565 relations: ABAT, Abnormal psychology, Absinthe, Acamprosate, Acefurtiamine, Activity-dependent plasticity, Acyl-CoA-binding protein, Addiction, Addiction-related structural neuroplasticity, Adhyperforin, Adrenocortical hormone, Adult neurogenesis, Aggression, Alcobra, Alcohol intoxication, Alcohol myopia, Alcohol-related brain damage, Aldehyde dehydrogenase 5 family, member A1, Allosteric regulation, Allylglycine, Alpha motor neuron, Alpha-Ketoglutaric acid, Alprazolam, Altered state of consciousness, Amacrine cell, Amanita muscaria, Amino acid, Amino acid neurotransmitter, Amino acid reuptake inhibitor, Aminobutyraldehyde dehydrogenase, Aminobutyric acid, Aminooxyacetic acid, Analeptic, Anatomy of the cerebellum, Anhedonia, Animal model of schizophrenia, Aniracetam, Anisatin, Anterior pituitary, Anticonvulsant, Antidepressant discontinuation syndrome, Antiparkinson medication, Anxiety disorder, Anxiolytic, Apathy, Apical dendrite, Arcuate nucleus, Area postrema, Astrocyte, ATC code N03, ..., Athetoid cerebral palsy, Autapse, Auxigro, Avermectin, Bacterial Leucine Transporter, Bacteriotherapy, Bankole Johnson, Barbiturate, Barbiturate overdose, Basal ganglia disease, Basket cell, Benzodiazepine, Benzodiazepine dependence, Benzodiazepine overdose, Benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome, Beta wave, Beta-Aminobutyric acid, Beta-Endorphin, Betahistine, BioLineRx, Biology of obsessive–compulsive disorder, Biomolecule, Bipolar disorder, BL-1020, Blackout (drug-related amnesia), Blonanserin, Brain, Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, Bromazepam, Brotizolam, Brown rice, Bruxism, Bumetanide, C4H9NO2, Caffeine, Caffeine-induced anxiety disorder, Calcineurin, Calyx of Held, Cannabinoid, Cannabinoid receptor, Cannabinoid receptor type 1, Carbonaceous chondrite, Carnosinemia, Cartwheel cell, Cat cognitive support diets, Catamenial epilepsy, Causes of seizures, Cell signaling, Cellular neuroscience, Cerebellum, Cerebral cortex, Cerebral palsy, Chandelier cell, Chemical synapse, Chemogenetics, Childhood absence epilepsy, Chlordiazepoxide, Cholecystokinin B receptor, Cicuta, Cicutoxin, Cigarette, Clinical neurochemistry, Clobazam, Clobenpropit, Clomethiazole, Clonazepam, Cloroqualone, Clostridium tetani, Cloxazolam, Coffee bean, Cognitive inhibition, Colour centre, Cross-tolerance, CssII, Cyclopyrrolones, Cymbopogon citratus, Decarboxylation, Deep cerebellar nuclei, Delirium tremens, Delta wave, Dendrobine, Department of Neurobiology, Harvard Medical School, Depolarization-induced suppression of inhibition, Depressant, Derek van der Kooy, Detoxification, Development of the nervous system, Dexmedetomidine, Diamyd Medical, Diazepam, Dioscorine, Diproqualone, Direct pathway, DLX6-AS1, Dopaminergic pathways, Drug-related crime, Dyschronometria, Dystonia, Edward Kravitz, Effects of alcohol on memory, Electroneutral cation-Cl, Elevated plus maze, Emamectin, Emerald cockroach wasp, Emodepside, Emoxypine, Endocannabinoid system, Endogenous regeneration, Entourage effect, Epigenetics of autism, Epigenetics of schizophrenia, Epileptic spasms, Epileptogenesis, Erminio Costa, Etaqualone, Ethanolamine-O-sulfate, Eugene Roberts (neuroscientist), Eurytherm, Excitatory postsynaptic potential, ExtenZe, External globus pallidus, Extinction (psychology), Eyeblink conditioning, Fascia dentata, Fear-potentiated startle, Fipronil, Fluralaner, Fragile X syndrome, Friedreich's ataxia, Functional Ensemble of Temperament, Functional group, Functional magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the brain, G protein–coupled receptor, Gab operon, Gaba, GABA (disambiguation), GABA analogue, Gaba Corporation, GABA receptor, GABA receptor agonist, GABA receptor antagonist, GABA reuptake inhibitor, GABA tea, GABA transaminase, GABA transporter 1, GABA transporter type 2, GABA transporter type 3, GABAA receptor, GABAA receptor positive allosteric modulator, GABAA-rho receptor, GABAB receptor, Gabaculine, GABAergic, Gabba Gabba Hey, Gaboxadol, GABRA2, GABRA3, GABRA5, GABRB3, GABRG3, GabT RNA motif, GAD1, GAD2, Galanin, Gamma-Butyrolactone, Gamma-glutamyl-gamma-aminobutyrate hydrolase, Gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid, Ganglionic eminence, General anaesthesia, Generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus, Genetics of posttraumatic stress disorder, Germinated brown rice, Giant depolarizing potential, Glucagon, Glutamate (neurotransmitter), Glutamate carboxypeptidase II, Glutamate decarboxylase, Glutamate receptor, Glutamate-glutamine cycle, Glutamic acid, Glutathione, GnRH Neuron, Golgi cell, Gonadotropin release inhibitor, Gonadotropin-releasing hormone, Granule cell, Grey column, Grid cell, Guanidinobutyrase, Gustatory nucleus, Gyromitra, Gyromitra esculenta, Gyromitrin, H3 receptor antagonist, Halogen, Hannah Monyer, Hemiballismus, Henri Laborit, Henry Hallett Dale, Hepatic encephalopathy, Heritability of autism, Heteroreceptor, Hippocampus, Histamine H3 receptor, Homeostasis, Homotaurine, Honokiol, Hopantenic acid, Human brain, Hyperekplexia, Hyperforin, Hypericum perforatum, Hyperkinesia, Hypertonia, Hypofrontality, Hypokinesia, Idiopathic hypersomnia, Illusory palinopsia, In vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy, Index of biochemistry articles, Indiplon, Indirect pathway, Inhibitory postsynaptic potential, Inositol trisphosphate, Insomnia, Intention tremor, Interleukin 6, Interneuron, Interrogation, Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells, Iomazenil, Isothalamus, Isovaline, Μ-opioid receptor, Japanese rice, Jeffrey L. Bada, John E. Casida, Jones Soda, Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy, K-complex, Kainate receptor, Kava, Kavain, Kenyon cell, Ketogenic diet, Kindling (sedative–hypnotic withdrawal), Kiss-and-run fusion, Krešimir Krnjević, Lactic acid, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lamina (neuropil), Lamotrigine, Lanthanum, Lateral hypothalamus, Latrodectism, Lörrach, Ligand-gated ion channel, Lindane, List of acronyms: G, List of biomolecules, List of medical abbreviations: G, List of MeSH codes (D02), List of MeSH codes (D12.125), List of MeSH codes (D12.776.157), List of MeSH codes (D12.776.543), List of MeSH codes (D16), List of traditional Chinese medicines, Lithium (medication), Long-term depression, Lorazepam, Loxoprofen, Luteinizing hormone, LY-404,039, LYNX1, Mauthner cell, Mebroqualone, Mebutamate, Mechanism of anoxic depolarization in the brain, Mechanisms of schizophrenia, Mecloqualone, Medial geniculate nucleus, Medial pontine reticular formation, Median preoptic nucleus, Medium spiny neuron, Melanin-concentrating hormone, Membrane potential, Menthol, Mesencephalic locomotor region, Metadoxine, Microdialysis, Midazolam, Miller–Urey experiment, Minimally conscious state, Minimum alveolar concentration, Molecular neuroscience, Monoamine nuclei, Mood stabilizer, Moxidectin, Muller glia, Muscimol, Muscle relaxant, Mushroom bodies, Mushroom poisoning, Myoclonus, N-type calcium channel, Na-K-Cl cotransporter, Narcolepsy, Nervous system, Neural oscillation, Neuregulin 1, Neurochemical, Neurohacking, Neuroligin, Neuromodulation, Neuron, Neuronal lineage marker, Neuropeptide, Neuropeptide Y, Neuropsychopharmacology, Neuroscience of sleep, Neurotransmission, Neurotransmitter, Nigrostriatal pathway, Nipecotic acid, Nitrazepam, NNC-711, Non-noradrenergic, non-cholinergic transmitter, Non-proteinogenic amino acids, Non-spiking neuron, Northern epilepsy syndrome, Nucleus accumbens, Nucleus raphe pallidus, Nylon 4, Oenanthotoxin, Olfactory bulb, Olfactory tubercle, Olivocochlear system, Opioid, Opioid use disorder, Organochloride, Orthodenticle homeobox 2, Ovation Pharmaceuticals, Oxazepam, Oxytocin, P2RX7, Pagoclone, Palpitations, Panic disorder, Pantoic acid, Paradoxical disinhibition, Parafacial zone, Paroxysmal kinesigenic choreoathetosis, Pars reticulata, Parvalbumin, Peduncular hallucinosis, Penitrem A, Pesticide research, PGO waves, Phantom eye syndrome, Phenelzine, Phenobarbital, Phenylethylidenehydrazine, Phenylsilatrane, Photoactivatable probes, Photostimulation, Physical dependence, Picamilon, Piperazine, Piracetam, Pivagabine, Posterior lobe of cerebellum, Prazepam, Pre-Bötzinger complex, Pretectal area, Primate basal ganglia, Procedural memory, Propofol, Proteinogenic amino acid, Psychiatric medication, Psychoactive drug, Psychoneuroimmunology, Psychopharmacology, Purkinje cell, Putamen, Pyramidal cell, Pyridoxal phosphate, Pyriprole, QH-II-66, Quinolinic acid, Radial glial cell, Ramelteon, Rapid eye movement sleep, Rapid sequence induction, Receptor (biochemistry), Recreational drug use, Recurrent thalamo-cortical resonance, Redback spider, Reelin, Relaxation drink, Renshaw cell, Retina horizontal cell, Retinal waves, Reuptake, Reversal potential, Rhizotomy, Rice, Richard Bruce Silverman, Rostral ventromedial medulla, Roswell Lee Evans, Salomon Z. Langer, Sarcophaga bullata, Satellite glial cell, Satoyoshi syndrome, Scaptotrigona postica, Seletracetam, Separation anxiety in dogs, Serotonin syndrome, Serum chloride, Sexually dimorphic nucleus, Short-term effects of alcohol consumption, Shyness, SK3, SLC32A1, Sleep cycle, Sleep onset, Slow Cow, Smith–Lemli–Opitz syndrome, SNAP25, Social anxiety disorder, Sodium oxybate, Spasmodic torticollis, Spastic cerebral palsy, Spastic diplegia, Spasticity, Spinal cord stimulator, Spinal interneuron, Spontaneous recovery, Sprouting, Stanley Miller, Stephen Kuffler, Stiff-person syndrome, Stimulus (physiology), Stiripentol, Stuart Cull-Candy, Subgranular zone, Subjective response to alcohol, Substantia nigra, Subthalamic nucleus, Subventricular zone, Succinate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase, Succinic acid, Succinic semialdehyde, Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency, SUCLA2, SUCLG2, Superior colliculus, Supraoptic nucleus, Suproclone, Synapse, Synaptic gating, Synaptic pharmacology, Synaptic stabilization, Synaptic vesicle, Tachykinin receptor 1, Tamas Bartfai, TBR1, Temazepam, Temporal lobe epilepsy, Tetanospasmin, Tetanus, Tetany, Tetramethylenedisulfotetramine, Theanine, Thiamine deficiency, Thuja, Thujone, Tiagabine, TLR4, Tolgabide, Toluene toxicity, Tremor, Triazolam, UMB66, Unverricht–Lundborg disease, Urea cycle, Valerian (herb), Valeric acid, Valproate, Vasoactive intestinal peptide, Ventral tegmental area, Ventrolateral preoptic nucleus, Vertigo, Vesicular monoamine transporter 2, Vigabatrin, Vigilance (psychology), Visual processing abnormalities in schizophrenia, Vitamin B6, Voltage-gated calcium channel, WAY-181187, WAY-208466, WNK1, Zaleplon, ZebraBox, Zolpidem, Zona incerta, Zona limitans intrathalamica, Zonisamide, Zopiclone, 2-Arachidonyl glyceryl ether, 4-(γ-Glutamylamino)butanoic acid, 4-acetamidobutyrate deacetylase, 4-aminobutyrate transaminase, 4-aminobutyrate—pyruvate transaminase, 5-HT receptor, 5α-Reductase. Expand index (515 more) » « Shrink index
4-Aminobutyrate aminotransferase is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ABAT gene.
