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Abdalaziz Alhamza (Arabic: عبدالعزيز الحمزة)(sometimes Aziz Alhamza, Abdul Aziz Al-Hamza, Abdel Aziz al-Hamza; born in Raqqa, 1991) an award-winning Syrian journalist, human rights defender activist and IT trainer.
Advanced Chess is a form of chess where each human player uses a computer chess program to explore the possible results of candidate moves.
The AI effect occurs when onlookers discount the behavior of an artificial intelligence program by arguing that it is not real intelligence.
Aidyn Guseinov (Aydın Hüseynov), (31 August 1957 – 30 October 2003) was a chess player from Azerbaijan.
Alan N. Trefler (born March 10, 1956) is an American businessman, philanthropist, and chess master best known as the chief executive officer (CEO) of Pegasystems, a multinational software company he founded in 1983.
Alan Mathison Turing (23 June 1912 – 7 June 1954) was an English computer scientist, mathematician, logician, cryptanalyst, philosopher, and theoretical biologist.
The Alan Turing Centenary Conference was an academic conference celebrating the life and research of Alan Turing by bringing together distinguished scientists to understand and analyse the history and development of Computer Science and Artificial intelligence.
Aleksandr Gelyevich Dugin (Алекса́ндр Ге́льевич Ду́гин; born 7 January 1962) is a Russian philosopher, political analyst and strategist known for his fascist views and calls to hasten the "end of times" with all-out war.
Alexander Alekhine (Алекса́ндр Алекса́ндрович Але́хин, Aleksandr Aleksandrovich Alekhin;; March 24, 1946) was a Russian and French chess player and the fourth World Chess Champion.
Alexander Genrikhovich Beliavsky (also Romanized Belyavsky; born December 17, 1953) is a Soviet, Ukrainian and Slovenian chess grandmaster.
Alexander Huzman (born 10 April 1962 in Zhytomyr, Soviet Union) is an Israeli (formerly Soviet) chess Grandmaster and trainer.
Alexander Valeryevich Khalifman (Алекса́ндр Вале́рьевич Халифма́н; born 18 January 1966) is a Russian chess grandmaster.
Alexander Sergeyevich Morozevich (Александр Серге́евич Морозе́вич; born July 18, 1977) is a Russian chess Grandmaster.
Alexander Anatolyevich Motylev (Александр Анатольевич Мотылёв; born 17 June 1979) is a Russian chess grandmaster.
Alexander Shakarov (born 8 March 1948 in Baku, Azerbaijan SSR, USSR) is a Soviet chess player, coach and author of Armenian descent.
Alexei Fedorov (Алексей Фёдоров, Aleksey Fyodorov, Аляксей Фёдараў, Aliaksey Fyodarau; born 27 September 1972) is a chess grandmaster.
Alexei Shirov (Aleksejs Širovs;; born 4 July 1972) is a Latvian and Spanish chess grandmaster.
Alexey Dreev (Алексей Дреев; born 30 January 1969) is a Russian chess grandmaster.
AlphaGo is a computer program that plays the board game Go.
AlphaZero is a computer program developed by the Alphabet-owned AI research company DeepMind, which uses an approach similar to AlphaGo Zero's to master not just Go, but also chess and shogi.
The Amber chess tournament (officially the Amber Rapid and Blindfold Chess Tournament, previously Melody Amber) was an annual invitation-only event for some of the world's best players, from 1992 to 2011.
Anatoly Yevgenyevich Karpov (Анато́лий Евге́ньевич Ка́рпов; born May 23, 1951) is a Russian chess grandmaster and former World Champion.
András Adorján (born András Jocha, 31 March 1950, Budapest) is a Hungarian chess Grandmaster (1973) and author.
Andrei Yurievich Sokolov (Андре́й Ю́рьевич Соколо́в; born 20 March 1963, in Vorkuta, Komi ASSR, Russian SFSR, Soviet Union) is a chess Grandmaster of Russian origin, now living in France.
Anshe Chung is an avatar (online personality) of Ailin Graef in the online world Second Life.
Anthony Michael Brooks is an American speed cubing champion.
Anti-computer tactics are methods used by humans to try to beat computer opponents at various games, especially in board games such as chess and Arimaa.
The following events occurred in April 1963.
Armand Rousso, also known as Marc Rousso, is a French businessman.
Armenian–Jewish relations are complex, often due to political and historical reasons.
Armenians (հայեր, hayer) are an ethnic group native to the Armenian Highlands.
Armenians in Azerbaijan are the Armenians who lived in great numbers in the modern state of Azerbaijan and its precursor, Soviet Azerbaijan.
Armenians once formed a sizable community in Baku, the current capital of the Republic of Azerbaijan.
Armenians in Russia or Russian Armenians are one of the country's largest ethnic minorities and the largest Armenian diaspora community outside Armenia.
Arno Nickel (born February 15, 1952) is a German correspondence chess Grandmaster and a well-known German chess publisher.
Artificial intelligence (AI, also machine intelligence, MI) is intelligence demonstrated by machines, in contrast to the natural intelligence (NI) displayed by humans and other animals.
In video games, artificial intelligence is used to generate responsive, adaptive or intelligent behaviors primarily in non-player characters (NPCs), similar to human-like intelligence.
Ashot Nadanian (sometimes transliterated as Nadanyan; Աշոտ Նադանյան; born September 19, 1972) is an Armenian chess International Master (1997), chess theoretician and chess coach.
The assassination of Boris Nemtsov, a Russian politician opposed to the government of Vladimir Putin, happened in central Moscow on Bolshoy Moskvoretsky Bridge at 23:31 local time on 27 February 2015.
The Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) is an international learned society for computing.
The Association of Chess Professionals (ACP) is a non-profit organisation which aims to protect the rights of professional chess players, address their concerns and to promote chess worldwide through the organisation of high-level chess tournaments and maintaining a ranking system of the top professionals.
The Atari ST is a line of home computers from Atari Corporation and the successor to the Atari 8-bit family.
Baku (Bakı) is the capital and largest city of Azerbaijan, as well as the largest city on the Caspian Sea and of the Caucasus region, with a population of 2,374,000.
The Baku pogrom was a pogrom directed against the ethnic Armenian inhabitants of Baku, Azerbaijan SSR.
Bartłomiej Heberla (born 19 June 1985), in Rybnik is a Polish chess Grandmaster (2006) and currently one of the leading Polish players.
The Benko Gambit (or Volga Gambit) is a chess opening characterised by the move 3...b5 in the Benoni Defence arising after: The Encyclopaedia of Chess Openings has three codes for the Benko Gambit.
Beyond Star Trek: Physics from Alien Invasions to the End of Time is the fourth non-fiction book by the American theoretical physicist Lawrence M. Krauss.
bidorbuy or bidorbuy.co.za (officially written as one word, all-lowercase; variations: bid or buy, BidOrBuy and Bid or Buy) is an English-language e-commerce website based on an internet auction and online marketplace model allowing individuals and businesses to trade with each other.
The Bishop's Opening is a chess opening that begins with the moves: White attacks Black's f7-square and prevents Black from advancing his d-pawn to d5.
The Black Knights' Tango (also known as the Mexican Defense or Kevitz–Trajkovic Defense) is a chess opening beginning with the moves: This position can also be reached by transposition, for example 1.c4 Nf6, 1.d4 Nc6, or 1.c4 Nc6.
Robert James Fischer (March 9, 1943January 17, 2008) was an American chess grandmaster and the eleventh World Chess Champion.
Bobby Fischer Against the World is a documentary feature film that explores the life of chess Grandmaster and 11th World Champion Bobby Fischer.
Bohdan Pomahač (born 1971) is a Czech plastic surgeon.
The Bolotnaya Square case is a criminal case by the Investigative Committee of the Russian Federation on account of alleged massive riot (article 212 of the Russian Criminal code) and alleged violence against police (article 318 of the Russian Criminal code) during the "March of the Millions" on May 6, 2012 on the Bolotnaya square in Moscow.
Boris Abramovich Berezovsky (Бори́с Абра́мович Березо́вский, 23 January 1946 – 23 March 2013), aka Platon Elenin, was a Russian business oligarch, government official, engineer and mathematician.
Boris Abramovich Gelfand (Барыс Абрамавіч Гельфанд, Barys Abramavich Hel'fand; Борис Абрамович Гельфанд, Boris Abramovich Gel'fand; בוריס אברמוביץ' גלפנד; born 24 June 1968) is an Israeli chess Grandmaster.
Boris Vyacheslavovich Gryzlov (also spelled Grizlov; Борис Вячеславович Грызлов,; born December 15, 1950), is a Russian politician.
Boris Franzevich Gulko (p; born February 9, 1947) is a Soviet-American International Grandmaster in chess.
Boris Yefimovich Nemtsov (p; 9 October 195927 February 2015) was a Russian physicist and liberal politician.
Boris Vasilievich Spassky (Бори́с Васи́льевич Спа́сский; born January 30, 1937) is a Russian chess grandmaster.
In Rotterdam on 22 November 1938, then future World Chess Champion Mikhail Botvinnik (as white) defeated former World Champion José Raúl Capablanca in round 11 of the AVRO tournament in one of the most famous games in chess history.
Brains in Bahrain was an eight-game chess match between World Chess Champion Vladimir Kramnik and the computer program Deep Fritz 7, held in October 2002.
Bruce Pandolfini (born September 17, 1947) is an American chess author, teacher, and coach.
Caïssa is a fictional Thracian dryad portrayed as the goddess of chess, as invented during the Renaissance by Italian poet Hieronymus Vida.
The Candidates Tournament is a chess tournament organized by FIDE, chess' international governing body, since 1950, as the final contest to determine the challenger for the World Chess Championship.
The Caro–Kann Defence is a chess opening characterised by the moves: The Caro–Kann is a common defence against the King's Pawn Opening and is classified as a "Semi-Open Game" like the Sicilian Defence and French Defence, although it is thought to be more solid and less dynamic than either of those openings.
Carol Jarecki (born 1935) is an American chess organizer, an International Arbiter, and a chess writer.
The Catalan is a chess opening where White adopts a combination of the Queen's Gambit and Réti Opening: White plays d4 and c4 and fianchettoes the white bishop on g2.
Cathy Warwick (née Forbes) (born 6 February 1968) is an English chess player and writer.
Cheating in chess refers to a deliberate violation of the rules of chess or other unethical behaviour that is intended to give an unfair advantage to a player or team.
Chess is a two-player strategy board game played on a chessboard, a checkered gameboard with 64 squares arranged in an 8×8 grid.
