizi tribe) since at least the 7th century.
The Balkans is an area situated in Southeastern and Eastern Europe.
The history of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union is generally conceived as also covering that of the Bolshevik faction of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party from which it evolved.
The 18th-Century for the Jews of Poland was a tumultuous period as political unrest in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth led to changes in the treatment and behavior of Jews living within its territory.
The history of the Jews in Ústí nad Labem in the Czech Republic dates back to 1848, following the emancipation of Austrian Jews.
The history of the Jews in Bessarabia, a historical region in Eastern Europe, dates back hundreds of years.
The Jewish community of Brody (district city in Lviv region of western Ukraine) was one of the oldest and most well-known Jewish communities in the western part of Ukraine (and formerly in Austrian Empire / Poland up to 1939).
Jews have a long history in the country now known as Hungary, with some records even predating the AD 895 Hungarian conquest of the Carpathian Basin by over 600 years.
The history of the Jews in Romania concerns the Jews both of Romania and of Romanian origins, from their first mention on what is present-day Romanian territory.
The history of the Jews in the United States has been part of the American national fabric since colonial times.
Jewish communities have existed in the territory of Ukraine from the time of Kievan Rus' (one of Kiev city gates was called Judaic) and developed many of the most distinctive modern Jewish theological and cultural traditions such as Hasidism.
The history of the Jews in Vienna, Austria, goes back over eight hundred years.
The petroleum industry is not of recent origin, but petroleum's current status as the key component of politics, society, and technology has its roots in the early 20th century.
The Canadian petroleum industry arose in parallel with that of the United States.
The history of Poles in the United States dates to the American Colonial era.
The Polish Army (Wojsko Polskie) is the name applied to the military forces of Poland.
The history of the Ukrainian minority in Poland dates back to the Late Middle Ages, preceding the 14th century Galicia–Volhynia Wars between Casimir III the Great of Poland, and Liubartas of Lithuania.
Prehistoric Ukraine, as part of the Pontic steppe, has played an important role in Eurasian cultural contacts, including the spread of the Chalcolithic, the Bronze Age, Indo-European expansion and the domestication of the horse.
Hlynjány is a small town in Zolochiv Raion, Lviv Oblast (region) of Ukraine.
Hnat Martynovych Khotkevych (Гнат Мартинович Хоткевич, also Gnat Khotkevich or Ihnat Khotkevych, born December 31, 1877 – died October 8, 1938) was a Ukrainian writer, ethnographer, playwright, composer, musicologist, and bandurist.
Holy Trinity Orthodox Cathedral is the cathedral church of the Orthodox Church in America Diocese of the Midwest.
The Honorary Consulate of the Republic of Latvia in Lviv was founded on 12 February 1975.
Horacy Safrin (1899 – 1980) was a Polish poet, comedian, author and translator.
Horodok (Городо́к, Gródek) is a city in Lviv Oblast (region) of Ukraine.
Horses in World War II were used by the belligerent nations for transportation of troops, artillery, materiel, and, to a lesser extent, in mobile cavalry troops.
Hoshiv (Гошів; Hoszów) is a village in the Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast of Ukraine, located about 4 km south east of Bolekhiv and 12 km north west of Dolyna, at around.
The Fairmont Hotel Macdonald (generally known as the Hotel Macdonald or The Mac) is a hotel in Edmonton, Alberta.
Hottenbach is an Ortsgemeinde – a municipality belonging to a Verbandsgemeinde, a kind of collective municipality – in the Birkenfeld district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.
The House of Mindaugas was the first royal family of Grand Duchy of Lithuania, centered on Mindaugas, the first known and undoubted sovereign of Lithuania.
Mount Hoverla (Говерла, Hoverla; Hóvár; Hovârla; Goverla, Howerla) at, is the highest mountain in Ukraine and part of the Carpathian Mountains.
The Blessed Hryhoriy Khomyshyn (also Hryhorij Khomyshyn, Григорій Лукич Хомишин, Grzegorz Chomyszyn) was a Ukrainian Greek Catholic bishop and hieromartyr.
Hryhoriy Yakhymovych (Григорій Яхимович, Hryhorij Jachymowycz; 16 February 1792 – 29 April 1863) was the Metropolitan Archbishop of the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church, and also a leading figure in the Ukrainian National Revival, from 1860 until his death in 1863.
Hubinek is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Ulhówek, within Tomaszów Lubelski County, Lublin Voivodeship, in eastern Poland, close to the border with Ukraine.
Hugo William Koehler (July 19, 1886 – June 17, 1941) (pronounced KAY-ler) was a United States Navy commander, secret agent and socialite.
Hunziker is a surname from Switzerland.
Husiatyn is the name of a Hasidic dynasty, whose founder was a scion of the Ruzhiner dynasty.
The Husiatyn Synagogue (Festungs-Schule) is a former synagogue in Husiatyn, Galicia, Ukraine.
The Huta Pieniacka massacre was a massacre of the Polish inhabitants of the village Huta Pieniacka, located in modern-day Ukraine, which took place on February 28, 1944.
Iazychie (Язичіє, Yazychiye) was a language variant in the 19th century and the early 20th century in Halychyna, Bukovina, and Zakarpattia in publishing, mostly of a reactionary persuasion, particularly by Ukrainian Russophiles (Moskvophiles).
Ida Laura Pfeiffer (14 October 1797, Vienna – 27 October 1858, Vienna), née Reyer, was an Austrian traveler and travel book author.
Ignace Reiss (1899 – 4 September 1937) – also known as "Ignace Poretsky," "Ignatz Reiss," He was known as a nevozvrashchenec ("unreturnable").
Jan Józef Ignacy Łukasiewicz (8 March 1822 – 7 January 1882) was a Polish pharmacist, engineer, businessman, inventor, and philanthropist.
Ignacy Ewaryst Daszyński (Zbaraż, 26 October 1866 – 31 October 1936, Bystra Śląska) was a Polish socialist politician, journalist, and very briefly Prime Minister of the Second Polish Republic's first government, formed in Lublin in 1918.
Ignacy Marceli Kruszewski (Lusławice, 6 January 1799 - 25 December 1879, Gogołów, near Jasło) was a Polish military leader.
Count Roman Ignacy Potocki, generally known as Ignacy Potocki, (1750–1809) was a Polish nobleman, member of the influential magnate Potocki family, owner of Klementowice and Olesin (near Kurów), a politician, writer, and office holder.
Ignaz von Szyszyłowicz (30 July 1857 – 17 February 1910) also known as Ignacy Szyszyłowicz was a Polish botanist born in Granica (Sosnowiec).
The II SS Panzer Corps was a German Waffen-SS armoured corps which saw action on both the Eastern and Western Fronts during World War II.
Iivo Ahava (born Afanasev, 19 February 1896, died 16 April 1919) was a Karelian-born Finnish military officer and nationalist who supported the idea of an independent East Karelia.
Ill Bethisad is an ongoing, collaborative alternate history project which currently has over 70 participants, originally created by Andrew Smith from New Zealand It was initiated in 1997 as the Brithenig Project.
Ilmatar is Värttinä's 8th album, released in 2000.
Ilustrowany Kuryer Codzienny (Illustrated Daily Courier), abbreviated IKC or Ikac, was a Polish daily newspaper as well as a publishing house.
The Imperial and Royal or Imperial Austrian Army (Kaiserlich-königliche Armee, abbreviation "K.K. Armee") was strictly speaking, the armed force of the Holy Roman Empire under its last monarch, the Habsburg Emperor Francis II, although in reality, it was nearly all composed of the Habsburg army.
The Imperial and Royal Aviation Troops (Kaiserliche und Königliche Luftfahrtruppen or K.u.K. Luftfahrtruppen) was the air force of the Austrian-Hungarian Empire until the empire's demise in 1918.
Inessa Fyodorovna Armand (born Elisabeth-Inès Stéphane d'Herbenville; May 8, 1874 – September 24, 1920) was a French-Russian communist politician, member of the Bolsheviks and feminist who spent most of her life in Russia.
Infanta Blanca of Spain (7 September 1868 – 25 October 1949) was the eldest child of Carlos, Duke of Madrid, Carlist claimant to the throne of Spain and his wife Princess Margherita of Bourbon-Parma.
In warfare, infiltration tactics involve small independent light infantry forces advancing into enemy rear areas, bypassing enemy front-line strongpoints, possibly isolating them for attack by follow-up troops with heavier weapons.
Międzymorze, known in English as Intermarium, was a plan pursued after World War I by Polish leader Józef Piłsudski for a federation of Central and Eastern European countries.
Ion Antonescu (– June 1, 1946) was a Romanian soldier and authoritarian politician who, as the Prime Minister and Conducător during most of World War II, presided over two successive wartime dictatorships.
Ira Schnapp (October 10, 1894 – July 24, 1969) was a logo designer and letterer who brought his classic and art deco design styles to DC Comics (then National Comics) beginning with the redesign of the Superman logo in 1940.
Irena Turkevycz-Martynec (1899-1983) was born in Brody, Ukraine, and came to Canada, to Winnipeg, in 1960.
Ironi Alef High School (תיכון עירוני א'), previously Gymnasia Balfour (גימנסיה בלפור), is a famous high school located in Tel Aviv, Israel.
Irving Adler (April 27, 1913 – September 22, 2012) was an author, mathematician, scientist, political activist and educator.
Iryna Vilde, a pen name of Daryna Dmytrivna Polotniuk (Дарина Дмитрівна Полотнюк, née Makohon Макогон), was a Ukrainian writer and Soviet correspondent.
Isaac Deutscher (3 April 1907 – 19 August 1967) was a Polish writer, journalist and political activist who moved to the United Kingdom at the outbreak of World War II.
Isaac Erter (Yitzhak Erter; 1792–1851) was a Polish-Jewish satirist.
Isaac Gastfreund (about 1845 - after 1880, Vienna) was a Galician rabbinical scholar.
Rabbi Yitsḥak Yehudah Schmelkes (1828–1906), a talmudic scholar of Galicia, was born in Lemberg (Lviv, Ukraine), the son of Ḥayyim Samuel Schmelkes, claiming descent from Eleazar b. Samuel Schmelke Rokeaḥ.
Isaiah ben Abraham Horowitz (ישעיה בן אברהם הלוי הורוויץ), (c. 1555 – March 24, 1630), also known as the Shelah haqQaddosh ("the holy Shelah") after the title of his best-known work, was a prominent Levite rabbi and mystic.
Isaiah Kopinsky (Ісая Копинський, Исаия Копинский; b ? in Galicia region – 5 October 1640) was a Ruthenian Orthodox metropolitan (official title – Metropolitan of Kiev, Galicia and All-Rus').
Isamar Rosenbaum (1886–1973) was a Hasidic rebbe of the Hasidic dynasties of Nadvorna and Kretshnif.
Isidor Isaac Rabi (born Israel Isaac Rabi, 29 July 1898 – 11 January 1988) was an American physicist who won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1944 for his discovery of nuclear magnetic resonance, which is used in magnetic resonance imaging.
Bishop Isidore Borecky (Ісидор Ілярій Борецький; 1 October 1911 in Ostrivets, Austro-Hungarian Empire (present day in Terebovlia Raion, Ternopil Oblast, Ukraine) – 23 July 2003 in Toronto, Canada) was a Ukrainian-born Canadian Ukrainian Greek Catholic hierarch.
Israel Beck (1891–1972) was a founding member of the Antwerpsche Diamantkring, the world’s largest and first-ever diamond bourse to be dedicated to rough diamonds trade.
Israel Friedman of Ruzhyn (ישראל פרידמן מרוז'ין) (5 October 1796 – 9 October 1850Assaf, The Regal Way, p. 170.), also called Israel Ruzhin, was a Hasidic rebbe in 19th-century Ukraine and Austria.
Israel (Yisrol) Grodner (ישראל גראָדנער; ca. 1848 – 1887) was one of the founding performers in Yiddish theater.
Israel (also Yisroel or Yisrol) Rosenberg (c. 1850 – 1903 or 1904; Yiddish/Hebrew: ישראל ראָזענבערג) founded the first Yiddish theater troupe in Imperial Russia.
Israel Schorr (1886 - April 9, 1935) was a prominent cantor during the Golden Age of Hazzanut.
Israeli Jews (יהודים ישראלים, Yehudim Yisraelim), also known as Jewish Israelis, refers to Israeli citizens of the Jewish ethnicity or faith, and also the descendants of Israeli-Jewish emigrants outside of Israel.
István Molnár (January 27, 1968 – June 21, 1993) was a Hungarian-born Ukrainian and Soviet painter, illustrator and musician.
István Nagy (28 March 1873–13 February 1937) was a Hungarian artist who specialized in landscapes and figure painting.
Iuliu Barasch or Baraş (1815—1863) was a Galician-born Jewish physician and writer who made his career in Romania.
Ivan Konstantinovich Aivazovsky (Ива́н Константи́нович Айвазо́вский; 29 July 18172 May 1900) was an Armenian-Russian Romantic painter who is considered one of the greatest masters of marine art.
Ivan Babij (March 5, 1893 in the village of Dobromirka – July 25, 1934 in Lwów) was a Ukrainian educator from Eastern Galicia, captain of the Ukrainian Galician Army, principal of a Ukrainian high school in Lwów, and activist of the Ukrainian Catholic Action.
Ivan Bahrianyi (Iван Багряний) (2 October 1906, Okhtyrka, now Sumy region, Ukraine – 25 August 1963, Neu-Ulm, Germany) was a Ukrainian writer, essayist, novelist and politician, Shevchenko prize awardee (1992, postmortem).
Ivan Krypiakevych (Іва́н Крип'яке́вич; 25 June 1886 – 21 April 1967) was a Ukrainian historian, academician, professor of Lviv University and director of the Institute of Social Sciences of Ukraine.
Ivan Ivanovich Levynskyi (Ukrainian: Іва́н Іва́нович Леви́нський, * July 6, 1851, Dolyna, now Ivano-Frankivsk region - † July 4, 1919, Lviv) was a Ukrainian architect, teacher, businessman and public figure.
Ivan Stepanovych Mazepa (Іван Степанович Мазепа, Jan Mazepa Kołodyński). Retrieved 10 July 2015 served as the Hetman of Zaporizhian Host in 1687–1708.
Ivan the Russian (Иван Русина, Ivan Rusina; Orosz Iván) (fl. 1288/1323–1332) was a 14th-century Bulgarian military leader of Russian origin who served Bulgarian tsars Michael Shishman and Ivan Alexander.
Ivan Trush (Іван Труш, pronounced as Troosh: 1869–1941) was a Ukrainian impressionist painter, a master of landscape and portraiture, an art critic, and active community patron of arts in Galicia or Halychyna - a historical region in western Ukraine.
Ivan Vahylevych, Jan Wagilewicz, (born 2 September 1811 in Yasen, today in Rozhniativ Raion, Ivano-Frankivsk region, Ukraine - died 10 May 1866 in Lviv) was Romantic poet, philologist, and ethnographer of the Galician revival in Western Ukraine.
Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast (Івано-Франківська область, translit. Ivano-Frankivs’ka oblast’; also referred to as Prykarpattia – Прикарпаття or formerly as Stanislavshchyna or Stanislavivshchyna – Ukrainian: Станіславщина or Станиславівщина) is an oblast (region) in western Ukraine.
Iwan Pylypiw or Ivan Pylypow (Iван Пилипiв, September 28, 1859 – October 10, 1936) and Vasyl Eleniak were the first Ukrainian immigrants to Canada in 1891–93.
J.W. Mays, Inc. is a real estate firm based in Brooklyn, New York, United States.
Jaśliska (Яслиська, Yaslys’ka) is a village in Krosno County, Subcarpathian Voivodeship, in south-eastern Poland, close to the border with Slovakia.
Jack Diamond, (April 9, 1909 – March 25, 2001) was a Canadian businessman and philanthropist.
Jacob Abraham "Jack" Stachel (19001965) was an American Communist functionary who was a top official in the Communist Party from the middle 1920s until his death in the middle 1960s.
Yaakov Avigdor (also Jacob) (1896–1967) was a Polish rabbi, author and Holocaust survivor, who served as Chief Rabbi of Drohobych - Boryslav in Poland, and of the Ashkenazi Jewish community in Mexico.
Jacob ben Joseph Reischer (Bechofen) (1661-1733) was an Austrian rabbi and halakhist born at Prague.
Jacob Caro (February 2, 1835 – December 12, 1904) was a Jewish German historian.
Jacob Joseph Frank (יעקב פרנק, Jakub Józef Frank, born Jakub Lejbowicz; 1726 – December 10, 1791) was an 18th-century Polish-Jewish religious leader who claimed to be the reincarnation of the self-proclaimed messiah Sabbatai Zevi (1626–1676) and also of the biblical patriarch Jacob.
Jacob Pavlovich Adler (born Yankev P. Adler; February 12, 1855 – April 1, 1926)IMDB biography was a Jewish actor and star of Yiddish theater, first in Odessa, and later in London and in New York City's Yiddish Theater District.
Jacob Pinkerfeld, also spelled Pinkerfield (1897-1956) (יעקב פינקרפלד) was an Israeli archaeologist and architect.
Jaime de Borbón y de Borbón-Parma, known as Duke of Madrid and as Jacques de Bourbon, Duke of Anjou in France (27 June 1870 – 2 October 1931), was the Carlist claimant to the throne of Spain under the name Jaime III and the Legitimist claimant to the throne of France as Jacques I.
Jakob Edelstein (AKA Yacov, Yaakov, Jakub Edelstein or Edlstein), (Horodenka (Galicia), 25 July 1903 – 20 June 1944 Auschwitz) was a Czechoslovak Zionist, social democrat and the first Jewish Elder in the Theresienstadt ghetto.
Jakob Ehrlich (15 September 1877 - 17 May 1938), was an early Zionist and leader of the Jewish Community in Vienna, Austria.
Jakob Eisenscher (1896–1980) was born in the Austro-Hungarian Empire and is an Israeli artist.
Jakob Erdheim (24 May 1874, Boryslav, Galicia – 18 April 1937, Vienna) was an Austrian pathologist.
Blessed Jakub Strzemię (c. 1340 - 20 October 1409) was a Polish Roman Catholic archbishop and a professed member of the Order of Friars Minor.
Jakub Szela (was born 14 July 1787, Smarżowa, in Galicia - died 21 April 1860, Dealul Ederii, in Bukovina, now Romania) was a Polish leader of a peasant uprising against the Polish gentry in Galicia in 1846; directed against manorial property and oppression (for example, the manorial prisons) and rising against serfdom; scores of manors were attacked and their inhabitants murdered.
Jan Berek (1896 - 1986) was a soldier of the Austro-Hungarian Army and Generał brygady of the Polish Army, who fought in World War One, Polish–Soviet War and the Invasion of Poland.
Jan Bolesław Czedekowski (22 February 1885 – 8 July 1969) was a celebrated Polish artist, who spent the vast majority of his life living abroad.
Jan Henryk Dąbrowski (also known as Johann Heinrich Dąbrowski (Dombrowski) in German and Jean Henri Dombrowski in French; 29 August 1755 – 6 June 1818) was a Polish general and statesman, widely respected after his death for his patriotic attitude, and described as a national hero.
Jan Lam (1838 - 1886) was a Polish journalist, writer and comic, as well as a teacher in numerous schools of Galicia.