Abnormal psychology is the branch of psychology that studies unusual patterns of behavior, emotion and thought, which may or may not be understood as precipitating a mental disorder.
Absinthe is historically described as a distilled, highly alcoholic (45–74% ABV / 90–148 U.S. proof) beverage.
Acamprosate, sold under the brand name Campral, is a medication used along with counselling to treat alcohol dependence.
Acefurtiamine (INN) is a vitamin B1 analog in a manner similar to the GABAergic activity of the thiamine derivative clomethiazole.
Activity-dependent plasticity is a form of functional and structural neuroplasticity that arises from the use of cognitive functions and personal experience; hence, it is the biological basis for learning and the formation of new memories.
In molecular biology, the Acyl-CoA-binding protein (ACBP) is a small (10 Kd) protein that binds medium- and long-chain acyl-CoA esters with very high affinity and may function as an intracellular carrier of acyl-CoA esters.
Addiction is a brain disorder characterized by compulsive engagement in rewarding stimuli despite adverse consequences.
Addiction is a state characterized by compulsive engagement in rewarding stimuli, despite adverse consequences.
Adhyperforin is a phytochemical found in the members of the plant genus Hypericum including St. John's Wort.
In humans and other animals, the adrenocortical hormones are hormones produced by the adrenal cortex, the outer region of the adrenal gland.
Neurogenesis is the process by which neurons are generated from neural stem cells.
Aggression is overt, often harmful, social interaction with the intention of inflicting damage or other unpleasantness upon another individual.
Alcobra Ltd. is a public, specialty pharmaceutical company.
Alcohol intoxication, also known as drunkenness or alcohol poisoning, is negative behavior and physical effects due to the recent drinking of ethanol (alcohol).
Alcohol myopia is a cognitive-physiological theory on alcohol abuse in which many of alcohol's social and stress-reducing effects, which may underlie its addictive capacity, are explained as a consequence of alcohol's narrowing of perceptual and cognitive functioning.
Alcohol-related brain damage alters both the structure and function of the brain as a result of the direct neurotoxic effects of alcohol intoxication or acute alcohol withdrawal.
Succinate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase, mitochondrial is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ALDH5A1 gene.
In biochemistry, allosteric regulation (or allosteric control) is the regulation of an enzyme by binding an effector molecule at a site other than the enzyme's active site.
Allylglycine is a glycine derivative.
Alpha (α) motor neurons (also called alpha motoneurons), are large, multipolar lower motor neurons of the brainstem and spinal cord.
α-Ketoglutaric acid (2-oxoglutaric acid) is one of two ketone derivatives of glutaric acid.
Alprazolam, available under the trade name Xanax, is a potent, short-acting benzodiazepine anxiolytic—a minor tranquilizer.
An altered state of consciousness (ASC), also called altered state of mind or mind alteration, is any condition which is significantly different from a normal waking state.
Amacrine cells are interneurons in the retina.
Amanita muscaria, commonly known as the fly agaric or fly amanita, is a basidiomycete mushroom, one of many in the genus Amanita.
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
An amino acid neurotransmitter is an amino acid which is able to transmit a nerve message across a synapse.
An amino acid reuptake inhibitor (AARI) is a type of drug which inhibits the reuptake of one or more amino acid neurotransmitters (i.e., glutamate, aspartate, GABA, and/or glycine) by blocking one or more of their respective transporters.
In enzymology, an aminobutyraldehyde dehydrogenase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction The 3 substrates of this enzyme are 4-aminobutanal, NAD+, and H2O, whereas its 3 products are 4-aminobutanoate, NADH, and H+.
Aminobutyric acid may refer to any of three isomeric chemical compounds.
Aminooxyacetic acid, often abbreviated AOA or AOAA, is a compound that inhibits 4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase (GABA-T) activity in vitro and in vivo, leading to less gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) being broken down.
An analeptic, in medicine, is a central nervous system stimulant.
The anatomy of the cerebellum can be viewed at three levels.
Anhedonia refers to a diverse array of deficits in hedonic function, including reduced motivation or ability to experience pleasure.
Research into the psychotic disorder of schizophrenia, involves multiple animal models as a tool, including in the pre-clinical development of drugs.
Aniracetam (brand names Draganon, Sarpul, Ampamet, Memodrin, Referan), also known as N-anisoyl-2-pyrrolidinone, is a racetam which is sold in Europe as a prescription drug.
Anisatin is an extremely toxic, insecticidally active component of the Shikimi plant.
A major organ of the endocrine system, the anterior pituitary (also called the adenohypophysis or pars anterior), is the glandular, anterior lobe that together with the posterior lobe (posterior pituitary, or the neurohypophysis) makes up the pituitary gland (hypophysis).
Anticonvulsants (also commonly known as antiepileptic drugs or as antiseizure drugs) are a diverse group of pharmacological agents used in the treatment of epileptic seizures.
Antidepressant discontinuation syndrome is a condition that can occur following the interruption, dose reduction, or discontinuation of antidepressant drugs, including selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) or serotonin–norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs).
An antiparkinson medication is a type of drug which is intended to treat and relieve the symptoms of Parkinson's disease.
Anxiety disorders are a group of mental disorders characterized by significant feelings of anxiety and fear.
An anxiolytic (also antipanic or antianxiety agent) is a medication or other intervention that inhibits anxiety.
Apathy is a lack of feeling, emotion, interest, and concern.
An apical dendrite is a dendrite that emerges from the apex of a pyramidal cell.
The arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (also known as ARH, ARC, or infundibular nucleus) is an aggregation of neurons in the mediobasal hypothalamus, adjacent to the third ventricle and the median eminence.
The area postrema is a medullary structure in the brain that controls vomiting.
Astrocytes (Astro from Greek astron.
Athetoid cerebral palsy or dyskinetic cerebral palsy (sometimes abbreviated ADCP) is a type of cerebral palsy primarily associated with damage, like other forms of CP, to the basal ganglia in the form of lesions that occur during brain development due to bilirubin encephalopathy and hypoxic-ischemic brain injury.
An autapse is a chemical or electrical synapse from a neuron onto itself.
Auxigro is a controversial chemical-based growth-enhancer that is approved in the United States by the United States Environmental Protection Agency for spray on fruits, vegetables, and grains.
The avermectins are a series of drugs and pesticides used to treat parasitic worms and insect pests.
Bacterial Leucine Transporter (LeuT) is a bundled twelve alpha helix protein which belongs to the family of transporters that shuttle amino acids in and out of bacterial cells.
Bacteriotherapy is the purposeful use of bacteria or their products in treating an illness.
Bankole A. Johnson, DSc, MD, MPhil, FRCPsych (born 5 November 1959) is a licensed physician and board-certified psychiatrist throughout Europe and the United States who served as Alumni Professor and Chairman of the Department of Psychiatry and Neurobehavioral Sciences at the University of Virginia.
A barbiturate is a drug that acts as a central nervous system depressant, and can therefore produce a wide spectrum of effects, from mild sedation to death.
Barbiturate overdose is poisoning due to excessive doses of barbiturates.
Basal ganglia disease is a group of physical dysfunctions that occur when the group of nuclei in the brain known as the basal ganglia fail to properly suppress unwanted movements or to properly prime upper motor neuron circuits to initiate motor function.
Basket cells are inhibitory GABAergic interneurons of the brain, found throughout different regions of the cortex and cerebellum.
Benzodiazepines (BZD, BZs), sometimes called "benzos", are a class of psychoactive drugs whose core chemical structure is the fusion of a benzene ring and a diazepine ring.
Benzodiazepine dependence or benzodiazepine addiction is when one has developed one or more of either tolerance, withdrawal symptoms, drug seeking behaviors, such as continued use despite harmful effects, and maladaptive pattern of substance use, according to the DSM-IV.
Benzodiazepine overdose describes the ingestion of one of the drugs in the benzodiazepine class in quantities greater than are recommended or generally practiced.
Benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome—often abbreviated to benzo withdrawal—is the cluster of symptoms that emerge when a person who has taken benzodiazepines, either medically or recreationally, and has developed a physical dependence undergoes dosage reduction or discontinuation.
Beta wave, or beta rhythm, is a neural oscillation (brainwave) in the brain with a frequency range of between 12.5 and 30 Hz (12.5 to 30 cycles per second).
β-Aminobutyric acid (BABA) is an isomer of the amino acid aminobutyric acid with the chemical formula C4H9NO2.
β-Endorphin is an endogenous opioid neuropeptide and peptide hormone that is produced in certain neurons within the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system.
Betahistine, sold under the brand name Serc among others, is an anti-vertigo medication.
BioLineRx, or BioLine, is a publicly traded drug development company that seeks to discover compounds for disease treatment and develop them into commercializable drugs.
The biology of obsessive-compulsive disorder(OCD) refers biologically based theories about the mechanism of OCD.
A biomolecule or biological molecule is a loosely used term for molecules and ions that are present in organisms, essential to some typically biological process such as cell division, morphogenesis, or development.