In chess and chess-like games, the endgame (or end game or ending) is the stage of the game when few pieces are left on the board.
In computer chess, a chess engine is a computer program that analyses chess or chess variant positions and makes decisions on the best chess moves.
Chess has been played in Armenia since the early Middle Ages; however, it was institutionalized during the early Soviet period.
Chess is one of the most popular sports in Azerbaijan, where it is governed by the Azerbaijan Chess Federation (ACF).
Chess Informant (Šahovski Informator) is a publishing company from Belgrade (Serbia, former Yugoslavia) that periodically (since 2012, four volumes per year) produces a book entitled Chess Informant, as well as the Encyclopaedia of Chess Openings, Encyclopaedia of Chess Endings, Opening Monographs, other print publications, and software (including electronic editions of most print publications).
The monthly Chess Life and bi-monthly Chess Life Kids (formerly School Mates and Chess Life for Kids) are the official magazines published by the United States Chess Federation (US Chess).
Chess of the Grandmasters (original title: Schach der Großmeister) is a former German TV programme.
A chess opening or simply an opening refers to the initial moves of a chess game.
A chess opening book is a book on chess openings.
The game of chess is commonly divided into three phases: the opening, middlegame, and endgame.
A chess title is a title created by a chess governing body and bestowed upon players based on their performance and rank.
The Chess World Cup 2017 was a 128-player single-elimination chess tournament, held in Tbilisi, Georgia, from 2 to 27 September 2017.
Chess960, also called Fischer Random Chess (originally Fischerandom), is a variant of chess invented and advocated by former world chess champion Bobby Fischer, announced publicly on June 19, 1996, in Buenos Aires, Argentina.
ChessBase GmbH is a German company that markets chess software, maintains a chess news site, and operates servers for online chess.
ChessGenius is the name of a chess-playing computer program written by Richard Lang who has in the past written programs that have won the World Computer Chess Championship on 10 occasions.
The Chigorin Defense is a chess opening named for 19th century Russian grandmaster Mikhail Chigorin.
The Classical World Chess Championship 1995, known at the time as the PCA World Chess Championship 1995, was held from September 10, 1995, to October 16, 1995, on the 107th floor of the World Trade Center in New York City.
The Classical World Chess Championship 2000, known at the time as the Braingames World Chess Championships, was held from 8 October 2000 – 4 November 2000 in London, United Kingdom.
The Classical World Chess Championship 2004 was held from September 25, 2004, to October 18, 2004, in Brissago, Switzerland.
Claudico is an artificial intelligence computer program designed to play no limit Texas hold 'em heads-up.
Claus Spahn (born 15 May 1940 in Bottrop, Germany) is a former TV programme editor of Germany's Westdeutscher Rundfunk (WDR) broadcasting corporation, a presenter, producer and author.
The "2008 - A Free Choice" Committee, launched on 29 January 2004, was an umbrella organization of the Russian democratic opposition.
This article presents a number of methodologies that have been suggested for the task of comparing the greatest chess players in history.
Computer chess is a game of computer architecture encompassing hardware and software capable of playing chess autonomously without human guidance.
"Computing Machinery and Intelligence" is a seminal paper written by Alan Turing on the topic of artificial intelligence.
There were many controversies and concerns affecting the 2014 Winter Olympics.
Correspondence chess is chess or variant chess played by various forms of long-distance correspondence, often through a correspondence chess server, a public internet chess forum, email, or the postal system.
The culture of Armenia encompasses many elements that are based on the geography, literature, architecture, dance, and music of the people.
Dambisa Moyo (born)Moyo showed a copy of an official document with her date and place of birth as part of a lecture she gave at TEDGlobal 2013, Edinburgh, Scotland.
Daniil Ilich Konstantinov (Даниил Ильич Константинов) (born February 5, 1984) — Russian opposition politician, lawyer, human rights activist.
The Danvers Opening,Edward Winter, at chesshistory.com also known as the Kentucky Opening,, Dubuque Chess Journal, May 1875, page 250 scanned at Hathitrust (original from New York Public Library) Queen's Attack, Queen's Excursion, Wayward Queen Attack, Patzer OpeningLev Alburt & Al Lawrence,, Rowman & Littlefield, 2010 or Parham AttackThe Chess Drum,, 6 July 2003 is an unorthodox chess opening characterized by the moves.
David A. McAllester (born May 30, 1956) is an American computer scientist who is Professor and former Chief Academic Officer at the Toyota Technological Institute at Chicago.
David Ionovich Bronstein (Дави́д Ио́нович Бронште́йн; February 19, 1924 – December 5, 2006) was a Soviet chess grandmaster, who narrowly missed becoming World Chess Champion in 1951.
David Anthony Giampaolo (born 1958) is the chief executive of Pi Capital, a London-based investor club.
David Neil Laurence Levy (born 14 March 1945) is a British International Master of chess, a businessman noted for his involvement with computer chess and artificial intelligence, and the founder of the Computer Olympiads and the Mind Sports Olympiads.
The former President and First Secretary of the Communist Party of Cuba, Fidel Castro died of natural causes at 22:29 (CST) in the evening of 25 November 2016.
Deep Blue was a chess-playing computer developed by IBM.
Deep Blue versus Garry Kasparov was a pair of six-game chess matches between world chess champion Garry Kasparov and an IBM supercomputer called Deep Blue.
Deep Blue–Kasparov, 1996, Game 1 is a famous chess game in which a computer played against a human being.
Game 6 of the Deep Blue–Kasparov rematch, played in New York City on May 11, 1997 and starting at 3:00 p.m. EDT, was the last chess game in the 1997 rematch of Deep Blue versus Garry Kasparov.
Deep Thought was a computer designed to play chess.
Democratic Russia (Russian: Демократическая Россия, abbreviation: ДемРоссия DemRossiya) was the generic name for several political entities that played a transformative role in Russia's transition from Communist rule.
Desperate Measures is a 1998 American action thriller film starring Michael Keaton, Andy García, Marcia Gay Harden and Brian Cox, directed by Barbet Schroeder.
The concept of a world chess champion started to emerge in the first half of the 19th century, and the phrase "world champion" appeared in 1845.
The Dissenters' March (Марш несогласных) was a series of Russian opposition protests that took place on December 16, 2006 in Moscow, on March 3, 2007 in Saint Petersburg, on March 24 in Nizhny Novgorod, on April 14 for the second time in Moscow, on April 15 again in Saint Petersburg, on May 18 in Samara, and on May 19 in Chelyabinsk.
Dmitry Olegovich Jakovenko (Дмитрий Олегович Яковенко; born 29 June 1983) is a Russian chess grandmaster.
Donald Trelford (born 9 November 1937) is a British journalist and academic, who was editor of The Observer newspaper from 1975 to 1993.
Douglas Richard Hofstadter (born February 15, 1945) is an American professor of cognitive science whose research focuses on the sense of self in relation to the external world, consciousness, analogy-making, artistic creation, literary translation, and discovery in mathematics and physics.
In chess, a draw by (mutual) agreement is the outcome of a game due to the agreement of both players to a draw.
Eduard Limonov (Эдуа́рд Лимо́нов, real name Eduard Veniaminovich Savenko, Эдуа́рд Вениами́нович Саве́нко; born 22 February 1943) is a Russian writer, poet, publicist, and political dissident.
Edward Hugh Christian McMillan-Scott (born 15 August 1949) is a British politician.
Elmar Magerramov (Elmar Məhərrəmov; Эльмар Магеррамов; born April 10, 1958 in Baku, Azerbaijan) is an international chess Grandmaster.
Emanuel Lasker (December 24, 1868 – January 11, 1941) was a German chess player, mathematician, and philosopher who was World Chess Champion for 27 years (from 1894 to 1921).
The Encyclopedia of Chess Openings is a classification system for the opening moves in chess.
A number of politicians, public figures, newspapers and magazines, businesses and other organisations endorsed either the United Kingdom remaining in the EU or the United Kingdom leaving the EU during the United Kingdom European Union membership referendum, 2016.
The English Opening is a chess opening that begins with the move: A flank opening, it is the fourth most popular and, according to various databases, anywhere from one of the two most successful to the fourth most successful of White's twenty possible first moves.
Enrico Bombieri (born 26 November 1940 in Milan) is an Italian mathematician, known for his work in analytic number theory, algebraic geometry, univalent functions, theory of several complex variables, partial differential equations of minimal surfaces, and the theory of finite groups.
Environment and intelligence research investigates the impact of environment on intelligence.
Eric Schiller (born March 20, 1955 in New York City) is an American chess player, trainer, arbiter and one of the most prolific authors of books on chess in the 20th century.
Eros Riccio (December 1, 1977, Lucca) is an Italian International Correspondence Chess Grandmaster, Advanced Chess Champion and chess opening book author.
The Esplanade Zagreb Hotel is a historic luxury hotel in Zagreb, Croatia.
Eugenio Torre (born November 4, 1951) is a chess grandmaster (GM).
The European Team Championship (often abbreviated in texts and games databases as ETC) is an international team chess event, eligible for the participation of European nations whose chess federations are located in zones 1.1 to 1.9.
The Evans Gambit is a chess opening characterised by the moves: The Evans Gambit is an aggressive line of the Giuoco Piano, which normally continues with the positional moves 4.c3 or 4.d3.
The Evergreen Game is a famous chess game, won by Adolf Anderssen against Jean Dufresne in 1852.
Everyman Chess, formerly known as Cadogan Chess, is a major publisher of books and CDs about chess.
Evgeny Ilgizovich Bareev (Евгений Ильгизович Бареев; born 21 November 1966 in Yemanzhelinsk) is a Russian (until 2015) and Canadian (since 2015) chess grandmaster and coach.
In chess, an exchange variation is a type of opening in which there is an early, voluntary exchange of pawns or pieces.
Fast chess (also known as speed chess) is a variation of chess in which each side is given less time to make their moves than under normal tournament time controls.
Wolfgang Felix Magath (born 26 July 1953) is a German football manager and former player, who played as a midfielder.
Feng-hsiung Hsu (nicknamed Crazy Bird) is a computer scientist and the author of the book Behind Deep Blue: Building the Computer that Defeated the World Chess Champion.
The Fédération Internationale des Échecs or World Chess Federation is an international organization that connects the various national chess federations around the world and acts as the governing body of international chess competition.
The World Chess Federation, FIDE (Fédération Internationale des Échecs), awards several performance-based titles to chess players, up to and including the highly prized Grandmaster title.