Jan Ludwik Popławski (17 January 1854 in Bystrzejowice Pierwsze – 12 March 1908 in Warsaw) was a Polish journalist, author, politician and one of the first chief activists and ideologues of the right-wing National Democracy political camp.
Jan Mazurkiewicz (27 August 1896, Lwów – 4 May 1988, Warsaw), nom de guerre Radosław, was a Polish soldier, veteran of World War I, and a colonel in the Polish anti-Nazi resistance Armia Krajowa (AK) during World War II.
Prince Jan Duklan Maurycy Paweł Puzyna de Kosielsko (13 September 1842, Gwoździec, Galicia – 8 September 1911, Kraków, Poland) was a Polish Roman Catholic Cardinal who was auxiliary bishop of Lwów (now Lviv, Ukraine) from 1886 to 1895, and the bishop of Kraków from 1895 until his death in 1911.
Jan Stanisław Jankowski (6 May 1882 – 13 March 1953; noms de guerre Doktor, Jan, Klonowski, Sobolewski, Soból) was a Polish politician, an important figure in the Polish civil resistance during World War II and a Government Delegate at Home.
Jan Szeliga (Ян Шеліга) (? — 1636, Lviv) was a wandering book printer operating in Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Jan Tyssowski (March 8, 1811 – April 5, 1857), born in Tarnów, Poland, was a Dictator of the Republic of Kraków during the failed 1846 uprising.
Janowska concentration camp (Janowska, Янов or "Yanov", Янівський табір) was a Nazi German labor, transit and extermination camp established in September 1941 in occupied Poland on the outskirts of Lwów (Second Polish Republic, today Lviv, Ukraine).
The following events occurred in January 1915.
The January Uprising (Polish: powstanie styczniowe, Lithuanian: 1863 m. sukilimas, Belarusian: Паўстанне 1863-1864 гадоў, Польське повстання) was an insurrection instigated principally in the Russian Partition of the former Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth against its occupation by the Russian Empire.
Janusz Julian Głuchowski (nom de guerre Janusz) was a divisional general of the Polish Army in the Second Polish Republic.
Jarosław Kukowski (born 11 April 1972 in Tczew) Polish contemporary painter dealing with moral and social issues in a controversial manner.
Jaroslav Bohdan Rudnyckyj, OC (Яросла́в-Богда́н Рудни́цький; November 18, 1910 – October 19, 1995) was a Ukrainian Canadian linguist, lexicographer with a specialty in etymology and onomastics, folklorist, bibliographer, travel writer, and publicist.
Jasło is a county town in south-eastern Poland with 36,641 inhabitants, as of 31 December 2012.
Jaworzno is a city in southern Poland, near Katowice.
Jára Cimrman, also known as "the Master", is a Czech fictional polymath, created by Ladislav Smoljak, Jiří Šebánek and Zdeněk Svěrák.
Józef Zachariasz Bem (Bem József, Murat Pasha.; March 14, 1794, Tarnów – December 10, 1850, Aleppo) was a Polish engineer and general, an Ottoman pasha and a national hero of Poland and Hungary, and a figure intertwined with other European patriotic movements.
Józef Dominik "Kresowiec" Bartłomiej Chołodecki (15 August 1852 – 30 January 1934) was a Polish historian.
Saint Józef Bilczewski (26 April 1860 – 20 March 1923) was a Polish Roman Catholic prelate who served as the Archbishop of Lviv from 1900 until his death.
Józef Bonawentura Załuski (14 July 1787 – 25 April 1866) was a Polish General Officer and diarist, and participant in the Napoleonic Wars of 1808–1814.
Józef Dominik (10 March 1894, Dobczyce - 10 September 1920, Krasne) was a Polish chess master.
Józef Dwernicki (March 19, 1779 in Warsaw – November 23, 1857 in Lopatyn near Lwów) was a General of Cavalry in the Polish Army, and a participant in the November Uprising (1830–1831).
Józef Haller von Hallenburg (13 August 1873 – 4 June 1960) was a Lieutenant General of the Polish Army, a legionary in the Polish Legions, harcmistrz (the highest Scouting instructor rank in Poland), the President of the Polish Scouting and Guiding Association (ZHP), and a political and social activist.
Józef Juraszek Ślopek lived in Jeleśnia.
Count Józef Maksymilian Ossoliński (1748 – 17 March 1826) was a Polish literature and art historian, nobleman, politician, writer, researcher of literature, and founder of the Ossoliński Institute.
Józef Konstanty Olszyna-Wilczyński (27 November 1890 – 22 September 1939) was a Polish general and one of the high-ranking commanders of the Polish Army.
Józef Klemens Piłsudski (5 December 1867 – 12 May 1935) was a Polish statesman; he was Chief of State (1918–22), "First Marshal of Poland" (from 1920), and de facto leader (1926–35) of the Second Polish Republic as the Minister of Military Affairs.
Prince Józef Antoni Poniatowski (7 May 1763 – 19 October 1813) was a Polish leader, general, minister of war and army chief, who became a Marshal of the French Empire.
Józef Sandel (Yiddish: יוסף סאנדעל; German: Josef Sandel; 29 September 1894, Kolomyia – 1 December 1962, Warsaw)Elis, Binyamin (1965).
Józef Smoleński (1894 - 1978) was a soldier of Polish Legions in World War I and General brygady of the Polish Army.
Józef Wittlin (1896–1976) was a Polish novelist, poet and translator.
Prince Józef Zajączek (1 November 1752, Kamieniec Podolski — 28 August 1826, Warsaw) was a Polish general and politician.
Józefów also called Józefów Biłgorajski, Józefów Ordynacki and Józefów Roztoczański, is a town in Biłgoraj County, Lublin Voivodeship, Poland, with 2,436 inhabitants (2006).
Jean Jérôme (1906–1990) was a Polish Jew-French communist activist and Resistance member.
Jedlicze is a town in Krosno County, Subcarpathian Voivodeship, Poland, with a population of 5,645 (02.06.2009).
Jeleśnia is a village in Żywiec County, Silesian Voivodeship, in southern Poland.
Jenő Dsida (Dsida Jenő,; 17 May 1907 – 7 June 1938) was a Hungarian poet and translator.
Jeremiah Lomnytskyj, O.S.B.M. (Єремія Іван Ломницький; February 8, 1860–July 3, 1916) was a Ukrainian Basilian priest, missionary and an educational and church activist.
Gerald Isaac Stiller (born June 8, 1927) is an American comedian and actor.
Jerzy Bartmiński (born 19 September 1939) is a Polish linguist and ethnologist.
Jerzy Maria Kirchmayer (1895–1959) was a Polish historian and military commander, a brigadier general of the Polish Army and one of the first historians of the Warsaw Uprising of 1944.
Jerzy Kazimierz Pajączkowski-Dydyński (19 July 1894 – 6 December 2005) was a British-based Polish veteran of World War I and UK's oldest man at the time of his death at the age of 111 years, 140 days, and one of the last surviving veterans of the First World War living in the UK.
The Jesuit Church in Lviv is dedicated to Sts.
Jewish ethnic divisions refers to a number of distinctive communities within the world's ethnically Jewish population.
Jewish literature includes works written by Jews on Jewish themes, literary works written in Jewish languages on various themes, and literary works in any language written by Jewish writers.
The Jewish National Fund (קרן קיימת לישראל, Keren Kayemet LeYisrael previously הפונד הלאומי, Ha Fund HaLeumi) was founded in 1901 to buy and develop land in Ottoman Palestine (later the British Mandate for Palestine, and subsequently Israel and the Palestinian territories) for Jewish settlement.
The Jewish National Party (Jüdischnationale Partei) was an Austrian political party of the Jewish minority.
Jewish philosophy includes all philosophy carried out by Jews, or in relation to the religion of Judaism.
Schisms among the Jews are cultural as well as religious.
The Jewish Social Democratic Association Bund was a Jewish socialist organization in Bukovina, named after the Russian General Jewish Labour Bund.
The Jewish Social Democratic Party (in Yiddish, Yidishe sotsial-demokratishe partey, Żydowska Partia Socjal-Demokratyczna, abbreviated ŻPS) was a political party in Galicia and later also Bukovina, established in a split from the Polish Social Democratic Party of Galicia (PPSD) in 1905.
Jezierzany may refer to the following places.
Jindřich Bišický (11 February 1889 in, now part of Kralupy nad Vltavou – 31 October 1949 in Velvary) is known as the author of unique photographs from World War I. He was not properly identified until 2009.
Jindřich Prucha (29 September 1886, Uherské Hradiště - 1 September 1914, in the Battle of Komarów) was a Czech landscape and portrait painter in the Fauvist and Expressionist styles.
Saint Job of Pochayev (Иов Почаевский; c. 1551 – 28 October 1651), to the world Ivan Ivanovich Zheleza (Иван Иванович Железа), in Great Schema John (Иоанн) was an Eastern Orthodox monk and saint.
Johann Georg Pinsel (Jan Jerzy Pinsel, Іван Георгій Пінзель; b. 1715-1725, d. 1761 or early 1762) was a Baroque-Rococo sculptor active in Galicia (then in Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, now Ukraine).
Johann Mickl (18 April 1893 – 10 April 1945) was an Austrian-born Generalleutnant and division commander in the German Army during World War II, and was one of only 882 recipients of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves.
Johann von Klenau (13 April 1758 – 6 October 1819), also called Johann Josef Cajetan von Klenau und Janowitz, was a field marshal in the Habsburg army.
John Bluthal (born 28 March 1929) is a British radio, stage, television and film actor and voice artist, whose work has mostly been in comedy.
John I Albert (Jan I Olbracht) (27 December 1459 – 17 June 1501) was King of Poland (1492–1501) and Duke of Głogów (1491–1498).
John Lhotsky (1795–1866) was a Galicia-born Austrian naturalist, lecturer, artist and author.
John-Paul Himka (born May 18, 1949 in Detroit, Michigan) is an American-Canadian historian and retired professor of history of the University of Alberta in Edmonton.
Jolie Gabor, Countess de Szigethy (born Janka Tilleman, September 30, 1896 – April 1, 1997) was a Hungarian-born American socialite known as the mother of actresses and socialites Magda, Zsa Zsa, and Eva Gabor.
Jonas Turkow was born in 1898 in Warsaw, Poland and died in 1987 in Tel Aviv, Israel.
Jordanów, is a town in southern Poland, on the Skawa river.
José Maurer (יוסף מאורער; May 6, 1906 – May 23, 1968) was a stage and cinema actor starring mainly in the Yiddish theatre in Europe, Argentina and Israel from the early 1920s.
Josef is 2011 Croatian drama and war film directed by Stanislav Tomić depicting war story of Austrian-Hungarian Croat soldier during World War I in 1915 in Galicia.
Josef Herzig (25 September 1853 – 4 July 1924) was an Austrian chemist.
Josef Kriehuber (14 December 1800 – 30 May 1876) was an Austrian lithographer and painter.
Josef Prokop Pražák (22 June 1870 - 15 July 1904) was a Bohemian ornithologist.
Josef Schächter (* September 16, 1901 in Kundrynce, Galicia, † March 27, 1994 Haifa) was an Austrian rabbi, philosopher and member of the Vienna Circle from 1925 to 1936.
Josef Szombathy born Szombathy József (11 June 1853 – 9 November 1943) was a Austro-Hungarian archaeologist; he was present when the Venus of Willendorf was discovered in 1908.
Josef Freiherr von Smola (16 November 1805 in Vienna – 29 June 1856 in Lyon) was an Austrian officer.
Josef Wolfsthal (12 June 1899 – 3 February 1931), born as Josef Wolfthal, was an Austrian violinist and a professor in Germany's capital Berlin.
Joseph ben Moses Babad (1801 in Przeworsk – 1874 in Ternopil) was a rabbi, posek and Talmudist, best known for his work, the Minchat Chinuch, a commentary on the Sefer Hachinuch.
Joseph Ludwig Raabe (15 May 1801 in Brody, Galicia – 22 January 1859 in Zürich, Switzerland) was a Swiss mathematician.
Joseph Perl (also Josef Perl; November 10, 1773, Ternopil – October 1, 1839, Ternopil), was an Ashkenazi Jewish educator and writer, a scion of the Haskalah or Jewish Enlightenment.
Joseph (Josef) Samuel Bloch (November 20, 1850 in Dukla, Austrian Galicia (now in Poland) – 1923) was an Austrian rabbi and deputy of Polish descent.
Joseph Saul Nathansohn (1808–1875) (יוסף שאול בן אריה הלוי) was a Polish rabbi and posek, and a leading rabbinical authority of his day.
Joseph Waldbaum was the founder of the Waldbaum supermarket chain.
Joseph (Yosef) Weinreb (1869–1943), also known as the “Galitzianer Rav," was the first chief rabbi of Toronto, Canada.
Josip Broz (Cyrillic: Јосип Броз,; 7 May 1892 – 4 May 1980), commonly known as Tito (Cyrillic: Тито), was a Yugoslav communist revolutionary and political leader, serving in various roles from 1943 until his death in 1980.
Jozef C. Mazur (March 17, 1897 – April 23, 1970) was a Polish-American (Galician) stained glass artist, painter and sculptor.
Jozef Tiso (13 October 1887 –18 April 1947) was a Slovak politician and Roman Catholic priest who governed the Slovak Republic from 1939 to 1945, a satellite state of Nazi Germany during World War II.
Judah Löb Mieses of Lemberg was one of the most prominent Maskilim of Galicia; died at Lemberg, 1831.
Judah Leo Landau (23 April 1866 – 26 August 1942) was a Galician-born South African rabbi and writer.
Judah Leon Magnes (July 5, 1877 – October 27, 1948) was a prominent Reform rabbi in both the United States and Mandatory Palestine.
Julia Acker (1898–1942) was a Jewish–Polish figurative artist.
Julius 'Papa' Ringel (16 November 1889 – 11 February 1967) was an Austrian general in the armed forces of Nazi Germany during World War II.
Juliusz Czechowicz (10 March 1894 – 29 March 1974) was a Polish painter, graphic artist and teacher known mainly as the author of portraits and landscapes.
Juliusz Kühl also known as Julius or Yehiel Kühl (born June 24, 1913 in Sanok, Poland, died February 13, 1985 in Miami, United States) was a Polish diplomat, Holocaust rescuer and – after the World War II – Canadian construction businessman.
Juliusz Zulauf (August 20, 1891 – May 21, 1943) was a Polish Army brigadier general (generał brygady).
The following events occurred in July 1915.
The following events occurred in July 1916.
The following events occurred in July 1917.
The July Monarchy (Monarchie de Juillet) was a liberal constitutional monarchy in France under Louis Philippe I, starting with the July Revolution of 1830 and ending with the Revolution of 1848.
The following events occurred in June 1915.
The following events occurred in June 1916.
Kańczuga is a town in Przeworsk County, Subcarpathian Voivodeship, Poland, with a population of 3,187 inhabitants (02.06.2009).
The Kaiserjäger (officially designated by the Imperial and Royal (k.u.k.) military administration as the Tiroler Jäger-Regimenter or "Tyrolean Rifle Regiments"), were formed in 1895 as four normal infantry regiments within the Common Army of Austria-Hungary.
Mountain infantry battle-dress after 1907 The k.k. Landesschützen (literal: Imperial-Royal country shooters) - from January 16, 1917 Kaiserschützen (literal: Imperial rifles) - has been three regiments of Austro-Hungarian mountain infantry during the kaiserliche und königliche Monarchie (literal: k.u.k. Monarchy).
Kalikst von Morawski (1859 – after 17 September 1939) was a Polish chess master.
Kalman Kahana (קלמן כהנא, 31 May 1910, Brody, western Ukraine – 20 August 1991) was a long-serving Israeli politician and journalist, and a signatory of the Israeli declaration of independence.
Kamianka-Buzka (Kam'ianka-Buz’ka, Kamionka Bużańska) is a city in Lviv Oblast, of western Ukraine.
Kampfgeschwader 76 (KG 76) (Battle Wing) was a Luftwaffe bomber Group during World War II.
Kampfgeschwader 77 (KG 77) was a Luftwaffe bomber wing during World War II.
Kaniów is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Bestwina, within Bielsko County, Silesian Voivodeship, in southern Poland.
Kapuskasing is a town on the Kapuskasing River in the Cochrane District of Northern Ontario, Canada, approximately east of Hearst.
The Karaim language (Crimean dialect: къарай тили, Trakai dialect: karaj tili, Turkish dialect: karay dili, traditional Hebrew name lashon kedar לשון קדר "language of the nomads") is a Turkic language with Hebrew influences, in a similar manner to Yiddish or Judaeo-Spanish. It is spoken by only a few dozen Crimean Karaites (Qrimqaraylar) in Lithuania, Poland and Crimea and Galicia in Ukraine. The three main dialects are those of Crimea, Trakai-Vilnius and Lutsk-Halych all of which are critically endangered. The Lithuanian dialect of Karaim is spoken mainly in the town of Trakai (also known as Troki) by a small community living there since the 14th century. There is a chance the language will survive in Trakai as a result of official support and because of its appeal to tourists coming to the Trakai Island Castle, where Crimean Karaites are presented as the castle's ancient defenders.
Karel Klapálek, CBE, DSO (25 May 1893 – 18 November 1984) was a Czechoslovak Army general and a veteran of the Czechoslovak Legion in the Russian Empire.
Karl Buchwald (1889 – ?) was a German politician and trade unionist.
Karl Emil Franzos (October 25, 1848January 28, 1904) was a popular Austrian novelist of the late 19th century.
Karl Ernstberger (September 25, 1887 in Malovice (Mallowitz), today part of village Erpužice, Tachov District, western Bohemia - November 25, 1972 in Nuremberg) was a German Bohemian architect active in western Bohemia, predominantly in Karlovy Vary.
Karl Klingler (7 December 1879 - 18 March 1971) was a German violinist, concertmaster, composer, music teacher and lecturer.
Karl Philipp, Fürst zu Schwarzenberg (or Charles Philip, Prince of Schwarzenberg; 18/19 April 1771 – 15 October 1820) was an Austrian field marshal.
Karl Schliephacke (2 August 1834, Halberstadt – 3 June 1913, Blasewitz) was German bryologist known for his studies of sphagnum mosses.
Karl Freiherr von Pflanzer-Baltin (1 June 1855, Pécs, Hungary - 8 April 1925, Vienna) was an Austro-Hungarian general who was active in World War I.
Karlików (Карликів, Karlykiv; Карликів, Karlykiv) is a village situated in the Subcarpathian Voivodship (province) of south-eastern Poland; previously in Krosno Voivodship (1975-1998) and Sanok district, (east of Sanok).
Karniowice is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Zabierzów, within Kraków County, Lesser Poland Voivodeship, in southern Poland.
Karol Antoniewicz (Bołoz.) Կարոլ Անտոնեվիչ (born in Lwów (now Lviv Ukraine), 6 November 1807; died 14 November 1852) was a Polish-Armenian Jesuit and missionary.
Count Karol Lanckoroński (b. November 4, 1848 in Vienna – July 15, 1933 in Vienna) was a Polish writer, art collector, patron, historian, traveler, and vice-president of the Society for Cultural Protection in his native Galicia.
Karol Stanisław Olszewski (29 January 1846 – 24 March 1915) was a Polish chemist, mathematician and physicist.