Bipolar disorder, previously known as manic depression, is a mental disorder that causes periods of depression and periods of abnormally elevated mood.
BL-1020 (perphenazine 4-aminobutanoate) is an investigational orally-active antipsychotic for the possible treatment of schizophrenia, it's an ester of GABA and perphenazine, and pharmacologically it acts as a D2 antagonist and GABA agonist.
A drug-related blackout is a phenomenon caused by the intake of any substance or medication in which short term and long term memory creation is impaired, therefore causing a complete inability to recall the past.
Blonanserin, sold under the brand name Lonasen, is a relatively new atypical antipsychotic (approved by PMDA in January 2008) commercialized by Dainippon Sumitomo Pharma in Japan and Korea for the treatment of schizophrenia.
The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, also known as BDNF, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the BDNF gene.
Bromazepam (marketed under several brand names, including Lectopam, Lexotan, Lexilium, Lexaurin, Brazepam, Rekotnil, Bromaze, Somalium and Lexotanil) is a benzodiazepine derivative drug, patented by Roche in 1963 and developed clinically in the 1970s.
Brotizolam (marketed under brand name Lendormin) is a sedative-hypnotic thienotriazolodiazepine drug which is a benzodiazepine analog.
Brown rice is whole grain rice, with the inedible outer hull removed; white rice is the same grain with the hull, bran layer and cereal germ removed.
Bruxism is excessive teeth grinding or jaw clenching.
Bumetanide (trade names Bumex or Burinex) is a loop diuretic of the sulfamyl category, most often used to treat heart failure.
The molecular formula C4H9NO2 may refer to.
Caffeine is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the methylxanthine class.
Caffeine-induced anxiety disorder is an anxiety disorder that can be present in people susceptible to panic attacks and anxiety.
Calcineurin (CaN) is a calcium and calmodulin dependent serine/threonine protein phosphatase (also known as protein phosphatase 3, and calcium-dependent serine-threonine phosphatase).
The Calyx of Held is a particularly large synapse in the mammalian auditory central nervous system, so named by Hans Held in his 1893 article Die centrale GehörleitungHeld, H. "Die centrale Gehörleitung" Arch.
A cannabinoid is one of a class of diverse chemical compounds that acts on cannabinoid receptors in cells that alter neurotransmitter release in the brain.
Cannabinoid receptors, located throughout the body, are part of the endocannabinoid system, which is involved in a variety of physiological processes including appetite, pain-sensation, mood, and memory.
The cannabinoid type 1 receptor, often abbreviated as CB1, is a G protein-coupled cannabinoid receptor located in the central and peripheral nervous system.
Carbonaceous chondrites or C chondrites are a class of chondritic meteorites comprising at least 8 known groups and many ungrouped meteorites.
Carnosinemia, also called carnosinase deficiency or aminoacyl-histidine dipeptidase deficiency, is a rare autosomal recessive metabolic disorder caused by a deficiency of carnosinase', a dipeptidase (a type of enzyme that splits dipeptides into their two amino acid constituents).
Cartwheel cells are neurons of the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) where they greatly outnumber the other inhibitory interneurons of the DCN.
In general, cognitive support diets are formulated to include nutrients that have a known role in brain development, function and/or maintenance, with the goal of improving and preserving mental processes such as attentiveness, short-term and long-term memory, learning, and problem solving.
Epilepsy is a chronic neurological condition characterized by recurrent seizures.
There are many causes of seizures.
Cell signaling (cell signalling in British English) is part of any communication process that governs basic activities of cells and coordinates all cell actions.
Cellular neuroscience is the study of neurons at a cellular level.
The cerebellum (Latin for "little brain") is a major feature of the hindbrain of all vertebrates.
The cerebral cortex is the largest region of the cerebrum in the mammalian brain and plays a key role in memory, attention, perception, cognition, awareness, thought, language, and consciousness.
Cerebral palsy (CP) is a group of permanent movement disorders that appear in early childhood.
Chandelier neurons or chandelier cells are a subset of GABA-ergic cortical interneurons.
Chemical synapses are biological junctions through which neurons' signals can be exchanged to each other and to non-neuronal cells such as those in muscles or glands.
Chemogenetics is the processes by which macromolecules can be engineered to interact with previously unrecognized small molecules.
Childhood absence epilepsy (CAE), also known as pyknolepsy, is an idiopathic generalized epilepsy which occurs in otherwise normal children.
Chlordiazepoxide, trade name Librium, is a sedative and hypnotic medication of the benzodiazepine class; it is used to treat anxiety, insomnia and withdrawal symptoms from alcohol and/or drug abuse.
The cholecystokinin B receptor also known as CCKBR or CCK2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCKBR gene.
Cicuta, commonly known as water hemlock, is a small genus of four species of highly poisonous plants in the family Apiaceae.
Cicutoxin is a poisonous polyyne and alcohol found in various plants, such as the highly toxic water hemlock (Cicuta species).
A cigarette is a narrow cylinder containing tobacco that is rolled into thin paper for smoking.
Clinical neurochemistry is the field of neurological biochemistry which relates biochemical phenomena to clinical symptomatic manifestations in humans.
Clobazam (marketed under the brand names Frisium, Urbanol, Onfi and Tapclob) is a benzodiazepine class medication that has been marketed as an anxiolytic since 1975 and an anticonvulsant since 1984.
Clobenpropit is a histamine H3 receptor antagonist.
Clomethiazole (also called chlormethiazole) is a sedative and hypnotic originally developed by Hoffmann-La Roche in the 1930s.
Clonazepam, sold under the brand name Klonopin among others, is a medication used to prevent and treat seizures, panic disorder, and for the movement disorder known as akathisia.
Cloroqualone is a quinazolinone-class GABAergic and is an analogue of methaqualone developed in the 1980s and marketed mainly in France and some other European countries.
Clostridium tetani is a rod-shaped, anaerobic species of pathogenic bacteria, of the genus Clostridium.
Cloxazolam (marketed under the brand names Sepazon, Olcadil (Brazil, Portugal and Spain), Akton (Belgium), and Lubalix (Switzerland)) is a drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative. Cloxazolam is metabolised into the active metabolite chlordesmethyldiazepam (delorazepam). It possesses anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, hypnotic, sedative and skeletal muscle relaxant properties.
A coffee bean is a seed of the coffee plant and the source for coffee.
Cognitive inhibition refers to the mind's ability to tune out stimuli that are irrelevant to the task/process at hand or to the mind's current state.
The colour centre is a region in the brain primarily responsible for visual perception and cortical processing of colour signals received by the eye, which ultimately results in colour vision.
Cross-tolerance is a phenomenon that occurs when tolerance to the effects of a certain drug produces tolerance to another drug.
Centruroides suffusus suffusus toxin II (CssII) is a scorpion β-toxin from the venom of the scorpion Centruroides suffusus suffusus.
Cyclopyrrolones are a family of hypnotic and anxiolytic nonbenzodiazepine drugs with similar pharmacological profiles to the benzodiazepine derivatives.
Cymbopogon citratus, commonly known as lemon grass or oil grass, is a tropical plant from South Asia and introduced to Southeast Asia.
Decarboxylation is a chemical reaction that removes a carboxyl group and releases carbon dioxide (CO2).
The cerebellum has four deep cerebellar nuclei embedded in the white matter in its center.
Delirium tremens (DTs) is a rapid onset of confusion usually caused by withdrawal from alcohol.
A delta wave is a high amplitude brain wave with a frequency of oscillation between 0.5–4 hertz.
Dendrobine is an alkaloid found Dendrobium nobile at an average of 0.5% by weight.
The Department of Neurobiology at Harvard Medical School is located in the Longwood Medical Area of Boston, MA.
Depolarization Induced Suppression Of Inhibition is the classical and original electrophysiological example of endocannabinoid function in the central nervous system.
A depressant, or central depressant, is a drug that lowers neurotransmission levels, which is to depress or reduce arousal or stimulation, in various areas of the brain.
Derek van der Kooy (born 1952) is Professor in the Department of Medical Genetics and Microbiology at the University of Toronto.
Detoxification or detoxication (detox for short) is the physiological or medicinal removal of toxic substances from a living organism, including the human body, which is mainly carried out by the liver.
Development of the nervous system refers to the processes that generate, shape, and reshape the nervous system of animals, from the earliest stages of embryogenesis to adulthood.
Dexmedetomidine, sold under the trade name Precedex among others, is an anxiety reducing, sedative, and pain medication.
Diamyd Medical AB (Stockholm NASDAQ, First North) is dedicated to find a cure for type 1 diabetes: first, the autoimmune inflammation need to be down-regulated with a compound such as for example GABA; second, tolerance need to be induced to insulin producing beta cell auto-antigens such as for example GAD65; third, the beta cell mass need to be restored with for example autologous stem cells.
Diazepam, first marketed as Valium, is a medicine of the benzodiazepine family that typically produces a calming effect.
Dioscorine is an alkaloid toxin isolated from the tubers of tropical yam on several continents.
Diproqualone is a quinazolinone class GABAergic and is an analogue of methaqualone developed in the late 1950s by a team at Nogentaise de Produits Chimique.
The direct pathway, sometimes known as the direct pathway of movement, is a neural pathway within the central nervous system (CNS) through the basal ganglia which facilitates the initiation and execution of voluntary movement.
DLX6 antisense RNA 1 (DLX6-AS1) (Evf-1 (Embryonic ventral forebrain-1)) is a developmentally-regulated long non-coding RNA.
Dopaminergic pathways, sometimes called dopaminergic projections, are the sets of projection neurons in the brain that synthesize and release the neurotransmitter dopamine.
In the United States, illegal drugs are related to crime in multiple ways.
Dyschronometria is a condition of cerebellar dysfunction in which an individual cannot accurately estimate the amount of time that has passed (i.e., distorted time perception).
Dystonia is a neurological movement disorder syndrome in which sustained or repetitive muscle contractions result in twisting and repetitive movements or abnormal fixed postures.
Edward Arthur Kravitz (born December 19, 1932) is the George Packer Berry Professor of Neurobiology at Harvard Medical School.
Ethanol is the type of alcohol found in alcoholic beverages.
In molecular biology, the electroneutral cation-Cl (electroneutral potassium chloride cotransporter) family of proteins are a family of solute carrier proteins.
The elevated plus maze (EPM) is a test measuring anxiety in laboratory animals that usually uses rodents as a screening test for putative anxiolytic or anxiogenic compounds and as a general research tool in neurobiological anxiety research such as PTSD and TBI.
Emamectin is the 4”-deoxy-4”-methylamino derivative of abamectin, a 16-membered macrocyclic lactone produced by the fermentation of the soil actinomycete Streptomyces avermitilis.
The emerald cockroach wasp or jewel wasp (Ampulex compressa) is a solitary wasp of the family Ampulicidae.