The FIDE World Chess Championship 1996 was a chess tournament held by FIDE to determine the World Chess Champion.
The FIDE World Chess Championship 1998 was contested in a match between the FIDE World Champion Anatoly Karpov and the challenger Viswanathan Anand.
The FIDE World Chess Championship 1999 was held at Caesars Palace on the Las Vegas Strip between 31 July and 28 August 1999.
The FIDE World Chess Championship 2000 was held in New Delhi, India, and Tehran, Iran.
The FIDE World Chess Championship 2002 was held in Moscow, Russia.
The FIDE World Chess Championship 2004 was held at the Almahary Hotel in Tripoli, Libya, from June 18 to July 13.
The FIDE World Chess Championship 2005 took place in Potrero de los Funes, San Luis Province in Argentina from September 27 to October 16, 2005.
The FIDE World Chess Championships from 1998 till 2004 followed a similar knockout format, radically different from previous World Chess Championship events.
The fifty-move rule in chess states that a player can claim a draw if no has been made and no pawn has been moved in the last fifty moves (for this purpose a "move" consists of a player completing their turn followed by the opponent completing their turn).
The first-move advantage in chess is the inherent advantage of the player (White) who makes the first move in chess.
The 1992 match between former World Chess Champions Bobby Fischer and Boris Spassky was billed as a World Chess Championship, but was unofficial.
Florencio Campomanes (22 February 1927 – 3 May 2010) was a Filipino political scientist, chess player, and chess organizer.
The Four Knights Game is a chess opening that begins with the moves: This is the most common sequence, but the knights may in any order to reach the same position.
Frank Brady (born March 15, 1934, Brooklyn, New York), is an American writer, editor, biographer and educator.
Frederic Alois Friedel, born in 1945, studied Philosophy and Linguistics at the University of Hamburg and in Oxford, graduating with a thesis on speech act theory and moral language.
The Free Choice 2008 Committee is an entity chaired by chess champion Garry Kasparov and dedicated to an unconditional adherence to fundamental democratic values.
The French Defence is a chess opening characterised by the moves: This is most commonly followed by 2.d4 d5, with Black intending...c5 at a later stage, attacking White's and gaining on the.
Fritz is a German chess program developed by Vasik Rajlich (engine) and ChessBase (user interface).
Fronteiras do Pensamento (Portuguese: Frontiers of Thought) is a Brazilian cultural project that promotes conferences featuring internationally known intellectuals in order to discuss issues of contemporaneity.
Frost Over the World was a television interview and news talk show, with Sir David Frost as host.
Game Over: Kasparov and the Machine is a 2003 documentary film by Vikram Jayanti about the match between Garry Kasparov, the highest rated chess player in history (at the time) and the World Champion for 15 years (1985–2000), and Deep Blue, a chess-playing computer created by IBM.
Garik may refer to.
Gary and Garry are English language masculine given names.
Gata Kamsky (Ğata Kamski; Гата Камский; Гата Камский; born June 2, 1974) is an American chess grandmaster, and a five-time U.S. champion.
Gazza most commonly refers to Paul Gascoigne (born 1967), a former English footballer Gazza may also refer to.
George Hatfeild Dingley Gossip (December 6, 1841 – May 11, 1907) was a minor American-English chess master and writer.
Georgy Alexandrovich Satarov (Георгий Александрович Сатаров) (born August 22, 1947 Moscow), is a Russian mathematician, politician, political scientist and a former aide to Russian President Boris Yeltsin (1994–1997).
German Borisovich Plisetsky (Плисецкий, Герман Борисович; born 17 May 1931 in Moscow; died 2 December 1992, in Moscow) was a notable Russian poet and translator.
The Giuoco Piano (Italian: "Quiet Game"), also called the Italian Opening,Hooper & Whyld (1996), p. 183.
This page explains commonly used terms in chess in alphabetical order.
Kevin Goh Wei Ming (born 7 July 1983) is a chess International Master from Singapore.
Gordon Graydon Memorial Secondary School, "Gordon Graydon", "GGMSS", or simply "Graydon" for short, is a high school serving Grades 9 to 12 in Mississauga, Ontario, Canada.
The Grand Chess Tour (GCT) is a circuit of chess tournaments where players compete for multiple prize pools.
The Grünfeld Defence (ECO codes D70–D99) is a chess opening characterised by the moves: Black offers White the possibility of cxd5, when after Nxd5 White further gets the opportunity to kick the Black Knight around with e4, leading to an imposing central pawn duo for White.
Grigory Alexeyevich Yavlinsky (Григо́рий Алексе́евич Явли́нский; born 10 April 1952) is a Russian economist and politician.
Hamoud Al-Mousa (born in Raqqa, 1993) is a Syrian journalist and activist.
A handicap (or "odds") in chess is variant ways to enable a weaker player to have a chance of winning against a stronger one.
Hans Jack Berliner (January 27, 1929 – January 13, 2017) was a Professor of Computer Science at Carnegie Mellon University, and was the World Correspondence Chess Champion, from 1965–1968.
Harlan York (born December 5, 1969) is a Newark, New Jersey attorney, regarded as one of the leading immigration lawyers in the United States.
Harry Nelson Pillsbury (December 5, 1872 – June 17, 1906) was a leading American chess player.
Hastings is a town and borough in East Sussex on the south coast of England, east of the county town of Lewes and south east of London.
The Hastings 1895 chess tournament was a round-robin tournament of chess conducted in Hastings, England from August 5 to September 2, 1895.
The Hastings International Chess Congress is an annual chess tournament which takes place in Hastings, England, around the turn of the year.
is a Japanese-American chess grandmaster.
The Hippopotamus Defence is a name for various irregular chess opening systems in which Black moves a number of his pawns to the sixth rank, often developing his pieces to the seventh rank, and does not move any of his pawns to the fifth rank in the opening.
The history of Artificial Intelligence (AI) began in antiquity, with myths, stories and rumors of artificial beings endowed with intelligence or consciousness by master craftsmen; as Pamela McCorduck writes, AI began with "an ancient wish to forge the gods." The seeds of modern AI were planted by classical philosophers who attempted to describe the process of human thinking as the mechanical manipulation of symbols.
The history of chess can be traced back nearly 1500 years, although the earliest origins are uncertain.
International Business Machines, or IBM, nicknamed "Big Blue", is a multinational computer technology and IT consulting corporation headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States.
Today, Jews in Azerbaijan mainly consist of three distinct groups: Mountain Jews, the most sizable and most ancient group; Ashkenazi Jews, who settled in the area during the late 19th-early 20th centuries, and during World War II; and Georgian Jews who settled mainly in Baku during the early part of the 20th century.
Hotel Bristol (Хотел Бристол) is one of the oldest hotels in Belgrade, the capital of Serbia.
Hotel Moskva (Serbian Cyrillic: Хотел Москва,; Hotel Moscow), is a four star hotel in Belgrade, one of the oldest currently operating in Serbia.
How Life Imitates Chess is a book by former World Chess Champion Garry Kasparov.
Howard Staunton (1810 – 22 June 1874) was an English chess master who is generally regarded as having been the world's strongest player from 1843 to 1851, largely as a result of his 1843 victory over Pierre Charles Fournier de Saint-Amant.
The Howard Staunton Memorial Tournament was an annual chess tournament held between 2003 and 2009 in honour of the English chess player Howard Staunton (1810–1874).
Hugh Edward Myers (January 23, 1930 – December 22, 2008) was an American chess master and author.
The Human Rights Foundation (HRF) is a non-profit organization that promotes and protects human rights globally, with a focus on closed societies.
This article documents the progress of significant human–computer chess matches.
Hydra was a chess machine, designed by a team with Dr. Christian "Chrilly" Donninger, Dr.
Deep Thunder is a research project by IBM that aims to improve short-term local weather forecasting through the use of high-performance computing.
The IBM POWER ISA is a reduced instruction set computer (RISC) instruction set architecture (ISA) developed by IBM.
Igor Vasilyevich Ivanov (January 8, 1947 – November 17, 2005) was a Russian-born Canadian grandmaster of chess and a concert pianist.
Igor Arkadyevich Zaitsev (Игорь Аркадьевич Зайцев; born 27 May 1938) is a Russian grandmaster of chess.
The Immortal Game was a chess game played by Adolf Anderssen and Lionel Kieseritzky on 21 June 1851 in London, during a break of the first international tournament.
Articles (arranged alphabetically) related to the Azerbaijan Republic include.
In the game of chess, Indian defence is a broad term for a group of openings characterised by the moves: They are all to varying degrees hypermodern defences, where Black invites White to establish an imposing presence in the centre with the plan of undermining and ultimately destroying it.
Inge Geerdens (born 15 September 1970) is a Flemish businesswoman, entrepreneur and founder and CEO of CVWarehouse.
Many states and international organisations have reacted to the ongoing war in the Donbass region of Ukraine, which began in April 2014.
Irina Krush (Ірина Круш; born December 24, 1983) is an American chess International Grandmaster (GM) who has won the U.S. Women's Chess Championship seven times.
Iván Eduardo Morovic Fernández (born 24 March 1963) is a Chilean chess player with the title of International Grandmaster.
Jacob Isaacovich Murey (Яков Исаакович Мурей), born 2 August 1941, Moscow) is a Russian-born Israeli chess grandmaster., his Elo rating was 2433, making him the No. 39 player in Israel and the 1449th-highest rated player in the world. His peak rating was 2560 in 1989.
James Mason (November 19, 1849 – January 12, 1905) was an Irish-born chess player, journalist and writer, who became one of the world's best half-dozen players in the 1880s.
Jan Timman (born 14 December 1951) is a Dutch chess Grandmaster who was one of the world's leading players from the late 1970s to the early 1990s.
Jason Jay Smart (born January 20, 1979) is an international political consultant primarily working in Eastern Europe, where he is also a media personality in regards to politics.
Jón Loftur Árnason (born 13 November 1960) is an Icelandic chess grandmaster.
Jeroen Piket (born 27 January 1969) is a Dutch chess grandmaster.
Joel Benjamin (born March 11, 1964) is an American chess grandmaster.
Joel Neoh Eu-Jin (born 11 October 1983) is a Malaysian entrepreneur, speaker, and investor.
Jonathan Simon Speelman (born 2 October 1956) is an English Grandmaster chess player, mathematician and chess writer.
José Raúl Capablanca y Graupera (19 November 1888 – 8 March 1942) was a Cuban chess player who was world chess champion from 1921 to 1927.