Karol Rathaus (Karl Leonhard Bruno Rathaus; also Leonhard Bruno; * 16 September 1895 in Tarnopol (Galicia), Austro-Hungary, today Ukraine; † 21 November 1954 in Flushing/New York City) was a German-Austrian Jewish composer who emigrated to the USA via Berlin, Paris, and London, escaping the rise of Nazism in Germany.
Karol Schayer (25 December 1900 in Lwów – 15 March 1971 in Rockford, Illinois) was a Polish architect and soldier.
Prince Karol Stanisław Radziwiłł (Караль Станіслаў Радзівіл II, Karolis Stanislovas Radvila II, Exonym: Charles Stanislaus: 27 February 1734 – 21 November 1790) was a Polish nobleman, politician, diplomat, prince of the Crown Kingdom of Poland and the Commonwealth, statesman of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Voivode of Vilnius, governor of Lwów and Sejm Marshal between 1767 and 1768.
Karol Szajnocha (1818-1868) was a Polish writer, historian, and independence activist.
Countess Karolina Maria Adelajda Franciszka Ksawera Małgorzata Edina Lanckorońska (Gars am Kamp, Lower Austria, 11 August 1898 — 25 August 2002, Rome, Italy) was a Polish noble, World War II resistance fighter, and historian.
Katalin Varga (Varga Katalin; August 22, 1802 - aft. 1852) was the leader of the Transylvanian Miners' Movement in the 1840s.
Kaunas Jesuit Gymnasium in Lithuania is a day school opened by the Society of Jesus in 1649.
Kazimierz Ajdukiewicz (12 December 1890 – 12 April 1963) was a Polish philosopher and logician, a prominent figure in the Lwów–Warsaw school of logic.
Kazimierz Opaliński (22 February 1890 – 6 June 1979) was a Polish film actor.
Kazimierz Jerzy Skrzypna-Twardowski (20 October 1866 – 11 February 1938) was a Polish philosopher, logician, and rector of the Lviv University.
Königrufen or Königsrufen (German: "The Calling of a King") is a four-player, trick-taking card game of the tarot family, played in Austria and Southern Tyrol.
Kenesa is the term for an East European Karaite or Persian synagogue.
The Kerensky Offensive (Наступление Керенского), also commonly known as the July Offensive (Июльское наступление) or Galician Offensive, was the last Russian offensive in World War I. It took place in July 1917.
Khyriv is a town in Staryi Sambir Raion, Lviv Oblast (region) of Ukraine with a population of around 4,088 as of 2013.
The Church of Boris and Gleb is a church built in 1152, on the orders of Prince Yuri Dolgoruky, in Kideksha on the Nerl River, "where the encampment of Saint Boris had been".
The 1920 Kiev Offensive (or Kiev Operation), sometimes considered to have started the Soviet-Polish War, was an attempt by the armed forces of the newly re-emerged Poland led by Józef Piłsudski, in alliance with the Ukrainian leader Symon Petliura, to seize the territories of modern-day Ukraine which fell under the Soviet control after the Bolshevik Revolution.
King of Ruthenia, King of Galicia and Volhynia, King of Poland and Ruthenia, Land of Ruthenia Lord and Heir (Latin: Rex Rusiae, Rex Galiciae et Lodomeriae, Rex Polonie et Russie, Terre Russie Domin et Heres) was a title of princes of Galicia and Volhynia, granted by the Pope.
The Kingdom of Croatia (Regnum Croatiae; Kraljevina Hrvatska, Hrvatsko Kraljevstvo) was a medieval kingdom in Central Europe comprising most of what is today Croatia (without western Istria and some Dalmatian coastal cities), as well as most of the modern-day Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, also known as Galicia or Austrian Poland, became a crownland of the Habsburg Monarchy as a result of the First Partition of Poland in 1772 and the Third Partition of Poland in 1795, when it became a Kingdom under Habsburg rule.
The Kingdom or Principality of Galicia–Volhynia (Old East Slavic: Галицко-Волинскоє князство, Галицько-Волинське князівство, Regnum Galiciae et Lodomeriae), also known as the Kingdom of Ruthenia (Old East Slavic: Королѣвство Русь, Королівство Русі, Regnum Russiae) since 1253, was a state in the regions of Galicia and Volhynia, of present-day western Ukraine, which was formed after the conquest of Galicia by the Prince of Volhynia Roman the Great, with the help of Leszek the White of Poland.
The Kingdom of Poland (Królestwo Polskie), also known informally as the Regency Kingdom of Poland (Królestwo Regencyjne), was a proposed puppet state of the German Empire during World War I.The Regency Kingdom has been referred to as a puppet state by Norman Davies in Europe: A history; by Jerzy Lukowski and Hubert Zawadzki in A Concise History of Poland; by Piotr J. Wroblel in Chronology of Polish History and Nation and History; and by Raymond Leslie Buell in Poland: Key to Europe ("The Polish Kingdom... was merely a pawn ").
Kiryat Anavim (קִרְיַת עֲנָבִים, lit. City of Grapes) is a kibbutz in the Judean Hills of Israel.
Kiryat Sanz (קריית צאנז) is a Haredi Jewish neighborhood in Jerusalem, Israel.
Kitsman (Кіцмань, Kicmań,, Coțmani, Kotzman, קאצמאן Kotzman) is a city located in Chernivtsi Oblast of western Ukraine.
Klemens Rudnicki (28 March 1897 - 12 June 1992) was a General of the Polish Army, who fought in World War One, Polish-Soviet War and the Invasion of Poland.
The Blessed Hieromartyr Klymentiy Sheptytsky, M.S.U. (Климентій Шептицький; 17 November, 1869 – 1 May, 1951), was an archimandrite of the Order of Studite monks of the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church.
Kołaczyce is a town in Jasło County, Subcarpathian Voivodeship, in south-eastern Poland.
Kościaszyn is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Dołhobyczów, within Hrubieszów County, Lublin Voivodeship, in eastern Poland, close to the border with Ukraine.
Kobylany is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Zabierzów, within Kraków County, Lesser Poland Voivodeship, in southern Poland.
Koidanov (also spelled Koidenov) is a Hasidic dynasty founded by Rabbi Shlomo Chaim Perlow (alternately: Solomon Ḥayyim Perlow) in 1833 in the town of Koidanov (present-day Dzyarzhynsk, Belarus).
Kolbuszowa is a small town in south-eastern Poland, with 9,190 inhabitants (02.06.2009).
Kolel Chibas Jerusalem (כולל חיבת ירושלים), one of the numerous charities known as Charity of Rabbi Meyer Ba'al Ha-Nes — named after the great 2nd century Jewish sage Rabbi Meir — is a large charitable organization based in Jerusalem's Meah Shearim neighbourhood and which supports Jews who have emigrated to the Holy Land from Galicia, a region spanning southeastern Poland and western Ukraine.
Kolomyia or Kolomyya, formerly known as Kolomea (Kolomyja, Kołomyja, Коломыя, Kolomea, Colomeea, קאלאמיי), is a city located on the Prut River in the Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast (province), in western Ukraine.
The kolomyjka (кoлoмийкa, kołomyjka; also referred to as kolomeyka or kolomeike) is a Hutsul music genre that combines a fast paced folk dance and comedic rhymed verses.
The Komancza Republic, also known as the Eastern Lemko Republic (Східно-Ле́мківська Республіка), is a short-lived microstate, an association of thirty three Lemko villages, seated in Komańcza in eastern Lemkivshchyna, that existed between 4 November 1918 and 24 January 1919.
Komarno (Комарно, Komarno, קאָמאַרנע) is a city located in Horodok Raion (district) of Lviv Oblast (region) in western Ukraine.
Konrad Grallert von Cebrów (27 March 1865 – 1942) was a divisional commander in the Austro-Hungarian Army.
Konstantin Biebl (26 February 1898, Slavětín – 12 November 1951, Prague) was a Czech poet and writer.
Prince Konstantine Bagration of Mukhrani (კონსტანტინე ბაგრატიონ-მუხრანელი) (1889 – 1915) was a Georgian nobleman from the House of Mukhrani.
Kontinentale Öl AG (Konti Öl) was a German oil company during World War II.
Kornie is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Lubycza Królewska, within Tomaszów Lubelski County, Lublin Voivodeship, in eastern Poland, close to the border with Ukraine.
Kosiv (Косiв) is a city located in Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast, in western Ukraine.
Kosov is the name of a Hasidic dynasty founded by Rabbi Menachem Mendel Hager of Kosiv, a town in Galicia, presently in Ukraine.
Kostomłoty is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Kodeń, within Biała Podlaska County, Lublin Voivodeship, in eastern Poland, close to the border with Belarus.
Kozova (Ukrainian: Козова; Polish: Kozowa; Russian: Козо́ва) is an urban-type settlement in the Ternopil Oblast (province) of western Ukraine, in the area historically known as Galicia, east of Berezhany, some west of Ternopil and c. southeast of Lviv.
Kraśnik is a town in eastern Poland with 35,602 inhabitants (2012), situated in the Lublin Voivodeship, historic Lesser Poland.
Kraczkowa is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Łańcut, within Łańcut County, Subcarpathian Voivodeship, in south-eastern Poland.
Kraków, also spelled Cracow or Krakow, is the second largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland.
Kraków Department (Polish: Departament krakowski) was a unit of administrative division and local government in Polish Duchy of Warsaw in years 1809–1815.
Kraków Główny Osobowy (commonly called Dworzec Główny, Polish for Main station) is the largest and the most centrally located railway station in Kraków.
The Krakivs'ki Visti (italic, Krakauer Nachrichten – Ukrainische Tageszeitung), was a Ukrainian language newspaper with its original headquarters in Kraków, that was published from 1940 to 1945.
Krasiński (plural: Krasińscy) is the surname of a Polish noble-aristocratic family.
The Kreisky–Peter–Wiesenthal affair was a political and personal feud in the 1970s fought between the then Austrian chancellor Bruno Kreisky and the Nazi hunter Simon Wiesenthal arising from Kreisky's ministerial appointments and the SS past of Freedom Party leader Friedrich Peter, which had been revealed by Wiesenthal.
Kremenets Castle (Кременецький замок, Kremenecio pilis, Zamek w Krzemieńcu) is situated in the city of Kremenets, Ukraine.
Kresy Wschodnie or Kresy (Eastern Borderlands, or Borderlands) was the Eastern part of the Second Polish Republic during the interwar period constituting nearly half of the territory of the state.
Kruševlje (Крушевље) is a small settlement (hamlet) in Serbia.
Liceum Krzemienieckie (Крем'янецький ліцей); sometimes referred to as "the Volhynian Athens" and "Czacki's School") was a renowned Polish secondary school which existed 1805-31 and later, in the Interbellum, in 1922-39 in Krzemieniec (now Kremenets in Ukraine).
Krzewica is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Ulhówek, within Tomaszów Lubelski County, Lublin Voivodeship, in eastern Poland, close to the border with Ukraine.
KS Cracovia, commonly known simply as Cracovia, is a Polish sports club based in Kraków.
Kuryłówka is a village in Leżajsk County, Subcarpathian Voivodeship, in south-eastern Poland.
Kurzyna Wielka is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Ulanów, within Nisko County, Subcarpathian Voivodeship, in south-eastern Poland.
Kuty (Кути translit. Kuty, Kutten, Kuty, Yiddish: קיטעוו translit. Kitev, Cuturi) is an urban-type settlement in Ukraine, on the Cheremosh river, located in Kosiv Raion of Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast.
Kvutzat Shiller, also known as Gan Shlomo (גַּן שְׁלֹמֹה, lit. Solomon's Garden) is a kibbutz in central Israel.
Kysylyn or Kisilin (Кисилин, Kisielin) is a town in Volyn Oblast, Ukraine.
Blessed Ladislas of Gielniów (c. 1440 - 4 May 1505) was a Polish Roman Catholic priest and a professed member of the Order of Friars Minor.
The Lanchester Armoured Car was a British armoured car derived from the Lanchester Sporting Forty touring produced during the First World War.
Landesrabbiner (Rav Medinah) are spiritual heads of the Jewish communities of a country, province, or district, particularly in Germany and Austria.
The "Lands of the Hungarian Crown"Laszlo Péter,, BRILL, 2012, pp.
The Lasowiacy or Lesioki, are a subethnic group of the Polish nation, who reside in Lesser Poland, at the confluence of the Vistula and the San rivers, Subcarpathian Voivodeship, southeastern Poland.
Latvian national partisans were the Latvian national partisans who waged guerrilla warfare against Soviet rule during and after Second World War.
Laura Elizabeth Forster (1858–1917) was an Australian medical doctor, surgeon and nurse noted for her service in France, Belgium, Turkey and Russia during World War I.
Lavr Georgiyevich Kornilov (Лавр Гео́ргиевич Корни́лов,; 18 August 1870 – 13 April 1918) was a Russian military intelligence officer, explorer, and general of Siberian Cossack origin in the Imperial Russian Army during World War I and the ensuing Russian Civil War.
Law enforcement in Poland consists of the Police (Policja), City Guards (Straż Miejska, a type of municipal police), and several smaller specialised agencies.
Léon Gaultier (1 February 1915 Bourges – 18 July 1997) was a French collaborator.
Sarah Rebecca Rachel Leah Horowitz (1715?–1790?), known as Leah Horowitz, was a rabbinic and kabbalistic scholar, who wrote in Yiddish.
Leżajsk (full name The Free Royal City of Leżajsk, Wolne Królewskie Miasto Leżajsk; Лежайськ, Lezhais’k; ליזשענסק-Lizhensk) is a town in southeastern Poland with 13,871 inhabitants.
Legion Wschodni (English: Eastern Legion) was a Polish military formation, part of the Austro-Hungarian Army, created in Lwów, Austrian Galicia, in early August 1914.
Leib Weissberg (January 9, 1893 Probuzina, Poland – 1942 Jasenovac concentration camp) was Slavonski Brod rabbi who was killed during the Holocaust.
The Leitha (Hungarian:,, formerly Sár(-víz); Czech and Slovak: Litava) is a river in Austria and Hungary, a right tributary of the Danube.
Lemkivshchyna or Lemkovyna (Łemkowszczyzna; /Lemkovyna; Лемківщина Lemkivshchyna) is a region in Europe that is traditionally inhabited by the Lemko people.
The Ruthenian National Republic of the Lemkos (Lemko: Руска Народна Република Лемків), often known as the Lemko Republic or the Lemko-Rusyn Republic, was founded on 5 December 1918 in the aftermath of World War I and the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
Leo Aryeh Mayer (ליאון אריה מאיר, 12 January 1895 – 6 April 1959), was an Israeli scholar of Islamic art and rector of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.
Leo Birinski (June 8, 1884 – October 23, 1951) was a playwright, screenwriter and director.
Leo Gross (April 6, 1903 in Krosno, Galicia - November 8, 1990 in Cambridge, Massachusetts) was an Austrian - American lawyer of Jewish descent.
Leo Sternbach (May 7, 1908 – September 28, 2005) was a Polish-Jewish chemist who is credited with discovering benzodiazepines, the main class of tranquilizers.
Chevalier Leon de Biliński (15 June 1846 in Zalischyky, Galicia, now Ukraine – 14 June 1923 in Vienna) was a Polish-Austrian statesman of the Biliński family.
Leon Tadeusz Kozłowski (6 June 1892 – 11 May 1944) was a Polish archaeologist and politician who served as Prime Minister of Poland from 1934 to 1935, before being convicted and sentenced to death for Treason during World War II.
Leon Piniński (8 March 1857 – 4 April 1938) was a Polish scientist, diplomat, art historian and politician.
Leon Sapieha (1803–1878) was a Galician noble (szlachcic) and statesman.
Leon Wasilewski (1870–1936) was an activist of the Polish Socialist Party (PPS), a coworker of Józef Piłsudski, Polish Minister of Foreign Affairs, designer of much of Second Polish Republic policy towards Eastern Europe, historian and father of Halszka Wasilewska and of Wanda Wasilewska.
Leonard Marconi (Warsaw, 6 October 1835 – 1 April 1899, Lviv) was a Polish and Austro-Hungarian architect and sculptor.
Leonard Steckel (18 January 1901 – 9 February 1971) was a German-Jewish actor and director of stage and screen.
Leopold Endel-Ragis (1894–1943) was soldier of the Polish Legions in World War I and the Austro-Hungarian Army, and colonel of infantry of the Polish Army in the Second Polish Republic (1918 - 1939).
Leopold Lis-Kula (nom de guerre Lis) was a Colonel of Infantry of the Polish Army, and recipient of the Virtuti Militari.
Leopold Loeffler, also spelled Löffler, (October 27, 1827 – February 6, 1898), was a Polish realist painter of the late Romantic period popular in the second half of the 19th century under the foreign partitions of Poland.
Leopold Niemirowski (1810, Tahaczyn, Volhynian Governorate - December 1883, Liuboml) was a self-taught Polish painter; exiled to Siberia for his revolutionary activities.
General Leopold Okulicki (noms de guerre Kobra, Niedźwiadek; 1898 – 1946) was a General of the Polish Army and the last commander of the anti-German underground Home Army during World War II.
Leopold Trepper (February 23, 1904 – January 19, 1982) was the organizer of the Soviet spy ring ''Rote Kapelle'' (Red Orchestra) prior to and during World War II.
Leopold Ritter von Sacher-Masoch (27 January 1836 – 9 March 1895) was an Austrian nobleman, writer and journalist, who gained renown for his romantic stories of Galician life.
Leopold Graf von Thun und Hohenstein (7 April 181117 December 1888) was a leading Austrian statesman from the Thun und Hohenstein family.
Lesser Poland (Polish: Małopolska, Latin: Polonia Minor) is a historical region (dzielnica) of Poland; its capital is the city of Kraków.
Lesya Ukrainka (Леся Українка) (born Larysa Petrivna Kosach-Kvitka (Лариса Петрівна Косач-Квітка) (–) is one of Ukrainian literature's foremost writers, best known for her poems and plays. She also was an active political, civil, and feminist activist. Among her most well-known works are the collections of poems On the wings of songs (1893), Thoughts and Dreams (1899), Echos (1902), the epic poem Ancient fairy tale (1893), One word (1903), plays Princess (1913), Cassandra (1903—1907), In the Catacombs (1905), and Forest song (1911).
Lev Blatný (11 April 1894 Brno – 21 June 1930 Poprad-Kvetnica) was a Czech poet, author, theatre critic and Dramaturg.
Lev Gillet (born Louis Gillett; 8 August 1893 - 29 March 1980) was an archimandrite of the Eastern Orthodox Church.
Lev Rebet (January 1, 1912 – October 12, 1957) was a Ukrainian political writer and anti-communist during World War II.
Lgota is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Trzebinia, within Chrzanów County, Lesser Poland Voivodeship, in southern Poland.
The Liburnians (or Liburni) were an ancient Illyrian tribe inhabiting the district called Liburnia, a coastal region of the northeastern Adriatic between the rivers Arsia (Raša) and Titius (Krka) in what is now Croatia.
The Linz Program of 1882 was a political platform that called for the complete Germanization of the Austrian state.
Lionel Bart (1 August 1930 – 3 April 1999) was a writer and composer of British pop music and musicals.