Emodepside is an anthelmintic drug that is effective against a number of gastrointestinal nematodes, is licensed for use in cats and belongs to the class of drugs known as the octadepsipeptides, a relatively new class of anthelmintic (research into these compounds began in the early 1990s), which are suspected to achieve their anti-parasitic effect by a novel mechanism of action due to their ability to kill nematodes resistant to other anthelmintics.
Emoxypine (2-ethyl-6-methyl-3-hydroxypyridine), also known as Mexidol or Mexifin when used as the succinate salt, is an antioxidant manufactured in Russia by Pharmasoft Pharmaceuticals.
The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is a biological system composed of endocannabinoids, which are endogenous lipid-based retrograde neurotransmitters that bind to cannabinoid receptors, and cannabinoid receptor proteins that are expressed throughout the mammalian central nervous system (including the brain) and peripheral nervous system.
Endogenous regeneration in the brain is the ability of cells to engage in the repair and regeneration process.
The term entourage effect refers to a concept and proposed mechanism by which compounds present in cannabis which are largely non-psychoactive by themselves modulate the overall psychoactive effects of the plant (these resulting principally from the action of the main psychoactive component of cannabis, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)).
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) includes autism, Asperger disorder, childhood disintegrative disorder and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified.
The epigenetics of schizophrenia is the study of how the inherited epigenetic changes is regulated and modified by the environment and external factors, and how these changes shape and influence the onset and development of, and vulnerability to, schizophrenia.
Epileptic spasms, also known as infantile spasms, juvenile spasms, or West syndrome is an uncommon-to-rare epileptic disorder in infants, children and adults.
Epileptogenesis is the gradual process by which a normal brain develops epilepsy.
Erminio "Mimo" Costa (March 9, 1924 – November 28, 2009) was an Italian-American neuroscientist.
Etaqualone (Aolan, Athinazone, Ethinazone) is a quinazolinone-class GABAergic and is an analogue of methaqualone that was developed in the 1960s and marketed mainly in France and some other European countries.
Ethanolamine-O-sulfate (EOS) is an ester of sulfuric acid and ethanolamine.
Eugene Roberts (January 19, 1920 – November 8, 2016) was an American neuroscientist.
A eurytherm is an organism, often an endotherm, that can function at a wide range of ambient temperatures.
In neuroscience, an excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) is a postsynaptic potential that makes the postsynaptic neuron more likely to fire an action potential.
Extenze is a herbal nutritional supplement claiming to promote "natural male enhancement", a euphemism for penis enlargement.
The external globus pallidus (GPe) (or lateral globus pallidus) combines with the internal globus pallidus (GPi) to form the globus pallidus, an anatomical subset of the basal ganglia.
Extinction is observed in both operantly conditioned and classically conditioned behavior.
Eyeblink conditioning (EBC) is a form of classical conditioning that has been used extensively to study neural structures and mechanisms that underlie learning and memory.
The fascia dentata is the earliest stage of the hippocampal circuit.
Fear-potentiated startle (FPS) is a reflexive physiological reaction to a presented stimulus, and is an indicator of the fear reaction in an organism.
Fipronil is a broad-spectrum insecticide that belongs to the phenylpyrazole chemical family.
Fluralaner (INN) is a systemic insecticide and acaricide that is administered orally.
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a genetic disorder.
Friedreich's ataxia is an autosomal recessive inherited disease that causes progressive damage to the nervous system.
Functional Ensemble of Temperament (FET) is a neurochemical model suggesting specific functional roles of main neurotransmitter systems in regulation of behavior.
In organic chemistry, functional groups are specific substituents or moieties within molecules that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules.
Functional magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the brain (fMRS) uses magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to study brain metabolism during brain activation.
G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs), also known as seven-(pass)-transmembrane domain receptors, 7TM receptors, heptahelical receptors, serpentine receptor, and G protein–linked receptors (GPLR), constitute a large protein family of receptors that detect molecules outside the cell and activate internal signal transduction pathways and, ultimately, cellular responses.
The gab operon is responsible for the conversion of γ-aminobutyrate (GABA) to succinate.
Gaba may refer to.
GABA may refer to.
A GABA analogue is a compound which is an analogue or derivative of the neurotransmitter gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) (the IUPAC of which is 4-aminobutanoic acid).
is a chain of eikaiwa schools (English conversation schools) in Japan.
The GABA receptors are a class of receptors that respond to the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the chief inhibitory compound in the mature vertebrate central nervous system.
A GABA receptor agonist is a drug that is an agonist for one or more of the GABA receptors, producing typically sedative effects, and may also cause other effects such as anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, and muscle relaxant effects.
GABA receptor antagonists are drugs that inhibit the action of GABA.
A GABA reuptake inhibitor (GRI) is a type of drug which acts as a reuptake inhibitor for the neurotransmitter gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) by blocking the action of the gamma-Aminobutyric acid transporters (GATs).
GABA tea (other names: Gabaron, Jia Wu Long cha, Jing Bai Long cha, 佳叶龙茶) is tea that has undergone a special oxygen-free fermentation process, and as a result has accumulated GABA in tea leaves.
A GABA transaminase is an enzyme that catalyzes two reactions.
GABA transporter 1 (GAT1) also known as sodium- and chloride-dependent GABA transporter 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC6A1 gene.
GABA transporter 2 (GAT2; SLC6A13) also known as sodium- and chloride-dependent GABA transporter 2 is one of four GABA transporters, GAT1 (SLC6A1), GAT2 (SLC6A13), GAT3 (SLC6A11) and BGT1 (SLC6A12).
GABA transporter type 3 (GAT3) uses sodium (Na+) electrochemical gradients to mediate uptake of GABA from the synaptic cleft by surrounding glial cells.
The GABAA receptor (GABAAR) is an ionotropic receptor and ligand-gated ion channel.
In pharmacology, GABAA receptor positive allosteric modulators are positive allosteric modulator (PAM) molecules that increase the activity of the GABAA receptor protein in the vertebrate central nervous system.
The GABAA-rho receptor (previously known as the GABAC receptor) is a subclass of GABAA receptors composed entirely of rho (ρ) subunits.
GABAB receptors (GABABR) are metabotropic transmembrane receptors for gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) that are linked via G-proteins to potassium channels.
Gabaculine is a naturally occurring neurotoxin first isolated from the bacteria Streptomyces toyacaensis, which acts as a potent and irreversible GABA transaminase inhibitor, and also a GABA reuptake inhibitor.
GABAergic means "pertaining to or affecting the neurotransmitter GABA".
"Gabba Gabba Hey" is a catchphrase associated with the punk rock band the Ramones.
Gaboxadol, also known as 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo(5,4-c)pyridin-3-ol (THIP), is a conformationally constrained derivative of the alkaloid muscimol that was first synthesized in 1977 by the Danish chemist Povl Krogsgaard-Larsen.
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-2 is a protein in humans that is encoded by the GABRA2 gene.
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GABRA3 gene.
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor, alpha 5, also known as GABRA5, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the GABRA5 gene.
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GABRB3 gene.
GABAA receptor-γ3, also known as GABRG3, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the GABRG3 gene.
The gabT RNA motif is the name of a conserved RNA structure identified by bioinformatics whose function is unknown.
Glutamate decarboxylase 1 (brain, 67kDa) (GAD67), also known as GAD1, is a human gene.
Glutamate decarboxylase 2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the GAD2 gene.
Galanin is a neuropeptide encoded by the GAL gene, that is widely expressed in the brain, spinal cord, and gut of humans as well as other mammals.
γ-Butyrolactone (GBL) is a hygroscopic colorless, water-miscible liquid with a weak characteristic odor.
In enzymology, a gamma-glutamyl-gamma-aminobutyrate hydrolase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are 4-(gamma-glutamylamino)butanoate and H2O, whereas its two products are 4-aminobutanoate and L-glutamate.
γ-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), also known as 4-hydroxybutanoic acid, is a naturally occurring neurotransmitter and a psychoactive drug.
In neuroanatomy and neuroembryology, a ganglionic eminence (GE) is a transitory brain structure that guides cell and axon migration.
General anaesthesia or general anesthesia (see spelling differences) is a medically induced coma with loss of protective reflexes, resulting from the administration of one or more general anaesthetic agents.
Generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+) is a syndromic autosomal dominant disorder where afflicted individuals can exhibit numerous epilepsy phenotypes.
Genetics play some role in the development of PTSD.
Germinated brown rice (GBR; Korean: 발아현미 (hangul), 發芽玄米 (hanja), Bala hyeonmi, Japanese) is unpolished brown rice that has been allowed to germinate to improve the flavor and texture, and to increase levels of nutrients such as γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA).
A giant depolarizing potential (GDP) is a type of patterned spontaneous activity that can be observed in preparations of developing brain at early stages of development.
Glucagon is a peptide hormone, produced by alpha cells of the pancreas.
In neuroscience, glutamate refers to the anion of glutamic acid in its role as a neurotransmitter: a chemical that nerve cells use to send signals to other cells.
Glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII), also known as N-acetyl-L-aspartyl-L-glutamate peptidase I (NAALADase I), NAAG peptidase, or prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the FOLH1 (folate hydrolase 1) gene.
Glutamate decarboxylase or glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) is an enzyme that catalyzes the decarboxylation of glutamate to GABA and CO2.
Glutamate receptors are synaptic and non synaptic receptors located primarily on the membranes of neuronal and glial cells.
In biochemistry, the glutamate-glutamine cycle is a sequence of events by which an adequate supply of the neurotransmitter glutamate is maintained in the central nervous system.
Glutamic acid (symbol Glu or E) is an α-amino acid with formula.
Glutathione (GSH) is an important antioxidant in plants, animals, fungi, and some bacteria and archaea.
GnRH neurons, or Gonadotropin-releasing hormone expressing neurons, are the cells in the brain that control the release of reproductive hormones from the pituitary.
In neuroscience, Golgi cells are inhibitory interneurons found within the granular layer of the cerebellum.
The hormone of gonadotropins secreted by the anterior hypophyse gland effects on the gonads and play a crucial role in the process of gonadal development and function in vertebrates.
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) also known as gonadoliberin, and by various other names in its endogenous form and as gonadorelin in its pharmaceutical form, is a releasing hormone responsible for the release of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) from the anterior pituitary.
The name granule cell has been used by anatomists for a number of different types of neuron whose only common feature is that they all have very small cell bodies.
The grey column refers to a somewhat ridge-shaped mass of grey matter in the spinal cord.
A grid cell is a type of neuron in the brains of many species that allows them to understand their position in space.
In enzymology, a guanidinobutyrase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are 4-guanidinobutanoate and H2O, whereas its two products are 4-aminobutanoate and urea.
The gustatory nucleus is a component of the solitary nucleus.
Gyromitra is a genus of ascomycete mushrooms found in the northern hemisphere.
Gyromitra esculenta, is an ascomycete fungus from the genus Gyromitra, widely distributed across Europe and North America.
Gyromitrin is a toxin and carcinogen present in several members of the fungal genus Gyromitra, like G. esculenta.