Joshua Waitzkin (born December 4, 1976) is an American chess player, martial arts competitor, and author.
Josif (Josef, Iossif, Iosif) Davidovich Dorfman (born 1 May 1952, Zhitomir) is a Soviet-French chess Grandmaster, coach, and chess writer.
Judit Polgár (born 23 July 1976) is a Hungarian chess grandmaster.
Julio Argentino Kaplan Pera (born 25 July 1950, Argentina) is a Puerto Rican chess player, former world junior champion and software developer founder of Heuristic Software.
Junior is a computer chess program written by the Israeli programmers Amir Ban and Shay Bushinsky.
JW3, also known as Jewish Community Centre London, is an arts, culture and entertainment venue, an educational facility and a social and community hub in north London.
Karinna Akopovna Moskalenko (Кари́нна Ако́повна Москале́нко) (born February 9, 1954 in Baku, Azerbaijan SSR, USSR) is Russia's leading human rights lawyer, and a member of Moscow Helsinki Group who defended, amongst others, Mikhail Khodorkovsky, Garry Kasparov and Alexander Litvinenko.
Kasparov is a Russian surname.
Kasparov Chessmate is a chess-playing computer program by The Learning Company for which Garry Kasparov is co-credited as game designer.
Kasparov versus the World was a game of chess played in 1999 over the Internet.
Kasparov's Gambit or simply Gambit is a chess playing computer program created by Heuristic Software and published by Electronic Arts in 1993 based on Socrates II, the only winner of the North American Computer Chess Championship running on a common microcomputer.
(titled, but not actually addressed, in Russian as Каспаров.Ru) is a Russian-language website, critical of Vladimir Putin, operated by Garry Kasparov.
Kevin John O'Connell (born August 28, 1949 in London, England) is an Irish chess master.
The King's Indian Defence is a common chess opening.
The Four Pawns Attack in the King's Indian Defence is a chess opening that begins with the moves: White immediately builds up a large in order to gain a advantage.
The Sämisch Variation of the King's Indian Defence is a chess opening that begins with the moves: The Sämisch is a subtle blockading system and a critical challenge to the King's Indian.
Kiril Dimitrov Georgiev (Кирил Димитров Георгиев; born 28 November 1965 in Petrich) is a Bulgarian chess grandmaster and seven-time Bulgarian Chess Champion.
Kirsan Nikolayevich Ilyumzhinov (Кирса́н Никола́евич Илюмжи́нов; Kalmyk: Үлмҗин Кирсән, Ülmcin Kirsən; born April 5, 1962) is a Kalmyk businessman and politician.
Krum Ivanov Georgiev (Крум Иванов Георгиев) (born May 24, 1958) is a Bulgarian chess grandmaster, born in Pazardzhik.
A French independent publishing house, known worldwide for its collection Cahiers de L'Herne.
Larisa Arap (Лари́са Ива́новна Ара́п; born in 1958) is a Russian opposition activist who became a victim of involuntary commitment in the psychiatric facilities of Murmansk and Apatity, soon after publishing her article about mistreatment of patients in the same hospital where she was committed in July, 2007.
Larry Melvyn Evans (March 22, 1932 – November 15, 2010) was an American chess grandmaster, author, and journalist.
Larry Fyrulays, Ph.D., is a fictional character in the CBS crime drama Numb3rs, played by Peter MacNicol.
Leonard William Barden (born 20 August 1929, in Croydon, London) is an English chess master, writer, broadcaster, organizer and promoter.
Leonid Nikolayevich Yurtaev (3 April 1959, Frunze – 2 June 2011) was a Kyrgyz chess player.
Leontxo García Olasagasti (born February 12, 1956 in Irún, Guipúzcoa) is a Spanish lecturer, presenter, commentator and journalist specialized in chess.
Leopoldo Eduardo López Mendoza (born 29 April 1971) is a Venezuelan politician currently under house arrest.
Lev Abramovich Polugaevsky (Лев Абрамович Полугаевский; 20 November 1934 – 30 August 1995) was an International Grandmaster of chess and frequent contender for the World Championship, although he never achieved that title.
Lev Aleksandrovich Ponomaryov (Лев Алекса́ндрович Пономарёв, September 2, 1941, Tomsk) is a Russian political and civil activist.
Lev Borisovich Psakhis (לב בוריסוביץ' פסחיס; Лев Борисович Псахис; born 29 November 1958 in Krasnoyarsk, Russia) is a naturalised Israeli chess grandmaster, trainer and author.
Levon Grigori Aronian (Լևոն Գրիգորի Արոնյան Levon Grigori Aronyan; born 6 October 1982) is an Armenian chess Grandmaster.
Within Russian political parties, liberal parties advocate the expansion of political and civil freedoms and mostly oppose Vladimir Putin.
The Linares International Chess Tournament (Spanish: Torneo Internacional de Ajedrez Ciudad de Linares) was an annual chess tournament, usually played around the end of February, which takes its name from the city of Linares in the Jaén province of Andalusia, Spain, in which it is held.
After Words is an American television series on the C-SPAN2 network’s weekend programming schedule known as Book TV.
This is a complete list of Armenian chess title-holders as of January 2010.
The following is a list of current and past, nonclassified notable artificial intelligence projects.
This is a list of notable Azerbaijani Armenians.
This list of books and documentaries by or about Bobby Fischer is a bibliography using APA style citations.
A list of British films released in 2003.
This is a list of Canadian films which were released in 2003.
This is a list of chess books that are used as references in articles related to chess.
This is a list of chess books that are used as references in articles related to chess.
This is a list of notable chess games sorted chronologically.
Garry Kasparov and Vladimir Kramnik have played 49 classical chess games, of which Kramnik won five, Kasparov won four, with the remaining 40 games drawn.
This is a list of chess historians.
This list of chess players includes people who are primarily known as chess players and have an article on the English Wikipedia.
This is the list of top ranked chess grandmasters, ordered by their peak Elo rating.
A chess variant (or unorthodox chess) is a game "related to, derived from, or inspired by chess".
In psychology research literature, the term child prodigy is defined as a person under the age of ten who produces meaningful output in some domain to the level of an adult expert performer.
This is a list of notable Chinese Americans, including both original immigrants who obtained American citizenship and their American descendants who have made exceptional contributions to various facets of American society.
Many unproven conspiracy theories exist with varying degrees of popularity, frequently related to clandestine government plans and elaborate murder plots.
This is a list of cultural icons of Russia.
Until the Holocaust, Jews were a significant part of the population of Eastern Europe.
This article lists female chess players that received official FIDE titles or are otherwise renowned.
A total of seven chess players have been the chess world number one on the official FIDE rating list since it was first published in July 1971.
Honored Master of Sport was a Soviet state honour, introduced on 27 May 1934 by the Central Executive Committee of the Soviet Union.
The following is a partial list of products, services, and subsidiaries of International Business Machines (IBM) Corporation and its predecessor corporations, beginning in the 1890s.
Jewish players and game theoreticians have long been involved in the game of chess and have significantly contributed to the development of chess, which has been described as the "Jewish National game".
The following is a list of Jews born in the territory of the former Russian Empire.
The following is a list of episodes from the series Mike Tyson Mysteries.
Notable orphans and foundlings include world leaders, celebrated writers, entertainment greats, figures in science and business, as well as innumerable fictional characters in literature and comics.
The following is a list of persons who have attended the Oslo Freedom Forum.
This list of people in Playboy 1980–89 is a catalog of women and men who appeared in Playboy magazine in the years 1980 through 1989.
This list of people in Playboy 2000-09 is a catalog of women and men who appeared in Playboy magazine between the years 2000 and 2009, inclusive.
This is a list of notable people who have changed, adopted or adjusted their surnames based on a mother's or grandmother's maiden name.
This article presents a list of individuals who made transformative breakthroughs in the creation, development and imagining of what computers and electronics could do.
This is a list of pseudonyms, in various categories.
The Pure Pwnage web series and TV series feature many of the same characters and actors, but there are also notable differences in the cast and the characters' experiences.
The following is a list of episodes of Question Time, a British current affairs debate television programme broadcast by BBC Television.
This list of Russian chess players lists people from Russia, the Soviet Union, and the Russian Empire who are primarily known as chess players.
This is a list of people associated with the modern Russian Federation, the Soviet Union, Imperial Russia, Russian Tsardom, the Grand Duchy of Moscow, and other predecessor states of Russia.
This is a list of notable sportspeople from the Russian Federation, Soviet Union, Russian Empire, and other Russian predecessor states, including ethnic Russians and people of other ethnicities.
A sports rivalry is intense competition between athletic teams or athletes, but not directly related to the formal sport and the practice thereof.
This article depicts many of the strongest international chess tournaments in history.
This is a list of episodes for The Colbert Report in 2007.
This is a list of episodes for the late-night Comedy Central series The Opposition with Jordan Klepper.
The following is a list of episodes of the television series The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson which aired in 1991.
Below is a list of the winners of the top prize for each international versions of Who Wants to Be a Millionaire?.
The following is a list of World Chess Championships including the hosting cities.
This is a list of world records in chess as achieved in organized tournament, match, or simultaneous exhibition play.
Ljubomir Ljubojević is a Serbian chess grandmaster.
Logology ("the science of science") is the study of all aspects of science and of its practitioners—aspects philosophical, biological, psychological, societal, historical, political, institutional, financial.
The London Chess Classic is a chess festival held at the Olympia Conference Centre, West Kensington, London.
Louis Eichborn (1812 - 9 May 1882) was a banker and a strong amateur chess player who played a series of casual games against Adolf Anderssen who was among the best players in the world in the 1850s.
Lubomir (Lubosh) Kavalek (Lubomír Kaválek, born August 9, 1943) is a Czech-American chess player.
Luke James McShane (born 7 January 1984) is an English chess player.
Sven Magnus Øen Carlsen (born 30 November 1990) is a Norwegian chess grandmaster and the current World Chess Champion.
Makarska (Italian: Macarsca) is a small city on the Adriatic coastline of Croatia, about southeast of Split and northwest of Dubrovnik.
The Maróczy Bind is a pawn formation in chess, named after the Hungarian grandmaster Géza Maróczy and primarily played against the Sicilian Defence.
Marca Leyenda (Marca legend) is an award given by the Spanish sports newspaper Marca to the best sport professionals in history.
Maribor (German: Marburg an der Drau) is the second-largest city in Slovenia and the largest city of the traditional region of Lower Styria.