Lionel Royce (March 30, 1891 – April 1, 1946), known also during his European career as Leo Reuss, was an Austrian-American actor of stage and screen.
Lipitsa culture (Romanian Lipiţa, Polish Lipica, German: Lipitza) is the archaeological material culture supposedly representative of a Dacian tribe.
Lipnica Murowana is a village in southern Poland.
Lipschütz ulcer, ulcus vulvae acutum or reactive non-sexually related acute genital ulcers (acute ulceration of the vulva) is a rare disease characterized by painful genital ulcers, fever, and lymphadenopathy, occurring most commonly, but not exclusively, in adolescents and young women.
Liski is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Dołhobyczów, within Hrubieszów County, Lublin Voivodeship, in eastern Poland, close to the border with Ukraine.
The following is a list of adjectival forms of subcontinental regions in English and their demonymic equivalents, which denote the people or the inhabitants of these subcontinental regions.
This is a list of Slavic tribes reported in the Middle Ages, that is, before the year AD 1500.
The following is a list of place names in Canada (primarily Western Canada) whose name origin is in the Ukrainian language.
Most regions and provinces of Europe have alternative names in different languages.
List of Galicia (Eastern Europe) Jews – Jews born in Galicia or identifying themselves as Galitzianer ("Galician" in Yiddish and German).
There are many historical regions of Central Europe.
These lists of historical unrecognized or partially recognized states or governments give an overview of extinct geopolitical entities that wished to be recognized as sovereign states, but did not enjoy worldwide diplomatic recognition.
The following is a list of homonymous states and regions.
This is a list of Jewish architects.
Here is a list of principalities and regions written in the Latin language and English and other names on the right.
The inhabitants of Lviv, Ukraine (Lwów; Lemberg) are commonly known in English as Leopolitans (from the Latin name for the city, Leopolis).
The consort (or spouse) of the royal rulers of Lithuania and of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth was in all cases a woman and nearly all took the title of Grand Duchess.
National symbols of Israel are the symbols that are used in Israel and abroad to represent the country and its people.
The term non-fiction writer covers vast numbers of fields and writers.
This is a list of present-day cities by the time period over which they have been continuously inhabited.
Pantheism is the belief that the universe (or nature as the totality of everything) is identical with divinity, or that everything composes an all-encompassing, immanent God.
The following list includes famous people of various nationalities who were born in or resided for a significant period in Galicia (Eastern Europe), part of Ukraine.
This is a list of individuals who were born and lived in territories currently in Ukraine, both ethnic Ukrainians and those of other ethnicities.
The rise of Hasidic Judaism within Poland's borders and beyond has had a great influence on the rise of neo Haredi Judaism all over the world, with a continuous influence that has been felt from the inception of the Hasidic movements and its dynasties by famous rebbes until the present time.
This is a list of Native Pro-Axis Leaders and Governments or Direct Control in Occupied Territories, including.
This is a list of familicides that occurred in Europe.
This list encompasses all rulers and leaders of what is today Ukraine, from ancient to modern times.
The details of the arrival of the Croats are scarcely documented: c.626, Croats migrate from White Croatia (around what is now Galicia) at the invitation of Eastern Roman Emperor Heraclius.
List of rulers of Halychyna and its sister principality Volhynia.
Below is a list of Russian language exonyms for places, mainly in Europe.
This list of shtetls and shtots (larger towns with significant pre-World War II Jewish populations) is organized by their country.
The szlachta (szlachta) was a privileged social class in the Kingdom of Poland.
This is a list of major cities and towns which belonged to the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria from the Congress of Vienna in 1815 until the dissolution of Austria-Hungary in 1918.
This is the fragmentary list of all of the victims and survivors of Auschwitz concentration camp. This list represents only a sample portion of the 1.1 million victims and some survivors of the Auschwitz death camp and is not intended to be viewed as a representative count by any means.
All divisions in the Waffen-SS were ordered in a single series of numbers as formed, regardless of type.
The Lithuanian Civil War of 1389–92 was the second civil conflict between Jogaila, King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania, and his cousin Vytautas.
The Lithuanian partisans were partisans who waged a guerrilla warfare in Lithuania against the Soviet Union in 1944–1953.
Little Russia, sometimes Little Rus' (Малая Русь, Malaya Rus', Малая Россия, Malaya Rossiya, Малороссия, Malorossiya; Мала Русь, Mala Rus'; or Rus' Minor from Μικρὰ Ῥωσία, Mikrá Rosía), is a geographical and historical term first used by Galician ruler Bolesław-Jerzy II who in 1335 signed his decrees as Dux totius Russiæ minoris.
The Little Russian identity was a cultural, political, and ethnic self-identificationКотенко А. Л., Мартынюк О. В., Миллер А. И. of the elite population of Ukraine who aligned themselves as one of the constituent parts of the triune Russian nationality.
Demetrius of Liubar or Liubartas (also Lubart, Lubko, Lubardus, baptized Dmitry; died) was Prince of Lutsk and Liubar (Volhynia) (1323–1383), Prince of Zhytomyr (1363–1374), Grand Prince of Volhynia (1340–1383), Grand Prince of Galicia and Volhynia (1340–1349).
Lonhyn Tsehelsky (Лонгин Цегельський 29 July 1875 – 30 December 1950) was a Ukrainian lawyer, journalist and political leader who served in the Austrian parliament, who became Secretary of Internal Affairs and the Secretary of Foreign Affairs within the government of the Western Ukrainian People's Republic, and who was one of the founders of the Ukrainian Congress Committee of America.
The Lossberg study was a German military plan prepared by Lieutenant Colonel Bernhard von Lossberg and developed under Alfred Jodl in OKW on September 15, 1940.
Louis Aloysius, Prince of Hohenlohe-Waldenburg-Bartenstein (Ludwig Aloysius Prinz zu Hohenlohe-Waldenburg-Bartenstein) (August 18, 1765 – May 30, 1829) was a German prince and Marshal of France.
Louis Muhlstock, (April 23, 1904 – August 26, 2001) was a Canadian painter best known for his depictions of the Great Depression.
Louis “Leibele” Waldman (June 22, 1907, New York – August 31, 1969, USA) was a Jewish cantor (“chazzan”), composer and actor, the only American born cantor who may be considered as belonging to the great cantors of the so-called "golden age of jewish cantorial music".
Chaplain Louis (Eliezer) Werfel (1916–1943) was one of only six Jewish Chaplains, the first Yeshiva College graduate (YC '37) and the only Orthodox Rabbi (Rabbi Isaac Elchanan Theological Seminary (RIETS) '40) killed in action during the Second World War.
The Lower Morava Valley Czech: Dolnomoravský úval /Jihomoravská pánev also, German: Nieder March Talsenke, Slovak: Dolnomoravský úval) is a geomorphological formation (special type of Valley) in the Moravia (Czech Republic). It is formed by the depression in the western Carpathian Mountains (Ždánice Forest, Kyjov Hills and Mikulov Hills) in the west and Bílé Karpaty and Chvojnice hills in the east. The drainage to the River Morava of the Danube basin runs finally to the Black Sea. Including low watershed Dyje-Morava in Lanžhot. The Lower Morava Valley is a nordest part of Vienna basin (Carpathians) and the corridor to Napajedla Gate, Upper Morava Valley, Moravian Gate and later in final goal North European Plain (Poland- Lower Silesia - Galicia) since ancient times. Here ran one arm of the most important trade routes from southern Europe to the Baltic Sea (e.g. the Amber Road - eastern branch) and also routes from Moravia to Upper Silesia and Lesser Poland. The Emperor Ferdinand Northern Railway (one part) built in 1840-41 from Břeclav (Vienna) to Přerov also traversed the Lower Morava Valley. The Morava and Dyje rivers, Myjava (river), Chvojnice, Trkmanka, Kyjovka as well among others, finishing here in theirs floodplains, and the towns include Břeclav, Hodonín, Uherské Hradiště, Valtice, Poštorná and Mikulčice. Soil horizon - mainly sand, fluvisol and loess, partly chernozem.
Lubaczów (Любачів Liubachiv) is a town in southeastern Poland, close to the border with Ukraine, with 12,567 inhabitants Situated in the Subcarpathian Voivodeship (since 1999), it is the capital of Lubaczów County and is located northeast of Przemyśl.
The Lviv palace of Prince Stanisław Lubomirski was built in the 1760s to Jan de Witte's design on the site of several older houses (one of which had been the property of Szymon Szymonowic).
Lubycza Królewska (Любича Королівська, Liubycha Korolivs’ka) is a town in Tomaszów Lubelski County, Lublin Voivodeship, in eastern Poland, close to the border with Ukraine.
Ludomił Antoni Rayski (December 29, 1892 – April 11, 1977) was a Polish engineer, pilot, military officer and aviator.
Ludwig Goldscheider (3 June 1896 – 26 June 1973) was an Austrian-British publisher, art historian, poet and translator who is known for founding the world-renowned Phaidon Press.
Ludwig Greiner (1796–1882) was an influential 19th-century forest and lumber industry management expert who improved the effectiveness of woodland valuation methods in the Austrian Empire and trained a whole new generation of foresters in a comprehensive approach to the management of natural resources.
Ludwik Antoni Birkenmajer (18 May 1855 - 20 November 1929), Polish historian of science, physicist, astronomer, professor of the Jagiellonian University.
Ludwik Adam Mierosławski (January 17, 1814 in Nemours, Seine-et-Marne – November 22, 1878 in Paris) was a Polish general, writer, poet, historian and political activist.
Ludwik de Delney Misky (1884, Nowy Sącz - 1938, Kraków) was a Polish painter in the Post-Impressionistic style.
Luis Trenker (born Alois Franz Trenker, 4 October 1892 – 13 April 1990) was a South Tyrolean film producer, director, writer, actor, architect, and alpinist.
Luisenschule (initially in Szkoła Luizy, later in Szkoła Ludwiki) was a female school, open in Posen in the years of 1830-1919.
Lviv (Львів; Львов; Lwów; Lemberg; Leopolis; see also other names) is the largest city in western Ukraine and the seventh-largest city in the country overall, with a population of around 728,350 as of 2016.
The Lviv Chronicle (Львівський літопис) is a Ruthenian chronicle from the early seventeenth century Halychyna.
Lviv National Musical Academy named after Mykola Lysenko (Львівська національна музична академія імені Миколи Лисенка) or informally Lviv Conservatory is a state conservatory located in Lviv (Ukraine).
Lviv-Holovnyi railway station (Льві́в-Головни́й) is the main railway terminal in Lviv, Ukraine.
The Solomiya Krushelnytska Lviv State Academic Theatre of Opera and Ballet (Львівський Національний академічний театр опери та балету імені Соломії Крушельницької) or Lviv Opera (Львівська оперa, Opera Lwowska) is an opera house located in Lviv, Ukraine's largest western city and one of its historic cultural centers.
Lwów Eaglets (Orlęta Lwowskie) is a term of affection applied to the Polish teenagers who defended the city of Lwów (L'viv) in Eastern Galicia, during the Polish-Ukrainian War (1918–1919).
The Lwów pogrom (pogrom lwowski, Lemberg pogrom) was a pogrom of the Jewish population of the city of Lwów (since 1945, Lviv, Ukraine) that took place on November 21–23, 1918 during the Polish–Ukrainian War, in the aftermath of World War I. The Ukrainian National Council proclaimed the formation of the Ukrainian Republic on November 1, 1918 with Lviv as its capital.
The Lwów dialect (gwara lwowska, Львівська ґвара) is a subdialect (gwara) of the Polish language characteristic of the inhabitants of the city of Lviv (Lwów, Львів), now in Ukraine.
Lypivka (Липівка) is a village (selo) in western Ukraine.
Mahammad Hadi or Agha-Mahammad Haji-Abdulsalim oglu Abdulsalimzade (Məhəmməd Əbdülsəlimzadə Hadi Şirvani; 1879, Shamakhi - 1920, Ganja) was an Azerbaijani romanticist poet.
Mahanayim (מחניים, מַחֲנַיִם) is a kibbutz in northern Israel.
Maksymilian Siła-Nowicki (9 October 1826 – 30 October 1890) was a Polish zoology professor and pioneer conservationist in Austrian Poland, and father of the poet Franciszek Nowicki.
Malekhiv (Мале́хів) — village in Zhovkva Raion of Lviv region (Lviv Oblast), is located at a distance of northeast of the city Lviv.
Malka Lee (Yiddish: מלכה לי) (July 4, 1904 – March 22, 1976) was an American poet and author.
Malka Rokeach (מלכה רוקח) was the first rebbetzin of the Hasidic dynasty of Belz.
Manasse Herbst (1 November 1913 in Galicia, Austria-Hungary – 3 January 1997 in Hallandale, Florida, US) was a German-speaking silent movie actor, child-actor, theater actor and singer.
Mandyk Khasman (born in 1929 as Mandel Khasman, also 'Volodymyr Dmytrenko') is a former soldier in the Ukrainian Insurgent Army (UPA), and an ethnic Jew.
von und zu Manndorff zu Pfannhofen und Wissenau are an Austrian nobility family, more specifically the Uradel (old nobility).
Manuel I Komnenos (or Comnenus; Μανουήλ Α' Κομνηνός, Manouēl I Komnēnos; 28 November 1118 – 24 September 1180) was a Byzantine Emperor of the 12th century who reigned over a crucial turning point in the history of Byzantium and the Mediterranean.
Maramureș (Maramureș; Мармарощина, Marmaroshchyna) is a geographical, historical and cultural region in northern Romania and western Ukraine.
The following events occurred in March 1915.
Marcin Bielski (or Wolski; 1495 – 18 December 1575) was a Polish soldier, historian, chronicler, renaissance satirical poet, writer and translator.
Marcus Richard Einfeld (born 22 September 1938) is a former Australian judge who served on the Federal Court of Australia and was the inaugural president of the Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission.
Maria of Galicia (before 1293- 11 January 1341) was a princess of Galicia-Volhynia and a member of the Rurik Dynasty.
Maria Piłsudska, née Koplewska (1865 – 17 August 1921), was the first wife of Poland's Marshal Józef Piłsudski and ostensibly the first lady of Poland during most of his service as Poland's Chief of State.
Maria Zankovetska Theatre (Національний академічний український драматичний театр імені Марії Заньковецької, Natsionalnyi akademichnyi ukrayinskyi dramatychnyi teatr imeni Mariyi Zankovetskoyi; Teatr Skarbkowski) is a drama theatre in the centre of Lviv, Ukraine, at the intersection of Lesya Ukrayinka Street and Prospekt Svobody.
Marian Porwit (1895-1988) was a Polish military officer, a Colonel of the Polish Army and a military historian.
Marian Turkowski (1894 - 1948) was a soldier of Polish Legions in World War I and Polish II Corps in Russia, and officer, later General brygady of the Polish Army.
Marie Louise (Maria Ludovica Leopoldina Franziska Therese Josepha Lucia; Italian: Maria Luigia Leopoldina Francesca Teresa Giuseppa Lucia; 12 December 1791 – 17 December 1847) was an Austrian archduchess who reigned as Duchess of Parma from 1814 until her death.
The Maritime and Colonial League (Polish: Liga Morska i Kolonialna) was a mass Polish social organization, created in 1930 out of the Maritime and River League (Liga Morska i Rzeczna).
Mariyka Pidhiryanka (Марійка Підгірянка, 1881–1963) was a Ukrainian poet, best remembered for her children's poetry though she also wrote adult work on patriotic themes.
Marko Cheremshyna (Марко Черемшина) (other name: Ivan Semaniuk, Іван Семанюк), (born 13 June 1874 in Kobaky, Galicia; died 25 April 1927 in Kobaky) was a Ukrainian writer of Hutsul background.
Markus von Jabornegg zu Gamsenegg und Moderndorf (17 March 1837, Klagenfurt – 6 May 1910, Klagenfurt) was an Austrian government official and botanist.
Marlene Johanna Norst (24 March 1930 in Vienna – 20 December 2010 in Sydney) was an Australian linguist, pedagogue and philanthropist of Austrian heritage.
Mascha Kaléko (born Golda Malka Aufen; June 7, 1907 – January 21, 1975) was a Jewish German language poet.
The massacres of Poles in Volhynia and Eastern Galicia (rzeź wołyńska, literally: Volhynian slaughter; Волинська трагедія., Volyn tragedy), were part of an ethnic cleansing operation carried out in Nazi German-occupied Poland by the Ukrainian Insurgent Army (UPA) against Poles in the area of Volhynia, Polesia, Lublin region and Eastern Galicia beginning in 1943 and lasting up to 1945.
Mateusz (or Mieczysław) Rudkowski (also Матвій Рудковський; ca.1809 — ca.1887) was a Ukrainian-Polish composer of choral and piano music.
Moritz (Zvi) von Hirsch, also known as Maurice de Hirsch (Moritz Freiherr von Hirsch auf Gereuth; Maurice, baron de Hirsch de Gereuth; 9 December 1831 – 21 April 1896), was a German Jewish financier and philanthropist who set up charitable foundations to promote Jewish education and improve the lot of oppressed European Jewry.
Maurice Schwartz, born Avram Moishe Schwartz (June 15, 1889 – May 10, 1960), born Galicia (then part of the Austrian Empire), was a stage and film actor active in the United States. He founded the Yiddish Art Theatre and its associated school in 1918 in New York City and was its theatrical producer and director. He also worked in Hollywood, mostly as an actor in silent films but also as a film director, producer, and screenwriter.
Roberto Mauro Cantoro (born 1 September 1976 in Ramos Mejia, La Matanza Partido, Argentina), nicknamed El Toro, is an Argentine footballer, who plays for León de Huánuco.
Maurycy Gottlieb; February 21/28, 1856 – July 17, 1879) was a Polish Jewish realist painter of the Romantic period.
Max David Bacon (1 March 1904, London, England, UK – 3 December 1969, London, England, UK) was a British actor, comedian and musician (drummer and occasional vocalist in Ambrose's band).
Moses "Max" Beer (1864–1943) was an Austrian-born Marxist journalist, economist, and historian.
Maksymilian "Maximilian" Fabian (May 1, 1891, Lemberg, Galicia, Austria-Hungary – June 30, 1969, Los Angeles, California) was a Polish-Jewish cinematographer who is credited on 16 films.
Max Glass (June 12, 1881 – July 18, 1965) was an Austrian screenwriter and film producer.
Max Judd (Maximilian Judkiewicz) (27 December 1851, Tenczynek near Kraków, Poland – 7 May 1906, St. Louis, USA) was an American chess master.
Max Margules was a mathematician, physicist, and chemist.
Max Nomad (1881, Buchach, Halychyna, now Ukraine – 1973) is the pseudonym of Austrian author and educator Maximilian Nacht.
May 18 - Eastern Orthodox Church calendar - May 20 All fixed commemorations below celebrated on June 1 by Orthodox Churches on the Old Calendar.
The following events occurred in May 1915.
The following events occurred in May 1922.
Máramaros (Maramureș; Rusyn: Мараморош / Maramorosh, Мараморыш / Maramorŷsh; Мармарощина – Marmaroshchyna; Marmatia) was an administrative county (comitatus) of the Kingdom of Hungary.
Mārtiņš Peniķis (1874–1964) was a Latvian general and commander in chief of Latvian Army from 1928 to 1934.