An H3 receptor antagonist is a classification of drugs used to block the action of histamine at the H3 receptor.
The halogens are a group in the periodic table consisting of five chemically related elements: fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), iodine (I), and astatine (At).
Hannah Monyer (born 3 October 1957 in Laslea, Romania) is a Romanian-born (Transylvanian Saxon) German neurobiologist and, since 1999,, Crossroads in Biology, received 27 May 2010.
Ballismus or ballism (called hemiballismus or hemiballism in its unilateral form) is a very rare movement disorder.
Henri Laborit (21 November 1914 – 18 May 1995) was a French surgeon, writer and philosopher.
Sir Henry Hallett Dale (9 June 1875 – 23 July 1968) was an English pharmacologist and physiologist.
Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is an altered level of consciousness as a result of liver failure.
The heritability of autism is the proportion of differences in expression of autism that can be explained by genetic variation; if the heritability of a condition is high, then the condition is considered to be primarily genetic.
A heteroreceptor is a receptor regulating the synthesis and/or the release of mediators other than its own ligand.
The hippocampus (named after its resemblance to the seahorse, from the Greek ἱππόκαμπος, "seahorse" from ἵππος hippos, "horse" and κάμπος kampos, "sea monster") is a major component of the brains of humans and other vertebrates.
Histamine H3 receptors are expressed in the central nervous system and to a lesser extent the peripheral nervous system, where they act as autoreceptors in presynaptic histaminergic neurons, and also control histamine turnover by feedback inhibition of histamine synthesis and release.
Homeostasis is the tendency of organisms to auto-regulate and maintain their internal environment in a stable state.
Homotaurine (3-amino-1-propanesulfonic acid (3-APS) or tramiprosate (INN)) is a natural organic compound found in seaweed.
Honokiol is a lignan isolated from the bark, seed cones, and leaves of trees belonging to the genus Magnolia.
Hopantenic acid (homopantothenic acid), also known as N-pantoyl-GABA, is a central nervous system depressant.
The human brain is the central organ of the human nervous system, and with the spinal cord makes up the central nervous system.
Hyperekplexia ("exaggerated surprise") is a neurologic disorder classically characterised by pronounced startle responses to tactile or acoustic stimuli and hypertonia.
Hyperforin is a phytochemical produced by some of the members of the plant genus Hypericum, notably Hypericum perforatum (St John's wort).
Hypericum perforatum, known as perforate St John's-wort, common Saint John's wort and St John's wort, is a flowering plant in the family Hypericaceae.
Hyperkinesia, also known as hyperkinesis, refers to an increase in muscular activity that can result in excessive abnormal movements, excessive normal movements, or a combination of both.
Hypertonia is a term sometimes used synonymously with spasticity and rigidity in the literature surrounding damage to the central nervous system, namely upper motor neuron lesions.
Hypofrontality is a state of decreased cerebral blood flow (CBF) in the prefrontal cortex of the brain.
Hypokinesia refers to decreased bodily movement.
Idiopathic hypersomnia is a neurological disorder which is characterized primarily by excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS).
Illusory palinopsia (Greek: palin for "again" and opsia for "seeing") is a subtype of palinopsia, a visual disturbance defined as the persistence or recurrence of a visual image after the stimulus has been removed.
In vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is a specialized technique associated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
Biochemistry is the study of the chemical processes in living organisms.
Indiplon (INN and USAN) is a nonbenzodiazepine, hypnotic sedative that was developed in 2 formulations - an immediate release product for sleep onset and a modified-release (a.k.a. controlled-release or extended-release) version for sleep maintenance.
The indirect pathway sometimes known as the indirect pathway of movement is a neuronal circuit through the basal ganglia and several associated nuclei within the central nervous system (CNS) which helps to prevent unwanted muscle contractions from competing with voluntary movements.
An inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP) is a kind of synaptic potential that makes a postsynaptic neuron less likely to generate an action potential.
Inositol trisphosphate or inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (also commonly known as triphosphoinositol; abbreviated InsP3 or Ins3P or IP3), together with diacylglycerol (DAG), is a secondary messenger molecule used in signal transduction and lipid signaling in biological cells.
Insomnia, also known as sleeplessness, is a sleep disorder where people have trouble sleeping.
Intention tremor, also known as cerebellar tremor, is a dyskinetic disorder characterized by a broad, coarse, and low frequency (below 5 Hz) tremor.
Interleukin 6 (IL-6) is an interleukin that acts as both a pro-inflammatory cytokine and an anti-inflammatory myokine.
An interneuron (also called internuncial neuron, relay neuron, association neuron, connector neuron, intermediate neuron or local circuit neuron) is a broad class of neurons found in the human body.
Interrogation (also called questioning) is interviewing as commonly employed by law enforcement officers, military personnel, and intelligence agencies with the goal of eliciting useful information.
Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs), also called photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (pRGC), or melanopsin-containing retinal ganglion cells (mRGCs), are a type of neuron in the retina of the mammalian eye.
Iomazenil (also known as Ro16-0154, INN, USAN; benzodine) is an antagonist and partial inverse agonist of benzodiazepine and a potential treatment for alcohol abuse.
The isothalamus is a division used by some researchers in describing the thalamus.
Isovaline is a rare amino acid transported to earth by the Murchison meteorite, which landed in Australia in 1969.
The μ-opioid receptors (MOR) are a class of opioid receptors with a high affinity for enkephalins and beta-endorphin, but a low affinity for dynorphins.
Japanese rice refers to a number of short-grain cultivars of Japonica rice including ordinary rice (uruchimai) and glutinous rice (mochigome).
Jeffrey L. Bada (born September 10, 1942) is an American chemist well known for his works in the study of the origin of life.
John Edward Casida (born December 22, 1929) is an American entomologist, toxicologist and professor at the University of California, Berkeley.
Jones Soda Co.
Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME), also known as Janz syndrome, is a fairly common form of idiopathic generalized epilepsy, representing 5-10% of all epilepsy cases.
A K-complex is an electroencephalography (EEG) waveform that occurs during stage 2 of NREM sleep.
Kainate receptors, or kainic acid receptors (KARs), are ionotropic receptors that respond to the neurotransmitter glutamate.
Kava or kava kava or Piper methysticum (Latin "pepper" and Latinized Greek "intoxicating") is a crop of the Pacific Islands.
Kavain is the main kavalactone found mostly in the roots of the kava plant.
Kenyon cells are the intrinsic neurons of the mushroom body, a neuropil found in the brains of most arthropods and some annelids.
The ketogenic diet is a high-fat, adequate-protein, low-carbohydrate diet that in medicine is used primarily to treat difficult-to-control (refractory) epilepsy in children.
Kindling due to substance withdrawal refers to the neurological condition which results from repeated withdrawal episodes from sedative–hypnotic drugs such as alcohol and benzodiazepines.
Kiss-and-run fusion is a type of synaptic vesicle release where the vesicle opens and closes transiently.
Krešimir Krnjević (born 7 September 1927 in Zagreb) is a Canadian-British neurophysiologist.
Lactic acid is an organic compound with the formula CH3CH(OH)COOH.
Lactobacillus rhamnosus is a bacterium that originally was considered to be a subspecies of L. casei, but later genetic research found it to be a species of its own.
The lamina is the most peripheral neuropil of the insect visual system.
Lamotrigine, sold as the brand name Lamictal among others, is an anticonvulsant medication used to treat epilepsy and bipolar disorder.
Lanthanum is a chemical element with symbol La and atomic number 57.
The lateral hypothalamus, also called the lateral hypothalamic area, contains the primary orexinergic nucleus within the hypothalamus that widely projects throughout the nervous system; this system of neurons mediates an array of cognitive and physical processes, such as promoting feeding behavior and arousal, reducing pain perception, and regulating body temperature, digestive functions, and blood pressure, among many others.
Latrodectism is the illness caused by the bite of Latrodectus spiders (the black widow spider and related species).
Lörrach is a city in southwest Germany, in the valley of the Wiese, close to the French and the Swiss borders.
Ligand-gated ion channels (LICs, LGIC), also commonly referred as ionotropic receptors, are a group of transmembrane ion-channel proteins which open to allow ions such as Na+, K+, Ca2+, and/or Cl− to pass through the membrane in response to the binding of a chemical messenger (i.e. a ligand), such as a neurotransmitter.
Lindane, also known as gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (γ-HCCH), gammaxene, Gammallin and sometimes incorrectly called benzene hexachloride (BHC), is an organochlorine chemical variant of hexachlorocyclohexane that has been used both as an agricultural insecticide and as a pharmaceutical treatment for lice and scabies.
(Main list of acronyms).
This is a list of articles that describe particular biomolecules or types of biomolecules.
Category:Lists of medical abbreviations.
This is the fourth part of the list of the "D" codes for MeSH.
This is part of the list of the "D" codes for MeSH.
This is a sub-part (carrier proteins only) of List of MeSH codes (D12.776), itself a part of the list of the "D" codes for MeSH.
This is a sub-part (membrane proteins only) of List of MeSH codes (D12.776), itself a part of the list of the "D" codes for MeSH.
This is the fourth part of the list of the "D" codes for MeSH.
In traditional Chinese medicine, there are roughly 13,000 medicinals used in China and over 100,000 medicinal prescriptions recorded in the ancient literature.
Lithium compounds, also known as lithium salts, are primarily used as a psychiatric medication.
Long-term depression (LTD), in neurophysiology, is an activity-dependent reduction in the efficacy of neuronal synapses lasting hours or longer following a long patterned stimulus.
Lorazepam, sold under the brand name Ativan among others, is a benzodiazepine medication.
Loxoprofen (INN) is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) in the propionic acid derivatives group, which also includes ibuprofen and naproxen among others.
Luteinizing hormone (LH, also known as lutropin and sometimes lutrophin) is a hormone produced by gonadotropic cells in the anterior pituitary gland.
LY-404,039, also known as pomaglumetad, is an amino acid analog drug that acts as a highly selective agonist for the metabotropic glutamate receptor group II subtypes mGluR2 and mGluR3.
Ly6/neurotoxin 1 is a protein in humans that is encoded by the LYNX1 gene.
The Mauthner cells are a pair of big and easily identifiable neurons (one for each half of the body) located in the rhombomere 4 of the hindbrain in fish and amphibians that are responsible for a very fast escape reflex (in the majority of animals – a so-called C-start response).
Mebroqualone (MBQ) is a quinazolinone-class GABAergic and is an analogue of mecloqualone that has similar sedative and hypnotic properties to its parent compound, resulting from its agonist activity at the β subtype of the GABAa receptor.
Mebutamate (Capla, Dormate) is an anxiolytic and sedative drug with antihypertensive effects of the carbamate class.
Anoxic depolarization is a progressive and uncontrollable depolarization of neurons during stroke or brain ischemia in which there is an inadequate supply of blood to the brain.