Marina Nemat (مارینا نِمت, Марина Немат; born 22 April 1965 in Tehran) is the author of two memoirs about her life growing up in Iran, serving time in Evin Prison for speaking out against the Iranian government, escaping a death sentence and finally fleeing Iran for a new life in Canada.
Mark Izrailovich Dvoretsky (Марк Израилевич Дворецкий; December 9, 1947 – September 26, 2016) was a Russian chess trainer, writer, and International Master.
Mark Richard Shuttleworth (born 18 September 1973) is a South African entrepreneur who is the founder and CEO of Canonical Ltd., the company behind the development of the Linux-based Ubuntu operating system.
Mark Evgenievich Taimanov (Марк Евгеньевич Тайманов; 7 February 1926 – 28 November 2016) was one of the leading Soviet and Russian chess players, among the world's top 20 players from 1946 to 1971.
Matt Charman is a British screenwriter, playwright, and producer.
Matthijs van Nieuwkerk (born 8 September 1960) is a Dutch journalist and television presenter.
Machgielis "Max" Euwe, PhD (May 20, 1901 – November 26, 1981) was a Dutch chess Grandmaster, mathematician, author, and chess administrator.
The Max Euwe Memorial Tournament was an annual international invitation chess tournament played in honour of Max Euwe (1901–1981) from 1987 to 1996.
Maksymilian Rafailovych "Max" Levchin (Максиміліан Рафаїлович Левчин; born July 11, 1975) is a Ukrainian-born American computer scientist.
Maxim Dlugy (born January 29, 1966) is a chess Grandmaster.
The sixteenth chess game in the fourth match between Alexander McDonnell and Louis-Charles Mahé de La Bourdonnais played in London in 1834 is famous for demonstrating the power of a mobile central block of pawns.
Media freedom in Russia concerns both the ability of directors of mass media outlets to carry out independent policies and the ability of journalists to access sources of information and to work without outside pressure.
The media of Russia refers to mass media outlets based in the Russian Federation.
Media portrayals of the Ukrainian crisis, including 2014 unrest and the 2014 Ukrainian revolution following the Euromaidan movement, differed widely between Ukrainian, western and Russian media.
Mephisto was a line of chess computers sold by Hegener & Glaser (H+G).
Merab Gagunashvili (მერაბ გაგუნაშვილი; born 3 January 1985, Tbilisi) is a Georgian chess grandmaster and Georgian champion in 2004 and 2010.
Michael Adams (born 17 November 1971) is an English chess grandmaster.
The Mieses Opening is a chess opening that begins with the move: The opening is named after the German-British grandmaster Jacques Mieses.
Michael "Mig" Greengard (born 9 June 1969 in Northern California, USA) is an American chess author and journalist who currently lives in New York City.
Miguel Illescas Córdoba (born December 3, 1965 in Barcelona) is a Spanish chess grandmaster.
Mikhail Moiseyevich Botvinnik (Михаи́л Моисе́евич Ботви́нник,; – May 5, 1995) was a Soviet and Russian International Grandmaster and World Chess Champion for most of 1948 to 1963.
Mikhail Mikhailovich Kasyanov (Михаи́л Миха́йлович Касья́нов –, born 8 December 1957) is a Russian politician who served as the Prime Minister of Russia from May 2000 to February 2004.
Mikhail Nekhemyevich Tal (Mihails Tāls; Михаил Нехемьевич Таль, Mikhail Nekhem'evich Tal,; sometimes transliterated Mihails Tals or Mihail Tal; 9 November 1936 – 28 June 1992) was a Soviet Latvian chess Grandmaster and the eighth World Chess Champion (from 1960 to 1961).
Milunka Lazarević (born 1 December 1932 in Šantarovac, Yugoslavia) is a Serbian chess player and journalist.
Minimax (sometimes MinMax or MM) is a decision rule used in decision theory, game theory, statistics and philosophy for minimizing the possible loss for a worst case (maximum loss) scenario.
Mitch Berman (born May 29, 1956) is an American fiction writer known for his imaginative range, exploration of characters beyond the margins of society, lush prose style and dark humor.
The Modern Benoni is a chess opening that begins with the moves 1.
* for the chess variant, see Modern Chess (chess variant).
Mohammad Ashraf (born 29 October 1995) is an international rated chess player from Odisha, India.
The Mongolian Revolution of 1990 (1990 Democratic Revolution,, Ardchilsan Khuvĭsgal) was a democratic peaceful revolution that started with demonstrations and hunger strikes to overthrow the Mongolian People's Republic and eventually moved towards the democratic present day Mongolia and the writing of the new constitution.
The Morphy number is a measure of how closely a chess player is connected to Paul Morphy (1837–1884) by way of playing chess games.
MSN Games (also known as Zone.com - formerly known as The Village, Internet Gaming Zone, MSN Gaming Zone, and MSN Games by Zone.com) is a casual gaming web site, with single player, multiplayer, PC download, and social casino video games.
The Munk Debates are a semi-annual series of debates on major policy issues held in Toronto, Canada.
Yuriy Mikhailovich Chervochkin (Юрий Михайлович Червочкин; 31 December 1984 – 10 December 2007) was a Russian opposition activist.
Murray Campbell is a Canadian computer scientist.
Murray Graham Chandler (born 4 April 1960, Wellington, New Zealand) is a chess grandmaster who has played internationally for New Zealand and for England, after he gained English citizenship in the early 1980s.
Murugan Thiruchelvam (born 11 December 1988) is an English chess player.
My 60 Memorable Games is a chess book by Bobby Fischer, first published in 1969.
My Great Predecessors is a series of chess books written by former World Champion Garry Kasparov et al.
Natan Sharansky (נתן שרנסקי, Ната́н Щара́нский, Натан Щаранський; born Anatoly Borisovich Shcharansky (Анато́лий Бори́сович Щара́нский, Анатолій Борисович Щаранський) on 20 January 1948) is an Israeli politician, human rights activist and author who, as a refusenik in the Soviet Union during the 1970s and 1980s, spent nine years in Soviet prisons.
Natasha Mozgovaya (נטשה מוזגוביה, Наташа Мозговая; born 1979) is an American-Israeli journalist.
National Bolshevik Front has been used as a name for three separate strands of National Bolshevism.
National Bolshevism, often shortened to Nazbolism (Нацболы), is a political movement that combines elements of radical nationalism (especially Russian nationalism) and Bolshevism.
Nazí Paikidze, sometimes also referred to as Paikidze-Barnes, (ნაზი პაიკიძე; Нази Нодаровна Паикидзе-Барнс;, born 27 October 1993) is a Georgian American chess player who holds the FIDE titles of International Master (IM) and Woman Grandmaster (WGM).
Nedjeljom u dva (Sunday at Two) is a Croatian television talk show aired every Sunday afternoon at 14:00 CET on HRT 1 and hosted by Aleksandar Stanković.
The New Chronology is a pseudohistorical theory which argues that the conventional chronology of Middle Eastern and European history is fundamentally flawed, and that events attributed to the civilizations of the Roman Empire, Ancient Greece and Ancient Egypt actually occurred during the Middle Ages, more than a thousand years later.
The New York Athletic Club is a private social club and athletic club in New York City.
Nicholas Ernest de Firmian (born July 26, 1957 in Fresno, California), is a chess grandmaster and three-time U.S. chess champion, winning in 1987 (with Joel Benjamin), 1995, and 1998.
Nigel David Short (born 1 June 1965) is an English chess grandmaster, chess columnist, chess coach and chess commentator.
Nikolai Vladimirovich Krogius (first name sometimes written Nikolay) (born July 22, 1930 in Saratov) is a Russian Chess Grandmaster, International Arbiter (1985), psychologist, chess coach, chess administrator, and author.
The Nimzo-Indian Defence is a chess opening characterised by the moves: Other move orders, such as 1.c4 e6 2.Nc3 Nf6 3.d4 Bb4, are also feasible.
The Nimzowitsch Defence is a somewhat unusual chess opening characterised by the moves: This opening is an example of a hypermodern opening where Black invites White to occupy the of the board at an early stage with pawns.
In modern Russian political terminology, the non-system opposition or non-systemic opposition (внесистемная оппозиция) are oppositional forces which operate outside of the official political establishment.
Nordic Business Forum (NBF) is a Finnish company, based in Jyväskylä.
Occupied territories of Georgia (საქართველოს ოკუპირებული ტერიტორიები) are the territories occupied by Russia after the Russo-Georgian War in 2008.
OMGP can refer to.
Opposition to President Vladimir Putin in Russia is a term that can be divided between the parliamentary opposition parties in the State Duma and the various non-systemic opposition organizations.
Ortvin Sarapu MBE (Born: Ortvin Sarapuu); 22 January 1924 in Narva, Estonia – 13 April 1999 in Auckland, New Zealand), sometimes known as "Mr Chess", was a New Zealand chess International Master who won or shared the New Zealand Chess Championship 20 times from 1952 to 1990.
Oslo Freedom Forum (OFF) is a series of global conferences run by the New York-based non-profit Human Rights Foundation under the slogan “Challenging Power.” OFF was founded in 2009 as a one-time event and has taken place annually ever since.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to chess: Chess is a two-player board game played on a chessboard (a square-checkered board with 64 squares arranged in an eight-by-eight grid).
Owen Williams (born 23 June 1931) is a retired South African male tennis player and tournament director.
Owen's Defence (also known as the Queen's Fianchetto Defence or Greek Defense) is an uncommon chess opening defined by the moves: By playing 1...b6, Black prepares to fianchetto the where it will participate in the battle for the.
Palantir Technologies is a private American software and services company which specializes in big data analytics.
Parallels, Events, People (Паралле́ли, собы́тия, лю́ди) is documentary series on the Soviet dissident movement and 2011–13 Russian protests.
Patrick Gideon Wolff (born February 15, 1968) is an American chess Grandmaster.
Paul Hoffman (born March 30, 1956) is the president and CEO of the Liberty Science Center in Jersey City, New Jersey.
Paul Charles Morphy (June 22, 1837 – July 10, 1884) was an American chess player.
In chess, the pawn structure (sometimes known as the pawn skeleton) is the configuration of pawns on the chessboard.
A pawnless chess endgame is a chess endgame in which only a few pieces remain and none of them is a pawn.
People's Freedom Party "For Russia without Lawlessness and Corruption" (Партия народной свободы «За Россию без произвола и коррупции», Partiya narodnoy svobody "Za Rossiyu bez proizvola i korruptsiyi", abbreviated as Parnas, Парнас) was a Russian liberal democratic political party founded on 13 December 2010 by opposition politicians Vladimir Ryzhkov, Boris Nemtsov, Mikhail Kasyanov and Vladimir Milov and de facto dissolved on 16 June 2012 (merged into RPR-PARNAS party).