Medzilaborce (Міжлабірці, Mizhlabirtsi, Меджілабірці, Medžilabirci) is a town in northeastern Slovakia close to the border with Poland, located near the towns of Sanok and Bukowsko (in southeastern Małopolska).
Rabbi Meir Arik (1855–1926) is a famous Galician Torah scholar.
Meir Eisenstaedter (Meir ben Judah Leib Eisenstädter, 1780-1852) was a nineteenth-century rabbi, Talmudist, and paytan (liturgic poet).
Yehuda Meir Shapiro (or Shapira) (March 3, 1887 – October 27, 1933), was a prominent Polish Hasidic rabbi and rosh yeshiva, also known as the Lubliner Rav.
Meir Ya'ari (מאיר יערי, 24 April 1897 – 21 February 1987) was an Israeli politician, educator and social activist.
Meisenheim is a town in the Bad Kreuznach district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.
Chona Menachem Mendel (Mendel) Weinbach (September 24, 1933 – December 11, 2012) was an Orthodox Jewish rabbi and one of the fathers of the modern-day baal teshuva movement.
Merhavia (מֶרְחַבְיָה, lit. Great Enlargement – God) is a kibbutz in northern Israel.
Michał Bałucki, pseudonym Elpidon (born September 29, 1837 in Kraków; died October 17, 1901 in Kraków), was a Polish playwright and poet.
Michał Bobrzyński (Michael Bobrzynski (30 September 1849 – 3 July 1935) was a Polish historian and conservatist politician.
Michał Grażyński (May 12, 1890, in Gdów – December 10, 1965, in London, United Kingdom) was a Polish military leader, social and political activist, doctor of philosophy and law, voivode of the Silesian Voivodeship, Scouting activist and president of Związek Harcerstwa Polskiego.
Michael Hnatiuk (Ukrainian: Михайло Гнатюк, born 1883 in Sasov, Galicia, Austria-Hungary) was an Austrian-Hungarian-Ukrainian officer and commander of a legion of the Ukrainian Sich Riflemen.
Michael from the kindred Kacsics (Kacsics nembeli Mihály, Mihovil Kačić; died after 1228) was a Hungarian distinguished nobleman from the gens Kacsics (Kačić).
Michael I. Karpin (Hebrew מיכאל קרפין, born on 29 November 1945) is an Israeli broadcast journalist and author, best known for his investigative documentaries and books, revealing two of Israel's most concealed affairs: The creation of the country's nuclear capability and the nationalistic-messianic incitement campaign that preceded the assassination of Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin.
Michael Nicholas Pocalyko (Михайло Микола Поцілуйко) (born December 24, 1954) is an American businessman and writer.
Sir Michael Sobell (1 November 1, 1892 – 1 September 1993) was a British businessman, a major philanthropist, and a prominent owner/breeder of thoroughbred racehorses.
Michael von Kienmayer (17 January 1756 – 28 October 1828) was an Austrian general.
Michalovce (Nagymihály, Großmichel, Romani: Mihalya, Yiddish: Mikhaylovets or Mykhaylovyts; Михайлівці) is a town on the Laborec river in eastern Slovakia.
Brigadier General Mieczysław Makary Smorawiński (1893–1940), was a Polish military commander and officer of the Polish Army.
Mieczyslaw Rys-Trojanowski (October 21, 1881 in Krośniewice – April 4, 1945 in Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp) was a General brygady of Polish Army in the Second Polish Republic.
Count Mihály Ádám György Miklós Károlyi de Nagykároly (4 March 1875 – 19 March 1955) was briefly Hungary's leader from 1918 to 1919 during the short-lived First Hungarian People's Republic.
Mike Mazurki (25 December 1907 – 9 December 1990), was an American actor and professional wrestler who appeared in more than 100 films.
Mikhail Vasilyevich Alekseyev (Михаил Васильевич Алексеев) (3 November 1857 – 8 October 1918) was an Imperial Russian Army general during World War I and the Russian Civil War.
Mikołaj Zyblikiewicz (November 28, 1823 – May 16, 1887; Миколай Зиблікевич) was a Polish politician and lawyer of Ruthenian origin.
Milówka is a village in Żywiec County, Silesian Voivodeship, in southern Poland (historic province of Lesser Poland).
Milena Rudnytska (Мілена Рудницька: 15 July 1892 – 29 March 1979) was a Ukrainian educator, women's activist, politician and writer.
Jewish Americans have served in the United States armed forces dating back to before the colonial era, when Jews had served in militias of the Thirteen Colonies.
The Millennium of Russia (Russian Тысячелетие России) is a bronze monument in the Novgorod Kremlin.
Miloš Crnjanski (Милош Црњански,; 26 October 1893 – 30 November 1977) was a poet of the expressionist wing of Serbian modernism, author, and a diplomat.
Miodownik, or chonek łejkech (German: Honig), is a dessert cake which, together with the cuker łejkech, serves as a popular wedding cake in Jewish cuisine.
Mirko Virius (October 28, 1889 – 1943) was a Croatian naïve painter.
Mishmar HaEmek (מִשְׁמַר הָעֵמֶק,. "Guard of the Valley") is a kibbutz in northern Israel.
Mizra (מִזְרָע, lit. Sowing) is a kibbutz in northern Israel.
Modern Hebrew poetry is poetry written in the Hebrew language.
Modern history, the modern period or the modern era, is the linear, global, historiographical approach to the time frame after post-classical history.
Ukraine emerges as the concept of a nation, and the Ukrainians as a nationality, with the Ukrainian National Revival which is believed started sometime at the end of 18th and the beginning of 19th century.
Moldavia (Moldova, or Țara Moldovei (in Romanian Latin alphabet), Цара Мѡлдовєй (in old Romanian Cyrillic alphabet) is a historical region and former principality in Central and Eastern Europe, corresponding to the territory between the Eastern Carpathians and the Dniester River. An initially independent and later autonomous state, it existed from the 14th century to 1859, when it united with Wallachia (Țara Românească) as the basis of the modern Romanian state; at various times, Moldavia included the regions of Bessarabia (with the Budjak), all of Bukovina and Hertza. The region of Pokuttya was also part of it for a period of time. The western half of Moldavia is now part of Romania, the eastern side belongs to the Republic of Moldova, and the northern and southeastern parts are territories of Ukraine.
Moldova (or sometimes), officially the Republic of Moldova (Republica Moldova), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe, bordered by Romania to the west and Ukraine to the north, east, and south (by way of the disputed territory of Transnistria).
Molly Picon (מאָלי פּיקאָן; February 28, 1898 – April 5, 1992) was a U.S. actress of stage, screen and television, as well as a lyricist and dramatic story-teller.
The Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, also known as the Nazi–Soviet Pact,Charles Peters (2005), Five Days in Philadelphia: The Amazing "We Want Willkie!" Convention of 1940 and How It Freed FDR to Save the Western World, New York: PublicAffairs, Ch.
Monastyryska (Монастириська; Monasterzyska) is a town in Ternopil Oblast, Ukraine.
Mordecai Ardon (מרדכי ארדון, July 13, 1896 – June 18, 1992) was an Israeli painter.
Mordechai Oren (1905–1985) was a leader of Mapam and the Kibbutz Artzi Hashomer Hatzair.
Moritz Szeps, also Moriz Szeps (5 November 1835, in Busk, Austrian Galicia (now in Lviv Oblast of Ukraine) - 9 August 1902, in Vienna, Austria) was an Austrian journalist and newspaper owner.
Rabbi Morris Aaron Gutstein (February 26, 1905 – April 21, 1987) was an American rabbi.
Morris Katz (born Moshe Katz on March 5, 1932 – November 12, 2010) was a Polish-American painter.
Morton Leon Mandel (born September 19, 1921) is an American business magnate, entrepreneur, and philanthropist.
Moses Ha-Levi Horowitz (February 27, 1844Baker 1998. – March 4, 1910), also known as Moishe Hurvitz, Moishe Isaac Halevy-Hurvitz, etc., was a playwright and actor in the early years of Yiddish theater.
Rabbi Moses Josef Rubin (1892–1980) was a Hasidic Jewish cleric in Romania and later in the United States (New York City), a scion of the Kosov-Seret dynasty.
Moses Levi Ehrenreich (1818 at Brody, Galicia – December 27, 1899 at Rome) was an Italian rabbi, who became chief rabbi at Rome.
Moses Rosen (known in Hebrew as David Moshe Rosen) (July 23, 1912 – May 6, 1994) was Chief Rabbi (Rav Kolel) of Romanian Jewry between 1948–1994 and president of the Federation of Jewish Communities of Romania between 1964–1994.
Moses Schorr, Polish: Mojżesz Schorr (May 10, 1874 – July 8, 1941) was a rabbi, Polish historian, politician, Bible scholar, assyriologist and orientalist.
Rabbi Moshe ben Avraham of Przemyśl was a Galician rabbi; born at Przemysl about 1550; died at Opatow 1606.
Moshe Halbertal (משה הלברטל; born Montevideo, Uruguay, 1958) is a noted Israeli philosopher, professor, and writer, and a noted expert on Maimonides.
Rabbi Moshe Meshullam Halevy Horowitz (1832–1894) was a Galician rabbi.
Moshe Yegar (משה יגר.); born 30 October 1930, Buenos Aires, is a retired Israeli diplomat and historian of Islam in Southeast Asia; also, he is author of books and research articles on the history of Zionism during the British Mandate, and about Israel's Ministry of Foreign Affairs and its policies and activities.
Mostki (Містки, Mistky) is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Jarocin, within Nisko County, Subcarpathian Voivodeship, in south-eastern Poland.
Mosty Małe is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Lubycza Królewska, within Tomaszów Lubelski County, Lublin Voivodeship, in eastern Poland, close to the border with Ukraine.
Mostýs’ka (Мости́ська, Mościski, or Mościska, both in the plural, is a city in Lviv Oblast (region) of the Ukraine. It is the administrative center of the Mostyska Raion. Population:. The names Mościski and Mostyska share a common etymological Slav root "most", which means "bridge", or the place associated with "river crossings". In 1340, Mostyska, together with the territory of Red Ruthenia, was annexed by Polish King Kazimierz Wielki, and the town remained in Poland for over 400 years, until 1772 (see Partitions of Poland). Mościski, as it was called, was in the Przemyśl region, and the Ruthenian Voivodeship. In 1404, King Wladyslaw Jagiello granted it a Magdeburg town charter. Mościski was the seat of a starosta, and the town was several times destroyed during Tatar, Turkish and Wallachian raids. In the late 18th century, when it was already part of Austrian Galicia, the population of Mościski was 2,200, with a large Jewish minority. During the Second Polish Republic, Mościski was a county seat in Lwow Voivodeship, with its population reaching 5,000. In late September 1939, during the Invasion of Poland, Mościski was seized by the Red Army. Its ethnic Polish population was routed, with thousands sent to Siberia. In June 1941, the town was captured by the Wehrmacht, which remained there until July 1944. In the autumn of 1945, the deportation, or so-called "repatriation", of Poles began (see Polish population transfers (1944–46)). It lasted until 1948, and as a result, most ethnic Poles were forced out of the town, together with monks from the foundation monastery of the Redemptorist fathers. This was the redemptorists' "Mother house" re-established in Poland for a third time in 1883 after the order's expulsion by Napoleon in 1809. Most of the priests left in the summer 1946, taking with them the holy icon and everything they were allowed to carry with them, including sculptures and clothes. Those who remained were arrested in May 1948 by the NKVD secret police, with two of the priests sent to Siberia. Afterwards, the complex of the monastery was turned into a warehouse. Currently, it serves as a hospital. Today, Mostyska is one of main centres of the Polish minority in Ukraine. In 1989, a regional office of the Association of Polish Culture of the Lviv Land was opened. At present Poles make up 36% of population. In 2002, a Polish - language middle school was opened with 250 students.
Moyshe-Leyb Halpern (January 2, 1886 – August 31, 1932) was a Yiddish-language modernist poet.
This article discusses the nationality of the composer Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756–1791).
Patriarch Mstyslav, secular name Stepan Ivanovych Skrypnyk (10 April 1898 – 11 June 1993), was a Ukrainian Orthodox Church hierarch.
Mszana Dolna is a town in Limanowa County, Lesser Poland Voivodeship, Poland, with 7,431 inhabitants (2004).
Muhammad Asad (محمد أسد /muħammad ʔasad/, محمد أسد, born Leopold Weiss; 12 July 1900 – 20 February 1992) was a Jewish-born Austro-Hungarian Muslim journalist, traveler, writer, linguist, thinker, political theorist, diplomat and Islamic scholar.
Mukachevo (Мукачево, Rusyn: Мукачево, Munkács, Mukačevo, Mukačevo; see name section) is a city located in the valley of the Latorica river in Zakarpattia Oblast (province), in Western Ukraine.
Munkatch (or Munkacs) Hasidism (חסידות מונקאטש) is a Hasidic sect within Haredi Judaism of mostly Hungarian Hasidic Jews.
Muszyna is a town in Lesser Poland Voivodeship, southern Poland.
Myślenice is a town in southern Poland, situated in the Lesser Poland Voivodeship (since 1999), previously in Kraków Voivodeship (1975–1998).
Mykhailo Serhiyovych Hrushevsky (Михайло Сергійович Грушевський, Mychajło Hruszewski | Chełm, – Kislovodsk, 24 November 1934) was a Ukrainian and Soviet academician, politician, historian, and statesman, one of the most important figures of the Ukrainian national revival of the early 20th century.
Mykhailo Mykhailovych Kotsiubynsky (Михайло Михайлович Коцюбинський), (September 17, 1864 – April 25, 1913) was a Ukrainian author whose writings described typical Ukrainian life at the start of the 20th century.
Mykhailo Mykhailovych Verbytsky (Михайло Михайлович Вербицький; March 4, 1815 – December 7, 1870) was a Ukrainian Greek Catholic priest and composer.
Mykhailo Yalovy (Михайло Омелянович Яловий) (June 5, 1895 - November 3, 1937) was a Ukrainian communist poet-futurist, prose writer, playwright.
Mykola Lebed (Микола Лебідь; January 11, 1909 – July 18, 1998), also known as Maksym Ruban, Marko or Yevhen Skyrba, was a Ukrainian political activist, Ukrainian nationalist, and guerrilla fighter.
Mykola Lemyk (Микола Лемик) (April 4, 1914 in Soloviy, Galicia — October 1941 in Myrhorod, Soviet Union, now Ukraine) was a Ukrainian political activist and leader of the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists (OUN).
Myron Tarnavsky (Мирон Тарнавський (August 29, 1869 in Baryliv, Galicia, Austria-Hungary now Ukraine – June 29, 1938 in Lviv), was a supreme commander of the Ukrainian Galician Army, the military of the West Ukrainian People's Republic.
Nachman HaKohen Krochmal (born in Brody, Galicia, on 17 February 1785; died at Ternopil on 31 July 1840) was a Jewish Galician philosopher, theologian, and historian.
Nadolany (Надоляни, Nadoliany), supper oppido toto Nowothanecz et suburbis – 1446, Nowothanyecz cum supperiori suburbio - 1486, Wiesz Nadoliany – 1589, Nadolany – 1699, village in East Małopolska in the Lesser Beskid mountains, Bukowsko rural commune, parish in Nowotaniec.
Nadvorna is a Hasidic rabbinical dynasty within Orthodox Judaism.
Naftali Herz Imber (נפתלי הרץ אימבר, נפתלי הערץ אימבער; December 27, 1856 – October 8, 1909) was a Jewish Hebrew-language poet, most notable for writing a poem on which "Hatikvah", the Israeli national anthem, is based.
Naftali (also spelled Naftula) Tzvi Labin of Zidichov (נפתלי צבי לאבין מזידיטשוב) (c. 1916 – March 6, 2009) was the Zidichover Rebbe.
Rabbi Naftali Zvi Horowitz of Ropshitz (May 22, 1760 – May 8, 1827) was born on the day that the Baal Shem Tov died, to Rabbi Menachem Mendel Rubin of Linsk.
Naftule Brandwein, or Naftuli Brandwine, (1884–1963) was a Jewish clarinetist and influential klezmer musician.
Nagórzany (Нагоряни, Nahoriany), supper oppido toto Nowothanecz et suburbis – 1446, Nowothanyecz cum supperiori suburbio 1486, Wolia Przedmieszczie Nagórzany 1589, Przedmieście Nowotanieckie Górne, village in East Małopolska in the Lesser Beskid mountains, Bukowsko rural commune, parish in Nowotaniec.
Nahman Avigad (Hebrew: נחמן אביגד, September 25, 1905 – January 28, 1992), born in Zawalow, Galicia (then Austria, now Zavaliv, Ukraine), was an Israeli archaeologist.
The Nalyvaiko Uprising (powstanie Nalewajki, повстання Наливайка) was a failed Cossack rebellion against the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
Napoleon Mateusz Tadeusz Orda (Напалео́н О́рда; February 11, 1807 – April 26, 1883) was a Polish-Lithuanian musician, pianist, composer and artist, best known for numerous sketches of historical sites of present-day Belarus, Ukraine, Lithuania, and Poland.
A narodny dim (народний дім) is a community hall, used for cultural and social purposes by Ukrainians in Ukraine and in the Ukrainian diaspora.
Narol is a dynasty of Hasidic rebbes originally based in the village of Narol, W. Galicia (now Poland).
Nataliya Kobrynska (June 8, 1851 – January 22, 1920) was a Ukrainian writer, feminist and activist.
Nathan Ausubel (1898–1986) was an American historian, folklorist and humorist.
---- Nathan Birnbaum (נתן בירנבוים; pseudonyms: "Mathias Acher", "Dr. N. Birner", "Mathias Palme", "Anton Skart", "Theodor Schwarz", and "Pantarhei"; 16 May 1864 – 2 April 1937) was an Austrian writer and journalist, Jewish thinker and nationalist.
Nathan Handwerker (June 14, 1892 – March 24, 1974) at the United States Social Security Death Index via FamilySearch.org.
Nathan Saul Mendelsohn, (April 14, 1917 – July 4, 2006) was an American-born mathematician who lived and worked in Canada.
Nathan Rotenstreich (נתן רוטנשטרייך; born 31 March 1914, died 11 October 1993) was an Israeli professor of philosophy.
The National Art Museum of Ukraine (Національний Художній Музей України) is a museum dedicated to Ukrainian art in Kiev, Ukraine.
National Independence Day (Narodowe Święto Niepodległości) is a national day in Poland celebrated on 11 November to commemorate the anniversary of the restoration of Poland's sovereignty as the Second Polish Republic in 1918 from the German, Austrian and Russian Empires.
The natural gas transmission system of Ukraine is a complex of natural gas transmission pipelines for gas import and transit in Ukraine.
Seven neighbourhoods are of considerable note: Regina's residential areas, apart from the remaining residential portion of the original town between the CPR tracks and Wascana Lake to the immediate south of the central business district, are largely typical of western Canadian cities, mostly consisting of unremarkable post-World War II single-family dwellings on substantial lots.
Bishop Neil Nicholas Savaryn, O.S.B.M. (Ніл Микола Саварин; 19 May 1905 in Staryi Sambir, Austro-Hungarian Empire (present day Lviv Oblast, Ukraine) – 8 January 1986 in Edmonton, Canada) was a Ukrainian-born Canadian Ukrainian Greek Catholic hierarch.