The underlying mechanisms of schizophrenia, a mental disorder characterized by a disintegration of the processes of thinking and of emotional responsiveness, are complex.
Mecloqualone (Nubarene, Casfen) is a quinazolinone-class GABAergic and is an analogue of methaqualone that was first made in 1960 and marketed mainly in France and some other European countries.
The medial geniculate nucleus (MGN) or medial geniculate body (MGB) is part of the auditory thalamus and represents the thalamic relay between the inferior colliculus (IC) and the auditory cortex (AC).
The medial pontine reticular formation (MPRF) is a part of the human brain located in the pons of the brainstem (specifically the central pontine reticular formation).
The median preoptic nucleus is located dorsal to the other three nuclei of the preoptic area of the anterior hypothalamus.
Medium spiny neurons (MSNs), also known as spiny projection neurons, are a special type of GABAergic inhibitory cell representing 95% of neurons within the human striatum, a basal ganglia structure.
Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is a cyclic 19-amino acid orexigenic hypothalamic peptide originally isolated from the pituitary gland of teleost fish, where it controls skin pigmentation.
The term "membrane potential" may refer to one of three kinds of membrane potential.
Menthol is an organic compound made synthetically or obtained from corn mint, peppermint, or other mint oils.
The mesencephalic locomotor region (MLR) is a functionally defined area of the brainstem that is associated with the initiation and control of locomotor movements in vertebrate species.
Metadoxine, also known as pyridoxine-pyrrolidone carboxylate, is a drug used to treat chronic and acute alcohol intoxication.
Microdialysis is a minimally-invasive sampling technique that is used for continuous measurement of free, unbound analyte concentrations in the extracellular fluid of virtually any tissue.
Midazolam, marketed under the trade name Versed, among others, is a medication used for anesthesia, procedural sedation, trouble sleeping, and severe agitation.
The Miller–Urey experiment (or Miller experiment) was a chemical experiment that simulated the conditions thought at the time to be present on the early Earth, and tested the chemical origin of life under those conditions.
A minimally conscious state (MCS) is a disorder of consciousness distinct from persistent vegetative state and locked-in syndrome.
Minimum alveolar concentration or MAC is the concentration of a vapour in the lungs that is needed to prevent movement (motor response) in 50% of subjects in response to surgical (pain) stimulus.
Molecular neuroscience is a branch of neuroscience that observes concepts in molecular biology applied to the nervous systems of animals.
Monoamine nuclei are clusters of cells that primarily use monoamine neurotransmitters to communicate.
A mood stabilizer is a psychiatric pharmaceutical drug used to treat mood disorders characterized by intense and sustained mood shifts, typically bipolar disorder type I or type II, borderline personality disorder (BPD) and schizophrenia.
Moxidectin is an anthelmintic drug used in animals to prevent or control parasitic worms (helminths), such as heartworm and intestinal worms, in dogs, cats, horses, cattle and sheep.
Müller glia, or Müller cells, are a type of retinal glial cells, first recognized and described by Heinrich Müller.
Muscimol (also known as agarin or pantherine) is one of the principal psychoactive constituents of Amanita muscaria and related species of mushroom.
A muscle relaxant is a drug that affects skeletal muscle function and decreases the muscle tone.
The mushroom bodies or corpora pedunculata are a pair of structures in the brain of insects, other arthropods, and some annelids (notably the ragworm).
Mushroom poisoning (also known as mycetism or mycetismus) refers to harmful effects from ingestion of toxic substances present in a mushroom.
Myoclonus is a brief, involuntary twitching of a muscle or a group of muscles.
N-type calcium channels are voltage gated calcium channels that are distributed throughout the entire body.
The Na-K-Cl cotransporter (NKCC) is a protein that aids in the active transport of sodium, potassium, and chloride into cells.
Narcolepsy is a long-term neurological disorder that involves a decreased ability to regulate sleep-wake cycles.
The nervous system is the part of an animal that coordinates its actions by transmitting signals to and from different parts of its body.
Neural oscillations, or brainwaves, are rhythmic or repetitive patterns of neural activity in the central nervous system.
Neuregulin 1 or NRG1 is a cell adhesion molecule that in humans is encoded by the NRG1 gene.
A neurochemical is a small organic molecule or peptide that participates in neural activity.
Neurohacking is the colloquial term for (usually personal or 'DIY') neuroengineering.
Neuromodulation is the physiological process by which a given neuron uses one or more chemicals to regulate diverse populations of neurons.
A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.
A Neuronal lineage marker is an endogenous tag that is expressed in different cells along neurogenesis and differentiated cells such as neurons.
Neuropeptides are small protein-like molecules (peptides) used by neurons to communicate with each other.
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a 36 amino-acid neuropeptide that is involved in various physiological and homeostatic processes in both the central and peripheral nervous systems.
Neuropsychopharmacology, an interdisciplinary science related to psychopharmacology (how drugs affect the mind) and fundamental neuroscience, is the study of the neural mechanisms that drugs act upon to influence behavior.
The neuroscience of sleep is the study of the neuroscientific and physiological basis of the nature of sleep and its functions.
Neurotransmission (Latin: transmissio "passage, crossing" from transmittere "send, let through"), also called synaptic transmission, is the process by which signaling molecules called neurotransmitters are released by the axon terminal of a neuron (the presynaptic neuron), and bind to and activate the receptors on the dendrites of another neuron (the postsynaptic neuron).
Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.
The nigrostriatal pathway or the nigrostriatal bundle (NSB), is a dopaminergic pathway that connects the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) with the dorsal striatum (i.e., the caudate nucleus and putamen).
Nipecotic acid is a GABA uptake inhibitor used in scientific research.
Nitrazepam (brand names Alodorm and Mogadon, among others) is a hypnotic drug of the benzodiazepine class used for short-term relief from severe, disabling anxiety and insomnia.
NNC-711 is an anticonvulsant, acting as a gamma-aminobutyric acid uptake inhibitor via inhibition of GAT-1.
A non-noradrenergic, non-cholinergic transmitter (NANC) is a neurotransmitter of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) that is neither acetylcholine, norepinephrine, or epinephrine.
In biochemistry, non-coded or non-proteinogenic amino acids are those not naturally encoded or found in the genetic code of any organism.
Non-spiking neurons are neurons that are located in the central and peripheral nervous systems and function as intermediary relays for sensory-motor neurons.
Northern epilepsy syndrome or progressive epilepsy with mental retardation (EPMR) is a subtype of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis and a rare disease that is regarded as a Finnish heritage disease.
The nucleus accumbens (NAc or NAcc), also known as the accumbens nucleus, or formerly as the nucleus accumbens septi (Latin for nucleus adjacent to the septum) is a region in the basal forebrain rostral to the preoptic area of the hypothalamus.
The nucleus raphe pallidus receives afferent connections from the periaqueductal gray, the Paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus, central nucleus of the amygdala, lateral hypothalamic area, and parvocellular reticular nucleus.
Nylon 4 or polybutyrolactam can be degraded by the (ND-10 and ND-11) strands of Pseudomonas sp.
Oenanthotoxin is a toxin extracted from hemlock water dropwort (Oenanthe crocata) and other plants of the genus Oenanthe.
The olfactory bulb (bulbus olfactorius) is a neural structure of the vertebrate forebrain involved in olfaction, the sense of smell.
The olfactory tubercle (OT), also known as the tuberculum olfactorium, is a multi-sensory processing center that is contained within the olfactory cortex and ventral striatum and plays a role in reward cognition.
The olivocochlear system is a component of the auditory system involved with the descending control of the cochlea.
Opioids are substances that act on opioid receptors to produce morphine-like effects.
Opioid use disorder is a medical condition characterized by a problematic pattern of opioid use that causes clinically significant impairment or distress.
An organochloride, organochlorine compound, chlorocarbon, or chlorinated hydrocarbon is an organic compound containing at least one covalently bonded atom of chlorine that has an effect on the chemical behavior of the molecule.
Homeobox protein OTX2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the OTX2 gene.
Ovation Pharmaceuticals is an American manufacturer and distributor of pharmaceuticals products.
Oxazepam is a short-to-intermediate-acting benzodiazepine.
Oxytocin (Oxt) is a peptide hormone and neuropeptide.
P2X purinoceptor 7 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the P2RX7 gene.
Pagoclone is an anxiolytic agent from the cyclopyrrolone family, related to better-known drugs such as the sleeping medication zopiclone.
Palpitations are the perceived abnormality of the heartbeat characterized by awareness of cardiac muscle contractions in the chest: hard, fast and/or irregular beats.
Panic disorder is an anxiety disorder characterized by reoccurring unexpected panic attacks.
Pantoic acid is an alpha hydroxy acid which is a component of some biologically active compounds.
Paradoxical disinhibition is a paradoxical reaction, an uncommon but recognized phenomenon, characterized by acute excitement and an altered mental state, caused by benzodiazepines, the mechanism being poorly known, but the most accepted theory is that it occurs secondary to inhibition of the restraining influences of the cortex and frontal lobe due to the GABA-mimetic action of benzodiazepines.
The parafacial zone (PZ) is a brain structure located within the medulla oblongata which contains GABAergic neurons and is involved in slow-wave sleep.
Paroxysmal kinesigenic choreathetosis (PKC) also called paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (PKD) is a hyperkinetic movement disorder characterized by attacks of involuntary movements, which are triggered by sudden voluntary movements.
The pars reticulata is a portion of the substantia nigra.
Parvalbumin is a calcium-binding albumin protein with low molecular weight (typically 9-11 kDa).
Peduncular hallucinosis (PH), or Lhermitte's peduncular hallucinosis, is a rare neurological disorder that causes vivid visual hallucinations that typically occur in dark environments, and last for several minutes.
Penitrem A (tremortin) is an indol-diterpenoid mycotoxin produced by certain species of Aspergillus, ''Claviceps'', and Penicillium, which can be found growing on various plant species such as ryegrass.
Early twenty-first century pesticide research has focused on developing molecules that combine low use rates and that are more selective, safer, resistance-breaking and cost-effective.
Ponto-geniculo-occipital waves or PGO waves are phasic field potentials.
The phantom eye syndrome (PES) is a phantom pain in the eye and visual hallucinations after the removal of an eye (enucleation, evisceration).
Phenelzine (Nardil, Nardelzine) is a non-selective and irreversible monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) of the hydrazine class which is used as an antidepressant and anxiolytic.
Phenobarbital, also known as phenobarbitone or phenobarb, is a medication recommended by the World Health Organization for the treatment of certain types of epilepsy in developing countries.
Phenylethylidenehydrazine (PEH), also known as 2-phenylethylhydrazone or β-phenylethylidenehydrazine, is an inhibitor of the enzyme GABA transaminase (GABA-T).
Phenylsilatrane is a convulsant chemical which has been used as a rodenticide.
Photoactivation is a technique used in biological research to specifically activate cellular players (proteins, nucleic acids, small molecules) by a flash of light in order to study processes in cells.