Peter Fraser (born 1953) is a British fine art photographer.
Peter Leko ('Lékó Péter'; Петер Леко; born September 8, 1979 in Subotica, Yugoslavia) is a Hungarian chess grandmaster.
Pyotr Veniaminovich Svidler (Пётр Вениами́нович Сви́длер; born 17 June 1976) is a Russian chess grandmaster.
The Pirc Defence (correctly pronounced "peerts", but often mispronounced "perk"), sometimes known as the Ufimtsev Defence or Yugoslav Defence, is a chess opening characterised by Black responding to 1.e4 with 1...d6 and 2...Nf6, followed by...g6 and...Bg7, while allowing White to establish an impressive-looking centre with pawns on d4 and e4.
In two-player sequential games, a ply refers to one turn taken by one of the players.
Poison laboratory of the Soviet secret services, alternatively known as Laboratory 1, Laboratory 12, and Kamera which means "The Cell" in Russian, was a covert research and development facility of the Soviet secret police agencies which reportedly reactivated in late '90s.
The Poisoned Pawn Variation is any of several series of opening moves in chess in which a pawn is said to be "poisoned" because its capture can result in a positional disadvantage or loss of material.
Polish Immortal is the name given to a chess game between Glinksberg and Miguel Najdorf played in Warsaw.
The political career of Vladimir Putin concerns the career of Vladimir Putin in politics, including his current tenure as President of Russia.
Politics and sports or sports diplomacy describes the use of sport as a means to influence diplomatic, social, and political relations.
The Ponziani Opening is a chess opening that begins with the moves: It is one of the oldest chess openings, having been discussed in the literature by 1497.
The Palestinian National Authority began in 1994 to issue stamps and operate postal services as authorized by the Oslo Accords.
Poughkeepsie, officially the City of Poughkeepsie, is a city in the state of New York, United States, which is the county seat of Dutchess County.
The POWER2, originally named RIOS2, is a processor designed by IBM that implemented the POWER instruction set architecture.
~American author, inventor and futurist Raymond Kurzweil has become well known for his predictions about artificial intelligence and the human species, mainly concerning the technological singularity.
Priyome (a) is a Russian noun that is used directly and generically in English to represent some sort of typical maneuver or technique in chess.
The Professional Chess Association (PCA), which existed between 1993 and 1996, was a rival organisation to FIDE, the international chess organization.
Promotion is a chess rule that requires a pawn that reaches its eighth to be immediately replaced by the player's choice of a queen, knight, rook, or bishop of the same.
In the game of chess, prophylaxis (Greek προφυλαξις, "prophylaxis," guarding or preventing beforehand) or a prophylactic move is a move that stops the opponent from taking action in a certain area for fear of some type of reprisal.
Pussy Riot is a Russian feminist protest punk rock group based in Moscow.
"Putin Must Go" is a Russian website and public campaign organised for the collection of signatures to an open letter demanding the resignation of President (formerly Prime Minister) Vladimir Putin.
The Q Score (popularly known as Q-Rating) is a measurement of the familiarity and appeal of a brand, celebrity, company, or entertainment product (e.g., television show) used in the United States.
In chess, the Cambridge Springs Defense (or less commonly, the Pillsbury Variation) is a variation of the Queen's Gambit Declined that begins with the moves: Black breaks the pin on the h4–d8 diagonal and forms a pin of his own on the c3-knight (exploiting the absence of the White's queen bishop from the). If Black later plays dxc4, there may be threats against the g5-bishop.
The Queen's Indian Defense (QID) is a chess opening defined by the moves: The opening is a solid defense to the Queen's Pawn Game.
Ratmir Dmitrievich Kholmov (Russian: Ратмир Дмитриевич Холмов) (13 May 1925 in Shenkursk – 18 February 2006 in Moscow) was a Russian chess Grandmaster.
Raymond Kurzweil (born February 12, 1948) is an American author, computer scientist, inventor and futurist.
Raymond Dennis Keene OBE (born 29 January 1948) is an English chess Grandmaster, a FIDE International Arbiter, a chess organiser, and a journalist and author.
Razpotja (Slovene for Crossroads) is a Slovenian quarterly cultural magazine, part of the Eurozine network of European magazines.
Reactions to the 2014–2017 Venezuelan protests have been declared by numerous domestic and international organizations, responding to events occurring throughout the years of protests.
This is a list of episodes from the thirteenth season of Real Time with Bill Maher.
This is a list of episodes from the fifth season of Real Time with Bill Maher.
The Reggio Emilia chess tournament was an annual chess tournament held in Reggio Emilia, Italy.
Within sports and games played at the international competitive level, the Rest of the World refers to a team of players from many countries of origin that compete against a single individual or a team from a single group, such as a club or country.
The Revolutions of 1989 formed part of a revolutionary wave in the late 1980s and early 1990s that resulted in the end of communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe and beyond.
Rishon LeZion (רִאשׁוֹן לְצִיּוֹן, lit. First to Zion) is the fourth largest city in Israel, located along the central Israeli coastal plain south of Tel Aviv.
Robert Murray Jamieson (born 7 July 1952 in Melbourne) is an Australian chess International Master.
Rochelle Ballantyne (born 1995) is an African American chess player.
Ronald Watson "Ron" Henley (born December 5, 1956 in Houston, Texas) is an American chess grandmaster, writer, narrator and producer of chess videos, as well as financial funding trader.
The rook and pawn versus rook endgame is of fundamental importance to chess endgames,,,, and has been widely studied,. Precise play is usually required in these positions.
Rotlewi versus Rubinstein is a game of chess played between Gersz Rotlewi and Akiba Rubinstein in Łódź, Poland in 1907.
RISC System/6000, or RS/6000 for short, is a family of RISC-based UNIX servers, workstations and supercomputers made by IBM in the 1990s.
RT (formerly Russia Today) is a Russian international television network funded by the Russian government.
Ruslan Olegovich Ponomariov (Русла́н Оле́гович Пономарьо́в, Ruslan Olehovych Ponomar'ov; born 11 October 1983) is a Ukrainian chess grandmaster.
There have been two chess matches featuring USSR vs.
The Russian Chess Championship has taken various forms.
Legislative elections were held in the Russian Federation on 2 December 2007.
In February 2014, Russia made several military incursions into Ukrainian territory.
Russian Opposition Coordination Council (Координационный совет российской оппозиции) was a council created in October 2012 by Russian protesters.
Presidential elections were held in Russia on 2 March 2008.
Presidential elections were held in Russia on 18 March 2018.
A Russian reversal is a type of joke, usually starting with the words "In Soviet Russia", in which the subject and objects of a statement are reversed, commonly as a snowclone pattern: "In America you to/with X, in Soviet Russia X to/with you." Sometimes the first part is omitted.
Rustam Kasimdzhanov (Rustam Qosimjonov; Рустам Касымджанов; born 5 December 1979, Tashkent, Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic) is an Uzbek chess Grandmaster and former FIDE World Champion (2004-05).
The Ruy Lopez, also called the Spanish Opening or Spanish Game, is a chess opening characterised by the moves: The Ruy Lopez is named after 16th-century Spanish bishop Ruy López de Segura.
The Mortimer Trap is a chess opening trap in the Ruy Lopez named after James Mortimer.
Sebasti Arul Christopher Vasanth (SAC Vasanth) is an Indian magician, illusionist and laser show artist who performs shows in India, Burkina Faso, Dubai and globally.
Samuel Herman Reshevsky (born Szmul Rzeszewski; November 26, 1911 – April 4, 1992) was a Polish chess prodigy and later a leading American chess grandmaster.
Savik Shuster (Са́вик Шу́стер, Са́вік Шу́стер, born Ševelis Šusteris; November 22, 1952 in Vilnius) is a journalist and host of Ukrainian TV shows.
The Savoy Theatre is a West End theatre in the Strand in the City of Westminster, London, England.
The Scandinavian Defense (or Center Counter Defense, or Center Counter Game) is a chess opening characterized by the moves.
The Scotch Game, or Scotch Opening, is a chess opening that begins with the moves: Ercole del Rio, in his 1750 treatise Sopra il giuoco degli Scacchi, Osservazioni pratiche d’anonimo Autore Modenese ("On the game of Chess, practical Observations by an anonymous Modenese Author"), was the first author to mention what is now called the Scotch Game.
The Classical Variation of the Scotch Game is a chess opening that begins with the moves: White has several fifth move options, including 5.Be3, 5.Nxc6, 5.Nb3 and 5.Nf5.
The possible Dissolution of Russia is a hypothetical disintegration of the Russian Federation as a single state, as well as opinions and analysis of the consequences of this event.
The Semi-Slav Defense is a variation of the Queen's Gambit chess opening defined by the position reached after the moves: The position may readily be reached by a number of different.
Seppo Erkki Sakari Heikinheimo (3 June 1938 in Helsinki – 26 May 1997 in Helsinki) was a Finnish musicologist, music journalist, writer and translator.
Sergei Yuryevic Makarichev (Серге́й Юрьевич Макарычев; born November 17, 1953) is a Russian chess player, who gained the Grandmaster title in 1976.
Sergei Rublevsky (born 15 October 1974) is a Russian chess grandmaster (1994).
The Sicilian Defence is a chess opening that begins with the following moves: The Sicilian is the most popular and best-scoring response to White's first move 1.e4.
The Accelerated Dragon (or Accelerated Fianchetto) is a chess opening variation of the Sicilian Defence that begins with the moves: The Accelerated Dragon features an early...g6 by Black.
In chess, the Sicilian Defence, Alapin Variation is a response to the Sicilian Defence characterised by the moves: It is named after the Russian master Semyon Alapin (1856–1923).
In chess, the Dragon Variation is one of the main lines of the Sicilian Defence and begins with the moves: In the Dragon, Black fianchettoes their bishop on the h8–a1 diagonal, building a home for the king on g8 while aiming the bishop at the center and.
The Najdorf Variation of the Sicilian Defence is one of the most respected and deeply studied of all chess openings.
In chess, the Scheveningen Variation of the Sicilian Defence is an opening that is a line of the Open Sicilian characterised by Black setting up a "small centre" with pawns on d6 and e6.
Simon Webb (10 June 1949 – 14 March 2005) was a British chess player, an International Master, a Correspondence Chess Grandmaster, and a chess writer.