Nemyriv (Niemirów) is an urban-type settlement and a health resort 21 kilometres from Rava-Ruska in Yavoriv Raion, Lviv Oblast (province) of Ukraine.
Nestor Dmytriw (1863 – May 27, 1925) was a Ukrainian Catholic priest, author and translator.
Nestor Nyzhankivsky (Nestor Ostapovych Nyzhankivsky) (Не́стор Оста́пович Нижанкі́вський); August 31, 1893, Berezhany Ternopil region now – April 12, 1940, Lodz, Poland (Son Ostap Nyzhankivsky) – Ukrainian composer, pianist and music critic.
Metropolitan Nicholas (Митрополит Николай, born as Boris Dorofeyevich Yarusevich, Борис Дорофеевич Ярушевич; January 13, 1892 (December 31, 1891 OS), Kovno – December 13, 1961, Moscow), was a bishop of the Russian Orthodox Church.
Nicholas Volodymir (Val) Bachynsky (September 16, 1887 in Eastern Galicia – August 14, 1969) was a politician in Manitoba, Canada.
Nicholas II or Nikolai II (r; 1868 – 17 July 1918), known as Saint Nicholas II of Russia in the Russian Orthodox Church, was the last Emperor of Russia, ruling from 1 November 1894 until his forced abdication on 15 March 1917.
Niebylec is a village in Strzyżów County, Subcarpathian Voivodeship, in south-eastern Poland.
Night (1960) is a work by Elie Wiesel about his experience with his father in the Nazi German concentration camps at Auschwitz and Buchenwald in 1944–1945, at the height of the Holocaust toward the end of the Second World War.
Nikolai Ivanovich Kuznetsov (Николай Иванович Кузнецов) (July 27, 1911 – March 9, 1944) was a Soviet intelligence agent and partisan who operated in Nazi-occupied Ukraine (Reichskommissariat Ukraine) during World War II and who personally killed six high-ranking German officials.
Nisko is a town in Nisko County, Subcarpathian Voivodeship, Poland on the San River, with a population of 15,534 inhabitants as of 2 June 2009.
Norman M. Naimark (born 1944 in New York City) is an American historian.
Norman Podhoretz (born January 16, 1930) is an American neoconservative pundit and writer for Commentary magazine.
Northern Maramuresh is a geographic-historical region comprising roughly the eastern half of the Zakarpattia Oblast in southwestern Ukraine, near the border with Romania.
Novi Sad (Нови Сад,; Újvidék; Nový Sad; see below for other names) is the second largest city of Serbia, the capital of the autonomous province of Vojvodina and the administrative center of the South Bačka District.
Nowa Góra (en. New Mountain) is a village in Poland in Gmina Krzeszowice, Kraków County, Lesser Poland Voivodeship.
Nowe Brzesko is a town in Proszowice County, Lesser Poland Voivodeship, in southern Poland.
Nowosiółki Kardynalskie is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Lubycza Królewska, within Tomaszów Lubelski County, Lublin Voivodeship, in eastern Poland, close to the border with Ukraine.
Nowotaniec (Lobetanz, 1409; ד בנוביטַניץ' Novitanitz; Новотанець, Novotanets’) is a village in south-eastern Poland, inhabited by about 430 (2002), in the Pogórze Bukowskie (Bukowsko Upland) mountains.
Nowy Żmigród, until 1946 Żmigród (זשמיגראד / Zhmigrid, Schmiedeburg.), is a village and rural municipality (gmina) in Jasło County, Subcarpathian Voivodeship, Poland, WNW of Dukla and south of Jasło.
Nowy Sącz is a city in the Lesser Poland Voivodeship of southern Poland.
Nowy Sącz County (powiat nowosądecki) is a unit of territorial administration and local government (powiat) in Lesser Poland Voivodeship, southern Poland, on the Slovak border.
The obsolete units of measurement of German-speaking countries consist of a variety of units, with varying local standard definitions.
The Ochipok (Очіпок, also намітка, namitka; перемітка, peremitka; серпанок, serpanok; рантух, rantukh; склендячка, sklendyachka; хустка, khustka) is a married woman's headdress as part of traditional Ukrainian folk dress, often decorated with Ukrainian embroidery.
The following events occurred in October 1914.
The Oder–Neisse line (granica na Odrze i Nysie Łużyckiej, Oder-Neiße-Grenze) is the international border between Germany and Poland.
Odo Dobrowolski (born 1883 in Chernivtsi, died 1917 in Kiev) was a Polish painter.
Okopy (Окопи, Okopy Świętej Trójcy, Okup) is a village (selo) in western Ukraine.
Oleh Yaroslavovych Tyahnybok (Оле́г Яросла́вович Тягнибо́к, born 7 November 1968) is a Ukrainian politician who is a former member of the Verkhovna Rada and the leader of the nationalist far-right Svoboda political party.
Oleksa Mykolajovych Hirnyk (Олекса Миколайович Гiрник, Oleksa Mykolajovyč Hirnyk) (28 March 1912 – 21 January 1978) was a Ukrainian Soviet dissident, an engineer by profession, who burned himself to death as an act of protest against Soviet suppression of the Ukrainian language, culture and history.
Oleksander Barvinsky (Олександр Барвiнський.) (June 8, 1847 – December 25, 1926) was an important western Ukrainian cultural figure and politician, a founder of the Christian Social Party in western Ukraine.
Oleksander Petrovych Hrekov (Олександр Петрович Греков) (4 December 1875 – 2 December 1958) was a general of the Imperial Russian Army, Ukrainian People's Army, military professor and one of the most prominent personalities in the History of Ukraine.
Oleksandr Yakovych Konysky (August 18, 1836 – December 12, 1900) was a Ukrainian interpreter, writer, lexicographer, pedagogue, poet, and civil activist of liberal direction.
Olena Kulchytska (Олена Кульчицька) (born 15 September 1877, Berezhany, Galicia - died 8 March 1967, Lviv) is a Ukrainian artist, teacher, and civil activist.
Oleszyce (Олешичі, Oleshychi) is a small town in Subcarpathian Voivodeship, Poland, with 3,089 inhabitants (02.06.2009).
Commander Oliver Stillingfleet Locker-Lampson, CMG, DSO (25 September 1880 (Belgravia, London) – 8 October 1954 (Kensington, London)) was a British politician and naval officer.
Omeljan Pritsak (Омеля́н Пріца́к; 7 April 1919, Luka, Sambir County, West Ukrainian People's Republic – 29 May 2006, Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.) was the first Mykhailo Hrushevsky Professor of Ukrainian History at Harvard University and the founder and first director (1973–1989) of the Harvard Ukrainian Research Institute.
Omer Bartov (Hebrew: עֹמֶר בַּרְטוֹב; pronounced ʕoˈmer ˈbartov; born 1954) is the John P. Birkelund Distinguished Professor of European History and Professor of History and Professor of German Studies at Brown University.
One Thousand Roads to Mecca: Ten Centuries of Travelers Writing About the Muslim Pilgrimage is a collection of travel journals edited by Michael Wolfe and published in 1999.
Onufriivka Raion is a raion (district) of Kirovohrad Oblast in central Ukraine.
Opatowiec is a village in Kazimierza County, Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship, in south-central Poland.
Orest Zerebko (September 15, 1887 – February 21, 1943) was a Galician-born journalist and political figure in Saskatchewan.
Organic work (praca organiczna) was a term adopted from Herbert Spencer by the 19th century Polish positivists, denoting an ideology demanding that the vital powers of the nation be spent on labour (i.e. work at the foundations) rather than fruitless national uprisings against the overwhelming military presence of the neighbouring empires.
The Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists (OUN) (Організація Українських Націоналістів, (ОУН), Orhanizatsiya Ukrayins'kykh Natsionalistiv) was a Ukrainian nationalist political organization established in 1929 in Vienna; it first operated in Western Ukraine (at the time part of interwar Poland).
Ori Gersht (born 1967) is an Israeli fine art photographer.
The origin of the Croats before the great migration of the Slavs is uncertain.
The Orthodox Church in America (OCA) is an Eastern Orthodox Church, partly recognized as autocephalous, in North America.
Oscar Carl Gustav Ankarcrona (born 10 June 1857), was a Huntsman-Major of the Court of the King of Sweden, Major of the Swedish Army, etc., son of Conrad Victor Ankarcrona (1823–1912), Grand Master of the Court of the King of Sweden, etc., and wife and cousin (m. 1851) Ebba Charlotta, Grefvinnan Bielke (1828–1911).
Oserdów is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Ulhówek, within Tomaszów Lubelski County, Lublin Voivodeship, in eastern Poland, close to the border with Ukraine.
Osiek Jasielski is a village in Jasło County, Subcarpathian Voivodeship, in south-eastern Poland.
Oskar Adolf Marmorek (אוסקר מרמורק; 9 April 1863 – 7 April 1909) was an Austria-Hungarian architect and Zionist.
The Ossolineum or the National Ossoliński Institute (Zakład Narodowy im., ZNiO) is a non-profit foundation located in Wrocław, Poland since 1947, and subsidized from the state budget.
Ostap Yosypovych Nyzhankivsky (Остап Йосипович Нижанківський and Отець Остап Нижанківський); 24 January 1863 – 22 May 1919) – Ukrainian writer and cleric, a priest of the UGCC, composer, conductor, and public figure.
Ostap Steckiw (Остап Стецьків) (1924 - August 2003) was a Canadian soccer player who earned 1 cap for the Canadian national side against the USA in 1957, scoring one goal.
Ostarbeiter ("Eastern worker") was a Nazi German designation for foreign slave workers gathered from occupied Central and Eastern Europe to perform forced labor in Germany during World War II.
Ostoja-Ostaszewski of the Clan of Ostoja is a Polish noble family.
Ostrężnica is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Krzeszowice, within Kraków County, Lesser Poland Voivodeship, in southern Poland.
The Ostrogski family (Ostrogscy, Ostrogiškiai, Острозькі - Ostroz'ki, Астрожскія, "Астроскія", Острожские -Ostrozhskie) was one of the greatest Polish-Ruthenian families of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.
Ostsiedlung (literally east settling), in English called the German eastward expansion, was the medieval eastward migration and settlement of Germanic-speaking peoples from the Holy Roman Empire, especially its southern and western portions, into less-populated regions of Central Europe, parts of west Eastern Europe, and the Baltics.
Oton Župančič (January 23, 1878 – June 11, 1949, pseudonym Gojko) was a Slovene poet, translator and playwright.
Oton Iveković (17 April 1869 – 4 July 1939) was one of the foremost Croatian painters.
Leutnant Otto Parschau (11 November 1890 – 21 July 1916) was a German World War I Flying Ace and recipient of the Pour le Mérite, Royal House Order of Hohenzollern, and Iron Cross, First Class.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
Otynia (Отинія, Ottynia, אוטיניה, also Ottynia, Otyniya, Otynya, Otinya) is an urban-type settlement near Tlumach and Ivano-Frankivsk in Kolomyia Raion, Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast (region) of western Ukraine.
The Our Ukraine (Наша Україна) (prior to mid-July 2009 known as People's Union "Our Ukraine" (Народний Союз «Наша Україна»)) is a centre-right political party of Ukraine formed in 2005.
Ozeryany (Озеряни) is a village in the Halych Raion of Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast, Ukraine.
Ozokerite or ozocerite (Gr. Όζο oze, stench, and κερί kero, wax), archaically referred to as earthwax or earth wax, is a naturally occurring odoriferous mineral wax or paraffin found in many localities.
The Pacification of Ukrainians was the punitive action by police and military of the Second Polish Republic against the Ukrainian minority in Poland (in Eastern Galicia — against the Ukrainian majority) in September–November 1930 in response to a wave of more than 2,200 acts of sabotage against Polish property in the region.
Paczółtowice is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Krzeszowice, within Kraków County, Lesser Poland Voivodeship, in southern Poland.
The Palais Lanckoroński was a palace in Vienna, Austria, located at Jacquingasse 16-18, in the Landstraße District.
Panteleimon Oleksandrovych Kulish (also spelled Panteleymon or Pantelejmon Kuliš, Пантелеймон Куліш, August 7, 1819 – February 14, 1897) was a Ukrainian writer, critic, poet, folklorist, and translator.
Panteleymon Shpylka (Пантелеймон Шпилька; 20 October 1883 – 5 March 1950) was an Ukrainian Greek Catholic clergyman.
A partisan is a member of an irregular military force formed to oppose control of an area by a foreign power or by an army of occupation by some kind of insurgent activity.
The Partitions of Poland were three partitions of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth that took place toward the end of the 18th century and ended the existence of the state, resulting in the elimination of sovereign Poland and Lithuania for 123 years.
Paul Muni (born Frederich Meshilem Meier Weisenfreund; September 22, 1895 – August 25, 1967) was an American stage and film actor who grew up in Chicago.
Paul Ludwig Hans Anton von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg, known generally as Paul von Hindenburg (2 October 1847 – 2 August 1934) was a Generalfeldmarschall and statesman who commanded the German military during the second half of World War I before later being elected President of the Weimar republic in 1925.
Paul Wittek (11 January 1894, Baden bei Wien — 13 June 1978, Eastcote, Middlesex) was an Orientalist and historian from Austria.
Paulina Lavitz (March 29, 1879 — September 20, 1959), also seen as Pepi Lavitz, was a Polish-born actress in American Yiddish theatre.
Prince Pavel Dimitrievich Dolgorukov (1866, Tsarskoye Selo – June 9, 1927) was a Russian landowner and aristocrat who was executed by the Bolsheviks in 1927.
Pavel Ivanovich Jacobi (Павел Иванович Якоби or Якобий;, Kazan -) was a Russian revolutionary socialist, member of the Land and Liberty society, ethnographer and physician.
Pavel Petrovich Postyshev (Па́вел Петро́вич По́стышев; – 26 February 1939) was a Soviet politician.
Marshal of the Armoured Troops Pavel Semyonovich Rybalko (23 October 1892 – 28 August 1948) (Павел Семенович Рыбалко, Павло Семенович Рибалко) was a commander of armoured troops in the Red Army during and following World War II.
Pavle Đurišić (Павле Ђуришић,; 9 July 1909 – April 1945) was a Montenegrin Serb regular officer of the Royal Yugoslav Army who became a Chetnik commander (vojvoda) and led a significant proportion of the Chetniks in Montenegro during World War II.
Pavlo Platonovych Chubynsky (Павло Платонович Чубинський; 1839 – January 26, 1884) was a Ukrainian poet and ethnographer whose poem Shche ne vmerla Ukraina (Ukraine Has Not Yet Perished) was set to music and adapted as the Ukrainian national anthem.
Pavlo Arhypovych Zahrebelnyi (Павло́ Архи́пович Загребе́льний) or Zagrebelnyi (Павел Архипович Загребе́льный) (August 25, 1924 in Soloshyne village, Poltava Governorate – February 3, 2009 in Kiev) was a Ukrainian novelist.
Pękowice is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Zielonki, within Kraków County, Lesser Poland Voivodeship, in southern Poland.
Płoki is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Trzebinia, within Chrzanów County, Lesser Poland Voivodeship, in southern Poland.
Pełka or Fulko (died April 5, 1258 in Łęczyca) was the Archbishop of Gniezno, Poland in 1232–1258.
Pepi Litman (born Pesha Kahane; 1874? –- 13 September 1930) was a cross-dressing female Yiddish vaudeville singer associated with the Broderzinger movement.
Peremyshliany (Перемишляни, Przemyślany, פרימישלאן) is a town in Lviv Oblast (region) of Ukraine.
Peter Michal Bohúň (29 September 1822, Veličná - 20 May 1879, Bielsko-Biała) was a Slovak painter, primarily of portraits, although he also did landscapes and altarpieces.
The petroleum industry, also known as the oil industry or the oil patch, includes the global processes of exploration, extraction, refining, transporting (often by oil tankers and pipelines), and marketing of petroleum products.
A petroleum seep is a place where natural liquid or gaseous hydrocarbons escape to the earth's atmosphere and surface, normally under low pressure or flow.
A petrosomatoglyph is a supposed image of parts of a human or animal body in rock.
Ternopilsky Professional Football Club "Nyva" (Тернопільський Професійний Футбольний Клуб «Нива») is a Ukrainian football club from the city of Ternopil, the administrative center of Ternopil Oblast.
Philip Rahv (March 10, 1908 in Kupin, Ukraine – December 22, 1973 in Cambridge, Massachusetts) was an American literary critic and essayist.
Philip Milton Roth (March 19, 1933 – May 22, 2018) was an American novelist and short-story writer.
Philipp Friedrich Alexander, Prince of Eulenburg and Hertefeld, Count von Sandels (12 February 1847 – 17 September 1921) was a diplomat and composer of Imperial Germany who achieved considerable influence as the closest friend of Wilhelm II.
The Pidhaitsi Raion (Підгаєцький район) is a district in the western part of Ternopil Oblast, western Ukraine.
The Pidkamin massacre or the Podkamień massacre of 12 March 1944 was the massacre of Polish civilians committed by the Ukrainian Insurgent Army (UPA) under the command of Maksym Skorupsky (Maks), in cooperation with a unit of the 14th SS-Volunteer Division "Galician".
Pierogi (singular pieróg), also known as varenyky, are filled dumplings of Eastern European origin made by wrapping unleavened dough around a savory or sweet filling and cooking in boiling water.
Pilzno is a town in Poland, in Subcarpathian Voivodeship, in Dębica County.
Pilzno County (Polish: Powiat pilznenski) was an administrative territorial entity of the Kingdom of Poland and later Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Rabbi Pinchas HaLevi Horowitz (born in Chortkiv about 1731; died in Frankfort-on-the-Main July 1, 1805) was a rabbi and Talmudist.
Rabbi Pinhas Hirschprung (19121998) was a Polish rabbi of Hasidic ancestry, who later emigrated to Montreal, Canada, where he served as Chief Rabbi.
Pinhas Lavon (פנחס לבון, 12 July 1904 – 24 January 1976) was an Israeli politician, minister and labor leader, best known for the Lavon Affair.
Piwniczna-Zdrój (until 1999 Piwniczna, Північна, Pivnichna) is a town in Nowy Sącz County, Lesser Poland Voivodeship, Poland, near the border with Slovakia.
Plan East (Plan Wschód) was a Polish defensive military plan, created in the 1920s and 1930s in case of war with the Soviet Union.
The Plast National Scout Organization of Ukraine (Пласт Національна Скаутська Організація України, Plast Natsionalna Skautska Orhanizatsiia Ukrayiny), commonly called Ukrainian Plast or simply Plast, is the largest Scouting organization in Ukraine.
Plovdiv (Пловдив) is the second-largest city in Bulgaria, with a city population of 341,000 and 675,000 in the greater metropolitan area.
Połaniec is a town in Staszów County, Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship, Poland, with 8,406 inhabitants (2012).
Pobiedno (Побідно, Pobidno) is a village in Sanok County, which in turn is a part of Bukowsko rural commune in Nowotaniec parish.
Holy Dormition Pochayiv Lavra (Свято-Успенська Почаївська Лавра; Свято-Успенская Почаевская Лавра, Ławra Poczajowska) is a monastery in Pochayiv, Kremenets Raion, Ternopil Oblast, Ukraine.