Photostimulation is the use of light to artificially activate biological compounds, cells, tissues, or even whole organisms.
Physical dependence is a physical condition caused by chronic use of a tolerance forming drug, in which abrupt or gradual drug withdrawal causes unpleasant physical symptoms.
Picamilon (also known as N-nicotinoyl-GABA, pycamilon, and pikamilon) is a drug formed by a synthetic combination of niacin and GABA.
Piperazine is an organic compound that consists of a six-membered ring containing two nitrogen atoms at opposite positions in the ring.
Piracetam (sold under many brand names) is a medication in the racetams group, with chemical name 2-oxo-1-pyrrolidine acetamide.
Pivagabine (INN; brand name Tonerg), also known as N-pivaloyl-γ-aminobutyric acid or N-pivaloyl-GABA, is an antidepressant and anxiolytic drug which was introduced in Italy in 1997 for the treatment of depressive and maladaptive syndromes.
The posterior lobe of cerebellum or neocerebellum, is the portion of the cerebellum below the primary fissure.
Prazepam is a benzodiazepine derivative drug developed by Warner-Lambert in the 1960s.
The pre-Bötzinger complex (preBötC) is a cluster of interneurons in the ventral respiratory centre of the medulla of the brainstem.
The pretectal area, or pretectum, is a midbrain structure composed of seven nuclei and comprises part of the subcortical visual system.
The basal ganglia form a major brain system in all species of vertebrates, but in primates (including humans) there are special features that justify a separate consideration.
Procedural memory is a type of implicit memory (unconscious memory) and long-term memory which aids the performance of particular types of tasks without conscious awareness of these previous experiences.
Propofol, marketed as Diprivan among others, is a short-acting medication that results in a decreased level of consciousness and lack of memory for events.
Proteinogenic amino acids are amino acids that are incorporated biosynthetically into proteins during translation.
A psychiatric medication is a licensed psychoactive drug taken to exert an effect on the chemical makeup of the brain and nervous system.
A psychoactive drug, psychopharmaceutical, or psychotropic is a chemical substance that changes brain function and results in alterations in perception, mood, consciousness, cognition, or behavior.
Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI), also referred to as psychoendoneuroimmunology (PENI) or psychoneuroendocrinoimmunology (PNEI), is the study of the interaction between psychological processes and the nervous and immune systems of the human body.
Psychopharmacology (from Greek label; label; and label) is the scientific study of the effects drugs have on mood, sensation, thinking, and behavior.
Purkinje cells, or Purkinje neurons, are a class of GABAergic neurons located in the cerebellum.
The putamen is a round structure located at the base of the forebrain (telencephalon).
Pyramidal cells, or (pyramidal neurons), are a type of multipolar neuron found in areas of the brain including the cerebral cortex, the hippocampus, and the amygdala.
Pyridoxal phosphate (PLP, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, P5P), the active form of vitamin B6, is a coenzyme in a variety of enzymatic reactions.
Pyriprole (trade name Prac-tic) is for veterinary use on dogs against external parasites such as fleas and ticks.
QH-II-66 (QH-ii-066) is a sedative drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative.
Quinolinic acid (abbreviated QUIN or QA), also known as pyridine-2,3-dicarboxylic acid, is a dicarboxylic acid with a pyridine backbone.
Radial glial cells are bipolar-shaped cells that span the width of the cortex in the developing vertebrate central nervous system (CNS) and serve as primary progenitor cells capable of generating neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes.
Ramelteon, marketed as Rozerem among others, is a sleep agent that selectively binds to the MT1 and MT2 receptors in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), instead of binding to GABAA receptors, such as with drugs like zolpidem.
Rapid eye movement sleep (REM sleep, REMS) is a unique phase of sleep in mammals and birds, distinguishable by random/rapid movement of the eyes, accompanied with low muscle tone throughout the body, and the propensity of the sleeper to dream vividly.
In advanced airway management, rapid sequence induction (RSI) - also described as rapid sequence intubation or as rapid sequence induction and intubation (RSII) - is a special process for endotracheal intubation that is used where the patient is at a high risk of pulmonary aspiration or impending airway compromise.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a receptor is a protein molecule that receives chemical signals from outside a cell.
Recreational drug use is the use of a psychoactive drug to induce an altered state of consciousness for pleasure, by modifying the perceptions, feelings, and emotions of the user.
Recurrent thalamo-cortical resonance is an observed phenomenon of oscillatory neural activity between the thalamus and various cortical regions of the brain.
The redback spider (Latrodectus hasseltii) is a species of highly venomous spider believed to originate in the South Australian or adjacent Western Australian deserts, but now found throughout Australia, Southeast Asia and New Zealand, with colonies elsewhere outside Australia.
Reelin (RELN) is a large secreted extracellular matrix glycoprotein that helps regulate processes of neuronal migration and positioning in the developing brain by controlling cell-cell interactions.
A relaxation drink is a non-alcoholic beverage containing calming ingredients normally found in nature.
Renshaw cells are inhibitory interneurons found in the gray matter of the spinal cord, and are associated in two ways with an alpha motor neuron.
Horizontal cells are the laterally interconnecting neurons having cell bodies in the inner nuclear layer of the retina of vertebrate eyes.
Retinal waves are spontaneous bursts of action potentials that propagate in a wave-like fashion across the developing retina.
Reuptake is the reabsorption of a neurotransmitter by a neurotransmitter transporter located along the plasma membrane of an axon terminal (i.e., the pre-synaptic neuron at a synapse) or glial cell after it has performed its function of transmitting a neural impulse.
In a biological membrane, the reversal potential (also known as the Nernst potential) of an ion is the membrane potential at which there is no net (overall) flow of that particular ion from one side of the membrane to the other.
A Selective Dorsal Rhizotomy (SDR), also known as a Rhizotomy, Dorsal Rhizotomy, or a Selective Posterior Rhizotomy, is a neurosurgical procedure that selectively destroys problematic nerve roots in the spinal cord.
Rice is the seed of the grass species Oryza sativa (Asian rice) or Oryza glaberrima (African rice).
Richard Bruce Silverman (born May 12, 1946) is a chemistry professor at Northwestern University in the United States where he currently holds the title of Patrick G. Ryan/Aon Professor.
The rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM), or ventromedial nucleus of the spinal cord, is a group of neurons located close to the midline on the floor of the medulla oblongata (myelencephalon).
Roswell Lee Evans, originally from Georgia, is the current Dean of the Harrison School of Pharmacy at Auburn University and an alleged expert on the use of the benzodiazepine, midazolam for carrying out the death penalty.
Salomon Z. Langer is an Argentine-American pharmacologist.
Sarcophaga bullata, or the grey flesh fly, is a species of fly belonging to the family Sarcophagidae.
Satellite glial cells are glial cells that cover the surface of nerve cell bodies in sensory, sympathetic, and parasympathetic ganglia.
Satoyoshi syndrome, also known as Komura-Guerri syndrome, is a rare progressive disorder of presumed autoimmune cause, characterized by painful muscle spasms, alopecia, diarrhea, endocrinopathy with amenorrhoea and secondary skeletal abnormalities.
Scaptotrigona postica (also known locally in Brazil as mandaguari) is a species of stingless bee that lives mainly in Brazil.
Seletracetam (UCB 44212) is a pyrrolidone-derived drug of the racetam family that is structurally related to levetiracetam (trade name Keppra).
Separation anxiety in dogs describes a condition in which a dog exhibits distress and behavior problems when separated from its handler.
Serotonin syndrome (SS) is a group of symptoms that may occur following use of certain serotonergic medications or drugs.
Chloride is an anion in the human body needed for metabolism (the process of turning food into energy).
The sexually dimorphic nucleus (SDN) is an ovoid, densely packed cluster of large cells located in the medial preoptic area (POA) of the hypothalamus which is believed to be related to sexual behavior in animals.
The short-term effects of alcohol (also known formally as ethanol) consumption – due to drinking beer, wine, distilled spirits or other alcoholic beverages – range from a decrease in anxiety and motor skills and euphoria at lower doses to intoxication (drunkenness), stupor, unconsciousness, anterograde amnesia (memory "blackouts"), and central nervous system depression at higher doses.
Shyness (also called diffidence) is the feeling of apprehension, lack of comfort, or awkwardness especially when a person is around other people.
SK3 (small conductance calcium-activated potassium channel 3) also known as KCa2.3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the KCNN3 gene.
Vesicular inhibitory amino acid transporter is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC32A1 gene.
The sleep cycle is an oscillation between the slow-wave and REM (paradoxical) phases of sleep, sometimes called the ultradian sleep cycle, sleep–dream cycle, or REM-NREM cycle, to distinguish it from the circadian alternation between sleep and wakefulness.
Sleep onset is the transition from wakefulness into sleep.
Slow Cow is a relaxation drink Dubbed an "anti-energy" drink, produced in Quebec, Canada by the company Slow Cow Drink Inc.
Smith–Lemli–Opitz syndrome (also SLOS, or 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase deficiency) is an inborn error of cholesterol synthesis.
Synaptosomal-associated protein 25 (SNAP-25) is a t-SNARE protein that is encoded by the SNAP25 gene in humans.
Social anxiety disorder (SAD), also known as social phobia, is an anxiety disorder characterized by a significant amount of fear in one or more social situations, causing considerable distress and impaired ability to function in at least some parts of daily life.
Sodium oxybate is a prescription medication used to treat two symptoms of narcolepsy: sudden muscle weakness and excessive daytime sleepiness.
Spasmodic torticollis is an extremely painful chronic neurological movement disorder causing the neck to involuntarily turn to the left, right, upwards, and/or downwards.
Spastic cerebral palsy is the type of cerebral palsy wherein spasticity is the exclusive impairment present.
Spastic diplegia, historically known as Little's Disease, is a form of cerebral palsy (CP) that is a chronic neuromuscular condition of hypertonia and spasticity—manifested as an especially high and constant "tightness" or "stiffness"—in the muscles of the lower extremities of the human body, usually those of the legs, hips and pelvis.
Spasticity is a feature of altered skeletal muscle performance with a combination of paralysis, increased tendon reflex activity, and hypertonia.
A Spinal Cord Stimulator (SCS) or Dorsal Column Stimulator (DCS) is a type of implantable neuromodulation device (sometimes called a "pain pacemaker") that is used to send electrical signals to select areas of the spinal cord (dorsal columns) for the treatment of certain pain conditions.
A spinal interneuron, found in the spinal cord, relays signals between (afferent) sensory neurons, and (efferent) motor neurons.
Spontaneous recovery is a phenomenon of learning and memory that was first named and described by Ivan Pavlov in his studies of classical (Pavlovian) conditioning.
Sprouting is the practice of germinating seeds to be eaten raw or cooked.
Stanley Lloyd Miller (March 7, 1930 – May 20, 2007) was an American chemist who made landmark experiments in the origin of life by demonstrating that a wide range of vital organic compounds can be synthesized by fairly simple chemical processes from inorganic substances.