Siobhan O'Neill is an English actress and musician born in Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire.
Skavlan is a Norwegian-Swedish television talk show hosted by Norwegian journalist Fredrik Skavlan.
The Slav Defense is a chess opening that begins with the moves: The Slav is one of the primary defenses to the Queen's Gambit.
Solidarnost (Солидарность, Russian for "Solidarity", named after the Polish Solidarność) is a Russian liberal democratic political movement founded on 13 December 2008 by a number of well-known members of the liberal democratic opposition, including Garry Kasparov, Boris Nemtsov and others from the Yabloko and Union of Right Forces (which had just merged with two pro-Kremlin parties, the Democratic Party of Russia and Civilian Power, to form the pro-Kremlin liberal democratic Right Cause) parties, leaders of the Dissenters March events, the Committee 2008, the People's Democratic Union, the United Civil Front, The Other Russia and other politicians and political groups.
Since a certain time until 1991 in the end of each year the Federation of Sports Journalists of the USSR held an inquest among its members to name top ten athletes of the year of the USSR.
Spartak (Спартак; English:Spartacus) is an international fitness and sports society that unites some countries of the former Soviet Union.
A wide array of sports are played in Armenia.
Sport in Azerbaijan has ancient roots, and even now, both traditional and modern sports are still practiced.
The Staunton–Morphy controversy concerns the failure of negotiations in 1858 for a chess match between Howard Staunton and Paul Morphy and later interpretations of the actions of the two players.
On October 16, 2007, satirist Stephen Colbert (in the guise of his character) officially announced that he would run for President of the United States.
Stephen Frand Cohen (born November 25, 1938) is an American scholar and professor emeritus of Russian studies at Princeton University and New York University.
Gordon Matthew Thomas Sumner (born 2 October 1951), known as Sting, is an English singer, songwriter, and actor.
Svetozar Gligorić (Serbian Cyrillic: Светозар Глигорић, 2 February 1923 – 14 August 2012) was a Serbian and Yugoslav chess grandmaster.
In chess, a swindle is a ruse by which a player in a losing position tricks his opponent, and thereby achieves a win or draw instead of the expected loss.
Tal Shaked (born February 5, 1978 in Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA) is an American chess grandmaster, who is best known for winning the World Junior Championship in 1997.
The Tata Steel Chess Tournament is an annual chess tournament held in January in Wijk aan Zee, the Netherlands.
Tatiana Anatolyevna Kosintseva (Татьяна Анатольевна Косинцева; born 11 April 1986 in Arkhangelsk) is a Russian chess Grandmaster (GM).
Teimour Radjabov (also spelled Teymur Rajabov; Teymur Rəcəbov; born 12 March 1987) is an Azerbaijani chess grandmaster.
The Age of Spiritual Machines is a non-fiction book by inventor and futurist Ray Kurzweil about artificial intelligence and the future course of humanity.
The exchange in chess refers to a situation in which one player loses a minor piece (i.e. a bishop or knight) but captures the opponent's rook.
The 52nd season of The Late Late Show, the world's longest-running chat show, began on 6 September 2013 and concluded on 30 May 2014.
The Liberal was a London-based magazine "dedicated to promoting liberalism around the world", which ran in print from 2004 to 2009 and online until 2012.
The Other Russia (Другая Россия – Drugaya Rossiya), sometimes cited as Another Russia, was an umbrella coalition (2006–2008/2009/2010) that gathered opponents of President Vladimir Putin and was known as an organizer of Dissenters' Marches.
The Wisdom of Crowds: Why the Many Are Smarter Than the Few and How Collective Wisdom Shapes Business, Economies, Societies and Nations, published in 2004, is a book written by James Surowiecki about the aggregation of information in groups, resulting in decisions that, he argues, are often better than could have been made by any single member of the group.
Thomas S. Anantharaman is a computer statistician specializing in Bayesian inference approaches for NP-complete problems.
Thomas Edward Rendle (born 29 September 1986) is a British FIDE International Master chess player and coach.
Thor Leonardo Halvorssen Mendoza (born 1976)—commonly known as Thor Halvorssen—is a Venezuelan human rights advocate and film producer with contributions in the field of public policy, public interest advocacy, individual rights and civil liberties, and pro-democracy advocacy.
The Three Knights Game is a chess opening which most commonly begins with the moves: In the Three Knights Game, Black chooses to break symmetry in order to avoid the main lines of what is often considered the drawish Four Knights Game after the usual 3...Nf6.
In chess and some other abstract strategy games, the threefold repetition rule (also known as repetition of position) states that a player can claim a draw if the same position occurs three times, or will occur after their next move, with the same player to move.
Tigran Vartanovich Petrosian (Тигра́н Варта́нович Петрося́н; Տիգրան Պետրոսյան; June 17, 1929 – August 13, 1984) was a Soviet Armenian Grandmaster, and World Chess Champion from 1963 to 1969.
The Tilburg chess tournament was a series of very strong chess tournaments held in Tilburg, Netherlands.
Tim Weissman (born 1970) is a clinical psychologist and ten-time World champion in the sport of professional Air Hockey.
Time 100 (often written in all-caps as TIME 100) is an annual list of the 100 most influential people in the world assembled by the American news magazine Time.
This is a timeline of artificial intelligence.
This is a timeline of chess.
Tomáš Oral (born December 24, 1977) is a chess Grandmaster from the Czech Republic.
Anthony John Miles (23 April 1955 – 12 November 2001) was an English chess grandmaster, the first Englishman to earn the Grandmaster title in over-the-board play.
John Adrian Tremayne Rodd, 3rd Baron Rennell (28 June 1935 – 9 December 2006) was a Scottish rugby union player.
Triangulation is a tactic used in chess to put one's opponent in zugzwang (a position when it is a disadvantage to move).
The Two Knights Defense is a chess opening that begins with the moves: First recorded by Polerio (c. 1550 – c. 1610) in the late 16th century, this line of the Italian Game was extensively developed in the 19th century.
United Civil Front (Объединённый Гражданский Фронт, Obyedinyónnïy Grazhdánskiy Front) is a social movement in Russia founded and led by chess grandmaster Garry Kasparov.
The USSR Chess Championship was played from 1921 to 1991.
The USSR Chess Federation (Шахматная федерация СССР - Shakhmatnaya fyedyeratsiya SSSR) was the national organism for chess in the USSR.
Václav "Vašek" Klouda (born 1986) is a Czech competitive freestyle footbag player.
Valery Salov (born May 26, 1964 in Wrocław, Poland) is a Russian chess grandmaster who was once ranked the third best player in the world.
The Van't Kruijs Opening is a chess opening defined by the move: It is named after the Amsterdam player Maarten van 't Kruijs (1813–85) who won the sixth Dutch championship in 1878.
Vasily Vasilyevich Smyslov (Василий Васильевич Смыслов; 24 March 1921 – 27 March 2010) was a Soviet and Russian chess grandmaster, who was World Chess Champion from 1957 to 1958.
Vassily Mykhaylovych Ivanchuk, also transliterated as Vasyliy or Vasyl (Василь Михайлович Іванчук; born March 18, 1969), is a Ukrainian chess grandmaster and a former World Rapid Chess Champion.
Václav Havel Prize for Creative Dissent is an award established in 2012 by the New York City-based Human Rights Foundation (HRF).
Veselin Aleksandrov Topalov (pronounced; Весели́н Александров Топа́лов; born 15 March 1975) is a Bulgarian chess grandmaster and former FIDE World Chess Champion.
Vikram Teja Jayanti is a documentary filmmaker responsible for a number of well known full-feature documentary films.
Viktor Lvovich Korchnoi (p; 23 March 1931 – 6 June 2016) was a Soviet (until 1976) and Swiss (since 1994) chess grandmaster and writer.
Vincent Keymer (born 15 November 2004) is a German chess player.
Virtual Kasparov is a chess video game developed by Titus Interactive Studio, published by Titus Interactive and distributed in Europe by Virgin Interactive for the PlayStation and Game Boy Advance.
ვის უნდა ოცი ათასი? (or ვის უნდა 20 000?, English translation: Who wants 20000, transliteration: Vis Unda 20000) is a Georgian game show based on the original British format of Who Wants to Be a Millionaire?.
Viswanathan "Vishy" Anand (born 11 December 1969) is an Indian chess grandmaster, a former World Chess Champion, and the current World Rapid Chess Champion.
Vitaly Valeryevich Tseshkovsky (Виталий Валерьевич Цешковский; 25 September 1944, Omsk – 24 December 2011, Krasnodar) was a Russian chess Grandmaster and a former champion of the USSR.
Vladas Mikėnas (17 April 1910 – 3 November 1992) was a Lithuanian International Master of chess, an Honorary Grandmaster, and a journalist.
Vladimir Konstantinovich Bagirov (Վլադիմիր Կոնստանտինի Բաղիրյան; Влади́мир Константи́нович Баги́ров) (August 16, 1936 in Baku – July 21, 2000 in Finland) was a Soviet-Latvian grandmaster of chess, chess author, and trainer.
From the late 1950s to the mid-1970s, Vladimir Konstantinovich Bukovsky (Влади́мир Константи́нович Буко́вский; b. 30 December 1942) was a prominent figure in the Soviet dissident movement, well-known at home and abroad.
Vladimir Borisovich Kramnik (Влади́мир Бори́сович Кра́мник; born 25 June 1975) is a Russian chess grandmaster.
Vladimir Andreevich Makogonov (Влади́мир Андре́евич Макого́нов, August 27, 1904 – January 2, 1993) was a chess player from Azerbaijan.
Vladimir (Volodya, Volodja) Pimonov (Russian: Владимир (Володя) Иванович Пимонов, March 31, 1955, Moscow, USSR) is a Russian-born Danish journalist, author and academic most known for his investigative reporting on the Soviet/Russian affairs.
Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (a; born 7 October 1952) is a Russian statesman and former intelligence officer serving as President of Russia since 2012, previously holding the position from 2000 until 2008.
Vladimir Vladimirovich Kara-Murza (Влади́мир Влади́мирович Кара́-Мурза́, born 7 September 1981) is a Russian opposition politician.
Vugar Gashimov (Vüqar Həşimov; 24 July 1986 – 11 January 2014) was an Azerbaijani chess grandmaster.
Wang Yue (born 31 March 1987) is a Chinese chess grandmaster.
The Washington Obkom (вашингтонский обком), literally the "Washington Province Party Committee", is a pejorative term used in Russian media and speech to imply that many crucial decisions by political elites of Russia and some other post-Soviet states have been and are agreed with and/or taken in the United States.