Podgórze is a district of Kraków, Poland, situated on the right (southern) bank of the Vistula River, at the foot of Lasota Hill.
The Podhajcer Shul was a synagogue on 108 East First Street at Houston Street in the Lower East Side neighborhood of Manhattan, New York City.
Podolia or Podilia (Подíлля, Podillja, Подо́лье, Podolʹje., Podolya, Podole, Podolien, Podolė) is a historic region in Eastern Europe, located in the west-central and south-western parts of Ukraine and in northeastern Moldova (i.e. northern Transnistria).
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
"Mazurek Dąbrowskiego", also known by its incipit, "Poland Is Not Yet Lost", is the national anthem of Poland.
The Polenlager (Polish Camps) was a system of labor and Nazi concentration camps in Silesia that held Poles during the World War II Nazi German occupation of Poland.
The Polish minority in Ukraine officially numbers about 144,130 (according to the 2001 census), (Розподіл населення окремих національностей за іншими мовами, крім рідної, якими володіють), Ukrainian Statistical Bureau (Державний комітет статистики України).
Polica, locally known as Police, is a mountain,, in southern Poland near Zawoja, in the Żywiec Beskids mountain range.
First Legions Infantry Regiment of Józef Piłsudski (Polish language: 1 Pulk Piechoty Legionow Jozefa Pilsudskiego; 1 pp Leg.) was an infantry regiment of the Polish Army in 1914-1939.
The Armed Forces of the Republic of Poland (Polish:Siły Zbrojne Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej, abbreviated SZ RP; popularly called Wojsko Polskie in Poland, abbreviated WP—roughly, the "Polish Military") are the national armed forces of the Republic of Poland.
The Polish Corridor (Polnischer Korridor; Pomorze, Korytarz polski), also known as Danzig Corridor, Corridor to the Sea or Gdańsk Corridor, was a territory located in the region of Pomerelia (Pomeranian Voivodeship, eastern Pomerania, formerly part of West Prussia), which provided the Second Republic of Poland (1920–1939) with access to the Baltic Sea, thus dividing the bulk of Germany from the province of East Prussia.
Polish cuisine is a style of cooking and food preparation originating in or widely popular in Poland.
The Polish Defense is the name commonly given to one of several sequences of chess opening moves characterized by an early...b5 by Black.
The Polish diaspora refers to Poles who live outside Poland.
The Polish Legions (Legiony Polskie we Włoszech; also known as the Dąbrowski Legions) in the Napoleonic period, were several Polish military units that served with the French Army, mainly from 1797 to 1803, although some units continued to serve until 1815.
The Polish Legions (Legiony Polskie) was a name of the Polish military force (the first active Polish army in generations) established in August 1914 in Galicia soon after World War I erupted between the opposing alliances of the Triple Entente on one side (including the British Empire, the French Republic and the Russian Empire); and the Central Powers on the other side, including the German Empire and Austria-Hungary.
Parliamentary elections were held in Poland on 26 January 1919, electing the first Sejm of the Second Polish Republic.
The Polish Liquidation Committee (Polska Komisja Likwidacyjna Galicji i Śląska Cieszyńskiego), a temporary Polish government body, operated in Galicia at the end of World War I. Created on October 28, 1918, with its seat in Kraków, the Committee was headed by Wincenty Witos and Ignacy Daszyński.
Polish Military Organisation, PMO ('Polska Organizacja Wojskowa', POW) was a secret military organization created by Józef Piłsudski in August 1914, and officially named in November 1914, during World War I. Its tasks were to gather intelligence and sabotage the enemies of the Polish people.
The Polish minority in the Czech Republic (Polska mniejszość narodowa w Republice Czeskiej, Polská národnostní menšina v České republice) is a Polish national minority living mainly in the Zaolzie region of western Cieszyn Silesia.
The Polish People's Party (Polskie Stronnictwo Ludowe, abbreviated to PSL (traditionally translated as Polish Peasants' Party), often shortened to ludowcy ('the populars') is an agrarian and Christian democratic political party in Poland. It has 14 members of the Sejm and four Members of the European Parliament. It was the junior partner in a coalition with Civic Platform. It is a member of the European People's Party and the European People's Party group in the European Parliament. The party was formed in 1990 as a left-wing party. The PSL formed a coalition with the Democratic Left Alliance (SLD) after winning 132 seats in the Sejm at the 1993 election, with PSL leader Waldemar Pawlak as Prime Minister until 1995. The party fell to 27 at the next election, and moved towards the centre at the end of the 1990s. In 2001, the party re-entered a coalition with the SLD, but withdrew in 2003. After the 2007 election, the PSL entered a coalition with the centre-right Civic Platform (PO). The party's name traces its tradition to an agrarian party in Austro-Hungarian-controlled Galician Poland, which sent MPs to the parliament in Vienna. Until the 2014 local election, the PSL formed self-government coalition in fifteen to sixteen regional assemblies.
Polish plait (Plica polonica in Latin), plica, or trichoma is a formation of hair.
The Polish population transfers in 1944–46 from the eastern half of prewar Poland (also known as the expulsions of Poles from the Kresy macroregion), refer to the forced migrations of Poles toward the end – and in the aftermath – of World War II.
The Polish resistance movement in World War II, with the Polish Home Army at its forefront, was the largest underground resistance movement in all of occupied Europe, covering both German and Soviet zones of occupation.
The Polish Rifle Squads (Polskie Drużyny Strzeleckie, PDS) was a Polish pro-independence paramilitary organization, founded in 1911 by the Youth Independence Organization Zarzewie in the Austro-Hungarian sector of partitioned Poland.
Polish Social Democratic Party of Galicia (Polska Partia Socjalno-Demokratyczna Galicji) was a political party in Galicia.
In the summer of 1939, weeks ahead of the Nazi German and Soviet invasion of Poland the map of both Europe and Poland looked very different from today.
The złoty (pronounced; sign: zł; code: PLN), which is the masculine form of the Polish adjective 'golden', is the currency of Poland.
The Polish-Lithuanian identity describes individuals and groups with histories in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth or with close connections to its culture.
Border conflicts between Poland and Czechoslovakia began in 1918 between the Second Polish Republic and First Czechoslovak Republic, both freshly created states.
The Polish–Romanian Alliance was a series of treaties signed in the interwar period by the Second Polish Republic and the Kingdom of Romania.
The Polish–Soviet War (February 1919 – March 1921) was fought by the Second Polish Republic, Ukrainian People's Republic and the proto-Soviet Union (Soviet Russia and Soviet Ukraine) for control of an area equivalent to today's western Ukraine and parts of modern Belarus.
The Polish–Soviet war erupted in 1919 in the aftermath of World War I. The root causes were twofold: a territorial dispute dating back to Polish-Russian wars in the 17–18th centuries; and a clash of ideology due to USSR's goal of spreading communist rule further west, to Europe (Soviet westward offensive of 1918–19).
The Polish–Ukrainian War of 1918 and 1919 was a conflict between the Second Polish Republic and Ukrainian forces (both West Ukrainian People's Republic and Ukrainian People's Republic).
The Polmos Łańcut distillery is one of the oldest producers of liquors and liqueurs in Poland.
Polonization (or Polonisation; polonizacja)In Polish historiography, particularly pre-WWII (e.g., L. Wasilewski. As noted in Смалянчук А. Ф. (Smalyanchuk 2001) Паміж краёвасцю і нацыянальнай ідэяй. Польскі рух на беларускіх і літоўскіх землях. 1864–1917 г. / Пад рэд. С. Куль-Сяльверставай. – Гродна: ГрДУ, 2001. – 322 с. (2004). Pp.24, 28.), an additional distinction between the Polonization (polonizacja) and self-Polonization (polszczenie się) has been being made, however, most modern Polish researchers don't use the term polszczenie się.
Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.
The West Ukrainian National Republic was a short-lived republic that existed in late 1918 and early 1919 in eastern Galicia.
Primate of Galicia and Lodomeria (Primas Unserer Königreiche Galizien und Lodomerien) − was the Catholic Church historical title of honor, that existed in the Austrian Empire from 1817 until 1858 for the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Lviv (1817–1848) and the Ruthenian Catholic Archeparchy of Lviv (1848–1858).
Prince Ernst Heinrich of Saxony, Duke of Saxony (Ernst Heinrich Ferdinand Franz Joseph Otto Maria Melchiades, Prinz von Sachsen, Herzog zu Sachsen) (9 December 1896 in Dresden, Kingdom of Saxony – 14 June 1971 in Neckarhausen, Baden-Württemberg, West Germany) was a member of the Saxon Royal Family.
Friedrich Franz Xaver Prince of Hohenzollern-Hechingen (31 May 1757 – 6 April 1844) was an Austrian general.
Prince Heinrich XV of Reuss-Plauen, Viceroy of Lombardy-Venetia (22 February 1751 – 30 August 1825) was the fourth of six sons born into a high-ranking noble family.
Principality of Terebovlia (Теребовлянське князівство) was a Kievan Rus principality established as an appanage principality ca 1084 and was given to Vasylko Rostyslavych (his brothers, Volodar Rostislavich and Rurik Rostislavich, ruled Peremyshl (Przemyśl) and Zvenyhorod respectively).
The Principality of Turov, also called Duchy of Turov and Pinsk (Турава-Пінскае княства, Турово-Пінське князівство) by East Slavic scholars, was a medieval principality and important subdivision of Kievan Rus since the 10th century on the territory of modern southern Belarus and northern Ukraine.
Propination laws were a privilege granted to Polish szlachta that gave landowners a monopoly over profits from alcohol drank by peasants they owned.
Prostitution (Prostytucja) in Poland is legal, but operating brothels or other forms of pimping or coercive prostitution and prostitution of minors are prohibited.
Prostopinije (meaning Plain Chant in Rusyn) is a type of monodic church chant, closely related to Znamenny Chant.
Prosvita (просвіта, 'enlightenment') is a society created in the nineteenth century in Ukrainian Galicia for preserving and developing Ukrainian culture and education among population.
Protestants in Ukraine number about 600,000 to 700,000 (2007), about 2% of the total population.
Provisional Polish Revolutionary Committee (Tymczasowy Komitet Rewolucyjny Polski, Polrewkom; Польревком) (July–August 1920) was a revolutionary committee created under the patronage of Soviet Russia with the goal to establish a Soviet Polish Socialist Republic of Councils (Sowiecka Polska Socjalistyczna Republika Rad).
Pruchnik is a town in Jarosław County, Subcarpathian Voivodeship, in south-eastern Poland.
The Prussian Settlement Commission (Königlich Preußische Ansiedlungskommission in den Provinzen Westpreußen und Posen; Królewska Komisja Osadnicza dla Prus Zachodnich i Poznańskiego) was a Prussian government commission that operated between 1886 and 1924, but actively only until 1918.
Prykarpattia (Прикарпаття; literally means "Ciscarpathia") is the Ukrainian geographical term for the Subcarpathian historical region of Central Europe, at the foot of the Carpathian mountains, in modern Ukraine, consisting of today's Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast (Івано-Франківська область, translit. Ivano-Frankivs’ka oblast’).
Przecław is a small town in Mielec County, Subcarpathian Voivodeship, in south-eastern Poland.
Przemyśl (Premissel, Peremyshl, Перемишль less often Перемишель) is a city in south-eastern Poland with 66,756 inhabitants, as of June 2009.
Przemyśl Land (Ziemia przemyska) was an administrative unit of Kingdom of Kyiv Rus, Kingdom of Poland and Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Przewodów is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Dołhobyczów, within Hrubieszów County, Lublin Voivodeship, in eastern Poland, close to the border with Ukraine.
Przeworsk, (translit, translit) is a town in south-eastern Poland with 15,675 inhabitants, as of 2 June 2009.
Baron Pyotr Nikolayevich Wrangel, also Vrangel; Freiherr Peter von Wrangel; (August 27, 1878 April 25, 1928) was a Russian officer in the Imperial Russian Army and later commanding general of the anti-Bolshevik White Army in Southern Russia in the later stages of the Russian Civil War.
Raciborowice is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Michałowice, within Kraków County, Lesser Poland Voivodeship, in southern Poland.
Radomsk (רדומסק) is a Hasidic dynasty named after the town of Radomsko in Łódź province, south-central Poland.
Radomyśl nad Sanem is a village in Stalowa Wola County, Subcarpathian Voivodeship, in south-eastern Poland.
Radomyśl Wielki is a town Subcarpathian Voivodeship, Poland, with a population of 2,962 inhabitants (02.06.2009).
Radwanowice is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Zabierzów, within Kraków County, Lesser Poland Voivodeship, in southern Poland.
The Radziwiłł family (Radvila; Радзівіл, Radzivił; Radziwill) was a powerful magnate family originating from the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and later the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland.
Rafajil Nikolai Korsak (Рафаїл Корсак, Рафал Корсак, Rafał Mikołaj Korsak) (c. 1599 – 28 August 1640) was the Metropolitan of Kiev, Galicia and Russia of the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church from 1637 to his death in 1640.
Rajchman is a surname; it is a Polish respelling of the German Reichmann, typically used by Jews in Congress Poland, while those in Galicia and Prussian Poland were more likely to use the original German spelling.
Ralph Modjeski (born Rudolf Modrzejewski; January 27, 1861 – June 26, 1940) was a Polish civil engineer who achieved prominence as a pre-eminent bridge designer in the United States.
Raoul Stojsavljevic was a World War I flying ace credited with ten aerial victories.
Rădăuți (Radautz; Radóc; Radowce; Радівці, Radivtsi; ראַדעװיץ Radevits; Radoviçe) is a city in Suceava County, north-eastern Romania.
Red Ruthenia or Red Rus' (Ruthenia Rubra; Russia Rubra; Chervona Rus'; Ruś Czerwona, Ruś Halicka; Chervonnaya Rus') is a term used since the Middle Ages for a region now comprising south-eastern Poland and adjoining parts of western Ukraine.
Red Vienna (Rotes Wien) was the nickname of the capital of Austria between 1918 and 1934, when the Social Democrats had the majority and the city was democratically governed for the first time.
Reghin (Szászrégen, or Régen; (Sächsisch) Regen) is a city and municipality in Mureș County, Transylvania, Romania, on the Mureș River.
Many historically significant buildings in Regina, Saskatchewan were lost during the period 1945 through approximately 1970 when the urge to "modernize" overtook developers' and city planners' sense of history and heritage.
Regionalism in Ukraine has been a significant force during the building of an independent state after the dissolution of the Soviet Union.
Regulamentul Organic (Organic Regulation; Règlement Organique; r)The name also has plural versions in all languages concerned, referring to the dual nature of the document; however, the singular version is usually preferred.
Reichskommissariat Moskowien (also rendered as Moskau, abbreviated as RKM; Рейхскомиссариат Московия), literally "Reich Commissariat of Muscovy (or Moscow)", was the civilian occupation regime that Nazi Germany intended to create in central and northern European Russia during World War II, one of several similar Reichskommissariat.
A Reichsstraße (literally "imperial road") was the official designation from 1804 to 1918 of trunk roads in Old Austria maintained by the (from 1867 Cisleithanian) State (k.k. Ministry) – in contrast to the state roads (Landesstraße) maintained by the individual crown lands and the municipal roads (Gemeindestraßen) maintained by the parishes or municipalities (Gemeinden).
Reinhold Hanisch (27 January 1884, Grünwald an der Neiße (vertical-align|) near Gablonz/Neiße, northern Bohemia, Imperial & Royal Austria 2? February (death date controversial) 1937, in Vienna, aged 53) was an Austrian migrant worker and sometime business partner of the young Adolf Hitler.
Reinsehlen Camp (Camp Reinsehlen) is a largely treeless area of around 100 hectares (250 acres) close to the village of Reinsehlen near the town of Schneverdingen in Lower Saxony, Germany.
The Soviet Union was established by the Bolsheviks in 1922, in place of the Russian Empire.
The Republic of Zakopane (or Commonwealth of Zakopane; Rzeczpospolita Zakopiańska) refers to an area in Galicia centered on the city of Zakopane that created its own parliament ("National Organisation") on October 13, 1918.
There were many resistance movements in partitioned Poland between 1795 and 1918.
The Revolutions of 1848, known in some countries as the Spring of Nations, People's Spring, Springtime of the Peoples, or the Year of Revolution, were a series of political upheavals throughout Europe in 1848.
A set of revolutions took place in the Austrian Empire from March 1848 to November 1849.
Richard Buchta (19 January 1845 – 29 July 1894) was an Austrian explorer, born in Radlow, Galicia.
Richard Michael Farber (born December 4, 1945), is an American-born Israeli composer and librettist whose career spans over more than four decades.
Richard Franz Marian Yary (also: Riko Yary, pseudomyms: Yaryga, Karpat) (1898–1969) was a Ukrainian nationalist journalist, politician and military figure.
The Polish Riflemen's Association known as Związek Strzelecki (or more commonly, in the plural form as Związki Strzeleckie) formed in great numbers prior to World War I. One of the better known associations called "Strzelec" (Riflemen's Association "Rifleman") was a Polish paramilitary cultural and educational organization created in 1910 in Lwów as a legal front of Związek Walki Czynnej, and somewhat reinstated in present-day Poland in 1991, after the fall of communism.
Risk Godstorm is a Risk variant board game published by Avalon Hill and designed by Mike Selinker with developers Richard Baker and Michael Donais.
Rivka Golani (רבקה גולני, born 22 March 1946) is an Israeli viola player.
Professor Rivka Yahav (born 4 September 1950) is an Israeli psychotherapist, an academic faculty member of the School of Social Work, Head of the Psychotherapy Training Programme at Haifa University, and Head of the Interdisciplinary Clinical Center of the Faculty of Welfare and Health Sciences at Haifa University.
Robert Lamezan de Salins (1869–1930), also known as Robert Graf von Lamezan-Salins, was a Polish Jan Rydel, W służbie cesarza i króla: generałowie i admirałowie narodowości polskiej w siłach zbrojnych Austro-Węgier w latach 1868-1918.
Robert Makłowicz (born August 12, 1963 in Kraków, Poland) is a Polish journalist and historian, notable as a promoter of the Polish cuisine, slow food, and is a television personality.
The Roman Catholic (Arch)diocese of Halyč was a late-medieval Latin Catholic (arch)bishopric in Galicia (and originally Volhynia; both in present Ukraine) from 1367 till 1414.
The Roman Catholic Metropolitan Archdiocese of Vilnius (Archidioecesis Vilnensis; Vilniaus arkivyskupija) is an ecclesiastical territory or diocese of the Roman Catholic Church in Lithuania.
Roman Danylovich (c. 1230 – c. 1261), Prince of Black Ruthenia (Navahradak) 1254–1258, Prince of Slonim?.
Roman Stanisław Dmowski (9 August 1864 – 2 January 1939) was a Polish politician, statesman, and co-founder and chief ideologue of the right-wing National Democracy ("ND": in Polish, "Endecja") political movement.
Roman Longchamps de Bérier (1883–1941) was a Polish lawyer and university professor, one of the most notable specialists in civil law of his generation and the last rector of the Jan Kazimierz University of Lwów.
Roman Sembratovych (Роман Сембратович, Roman Sembratowycz) (1875–1905) was a Ukrainian journalist and publicist.