Stephen William Kuffler (August 24 Tap, Hungary, 1913 – October 11, 1980) was a pre-eminent Hungarian-American neurophysiologist.
Stiff-person syndrome (SPS), also known as stiff-man syndrome (SMS), is a rare neurologic disorder of unclear cause characterized by progressive rigidity and stiffness.
In physiology, a stimulus (plural stimuli) is a detectable change in the internal or external environment.
Stiripentol (marketed as Diacomit by Laboratoires Biocodex) is an anticonvulsant drug used in the treatment of epilepsy.
Stuart Graham Cull-Candy (born 2 November 1946) is a British neuroscientist.
The subgranular zone (SGZ) is a brain region in the hippocampus where adult neurogenesis occurs.
Subjective response to alcohol (SR) refers to an individual's unique experience of the pharmacological effects of alcohol and is a putative risk factor for the development of alcohol use disorder.
The substantia nigra (SN) is a basal ganglia structure located in the midbrain that plays an important role in reward and movement.
The subthalamic nucleus is a small lens-shaped nucleus in the brain where it is, from a functional point of view, part of the basal ganglia system.
The subventricular zone (SVZ) is a term used to describe both embryonic and adult neural tissues in the vertebrate central nervous system (CNS).
In enzymology, a succinate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction The 3 substrates of this enzyme are succinate semialdehyde, NAD+, and H2O, whereas its 3 products are succinate, NADH, and H+.
Succinic acid is a dicarboxylic acid with the chemical formula (CH2)2(CO2H)2.
Succinic semialdehyde (SSA) is a GABA metabolite.
Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency (SSADHD), also known as 4-hydroxybutyric aciduria or gamma-hydroxybutyric aciduria, is a rare autosomal recessive disorder of the degradation pathway of the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid, or GABA.
Succinyl-CoA ligase subunit beta, mitochondrial (SUCLA2), also known as ADP-forming succinyl-CoA synthetase (SCS-A), is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the SUCLA2 gene on chromosome 13.
Succinyl-CoA ligase subunit beta, mitochondrial is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the SUCLG2 gene on chromosome 3.
The superior colliculus (Latin, upper hill) is a paired structure of the mammalian midbrain.
The supraoptic nucleus (SON) is a nucleus of magnocellular neurosecretory cells in the hypothalamus of the mammalian brain.
Suproclone is a sedative and anxiolytic drug in the cyclopyrrolone family of drugs, developed by the French pharmaceutical company Rhône-Poulenc.
In the nervous system, a synapse is a structure that permits a neuron (or nerve cell) to pass an electrical or chemical signal to another neuron or to the target efferent cell.
Synaptic gating is the ability of neural circuits to gate inputs by either suppressing or facilitating specific synaptic activity.
Synaptic pharmacology is the study of drugs that act on the synapses.
This page describes the process of synapse stabilization mediated by cell adhesion molecules.
In a neuron, synaptic vesicles (or neurotransmitter vesicles) store various neurotransmitters that are released at the synapse.
The tachykinin receptor 1 (TACR1) also known as neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1R) or substance P receptor (SPR) is a G protein coupled receptor found in the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system.
Tamas Bartfai, Ph.D. (born 1948), is a Hungarian neuroscientist with in neurotransmission, neuropeptides, prostaglandins, fever, and drug discovery.
T-box, brain, 1 is a transcription factor protein important in vertebrate embryo development.
Temazepam (brand names Restoril and Normison, among others) is an intermediate-acting 3-hydroxy hypnotic of the benzodiazepine class of psychoactive drugs.
Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is a chronic disorder of the nervous system characterized by recurrent, unprovoked focal seizures that originate in the temporal lobe of the brain and last about one or two minutes.
Tetanus toxin is an extremely potent neurotoxin produced by the vegetative cell of Clostridium tetani in anaerobic conditions, causing tetanus.
Tetanus, also known as lockjaw, is an infection characterized by muscle spasms.
Tetany or tetany seizure is a medical sign consisting of the involuntary contraction of muscles, which may be caused by disease or other conditions that increase the action potential frequency of muscle cells or the nerves that innervate them.
Tetramethylenedisulfotetramine (TETS) is an organic compound that is used as a rodenticide (rat poison).
Theanine, also known as L-γ-glutamylethylamide and N5-ethyl-L-glutamine, is an amino acid analogue of the proteinogenic amino acids L-glutamate and L-glutamine and is found primarily in particular plant and fungal species.
Thiamine deficiency is a medical condition of low levels of thiamine (vitamin B1).
Thuja is a genus of coniferous trees in the Cupressaceae (cypress family).
Tiagabine (trade name Gabitril) is an anticonvulsant medication used in the treatment of epilepsy that is produced by Cephalon.
Toll-like receptor 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TLR4 gene.
Tolgabide INN (SL-81.0142) is a drug which was patented by Synthélabo as an anticonvulsant but was never marketed.
Toluene toxicity refers to the harmful effects caused by toluene on the body.
A tremor is an involuntary, somewhat rhythmic, muscle contraction and relaxation involving oscillations or twitching movements of one or more body parts.
Triazolam (original brand name Halcion) is a central nervous system (CNS) depressant in the benzodiazepine class.
3-Chloropropanoic acid (also 3-chloropropionic acid) or UMB66 is a drug used in scientific research.
Unverricht–Lundborg disease (abbreviated ULD or EPM1) is the most common form of an uncommon group of genetic epilepsy disorders called the progressive myoclonus epilepsies.
The urea cycle (also known as the ornithine cycle) is a cycle of biochemical reactions that produces urea ((NH2)2CO) from ammonia (NH3).
Valerian (Valeriana officinalis, Caprifoliaceae) is a perennial flowering plant native to Europe and Asia.
Valeric acid, or pentanoic acid, is a straight-chain alkyl carboxylic acid with the chemical formula.
Valproate (VPA), and its valproic acid, sodium valproate, and valproate semisodium forms, are medications primarily used to treat epilepsy and bipolar disorder and to prevent migraine headaches.
Vasoactive intestinal peptide, also known as vasoactive intestinal polypeptide or VIP, is a peptide hormone that is vasoactive in the intestine.
The ventral tegmental area (VTA) (tegmentum is Latin for covering), also known as the ventral tegmental area of Tsai, or simply ventral tegmentum, is a group of neurons located close to the midline on the floor of the midbrain.
The ventrolateral preoptic nucleus (VLPO), also known as the intermediate nucleus of the preoptic area (IPA), is a small cluster of neurons situated in the anterior hypothalamus, sitting just above and to the side of the optic chiasm in the brain of humans and other animals.
Vertigo is a symptom where a person feels as if they or the objects around them are moving when they are not.
The vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) also known as solute carrier family 18 member 2 (SLC18A2) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC18A2 gene.
Vigabatrin, brand name Sabril, is an antiepileptic drug that inhibits the breakdown of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) by acting as a suicide inhibitor of the enzyme GABA transaminase (GABA-T).
In modern psychology, vigilance, also termed sustained concentration, is defined as the ability to maintain concentrated attention over prolonged periods of time.
Schizophrenia is a complex mental disorder with a heterogeneous set of symptoms.
Vitamin B6 refers to a group of chemically similar compounds which can be interconverted in biological systems.
Voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs), also known as voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCCs), are a group of voltage-gated ion channels found in the membrane of excitable cells (e.g., muscle, glial cells, neurons, etc.) with a permeability to the calcium ion Ca2+.
WAY-181187 is a high affinity and selective 5-HT6 receptor full agonist.
WAY-208466 is a potent and highly selective full agonist of the 5-HT6 receptor.
WNK (lysine deficient protein kinase 1), also known as WNK1, is an enzyme that is encoded by the WNK1 gene.
Zaleplon (marketed under the brand names Sonata, Starnoc, and Andante) is a sedative-hypnotic, almost entirely used for the management/treatment of insomnia.
The is the first ever automated analysis chamber used for zebrafish monitoring in a non-intrusive manner.
Zolpidem, sold under the brand name Ambien, among others, is a sedative primarily used for the treatment of trouble sleeping.
The zona incerta is a horizontally elongated region of gray matter in the subthalamus below the thalamus.
The zona limitans intrathalamica (ZLI) is a lineage-restriction compartment and primary developmental boundary in the vertebrate forebrain (which is analogous to the human cerebrum) that serves as a signaling center and a restrictive border between the thalamus (also known as the dorsal thalamus) and the prethalamus (ventral thalamus).
Zonisamide is a medication used to treat the symptoms of epilepsy and Parkinson's disease.
--> Zopiclone (brand names Imovane, Zimovane, Dopareel) is a nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic agent used in the treatment of insomnia.
2-Arachidonyl glyceryl ether (2-AGE, Noladin ether) is a putative endocannabinoid discovered by Lumír Hanuš and colleagues at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel.
4-(γ-Glutamylamino)butanoic acid is molecule that consists of L-glutamate conjugated to γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA).
In enzymology, a 4-acetamidobutyrate deacetylase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are 4-acetamidobutanoate and H2O, whereas its two products are acetate and 4-aminobutanoate.
In enzymology, 4-aminobutyrate transaminase, also called GABA transaminase or 4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase, is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction: Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are 4-aminobutanoate (GABA) and 2-oxoglutarate.
4-aminobutyrate---pyruvate transaminase (aminobutyrate aminotransferase, gamma-aminobutyrate aminotransaminase, gamma-aminobutyrate transaminase, gamma-aminobutyric acid aminotransferase, gamma-aminobutyric acid pyruvate transaminase, gamma-aminobutyric acid transaminase, gamma-aminobutyric transaminase, 4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase, 4-aminobutyric acid aminotransferase, aminobutyrate transaminase, GABA aminotransferase, GABA transaminase, GABA transferase, POP2 (gene)) is an enzyme with systematic name 4-aminobutanoate:pyruvate aminotransferase.
5-hydroxytryptamine receptors or 5-HT receptors, or serotonin receptors, are a group of G protein-coupled receptor and ligand-gated ion channels found in the central and peripheral nervous systems.
5α-reductases, also known as 3-oxo-5α-steroid 4-dehydrogenases, are enzymes involved in steroid metabolism.
4-aminobutanoate, 4-aminobutanoic acid, 4-aminobutyric acid, G-aminobutyric acid, GABA, GABA neurotransmitter, GABA system, GABAergics, GABAmergic, GABAnergic, Gaba agents, Gaba plasma membrane transport proteins, Gabaergic, Gamma amino butyric acid, Gamma amino-butyric acid, Gamma aminobutyric acid, Gamma-Aminobutanoic acid, Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid, Gamma-amino butyne acid, Gamma-amino-butyric acid, Gamma-aminobutric acid, Gamma-aminobutylic acid, Gamma-aminobutyrate, Gamma-aminobutyric acid, Piperidic acid, Piperidinic acid, Γ-Aminobutyric acid, Γ-aminobutyric acid.