A closed system is a physical system that does not allow certain types of transfers (such as transfer of mass and energy transfer) in or out of the system.
This list of types of systems theory gives an overview of different types of systems theory, which are mentioned in scientific book titles or articles.
An open system is a system that has external interactions.
Stuart Anspach Umpleby (born March 5, 1944) is an American cybernetician and professor in the Department of Management and Director of the Research Program in Social and Organizational Learning in the School of Business at the George Washington University.
A system is a regularly interacting or interdependent group of items forming an integrated whole.
Systemography or SGR is a process where phenomena regarded as complex are purposefully represented as a constructed model of a general system.
Systems theory is the interdisciplinary study of systems.