Watson is a question-answering computer system capable of answering questions posed in natural language, developed in IBM's DeepQA project by a research team led by principal investigator David Ferrucci.
Web Summit, originally Dublin Web Summit, is a technology conference held annually since 2009.
Weinstein is a Judeo-German language surname meaning wine stone, referring to the crystals of potassium bitartrate resulting from the process of fermenting grape juice.
Whataboutism (also known as whataboutery) is a variant of the tu quoque logical fallacy that attempts to discredit an opponent's position by charging them with hypocrisy without directly refuting or disproving their argument, which is particularly associated with Soviet and Russian propaganda.
Wild About Harry is a comedy album by The Bob & Tom Show, which was first released in November 2003.
Wilhelm (later William) Steinitz (May 17, 1836 – August 12, 1900) was an Austrian and later American chess master, and the first undisputed World Chess Champion, from 1886 to 1894.
William Louis Nack (February 4, 1941 – April 13, 2018)"" - 04.14.18 - Sports Illustrated was an American journalist and author.
Winter is Coming may refer to.
The World Blitz Chess Championship is a chess tournament held to determine the world champion in chess played under blitz time controls.
The World Chess Championship (sometimes abbreviated as WCC) is played to determine the World Champion in chess.
The World Chess Championship 1972 was a match for the World Chess Championship between challenger Bobby Fischer of the United States and defending champion Boris Spassky of the Soviet Union.
The 1975 World Chess Championship was never played due to a dispute over the match format.
The World Chess Championship 1984 was a match between challenger Garry Kasparov and defending champion Anatoly Karpov in Moscow from 10 September 1984 to 15 February 1985 for the World Chess Championship title.
The 1985 World Chess Championship was played between Anatoly Karpov and Garry Kasparov in Moscow from September 3 to November 9, 1985.
The 1986 World Chess Championship was played between Anatoly Karpov and Garry Kasparov in London and Leningrad (Saint Petersburg) from July 28 to October 8, 1986.
The 1987 World Chess Championship was played between Anatoly Karpov and Garry Kasparov in Seville from October 12 to December 19, 1987.
The World Chess Championship 1990 was played between Garry Kasparov and Anatoly Karpov.
The World Chess Championship 1993 was one of the most controversial matches in chess history, with incumbent World Chess Champion Garry Kasparov, and official challenger Nigel Short, splitting from FIDE, the official world governing body of chess, and playing their title match under the auspices of the Professional Chess Association.
Two rival world chess championships were held in the year 2000.
The World Chess Championship 2006 was a match between Classical World Chess Champion Vladimir Kramnik, and FIDE World Chess Champion Veselin Topalov.
The World Chess Championship 2010 match pitted the defending world champion, Viswanathan Anand, against challenger Veselin Topalov, for the title of World Chess Champion.
The World Chess Championship 2012 was a chess match between the defending world champion Viswanathan Anand of India and Boris Gelfand of Israel, winner of the 2011 Candidates Tournament.
The World Chess Championship 2013 was a match between reigning world champion Viswanathan Anand and challenger Magnus Carlsen, to determine the 2013 World Chess Champion.
The World Chess Championship 2014 was a match between the world champion Magnus Carlsen and challenger Viswanathan Anand, to determine the World Chess Champion.
The World Chess Hall of Fame (WCHOF) is a nonprofit, collecting institution situated in the Central West End neighborhood of St. Louis, Missouri, United States.
The World Junior Chess Championship is an under-20 chess tournament (players must have been under 20 years old on 1 January in the year of competition) organized by the World Chess Federation (FIDE).
The World Rapid Chess Championship is a chess tournament held to determine the world champion in chess played under rapid time controls.
The World Youth Chess Championship is a chess competition for girls and boys under the age of 8, 10, 12, 14, 16 and 18.
Wrocław Global Forum (WGF) is an annual transatlantic conference centered on topics related to democracy, prosperity and security.
In chess endgames with a bishop, a pawn that is a may be the wrong rook pawn.
X3D Fritz was a version of the Fritz chess program, which in November 2003 played a four-game Human–computer chess match against world number one Grandmaster Garry Kasparov.
Yasser Seirawan (ياسر سيروان; born March 24, 1960) is an American chess grandmaster and four-time United States champion.
Yelena Dembo (born December 8, 1983) is a Greek International Master of chess.
Yevgeniy Vladimirov (Евгений Владимиров; born 20 January 1957) is a chess Grandmaster and trainer from Kazakhstan.
is a professional shogi player and a chess FIDE Master.
The Youth Engagement Summit (YES) is the gathering of Southeast Asian youths with well-known global icons of change.
YouthSays is an online youth opinion community that is operated and privately owned by Youth Asia Sdn. Bhd., Malaysia.
Yury Dokhoian (Юрий Дохоян; born 26 October 1964 in Zyryanovka, Altai Krai) is a Russian Grandmaster of chess (1988) of Armenian origin.
Zurab Azmaiparashvili (ზურაბ აზმაიფარაშვილი; born 16 March 1960) is a chess Grandmaster from Georgia.
12 Who Don't Agree (12 несогласных) is a 2009 non-fiction book by the Russian writer Valery Panyushkin.
The major chess events of 1981 were the final match of the Candidates Tournament (between Viktor Korchnoi and Robert Hübner) and the second Karpov–Korchnoi World Chess Championship match.
The year 1985 was designated as the International Youth Year by the United Nations.
Events in chess in 1988.
Events in chess in 1989.
Important events of 1990 include the Reunification of Germany and the unification of Yemen, the formal beginning of the Human Genome Project (finished in 2003), the launch of the Hubble Space Telescope, the separation of Namibia from South Africa, and the Baltic states declaring independence from the Soviet Union amidst Perestroika.
Events in chess in 1990;.
Events in chess in 1991;.
Events in chess in 1992;.
Events in chess in 1993;.
Events in chess in 1994;.
Events in chess in 1995;.
Events in chess in 1996.
The year 1996 in science and technology involved many significant events, listed below.
Events from the year 1996 in the United States.
Events in chess in 1997.
The year 1997 in science and technology involved many significant events, listed below.
Events in chess in 1998.
Events of 1999 in chess include the list of top chess players and news.
Events in chess during the year 2000.
Events in chess during the year 2001.
Events in chess during the year 2002.
The year 2003 in film involved some significant events.
Events from the year 2007 in Europe.
Events from the year 2007 in Russia.
The 2011–2013 Russian protests (which some English language media referred to as the Snow Revolution) began in 2011 (as protests against the 2011 Russian legislative election results) and continued into 2012 and 2013.
The Bilderberg Conference 2012 took place at May 30 - June 3, 2012 and were held in Westfields Marriott Hotel, Chantilly, Virginia, United States, previous conferences were already held here in 2002 and 2008, Haifa in Israel was speculated as a possible venue earlier.
The 2016 US Chess Championship was played between April 13 and 30, 2016 in the Chess Club and Scholastic Center of Saint Louis in Saint Louis, Missouri.
This article is about the particular significance of the year 2017 to Wales and its people.
The 24th Chess Olympiad, organized by FIDE and comprising an open and a women's tournament, as well as several other events designed to promote the game of chess, took place between November 20 and December 6, 1980, in Valletta, Malta.
The 25th Chess Olympiad, organized by FIDE and comprising an open and a women's tournament, as well as several other events designed to promote the game of chess, took place between October 29 and November 16, 1982, in Lucerne, Switzerland.
The 27th Chess Olympiad, organized by FIDE and comprising an open and a women's tournament, as well as several other events designed to promote the game of chess, took place between November 14 and December 2, 1986, in Dubai, United Arab Emirates.
The 28th Chess Olympiad, organized by FIDE and comprising an open and a women's tournament, as well as several other events designed to promote the game of chess, took place between November 12 and November 30, 1988, in Thessaloniki, Greece.
The 29th Chess Olympiad, organized by FIDE and comprising an open and a women's tournament, as well as several other events designed to promote the game of chess, took place between November 16 and December 4, 1990, in Novi Sad, Yugoslavia (present-day Serbia).
The 30th Chess Olympiad, organized by FIDE and comprising an open and a women's tournament, as well as several other events designed to promote the game of chess, took place between June 7 and June 25, 1992, at the Philippine International Convention Center in Manila, Philippines.
The 31st Chess Olympiad, organized by FIDE and comprising an open and a women's tournament, took place between November 30 and December 17, 1994, in Moscow, Russia.
The 32nd Chess Olympiad, organized by FIDE and comprising an open and a women's tournament, took place between September 15 and October 2, 1996, in Yerevan, Armenia.
The 33rd Chess Olympiad, organized by FIDE and comprising an open and a women's tournament, took place between September 26 and October 13, 1998, in Elista, Kalmykia, Russia.
The 34th Chess Olympiad, organized by the Fédération Internationale des Échecs and comprising an open and women's tournament, took place between October 28 and November 12, 2000, in Istanbul, Turkey.
The 35th Chess Olympiad, organized by the Fédération Internationale des Échecs and comprising an open and women's tournament, took place between October 25 and November 11, 2002, in Bled, Slovenia.
The 36th Chess Olympiad, organized by the Fédération Internationale des Échecs (FIDE) and comprising an open and a women's tournament, as well as several events designed to promote the game of chess, took place between October 14 and October 31, 2004, in Calvià on the Spanish island of Majorca.
The 41st Chess Olympiad, organised by the Fédération Internationale des Échecs (FIDE) and comprising an open and women's tournament, as well as several events designed to promote the game of chess, took place in Tromsø, Norway, between 1–14 August 2014.
The 42nd Chess Olympiad, organised by the Fédération Internationale des Échecs (FIDE) and comprising an Open and Women's tournament, as well as several events designed to promote the game of chess, was held in Baku, Azerbaijan, from 1–14 September 2016.
The 43rd Chess Olympiad, organised by the Fédération Internationale des Échecs (FIDE) and comprising open and women's tournaments, as well as several events designed to promote the game of chess, will be held in Batumi, Georgia, from 23 September to 6 October 2018.
Gari Kasparov, Gari Weinstein, Garri Kasparov, Garri Kasparow, Garry Kasparoff, Garry Kazparov, Garry Kimovich, Garry Kimovich Kasparov, Garry Weinstein, Gary Kasparoff, Gary Kasparov, Gary Kimovich Kasparov, Harry Kasparov, Kasparov, Kasparov versus Deep Thought, Kasparovian, Kasparow, Kazparov, Га́рри Ки́мович Каспа́ров.