Baron Roman Nicolaus Maximilian von Ungern-Sternberg (Барон Ро́берт-Никола́й-Максими́лиан Рома́н Фёдорович фон У́нгерн-Ште́рнберг)adopted Russian name: Роман Фёдорович фон Унгерн-Штернберг, which transliterates as Roman Fyodorovich fon Ungern-Shternberg (10 January 1886 NS – 15 September 1921) was an Austrian-born Russian anti-Bolshevik lieutenant general in the Russian Civil War and then an independent warlord whose Asiatic Cavalry Division wrested control of Mongolia from the Republic of China in 1921 after its occupation.
The presence of a Romani minority in Ukraine was first documented in the early 14th century.
Below is list of exonyms of Romanian language, or exonym-words for places outside Romania and Republic of Moldova.
The Romanian occupation of Pokuttya took place in early 1919, when, as a result of alliances concluded between Romania and Poland, the former entered the southeastern corner of the former Austro-Hungarian ruled province of Galicia.
Romanianization (or Rumanianization or Rumanization) was the series of policies aimed toward ethnic assimilation implemented by the Romanian authorities during the 20th century.
This article represents an overview on the history of Romanians in Ukraine, including those Romanians of Northern Bukovina, Zakarpattia Oblast, and Budjak in Odessa Oblast, but also those Romanophones in the territory between the Dniester River and the Southern Bug River, who traditionally have not inhabited any Romanian state (nor Transnistria), but have been an integral part of the history of modern Ukraine, and are considered natives to the area.
Ronetti Roman (sometimes given as Moise Ronetti-Roman; born Aron Blumenfeld; 1847–January 7, 1908) was an Imperial Austrian-born Romanian playwright and poet.
Ropczyce (ראָפּשיץ) is a town in the Subcarpathian Voivodeship in south-eastern Poland, situated in the valley of the Wielopolka River (a tributary of the Wisłoka River).
Ropshitz (ראָפשיץ, רופשיץ) is the name of a Hasidic dynasty, or rabbinical family and group who are descendants of Rabbi Naftali Zvi of Ropshitz (1760–1827).
Rose Warfman (née Gluck; 4 October 1916 – 17 September 2016) was a French survivor of Auschwitz and member of the French Resistance.
Rostislav Mikhailovich (Rosztyiszláv, Bulgarian and Russian: Ростислав Михайлович) (after 1210 / c. 1225 – 1262) was a Rus' prince (a member of the Rurik dynasty), and a dignitary in the Kingdom of Hungary.
Rottermund, initially and in Prussia also Rotermund, is the name of a Polish noble family originally from Bohemia, which was itself mainly Galicia and Volhynia German extraction.
Roy Schiffer Pinney (August 13, 1911August 9, 2010) was a professional photographer, herpetologist, writer, journalist, war correspondent and pilot.
Royal Secretary is a position at the court of a monarch generally responsible for communicating the sovereign's wishes to the other members of government.
Ruben Bierer (Dr. Rubin Bierer, often: Reuben Bierer; born c. 1835 in Lviv; died 1931 lviv.) was a doctor in Sofia and one of the first pioneers of the Jewish nationalism and one of the first active zionists in Galicia and Bulgaria, adherent of Hovevei Zion in Galicia, Austria and Bulgaria.
Ruda Kameralna is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Zakliczyn, within Tarnów County, Lesser Poland Voivodeship, in southern Poland.
Rudi Stephan (29 July 1887 – 29 September 1915), was a German composer of great promise who, shortly before the First World War, was considered one of the leading talents among his generation.
Rúdky (Ру́дки, Rudki) is a city in Sambir Raion, Lviv Oblast in Ukraine.
Rudnik nad Sanem (until 1997 Rudnik, רודניק Ridnik) is a town in Nisko County, Subcarpathian Voivodeship, Poland, with a population of 6,765 (02.06.2009).
Rudolf Dittrich (April 25, 1861 – January 16, 1919) was an Austrian musician.
Herman Rudolf Günsberg (1827–1879) was a chemist originating in Pidkamin, near Brody who distinguished himself by his fostering of the economic development of Galicia.
Rudolf Moroder-Lenèrt (26 January 1877 in Urtijëi, County of Tyrol – 22 December 1914 in Radlow, Galicia) was an Austrian sculptor specializing in religious art, who was a member of the Moroder family of South Tyrol, which was notable for the many artists of repute they produced.
Rudolf Ritter von Alt (28 August 1812 – 12 March 1905) was an Austrian landscape and architectural painter.
Rudolph Maurice Loewenstein (January 17, 1898 – April 14, 1976) was a Polish-Jewish psychoanalyst who practiced in Germany, France, and the United States.
Russell Dana Feingold (born March 2, 1953) is an American lawyer and politician from the U.S. state of Wisconsin.
The Russian Civil War (Grazhdanskaya voyna v Rossiyi; November 1917 – October 1922) was a multi-party war in the former Russian Empire immediately after the Russian Revolutions of 1917, as many factions vied to determine Russia's political future.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
The Russian Mennonites (German: "Russlandmennoniten" occasionally Ukrainian Mennonites) are a group of Mennonites of German language, tradition and ethnicity, who are descendants of German-Dutch Anabaptists who settled for about 250 years in West Prussia and established colonies in the south west of the Russian Empire (present-day Ukraine) beginning in 1789.
The Russo-Polish War of 1654–1667, also called Thirteen Years' War, First Northern War, War for Ukraine or Russian Deluge (Potop rosyjski, Российский потоп), was a major conflict between Tsardom of Russia and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.
The time has come.
Russophilia (literally love of Russia or Russians) is individual or collective admiration of Russia and Russian culture.
Rusyns, also known as Ruthenes (Rusyn: Русины Rusynŷ; also sometimes referred to as Руснакы Rusnakŷ – Rusnaks), are a primarily diasporic ethnic group who speak an East Slavic language known as Rusyn.
Ruthenia (Рѹ́сь (Rus) and Рѹ́сьскаѧ землѧ (Rus'kaya zemlya), Ῥωσία, Rus(s)ia, Ruscia, Ruzzia, Rut(h)enia, Roxolania, Garðaríki) is a proper geographical exonym for Kievan Rus' and other, more local, historical states.
The Ruthenian Greek Catholic Church, also known in the United States as the Byzantine Catholic Church, is an Eastern Catholic church that uses the Byzantine Rite for its liturgies, laws, and cultural identity.
Ryglice is a town in Lesser Poland Voivodeship, Tarnów County, the seat of the urban-rural gmina Ryglice.
Rymanów (Rimanovia or Rimanoa) is a town of 3,585 inhabitants in Poland's Subcarpathian Voivodeship.
Rymanów-Zdrój is a village and a spa in southern Poland, in Subcarpathian Voivodeship, in Krosno County.
Rzeczyca Długa is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Radomyśl nad Sanem, within Stalowa Wola County, Subcarpathian Voivodeship, in south-eastern Poland.
Rzeczyca is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Ulhówek, within Tomaszów Lubelski County, Lublin Voivodeship, in eastern Poland, close to the border with Ukraine.
The Saint Nicholas Monastery is a Eastern Orthodox monastery located on Chernecha Hora (monk's hill) in Mukachevo, Ukraine.
Saint Parthenius (died 3rd century) was an early Christian saint and martyr from Rome, venerated both by Catholic and Orthodox churches.
Salka Viertel (15 June 1889 – 20 October 1978) was an Austrian actress and screenwriter.
Salomon Mikhailovich Flohr (November 21, 1908 – July 18, 1983) was a leading Czech chess grandmaster of the mid-20th century, who became a national hero in Czechoslovakia during the 1930s.
Salo (Salomon) Landau (1 April 1903, Bochnia, Galicia, Austria-Hungary – March 1944,Westerbork Cartotheek NIOD Amsterdam Grodziszcze, Świdnica County, Poland) was a Dutch chess player, who died in a Nazi concentration camp.
Salomea of Poland (1211/1212 - 1268), also known as Salomea of Cracow or Blessed Salomea (Błogosławiona Salomea), (1211–1268) was a Polish princess and from 1215 to 1219 the Queen of Halych by virtue of being the wife of Kálmán or Coloman of Lodomeria.
Salomon Bochner (20 August 1899 – 2 May 1982) was an American mathematician, known for work in mathematical analysis, probability theory and differential geometry.
Solomon (or Salomon) Buber (2 February 1827 – 28 December 1906) was a Jewish Galician scholar and editor of Hebrew works.
Abraham Salomon Glück, (5 November 1914 – c. 20 May 1944), was a French physician and a member of the French Resistance.
Sam Salz was an art dealer, art collector, and patron of the arts.
Sambir (Самбір, Sambor) is a city in Lviv Oblast, Ukraine.
Sammy Cahn (June 18, 1913 – January 15, 1993) was an American lyricist, songwriter and musician.
Samoilă Mârza (September 18, 1886 – December 19, 1967) was an Austro-Hungarian-born Romanian photographer.
Samuel Eliezer Goldfarb (שמעון אליעזר גולדפרב, June 18, 1891 – October 22, 1978), was an American composer, arranger, choir conductor, music director, cantor, piano accompanist, and educator.
Samuel Pineles (23 July 1843, Brody, Galicia – 1928, Galați, Romania) was a philanthropist and Religious Zionist activist.
Samuel Roth (1893 – July 3, 1974) was an American publisher and writer.
The San (San; Сян Sian; Saan) is a river in southeastern Poland and western Ukraine, a tributary of the Vistula River, with a length of 458 km (it is the 6th-longest Polish river) and a basin area of 16,877 km2 (14,426 km2 of it in Poland).
The Sandomierzacy are a subethnic group of the Polish nation, who reside in the historic province of Lesser Poland, around the town of Sandomierz.
Paweł Karol Sanguszko Dymitr Sanguszko Roman Sanguszko Janusz Sanguszko Hieronim Sanguszko Barbara Sanguszko née Dunin Eustachy Erazm Sanguszko Władysław Hieronim Sanguszko Eustachy Stanisław Sanguszko Sanguszko (Сангушка, Санґушко) is a noble and aristocratic family of the Ruthenian stock from the Gediminid dynasty.
The Sanna is a tributary of the Vistula in Poland.
Sanok (in full the Royal Free City of Sanok - Królewskie Wolne Miasto Sanok, Cянік Sianik, Sanocum, סאניק, Sonik) is a town in the Subcarpathian Voivodeship of south-eastern Poland with 38,397 inhabitants, as of June 2016.
Sanok Land (ziemia sanocka, lat. terra et districtus sanociensis) was a historical administrative division unit (ziemia) of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth from the 14th-18th centuries.
The Sapieha Palace in Lviv, Ukraine is a Chateauesque two-storey mansion dating from the 1870s.
Sara Szweber (born Pesl KatelianskaJack Lester Jacobs, Bundist Counterculture in Interwar Poland, Syracuse University Press, 2009, pg. 88.) (born circa 1875 in Brest Litovsk, died 1966 in New York City)Gertrud Pickhan, "Sara Szweber" in Jewish Women: A Comprehensive Historical Encyclopedia.
Saranchuky (Саранчуки, Saranczuky, Saranczuki) is a village in Berezhany Raion of Ternopil Oblast in the western area of Ukraine, the historic region of Halychyna (Eastern Galicia).
Sas or Szász (origin: Slavic for "Saxon", Polish: Sas, Hungarian: Szász, Romanian: Saş, Ukrainian: Сас) is a Central European coat of arms.
Sasiv (Ukrainian: Сасів/, Polish: Sasów also Sassów, Ruthenian/Ruś.: Sassíw, Russian: Сасов/) is a town in Lviv Oblast, Ukraine, since 1945.
Savella Stechishin,, née Wawryniuk (August 19, 1903 – April 22, 2002), was a Ukrainian-Canadian home economist and writer, recipient of the Order of Canada.
Sátoraljaújhely (archaic; Nové Mesto pod Šiatrom; איהעל (Ihel) or (Uhely)) is a town located in Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén county in northern Hungary near the Slovak border.
Sămănătorul or Semănătorul (Romanian for "The Sower") was a literary and political magazine published in Romania between 1901 and 1910.
Schutzberg (sometimes given as Glogowatz / Glogovac or Ukrinskilug) was an important German language settlement east of Prnjavor in northern Bosnia between 1895 and 1942.
The Second Battle of Chruślina, one of many clashes of the January Uprising, took place on August 4, 1863, near the village of Chruślina, which at that time belonged to Russian-controlled Congress Poland.
The Second Northern War (1655–60, also First or Little Northern War) was fought between Sweden and its adversaries the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (1655–60), Russia (1656–58), Brandenburg-Prussia (1657–60), the Habsburg Monarchy (1657–60) and Denmark–Norway (1657–58 and 1658–60).
The Second Polish Republic, commonly known as interwar Poland, refers to the country of Poland between the First and Second World Wars (1918–1939).
The Sejm of the Republic of Poland (Sejm Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej) is the lower house of the Polish parliament.
Sejm of the Duchy of Warsaw (Sejm Księstwa Warszawskiego) was the parliament of the Duchy of Warsaw.
The Sejm of the Estates (sejm stanowy) or Estates of Galicia (stany galicyjskie) were the parliament in the first half of the 19th century Galicia region in Austrian Empire.
Union "Self Reliance" or "Self Help" (Об'єднання «Самопоміч»; Ob'yednannya «Samopomich») is a political party in Ukraine.
The following events occurred in September 1914.
The following events occurred in September 1916.
The Serbian Campaign of World War I was fought from late July 1914, when Austria-Hungary invaded the Kingdom of Serbia at the outset of World War I, until the war's conclusion in November 1918.
Seret or Sereter Hasidim were a group of Hasidic Jews that existed in the town of Siret (Seret) and the surrounding area in Bukovina (currently split between Romania and Ukraine) during the late nineteenth century until World War II.
Sergey Nikolaevich Kurnakov or Sergei N. Kournakoff (Russian: Сергей Курнаков) is a former tsarist cavalry officer who had immigrated to the U.S. and later became an ardent ideological Communist.
Serhiy Ostapenko (November 1881—1937) was economist, statesman, and political activist of Ukraine.
Severin Eisenberger (Seweryn Eisenberger; 1879 in Krakau, Austrian Galicia – 1945 in New York) was a Polish concert pianist, composer and teacher.
Seweryn Berson (1858 – 1917) was a Polish lawyer and composer.
Seweryn Leopold Obst (29 December 1847, Nyzhniy Bereziv, Kosiv Raion - 2 January 1917, Lemberg) was a Ukraine-born Polish painter, illustrator and ethnographer.
Shabbethai Premsla was a Galician philologist and scribe of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries who lived in Przemyśl, Poland, from which his name derives.
Shalom Kramer (Hebrew: שלום קרמר, May 31, 1912 – October 3, 1978), was an Israeli essayist, editor, and literary critic.
Shalom Meir Tower (מגדל שלום מאיר, Migdal Shalom Meir; commonly known as Migdal Shalom, מגדל שלום) is an office tower in Tel Aviv, Israel.
Shehyni (Шегині, Szeginie) is a village of Mostyska Raion in Lviv Oblast of western Ukraine.
Shenandoah is a borough in Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania, United States, located in the anthracite-mining region approximately west of New York City.
The shepherd's axe is a long thin light axe used in past centuries by shepherds in the Carpathian Mountains, especially in Slovakia, Czech Republic, Poland, Ukraine and Hungary.
Rabbi Shimon Sofer (1820–1883) (Simon Schreiber) was a prominent Austrian Orthodox Jewish rabbi in the 19th century.
Shimshon Holzman (variant name: Shimson Holzman; שמשון הולצמן; 1907–1986) was an Israeli landscape and figurative painter.
Shlomo Halberstam (1847–1905) was a Hasidic Rebbe, founder of the Hasidic dynasty of Bobov.
Solomon ben Judah Aaron Kluger (1785–June 9, 1869) (שלמה בן יהודה אהרן קלוגר), born at Komarow, Congress Poland, was chief dayyan and preacher of Brody, Galicia.
Shmelke of Nikolsburg (1726 Chortkiv, Galicia – April 28, 1778 Nikolsburg, Moravia) was one of the great early Chasidic Rebbes.
Samuel Joseph Schweig, in Israel known as Shmuel Yosef Schweig (1905 in Tarnopol, Austria-Hungary – 19 March 1985 in Jerusalem, Israel) was an Israeli photographer.
Sholom Rokeach (1781 – 10 September 1855), also known as the Sar Sholom (שר שלום, "Angel of Peace"), was the first Belzer Rebbe.
The Shrine Church of St.
Shtefanesht (שטפנשט) was a Hasidic dynasty named for the town of Ştefăneşti, Romania.
Shtetlekh (שטעטל, shtetl (singular), שטעטלעך, shtetlekh (plural)) were small towns with large Jewish populations, which existed in Central and Eastern Europe before the Holocaust.
A shtreimel (שטרײַמל, plural שטרײַמלעך) is a fur hat worn by many married Haredi Jewish men, particularly (although not exclusively) members of Hasidic Judaism, on Shabbat and Jewish holidays and other festive occasions.
Shybalyn (Шибалин, Shybalyn, Szybalyn, Шыбалын) - is a large village of 1359 people in Berezhany Raion of Ternopil Oblast.
Siedlec is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Krzeszowice, within Kraków County, Lesser Poland Voivodeship, in southern Poland.
The Siege of Buda (Buda ostroma) was the siege of the Buda castle, part of the twin capital cities of the Kingdom of Hungary by the Hungarian revolutionary army led by General Artúr Görgei, during the Hungarian War of Independence.
Sieniawa, is a town in southeastern Poland.
Sigmund Freud (born Sigismund Schlomo Freud; 6 May 1856 – 23 September 1939) was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of psychoanalysis, a clinical method for treating psychopathology through dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst.
Sigmund Mogulesko (16 December 1858 – 4 February 1914) — Yiddish: זעליק מאָגולעסקאָ Zelik Mogulesko, first name also sometimes spelled as Zigmund, Siegmund, Zelig, or Selig, last name sometimes spelled Mogulescu — was a singer, actor, and composer in the Yiddish theater in New York City.
Simhah Pinsker (March 17, 1801 – October 29, 1864) (Hebrew: שמחה פינסקר) was a Polish-Jewish scholar and archeologist born at Tarnopol, Galicia.
Simon Dubnow (alternatively spelled Dubnov, sʲɪˈmʲɵn ˈmarkəvʲɪtɕ ˈdubnəf; שמעון דובנאָװ, Shimen Dubnov; 10 September 1860 – 8 December 1941) was a Jewish-born Russian historian, writer and activist.
Simon from the kindred Kacsics (Kacsics nembeli Simon, Šimun Kačić; died after 1228) was a Hungarian distinguished nobleman from the gens Kacsics (Kačić).
Skała is a town in southern Poland, situated in the Lesser Poland Voivodeship (since 1999), previously in Kraków Voivodeship (1975-1998).
Skala-Podilska (Skala-Podilʹsʹka; Skala-Podol'skaya; Skała; Skal; S'kalah) or Skala upon Zbruch (Skala-nad-Zbruchem; Skała Nad Zbruczem; Skala am Zbrucz) is an urban-type settlement in Ternopil Oblast, Ukraine over the Zbruch River.
Skálat (Skałat) is a town in Ternopil Oblast (province) of western Ukraine.
Skawina is a town in southern Poland with 27,328 inhabitants (2008).
Skole (Ско́ле) is